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PROCEEDINGS INDONESIAN PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION


Twenty Third Annual Convention, October 1994

HIGH QUALITY VOLCANICLASTIC SANDSTONE RESERVOlRS IN EAST JAVA, INDONESIA

Peter Willumsen*
David M. Schiller**

ABSTRACT The main macroporosity types are primary


intergranular porosity and secondary porosity created
Volcaniclastics are generally regarded as very poor by leaching of feldspars, volcanic rock fragments and
reservoirs by most explorationists, however, recent heavy minerals. Porosity shows a distinct change with
studies suggest that the reservoir potential of these depth and age. At depths shallower than 4,500 feet
rocks within Indonesia and elsewhere may be within Pleistocene horizons, intergranular porosity is
underrated. greater than secondary. Deeper than 4,500 feet within
Late Pliocene horizons, secondary porosity is greater
The paper describes the reservoir quality of selected than primary intergranular porosity. Brine production
Plio-Pleistocene Indonesian volcaniclastic sandstones of up to 20,000 barrels of water per day from
and compares these with examples of volcaniclastic volcaniclastics in the WD-8 area illustrates the
reservoirs and oillgas fields productive from potential of these horizons as high quality reservoirs.
volcaniclastic horizons worldwide.

The studied rocks are from the Porong-1 and WD-8


wells in East Java as well as various East Java Volcaniclastics of Tertiary and Quaternary age are
outcrops and were deposited in a wide variety of very common throughout Indonesia, however, very
depositional settings from non-marine (lacustrine, few have yielded commercial hydrocarbon discoveries
fluvial) to transitional marine (deltaic) and deep and volcaniclastics are generally regarded as very
marine (turbidite). The deposits consist of mainly poor reservoirs by most explorationists. Recent studies
sand and gravel sized volcanic sediments that have of Pliocene and Pleistocene volcaniclastics from the
been extensively reworked by marine or fluviatile Porong-1 and WD-8 wells and various outcrops within
sedimentary processes. The sandstones are composed onshore East Java, show that volcaniclastic sandstones
of predominantly plagioclase feldspar and andesitic can provide excellent quality reservoirs. The results
rock fragments with subordinate heavy minerals and suggest that the negative aspects of volcaniclastic
bioclasts. Quartz is almost completely absent and reservoirs may have been overemphasized in the past,
clays are dominated by sodium smectite. and that Indonesia and other similar regions may
contain considerable overlooked potential within these
The volcaniclastics have good to excellent reservoir horizons. This conclusion is supported by worldwide
properties, with total porosity greater than 30% at examples of volcaniclastic reservoirs and oillgas fields
shallow depths, decreasing to approximately 20% at a productive from volcaniclastic intervals.
depth of 7,500 feet. Permeability ranges between
3-550md in the Porong-1 well, averaging lOOmd at WHAT ARE VOLCANICLASTICS ?: A BRIEF
shallow depths and decreasing to 20md at 5,000 feet. REVIEW
Outcrop samples have generally higher permeability,
in some cases up to 20,000md. Definition

