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1. Explain the diffraction theory for evaluating the wave forces

When the size of the structure is comparable to the wavelength, the presence of the
structure is expected to alter the wave field in the vicinity of the structure. In this case the
diffraction of the waves from the surface of the structure should be taken into account in the
evaluation of the wave forces. It is generally known as diffraction theory. While a closed
form solution is possible for a few simple cases, the solution generally involves a numerical
technique to solve the Laplace Equation with the associated boundary conditions.

When the relative characteristic dimension D/L >0.2 the incident wave gets scattered.
Application of Morison equation to this region is invalid. However it may be used provided
the force is predominantly inertial which means the drag term can be dropped in the Morison

The dimensional analysis relating to the wave force on a fixed body is a convenient means of
indicating the conditions under which diffraction or various other effects may thereby be
expressed in the

= ( , , , )

=Reynolds number, {considering flow separation effects may be emitted when

diffraction is important}
When the wave steepness is small, a linearizing approximation may be made such that

the force varies linearly with the wave height and then the term may be omitted.

= ( , )

Note that the assumption of small wave steepness is invariably made in diffraction analysis
and corresponds to the application of linear wave theory.

Equation may be written in alternative form as

= ( , )


Which has the advantage that the force coefficient will vary only with D/L for a given
structure located in at a given water depth.


Arises when the waveguide is assumed sufficiently small for Linear wave theory to apply
The problem reduces to the determination of velocity potential which satisfy the Laplace
Equation 2 = 0 within the fluid region.
this is subject to the boundary conditions
+ = 0 = 0 (1)
= = 0 (2)
g t

= 0 = (3)

= 0

Together with the Sommerfield radiation condition
N denotes distance in a direction normal to the body surface
The radiation condition may be introduced after first representing the velocity potential as the
sum of incident wave and scattered wave potentials.
= +
( + )
= 0 =0

= (4)

Sommerfield BC (Radiation BC)

lim { t } = 0 (5)

R= radial ordinate

Note: The above description concerns the wave scattering in horizontal plane (2D). This
radiation condition maybe generalised for application to a one-dimensional case
corresponding to a vertical plane, directional spreading is absent

So the corresponding radiation BC may be corrected as

lim { } = 0


cosh ( + ) ()
MacCamy and Funchs Linear diffraction theory
In the formulation of the problem the coordinate axes were taken to originate at SWL
with x axis pointing in direction of wave travel and the z axis pointing upwards from
For a vertical circular cylinder, the incident velocity potential is
gH cosh ( + )
= (kx t)
2 cosh
Bernoullis equation

Horizontal force acting on the pile per unit length
2gH cosh ( + )
() = () (t )
k cosh
() =
2 2
[ 2 ()] + [ 2 ()]

= Differential value of Bessel J function of first kind and first order whose argument is ka
= Differential value of Bessel Y function of secomd kind and first order whose argument
is ka
= 1 [ ]
This theory is confined it to large vertical circular cylinders resting on the ocean bed and
piercing the free surface and waves of small steepness. This poses a serious practical
2 2
+ + ( 2 2 ) = 0

= 1 1 + 2 2
= () + ()

() = Bessel J function of first kind and first order n

() = Bessel J function of first kind and first order n


2. Describe the wave load estimation procedure for an Offshore platform as per API

For fixed platforms, a design wave analysis based on the maximum design wave is often
performed. The following steps for the static wave analysis closely follow the API-RP2A
At the installation site for the platform, choose the design wave height, wave period,
water depth and current from oceanographic data.
Determine the apparent wave period based on the current strength.
Compute wave kinematics using an appropriate wave theory.
Reduce wave kinematics by the kinematic factor.
Determine effective local current by the current blockage factor; vectorially add this
current to the wave kinematics.
Increase member dimensions due to possible marine growth.
Choose the values of CM and CD for the members.
For any conductor array present in the platform, reduce coefficient by the blockage
Use the Morison equation to compute local loads.
Compute global loading on the platform as a vector sum
Use a structural analysis program to design the structural members of the platform.
3. Describe the types of non-linear wave theories to describe the wave phenomenon
and explain the basic concepts in the formulation of non-linear wave theories
Stokes Wave Theory
This method is considered valid for H/d << (kd)2 for kd< and H/L << 1
These conditions place severe restrictions on the wave height in shallow water and
thus the Stokes theory is not generally applicable to shallow water. On substitution of
the series expansion for

=1 , = in the Laplace Equation and the bottom boundary

condition and the separation of terms of different order , 2 etc.

