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ASSIGNMENT 2-Set 2

When the size of the structure is comparable to the wavelength, the presence of the

structure is expected to alter the wave field in the vicinity of the structure. In this case the

diffraction of the waves from the surface of the structure should be taken into account in the

evaluation of the wave forces. It is generally known as diffraction theory. While a closed

form solution is possible for a few simple cases, the solution generally involves a numerical

technique to solve the Laplace Equation with the associated boundary conditions.

When the relative characteristic dimension D/L >0.2 the incident wave gets scattered.

Application of Morison equation to this region is invalid. However it may be used provided

the force is predominantly inertial which means the drag term can be dropped in the Morison

equation.

The dimensional analysis relating to the wave force on a fixed body is a convenient means of

indicating the conditions under which diffraction or various other effects may thereby be

expressed in the

= ( , , , )

2

diffraction is important}

When the wave steepness is small, a linearizing approximation may be made such that

the force varies linearly with the wave height and then the term may be omitted.

= ( , )

2

Note that the assumption of small wave steepness is invariably made in diffraction analysis

and corresponds to the application of linear wave theory.

= ( , )

2

1

DESIGN OF OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

Which has the advantage that the force coefficient will vary only with D/L for a given

structure located in at a given water depth.

Arises when the waveguide is assumed sufficiently small for Linear wave theory to apply

The problem reduces to the determination of velocity potential which satisfy the Laplace

Equation 2 = 0 within the fluid region.

this is subject to the boundary conditions

2

+ = 0 = 0 (1)

2

1

= = 0 (2)

g t

= 0 = (3)

= 0

Together with the Sommerfield radiation condition

N denotes distance in a direction normal to the body surface

The radiation condition may be introduced after first representing the velocity potential as the

sum of incident wave and scattered wave potentials.

= +

( + )

= 0 =0

= (4)

lim { t } = 0 (5)

R= radial ordinate

Note: The above description concerns the wave scattering in horizontal plane (2D). This

radiation condition maybe generalised for application to a one-dimensional case

corresponding to a vertical plane flow.ie, directional spreading is absent

lim { } = 0

t

2

DESIGN OF OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

cosh ( + ) ()

=

cosh

MacCamy and Funchs Linear diffraction theory

In the formulation of the problem the coordinate axes were taken to originate at SWL

with x axis pointing in direction of wave travel and the z axis pointing upwards from

SWL

For a vertical circular cylinder, the incident velocity potential is

gH cosh ( + )

= (kx t)

2 cosh

Bernoullis equation

=

t

Horizontal force acting on the pile per unit length

2gH cosh ( + )

() = () (t )

k cosh

1

() =

2 2

[ 2 ()] + [ 2 ()]

= Differential value of Bessel J function of first kind and first order whose argument is ka

= Differential value of Bessel Y function of secomd kind and first order whose argument

is ka

=

()

= 1 [ ]

()

This theory is confined it to large vertical circular cylinders resting on the ocean bed and

piercing the free surface and waves of small steepness. This poses a serious practical

limitation.

2

2 2

+ + ( 2 2 ) = 0

= 1 1 + 2 2

= () + ()

3

DESIGN OF OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

2. Describe the wave load estimation procedure for an Offshore platform as per API

For fixed platforms, a design wave analysis based on the maximum design wave is often

performed. The following steps for the static wave analysis closely follow the API-RP2A

guidelines

At the installation site for the platform, choose the design wave height, wave period,

water depth and current from oceanographic data.

Determine the apparent wave period based on the current strength.

Compute wave kinematics using an appropriate wave theory.

Reduce wave kinematics by the kinematic factor.

Determine effective local current by the current blockage factor; vectorially add this

current to the wave kinematics.

Increase member dimensions due to possible marine growth.

Choose the values of CM and CD for the members.

For any conductor array present in the platform, reduce coefficient by the blockage

factor.

Use the Morison equation to compute local loads.

Compute global loading on the platform as a vector sum

Use a structural analysis program to design the structural members of the platform.