* Iluffco Brantas, Inc. Volcaniclastics can be defined as "any clastic material


** Crawford Consultants, Inc. composed in part or entirely of volcanic fragments,"
without regard to its rock forming mechanism, mode Miocene reef objective at 8,481 feet, with a secondary
of transport, environment of deposition or admixture objective of evaluating the reservoir potential of
of non-volcanic fragments (Fisher, 1961). This overlying Plio-Pleistocene volcaniclastic intervals.
non-genetic definition is very broad and encompasses Analysis of more than 100 sidewall cores cut between
a wide variety of rocks, including the instantaneous the depths of 800 and 8,478 feet were incorporated
deposits of volcanic eruptions (agglomerates, ashfalls, into this Study together with standard petrophysical
pyroclastic flows etc.) that have poor reservoir and sample data.
potential, as well as porous sandstones generated
through long term weathering and transport. The WD-8 well was drilled to a total depth of 555
meters by P.T. Kimia Farma at Watu Dakon on the
Volcaniclastic Sediments and Facies Mojokerto Anticline (Figure 2) for production of
iodide-rich formation water. A typical water well
Three major classes of volcaniclastic sediments are evaluation program was performed, with the exception
recognized, based on the process through which they of 24 m of conventional core.
are created: pyroclastic (formed from rapidly
expanding magma); hydroclastic (formed by Outcrop data includes field samples and measured
magma-water interactions); and epiclastic (lithic clasts sections collected from a number of East Java
and crystals derived from "pre-existing rock" by localities including the Pondok Dam site near Ngawi,
weathering and erosion) (from Fisher and Smith, the Ploso Anticline and the Bangil Anticline (Figure
1991). Epiclastics usually offer the best reservoir 2).
potential.
Analyses
Volcaniclastics can be divided into five general facies
based on the relative distance from the volcanic Selected well and outcrop samples were subjected to
source ( Figure 1). Of these generally only the distal an extensive series of analyses, including the
non-marine facies and distal deltaic/marine facies following:
have acceptable reservoir quality. The sorting and
reservoir quality of volcaniclastics generally increases Conventional core: core gamma ray, profile
as the particles are transported farther away from the permeametry, sedimentological description and core
source, thus distal volcaniclastic facies have far photography.
greater reservoir potential than the more poorly sorted
proximal and medial facies. For the oil-finder, the Conventional core plugs and sidewall cores:
volcaniclastics of greatest interest should be epiclastics micropaleontology (foraminifera and nannofossils),
that have been extensively reworked and deposited in poroperm and density measurements, thin sectioning
fluvial to marine distal settings. A notable exception (with vacuum-impregnated blue-epoxy), petrography,
are pyroclastic ashfalls or tuffs which in some cases infrared spectroscopy ("Mineralog"), X-ray diffraction,
can form well sorted and highly porous deposits scanning electron microscopy and "a", "m" and "n"
(Mathisen and McPherson, 1991). exponent determination.

DATABASE AND METHODS Outcrop samples: micropaleontology (foraminifera and


nannofossils), poroperm and density measurements,
The present study is based on data from the Porong-1 thin sectioning (with vacuum-impregnated
exploration we11 and the WD-8 brine production well, blue-epoxy), petrography and X-ray diffraction.
both drilled in 1993, in addition to data from age
equivalent outcrops in the ailticlinorium known as the STRATIGRAPHY
Kendeng Zone (van Bemmelen, 1949) and at Bangil
in East Java, Indonesia (Figure 2). Age and Depositional Scquence

Well And Outcrop Data The studied horizons range from Late Pliocene to
Pleistocene in age and were deposited in a wide
The Porong-1 well was drilled to evaluate an Early variety of depositional settings. The sections display
a regressive sequence ranging from outer to middle DEPOSITIONAL FA CIES
neritic conditions during the Late Pliocene (up to
250m water depth) to non-marine sedimentation The majority of porous volcaniclastics described in
during the Late Pleistocene ( Figure 3). this study are moderately to well sorted sandstones
and conglomerates composed of volcanic epiclastic
The Pliocene volcanic sediments may have been sediments that have been extensively reworked by
sourced from erosion of more distal Oligo-Miocene marine and fluviatile processes and deposited in a
volcanic centers (van Bemmelen's "Old Andesite distal facies. No proximal or medial volcaniclastic
Formation") as major Pliocene volcanism has yet to be facies are represented other than subordinate lahars,
conclusively documented within the region (van debris flows and pyroclastic ashfall tuffs.
Bemmelen, 1949; Soeria-Atmadja et al, 1988).
The Late Pliocene volcaniclastic sandstones in the
During the Pleistocene the region was transformed Porong-1 well are middle to outer neritic (Figure 3).
from a deep marine basin to the present day setting of Apart from some massive sands thicker than 100 feet
East Java. The high sedimentation rates, sometimes up below a depth of 6,500 feet, individual sandstone
to 1,000 mlmillion years, appear associated with the units range in thickness from 10-30 feet. The
onset of massive, mostly andesitic, Pleistocene Pleistocene volcaniclastics are inner neritic to
volcanism along the still active volcanic arc located transitional marine with individual sandstone units
less than 100 km south of the study area (Figure 2) ranging from 10-100 feet thick, with the majority
(van Bemmelen, 1949; Widjonarko, 1990). averaging 10-20 feet.