A more general expression would be
= + 2 2 (, ) cos 2 + 3 3 (, ) cos 3 + + (, ) cos
= /2 for 1st and 2nd order and 2 , 3etc. are specified functions of wavelength L
and depth d.


Wave celerity, Length & surface profile:

Expressions for wale celerity and wavelength are identical to those obtained by linear theory.

2 2 2
= 2 tanh ( ); = tanh ( )

The above equations, corrected to the third kind are given by

The equation of the free surface for 2nd order theory is given by

2 2 2 cosh ( ) 4 4 4
= cos ( )+( ) [2 + cosh ] ( )
2 8 sinh3 (2 )

Water particle velocities and displacements

The periodic x and z components of water particle velocities to the second order are given by

2[ + ] 4[ + ]
cosh ( ) 2 2 3 2 cosh ( ) 4 4
= cos ( )+ ( ) ( )
2 2 4 2
cosh ( ) sinh4 ( )

2[ + ] 4[ + ]
sinh ( ) 2 2 3 2 sinh ( ) 4 4
= sin ( )+ ( ) ( )
2 4 2
sinh ( ) sinh4 ( )

2nd order equations for water particle displacements from their mean position for a inite
amplitude wave are

2[ + ] 4[ + ]
sinh ( ) 2 sinh ( )
2 2 2 3 4 4
= cos ( )+ ( )
4 2 16 2
cosh ( ) sinh4 ( )


2[ + ] 4[ + ]
2 cosh (
) 2 2 2 1 3 cosh (
) 4 4
= 2
sin ( )+
} ( )
4 cosh ( ) 8 sinh2 ( ) 2 sinh2 ( )

4[ + ]
cosh (

+( )
2 sinh2 (2)

Mass transport velocity

The distance A particle is displaced during one wave period when divided by the wave period
() called mass transport velocity.
gives a mean drift velocity

4[ + ]
cosh (
() = (
2 2
sinh2 ( )

Subsurface pressure

The pressure at any depth below fluid surface is given by

Cnoidal Wave Theory

Stokes finite amplitude wave theory is most useful when the depth to wavelength
ratio, d/L is greater than about 1 / 8 - 1 / 10. Finite amplitude long waves of permanent form
in shallow water are better described by Cnoidal wave theory. The Cnoidal wave is a periodic
wave that usually has sharp crest separated by wide troughs. According to keulegan (1950)
the validity of this theory rest on the assumption that the square of inclination of the water
surface is small compared to unity. The theory accounts for a large class of long waves of
finite amplitude. The approximate range of the validity of the theory is d/L<1/8 and the
Ursell parameter UR>26. Note that the Ursell parameter is defined as UR =HL2/d3. the two


limiting cases are there solitary wave on the end of the steep Waves and Airy wave on the
other end. Has a wavelength become infinite, the solitary day series approach, where is
infinitesimal wave height (compared to water depth) yields the linear theory in the limit.

The surface profile of cnoidal wave is given by

= + 2 [2() ( ) , ]

where ys measured from the ocean floor, ys = d + and cn is the Jacobian elliptic function
associated with the cosine function and yt is the distance from the bottom to the wave trough.

() = Complete elliptical integral of 1st kind, k = modulus of elliptical integral

The argument 2 is frequently denoted by ( ) and thus equation becomes

= + 2 ( )

The elliptic cosine is a periodic function where 2 [2() ( )]has maximum amplitude

equal to unity. The modulus k is defined over the range between 0 and 1.

When k=0, wave profile become a sinusoid as in linear theory

k=1, wave profile becomes that of a solitary wave

The distance from the bottom to the wave trough yt is given by

= 2
{()[() ()]} + 1

E(k)=Complete elliptic integral of the 2nd kind

163 2
Wavelength is given by =( ) ()

16 ()
Wave period is given by = = [ ]
3 1+ 2 [1() ]
2 ()

Cnoidal waves are periodic and of permanent form, thus L= CT


Pressure under a Cnoidal wave at any elevation y may be approximated in hydrostatic form

= ( )

i.e., the pressure is assumed to vary linearly from at bed to zero at surface

Solitary wave theory

The solitary wave is limiting case of the Cnoidal wave. Solitary wave has proved useful in
engineering problems like tsunamis in determining wave properties near breaking in shallow
water and for studying waves of maximum steepness in deep water.