3. Describe the types of non-linear wave theories to describe the wave phenomenon

and explain the basic concepts in the formulation of non-linear wave theories

Stokes Wave Theory

This method is considered valid for H/d << (kd)2 for kd< and H/L << 1

These conditions place severe restrictions on the wave height in shallow water and

thus the Stokes theory is not generally applicable to shallow water. On substitution of

the series expansion for

=

=1 , = in the Laplace Equation and the bottom boundary

A more general expression would be

= + 2 2 (, ) cos 2 + 3 3 (, ) cos 3 + + (, ) cos

= /2 for 1st and 2nd order and 2 , 3etc. are specified functions of wavelength L

and depth d.

4

DESIGN OF OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

Expressions for wale celerity and wavelength are identical to those obtained by linear theory.

2 2 2

= 2 tanh ( ); = tanh ( )

2

The equation of the free surface for 2nd order theory is given by

2

2 2 2 cosh ( ) 4 4 4

= cos ( )+( ) [2 + cosh ] ( )

2 8 sinh3 (2 )

The periodic x and z components of water particle velocities to the second order are given by

2[ + ] 4[ + ]

cosh ( ) 2 2 3 2 cosh ( ) 4 4

= cos ( )+ ( ) ( )

2 2 4 2

cosh ( ) sinh4 ( )

2[ + ] 4[ + ]

sinh ( ) 2 2 3 2 sinh ( ) 4 4

= sin ( )+ ( ) ( )

2 4 2

sinh ( ) sinh4 ( )

2nd order equations for water particle displacements from their mean position for a inite

amplitude wave are

2[ + ] 4[ + ]

sinh ( ) 2 sinh ( )

2 2 2 3 4 4

= cos ( )+ ( )

4 2 16 2

cosh ( ) sinh4 ( )

5

DESIGN OF OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

2[ + ] 4[ + ]

2 cosh (

) 2 2 2 1 3 cosh (

) 4 4

= 2

sin ( )+

2

{1

2

} ( )

4 cosh ( ) 8 sinh2 ( ) 2 sinh2 ( )

4[ + ]

cosh (

2

)

+( )

2 sinh2 (2)

The distance A particle is displaced during one wave period when divided by the wave period

() called mass transport velocity.

gives a mean drift velocity

4[ + ]

2

cosh (

)

() = (

)

2 2

sinh2 ( )

Subsurface pressure

Stokes finite amplitude wave theory is most useful when the depth to wavelength

ratio, d/L is greater than about 1 / 8 - 1 / 10. Finite amplitude long waves of permanent form

in shallow water are better described by Cnoidal wave theory. The Cnoidal wave is a periodic

wave that usually has sharp crest separated by wide troughs. According to keulegan (1950)

the validity of this theory rest on the assumption that the square of inclination of the water

surface is small compared to unity. The theory accounts for a large class of long waves of

finite amplitude. The approximate range of the validity of the theory is d/L<1/8 and the

Ursell parameter UR>26. Note that the Ursell parameter is defined as UR =HL2/d3. the two

6

DESIGN OF OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

limiting cases are there solitary wave on the end of the steep Waves and Airy wave on the

other end. Has a wavelength become infinite, the solitary day series approach, where is

infinitesimal wave height (compared to water depth) yields the linear theory in the limit.

= + 2 [2() ( ) , ]

where ys measured from the ocean floor, ys = d + and cn is the Jacobian elliptic function

associated with the cosine function and yt is the distance from the bottom to the wave trough.

= + 2 ( )

The elliptic cosine is a periodic function where 2 [2() ( )]has maximum amplitude

equal to unity. The modulus k is defined over the range between 0 and 1.

162

= 2

{()[() ()]} + 1

3

1

163 2

Wavelength is given by =( ) ()

3

16 ()

Wave period is given by = = [ ]

3 1+ 2 [1() ]

2 ()

7

DESIGN OF OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

Pressure under a Cnoidal wave at any elevation y may be approximated in hydrostatic form

as

= ( )

i.e., the pressure is assumed to vary linearly from at bed to zero at surface

The solitary wave is limiting case of the Cnoidal wave. Solitary wave has proved useful in

engineering problems like tsunamis in determining wave properties near breaking in shallow

water and for studying waves of maximum steepness in deep water.