The volcaniclastic rocks in the Porong-1 and WD-8 The Late Pliocene volcaniclastic sandstone in the
wells and in outcrop are penecontemporaneous, conventional core of the WD-8 well is interpreted as
occupying a time span from Late Pliocene (N19121 a series of stacked, high density, outer neritic turbidite
[el) to Recent (Figure 3), and are thus younger than deposits. The core displays many classic sandy
approximately 3.0 Ma and largely equivalent to the turbidite features (partial and complete Bouma
last Ice Age. sequences, fluidization structures, scoured basal
contacts and interbeds of planktonic foram-rich
Formations hemipelagic mud) and is composed of mostly B and
C turbidite facies (Mutti and Ricci Lucchi, 1972).
The outer to middle neritic Late Pliocene Individual turbidite flows range from 0.2-2.0 meters
volcaniclastic horizons are partly equivalent to the in thickness and some stacked turbidite sand units are
upper part of what is traditionally called the Upper up to 5 meters thick.
Kalibeng Formation in Kendeng Zone outcrops.
Siliciclastic sand-rich horizons of this age have been The outcrop locations used in this study are indicated
referred to as the "Sonde Member" (Marks, 1957; de on Figure 2, which also shows the position of the well
Genevraye and Samuel, 1972) (Figure 3). known Solo River section described by van Gorsel
and Troelstra (1981), and van Gorsel et. al. (1989).
The middle to inner neritic to transitional marine beds The sections represent depositional facies ranging
appear correlative with the Pleistocene Pucangan from non-marine to outer neritic (Figure 3). Non-
Formation in outcrop, whereas the non-marine Marine fluviatile to fluvial/lacustrine environments,
sediments (including vertebrate fossils of Homo with largely cross-bedded sandstones up to 30 m
erectus, "Java Man") belong to the Pleistocene Kabuh thick, are seen at Bangil, the Pondok Dam Site and at
Formation (van Bemmelen, 1949; Marks, 1957; de Ploso. Transitional marine facies, including
Genevraye and Samuel, 1972). The Kabuh and distributary channel, tidal channel, delta mouth bar
Pucangan Formations have often been described as and shallow marine bar sandstones, occur in the
discrete time-stratigraphic units, however the present Pleistocene section of the Ploso outcrops. Reservoir
regional data suggests that these formations represent sandstones up to 20 m thick are present in this facies.
partly penecontemporaneous and time transgressive Marine facies, including shales, marls and argillaceous
facies belts that become progressively younger in an volcaniclastic sandstones, occur in the Pliocene part of
easterly direction. the Ploso outcrop.
Photomicrographs of some of these reservoirs are framework grains are mostly volcanic rock fragments
shown in Figure 6. (50-75%) and plagioclase (10-25%) with minor
hornblende, augite and opaque minerals.
LITHOLOGY