When k2 = 1 ; k(k) = k(1) = and the elliptic cosine reduces to the hyperbolic secant
function, yf = d

ys = d + H sech2 ( )

= H sec h2 ( )

where the origin of x is at the wave crest. The volume of water within the wave above the still
water level per unit crest width is


An equal amount of water per unit crest length is transported forward past a vertical plane
that is perpendicular to the direction of wave advance

c= (1 + )

Equation gives a reasonably accurate approximation to the celerity.

The water particle velocities for a solitary wave,


1+cos( ) cos ( ) ) sin ( )

u= CN 2
; w = CN 2
[cos( )+cosh ( )] [cos( )+cosh ( )]

where M and N are functions of H/d and y is measured from the bottom

umax =
1+cos( )

where x = t = 0

Total energy in a solitary wave is about evenly divided between kinetic and potential energy.

Total wave energy per unit wave crest width is

= 3/2 3/2
3 3

and the pressure beneath a solitary wave depends on the local fluid velocity as does the
pressure under a cniodal wave ; however it may be approximated as

P = g(ys y)

As the solitary wave moves into shoaling water, it eventually becomes unstable and breaks.
McCowan assumed that a solitary wave breaks when the water particle velocity at that wave
crest becomes equal to the wave celerity. This occurs when

(H/d)max = 0.78

Stream function wave theory

It was developed by Dean and is so called because of a stream function superposition of flow.
There are two types of stream function theory.

A symmetric or regular stream function theory describes periodic waves of

symmetric, permanent form with prescribed period, height and still water depth.
Irregular stream function theory - represents a stream function and associated
kinematics of a wave with a predetermined profile. This theory is suitable in analysis
of wave tank or field test data.


The dynamic force surface boundary condition is

+ [{ }2 + 2 ] =
2 2
The stream function solution may be expressed as

2 2
(, ) = + () sinh [ ( + )] ( )


And the equation is evaluated by setting z = to give a surface

2 2
= () sinh [ ( + )] ( )


For a particular water depth, wave height and period the function exactly satisfies the
Laplace Equation, the seabed and the surface flow boundary conditions for arbitrary values
of constants L, & ()
These values can be determined numerically so that the dynamic free surface boundary
conditions have been published by Dean.

4. Explain the type of wave analysis possible if a raw wave time series is given to you

The simplest method for estimating wave parameters is to evaluate the time series of sea
surface displacement from the single measurement point. The time series analysis determines
how far the water surface extends above and below MFL. Individual waves can thus be
determined anywhere the wave crosses the MFL(zero crossing method). If these waves are
ranked by their height or period, then the resulting rankings can be used to calculate common
estimates of height and period. From the time series analysis significant height and mean
period can be calculated.

5. What is wave spectrum? How is it useful in random wave analysis?

The regular wave theories are applicable in a design where a single wave method is
employed. This is often a common method in the design of an offshore structure. In this case
an extreme wave is represented by a regular wave of the appropriate height and period. This
method provides a simple analysis in determining the extreme response of an offshore
structure. The random ocean wave, on the other hand, is described by an energy density
spectrum. The wave energy spectrum describes the energy content of an ocean wave and its
distribution over a frequency range of the random wave. Therefore, the random wave method


of design may be important especially in the design of floating structures. The random wave
is generally described by its statistical parameters.
A random wave consists of a number of sine waves, so the wave spectrum will be consisting
of a band of spectrum with many frequencies.

An Ocean wave in its simplest form may be thought of as a pure sinusoidal oscillation
about SWL. For a single sinusoidal wave of frequency , wave profile may be written as

= 2 cos( )

Fourier Series expansion may be written as

(t) =
=1 cos( )

= cos + sin
{ 2 = 0 Since the wave motion is assumed to be a mean zero process}

= Phase
N = Number of Fourier components
Coefficients , are computed as
= (t) cos
= (t) sin


6. What is a mathematical spectrum model? Mention a few spectrum models and

explain any one.


Describes fully developed the sea determined by one parameter : wind speed
The fetch and duration are considered infinite
For the applicability of such a model the wind has to blow over a large area at a nearly
constant speed for many hours prior to the time when the wave record is obtained and the
wind should not change the direction more than a certain specified small amount
Useful in representing severe storm waves in Offshore structural design
P M Spectrum model may be written as
0.00812 2 4
() = exp [0.74 ( ) ]
(2)4 5
Wave characteristics can be obtained from moments

= 0 = 40 2 = 0 = 2
2 4