When k2 = 1 ; k(k) = k(1) = and the elliptic cosine reduces to the hyperbolic secant

function, yf = d

3

ys = d + H sech2 ( )

4^3

3

= H sec h2 ( )

4^3

where the origin of x is at the wave crest. The volume of water within the wave above the still

water level per unit crest width is

163

V=

3

An equal amount of water per unit crest length is transported forward past a vertical plane

that is perpendicular to the direction of wave advance

c= (1 + )

8

DESIGN OF OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

1+cos( ) cos ( ) ) sin ( )

sin(

u= CN 2

; w = CN 2

[cos( )+cosh ( )] [cos( )+cosh ( )]

where M and N are functions of H/d and y is measured from the bottom

umax =

1+cos( )

where x = t = 0

Total energy in a solitary wave is about evenly divided between kinetic and potential energy.

8

= 3/2 3/2

3 3

and the pressure beneath a solitary wave depends on the local fluid velocity as does the

pressure under a cniodal wave ; however it may be approximated as

P = g(ys y)

As the solitary wave moves into shoaling water, it eventually becomes unstable and breaks.

McCowan assumed that a solitary wave breaks when the water particle velocity at that wave

crest becomes equal to the wave celerity. This occurs when

(H/d)max = 0.78

It was developed by Dean and is so called because of a stream function superposition of flow.

There are two types of stream function theory.

symmetric, permanent form with prescribed period, height and still water depth.

Irregular stream function theory - represents a stream function and associated

kinematics of a wave with a predetermined profile. This theory is suitable in analysis

of wave tank or field test data.

9

DESIGN OF OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

1

+ [{ }2 + 2 ] =

2 2

The stream function solution may be expressed as

2 2

(, ) = + () sinh [ ( + )] ( )

=1

2 2

= () sinh [ ( + )] ( )

=1

For a particular water depth, wave height and period the function exactly satisfies the

Laplace Equation, the seabed and the surface flow boundary conditions for arbitrary values

of constants L, & ()

These values can be determined numerically so that the dynamic free surface boundary

conditions have been published by Dean.

4. Explain the type of wave analysis possible if a raw wave time series is given to you

The simplest method for estimating wave parameters is to evaluate the time series of sea

surface displacement from the single measurement point. The time series analysis determines

how far the water surface extends above and below MFL. Individual waves can thus be

determined anywhere the wave crosses the MFL(zero crossing method). If these waves are

ranked by their height or period, then the resulting rankings can be used to calculate common

estimates of height and period. From the time series analysis significant height and mean

period can be calculated.

The regular wave theories are applicable in a design where a single wave method is

employed. This is often a common method in the design of an offshore structure. In this case

an extreme wave is represented by a regular wave of the appropriate height and period. This

method provides a simple analysis in determining the extreme response of an offshore

structure. The random ocean wave, on the other hand, is described by an energy density

spectrum. The wave energy spectrum describes the energy content of an ocean wave and its

distribution over a frequency range of the random wave. Therefore, the random wave method

10

DESIGN OF OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

of design may be important especially in the design of floating structures. The random wave

is generally described by its statistical parameters.

A random wave consists of a number of sine waves, so the wave spectrum will be consisting

of a band of spectrum with many frequencies.

An Ocean wave in its simplest form may be thought of as a pure sinusoidal oscillation

about SWL. For a single sinusoidal wave of frequency , wave profile may be written as

= 2 cos( )

(t) =

=1 cos( )

= cos + sin

=1

0

{ 2 = 0 Since the wave motion is assumed to be a mean zero process}

= Phase

N = Number of Fourier components

Coefficients , are computed as

2

= (t) cos

0

2

= (t) sin

0

11

DESIGN OF OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

explain any one.

Describes fully developed the sea determined by one parameter : wind speed

The fetch and duration are considered infinite

For the applicability of such a model the wind has to blow over a large area at a nearly

constant speed for many hours prior to the time when the wave record is obtained and the

wind should not change the direction more than a certain specified small amount

Useful in representing severe storm waves in Offshore structural design

P M Spectrum model may be written as

0.00812 2 4

() = exp [0.74 ( ) ]

(2)4 5

Wave characteristics can be obtained from moments

= 0 = 40 2 = 0 = 2

2 4

12

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