Most of the reservoir sandstones are variably fine to RESERVOIR QUALITY


very coarse grained, moderately to well sorted,
feldspathic litharenites and lithic arkoses. Some porous Based on structural restoration from seismic data, it
conglomeratic sandstones and conglomerates are also has been determined that the Mojokerto Anticline was
present. Framework grains are predominantly subjected to a Pleistocene structural uplift of
plagioclase feldspar (35-45% of framework grains; approximately 3,000 feet. This figure has been
mostly andesine) and volcanic rock fragments (35- verified by vitrinite reflectance measurements (Ro=
45% of framework grains; mostly andesitic)' with *0.4%), which indicate that the WD-8 core horizon
fewer heavy minerals (pyroxene, amphibole, opaques was once buried to a depth of approximately 4,500
and biotite) and occasional bioclasts and plant feet. Under this assumption, the Late Pliocene section
fragments. Quartz is conspicuous by its almost total of both the WD-8 and Porong-1 wells were once
absence (< I%), indicating a basic composition for the buried to nearly identical maximum depths.
original volcanic source. Smectite occurs as detrital,
pore-filling and authigenic pore-fillinglgrain-replacing Pomng-1 Reservoir Quality
clay ( 8-40%, by XRD).
Porous volcaniclastic sandstone facies were
Pomng-1 and WD-8 Lithology encountered from surface down to depths of 7,500
feet in the Porong-1 well. Porosity development is
The framework grain mineralogy of the Porong-1 and generally fair to good in most samples with helium
WD-8 volcaniclastic sandstones are almost identical, porosity values of 20-35% and thin section point
however, altered grains, bioclasts and plant fragments count porosities of 5-25%. There is a distinct decrease
are more abundant in the WD-8 core ( up to 5% by in porosity with depth in the Porong-1 well (Figure 4).
point count). Heavy minerals are also more abundant Helium porosity is around 35% at a depth of 800 feet
in the Porong-1 sandstones (5-12% by point count) and decreases to around 20% at 7,500 feet. Point
than the WD-8 sandstones (1-3% by point count). count porosity (i.e. macroporosity) shows a similar
Silicified volcanic rock fragments are also much more trend, but is generally 5-10% lower than the helium
common in the WD-8 samples. For comparison, a porosity (i.e. macro- and microporosity). The main
present day sand sample recovered from the banks of porosity types are primary intergranular porosity, and
the Porong River consists of 55% plagioclase, 36% secondary dissolutionlintragranularporosity created by
volcanic rock fragments, 7% pyroxene and 2% leaching of feldspars, volcanic rock fragments and to
opaques. a lesser extent heavy minerals. The ratio of primary to
secondary porosity has a very distinct distribution
Outcmp Lithology with depth and age. Primary intergranular porosity
dominates between surface and a depth of
The Pleistocene volcaniclastic sediments from the approximately 4,045 feet throughout the Pleistocene
field localities are in most cases texturally and section, whereas secondary/dissolution porosity
compositionally identical to those observed within the dominates in the deeper Late Pliocene section (Figure
Porong-1 well. Bioclasts are relatively common in the 5).
Ploso Anticline Pucangan Formation sandstones, but
are virtually absent in all Kabuh Formation samples Air permeabilities measured from sidewall cores
and the Pondok Dam site area Pucangan Formation recovered between 800 to 7,600 feet range from
samples. 3-550md, averaging lOOmd (Figure 4). Between 800
and 5,000 feet there is a trend of decreasing
Pleistocene sandstones from the Bangil Anticline are permeability with depth, averaging approximately
friable, variably medium to very coarse grained, lOOmd at the top and 20md at the bottom. Data is
moderately well sorted and locally pebbly. The too sparse below 5,000 feet to establish a trend.
WD-8 Reservoir Quality dissolution porosity,

Porosity development in the WD-8 core is generally b. Pondok Dam Site Area and Ploso Anticline
good in most samples with helium porosity values of Non-Mluine Facies
35-40% and thin section point count porosities of
10-25% (Figure 4). The core was recovered from a Fluviatile non-marine facies of both the Kabuh and
depth of 450m (1,500 feet). This horizon is Late Pucangan Formations have slightly better porosity
Pliocene in age, and the porosity is dominantly and permeability developnlent than the marine facies.
secondary and created by dissolution of feldspars and Helium injection porosities range from 35-46% (41%
volcanic rock fragments. Most primary intergranular average) and thin section porosities from 18-37%
porosity had been destroyed by a combination of (3 1% average). Permeabilities range from
compaction and cementation. 85-4,00Omd, averaging 2,500md.

Air permeability measurements on core plugs from the c. Bangil Anticline Lacustrine/Fluviatile Facies
WD-8 core indicate an obvious small scale facies
dependency. The best reservoir facies consist of Pleistocene volcaniclastic sandstones analyzed from
medium to coarse grained, moderately sorted turbidite the Bangil Anticline have helium porosity from 34-
sandstone beds with low detrital clay, porosity greater 46% and thin section porosity from 27-40%. The best
than 20% and air permeability between 80-200md. In reservoirs have permeabilities of up to 20,000 md.
fine to medium grained, moderately to poorly sorted
turbidites containing significantly more detrital clay, Log Evaluation
porosities range from 12-25% and permeabilities from
0.2-1 0md (Figure 4). The Porong-l well was evaluated with a standard
suite of oil field wireline logs. Porosity calculated
An approximately 1OOm thick section within the from the sonic and neutronldensity logs tends to be
interval from 418 to 544 m was screened off and similar to helium-injection porosity, and thus on
produced a natural flow of 3,000 barrels of water per average 5-10% larger than point count porosity ( i.e.
day. Two other recent iodide wells in the area, macroporosity).
completed in the same reservoir zone, flowed 7,000
and 20,000 barrels of water per day, respectively. The resistivity of volcaniclastic sands is generally
This production data is further proof of the excellent low even in the presence of hydrocarbons due to the
reservoir quality of these volcaniclastic reservoirs. effect of water bound within the smectite clay coating
most grains, and thus renders reservoir identification
Outcrop Reselvoir Quality and evaluation difficult ( Mathiesen, 1984; Itoh et al,
1982). The exponents a, m and n used in water
The outcrop samples of reservoir quality volcaniclastic saturation calculations were measured on WD-8 core
facies have porosity and permeability development material to be 1.0, 1.75 and 1.98, respectively.
nearly identical to those observed in the subsurface Formation factor calculations based on the measured
Pleistocene samples. The reservoir properties in some exponents corresponds to the Humble formula used
cases have been exaggerated due to surface for quartz sands with porosity greater than 20%. For
weathering and sample disaggregation. porosities less than 20%, the standard exponents will
cause an erroneously high calculated water saturation.
a. Ploso Anticline Tmsitional Marine Facies For tighter volcaniclastics it is thus important to apply
the proper exponents in order not to overlook
Shallow marine to transitional marine facies of the potential hydrocarbon-bearing zones.
Pleistocene Pucangan Formation have helium injection
porosities that range from 32-43% (38% average) and The difference in density between volcaniclastics and
thin section porosities from 12-35% (28% average). quartz sandstones affects log evaluation. With the
Permeabilities range from 100-1,00Omd, averaging exception of a few denser siderite-cemented samples,
500 md. The main porosity types are primary the matrix density of the volcaniclastics in the studied
intergranular porosity and to a lesser extent secondary material ranges between 2.45 and 2.70 g/cm3, with an
average from 2.60 to 2.62 g/cm3. This is slightly smectite. Smectite comprises from 10-35% of most
lower than the matrix density of a quartz sandstone samples (by XRDIMineralog), but thin section and
(2.65-2.70 g/cm3). The reduced density is believed SEM analyses indicate that approximately 30 to 50%
mainly due to the abundance of sodic plagioclase of this is either detrital smectite clay or smectite
(2.61-2.65 g/cm3; 2.62 g/cm3 average) and smectite associated with partly clay-replaced volcanic rock
clay (2.00-3.00 g/cm3; 2.35 g/cm3 average) (Gearhart- fragments.
Owen, 1978).
Clinoptilolite is a zeolite mineral that occurs in some
DIAGENESIS samples as small euhedral crystals in pore-filling and
volcanic rock fragment-replacing habit (Figure 6F).
Volcaniclastic rocks typically consist of chemically The amount of clinoptilolite is extremely variable (0-
unstable minerals and framework grains that are very 30%) but most samples contain only small amounts of
prone to diagenetic alteration, and these reactions this cement.
often lead to the precipitation of large amounts of
pore-filling cements such as calcite, clays and zeolites Small amounts (generally < 4%) of plagioclase, pyrite,
(Surdam and Boles, 1979; Davies et al, 1979; hematite, kaolinite, chlorite and siderite cements were
Galloway et al, 1979). The abundance of also detected in a limited number of samples.
mechanically unstable framework grains such as
volcanic rock fragments can also greatly increase the Compaction
amount of porosity destruction from compaction.
Some porosity reduction from cementation and As expected compaction increases with depth and is
compaction is evident in the volcaniclastics examined evident as squashing of grains, tighter grain-packing
in this study, however, the cementation is in most and an increase in straight to concave/convex grain
cases relatively minor or localized, and reservoir contacts as opposed to point contacts. Compaction is
quality has been enhanced through dissolution of largely responsible for loss of primary intergranular
unstable framework grains. porosity with depth (Figure 5), particularly in the
Pliocene section, while cementing plays a secondary
The generalized diagenetic sequence consists of role.
localized early ferroan-calcite cementation followed in
turn by the formation of smectite clay, zeolite cement Secondary Porosity Development
and later stage grain dissolution.
Major secondary porosity has been developed in most
Cementation of the volcaniclastics by dissolution of unstable
framework grains such as plagioclase feldspar,
Fenoan-calcite was found to have only a localized volcanic rock fragments and occasional heavy
distribution within the East Java volcaniclastic sand- minerals. Secondary porosity represents
stones. Field and well evidence show that calcite approximately a third of the macroporosity within the
cementation is more common in the marine to tran- Pleistocene horizons and nearly all the porosity in the
sitional marine facies than in the non-marine facies. Late Pliocene horizons.
Heavily -calcite cemented beds were generally
encountered within or in proximity to bioclast-rich or In the Porong-1 well, secondary porosity is found as
calcareous beds acting as seed crystals, particularly in shallow as 850 feet in PleistoceneIRecent sediments,
association with shell rich lags at the base of deltaic indicating that this process can occur very early.
or tidal channel sands (Figure 6E). Diagenetic textures show that most of the grain
dissolution post-dates the precipitation of authigenic
The most common pore-filling cement is authigenic smectite and other cements. Secondary porosity
smectite which occurs as a mostly grain-coating and generally increases with depth as primary porosity
pore-lining "webby" clay (Figure 6F). The smectite decreases from compaction, and virtually all porosity
appears to have formed early at shallow burial depths, below 4,500 feet within the Late Pliocene sandstones
prior to major compaction. XRD and SEM analyses is secondary (Figure 5). The deepest volcaniclastic
indicate the clay variety is highly expandable sodium samples at 7,500 feet still display porosities of 10%
and it is unknown how deep secondary porosity can b. Grain-Dissolving Mechanism
be formed and preserved in these sequences, but the
process could potentially continue as long as unstable The grainlpore-fluid interactions that created the
minerals are present. secondary porosity are not fully understood.
Plagioclase and volcanic rock fragments can be
Secondary porosity is the dominant porosity type dissolved through a variety of reactions, including an
within the Late Pliocene sandstones of the WD-8 core. increase in fornlation water pH resulting from early
This is consistent with the estimate that the sequence hydration reactions. The rate of plagioclase dissolution
was once buried to depths similar to those of the tends to increase with increasing salinity and pH,
Porong-1 Late Pliocene sequence and exposed to however, the dissolved ions must be removed in
similar diagenetic conditions. order to prevent their precipitation as cement (Surdam
and Boles, 1979; Mathisen, 1984).

Controls on Secondary Porosity Plagioclase can also be dissolved through a decrease


in pH caused by carbon dioxide and organic acids
It is unclear at this time as to whether the porosity released from the thermal maturation of source rocks.
difference between the Pleistocene and Late Pliocene Organic acids are only stable within a temperature
horizons is mainly a function of window of approximately 80-120" C and typically
depth/temperaturelcompaction relationships, or is reach their maximum concentrations within a reservoir
alternately controlled by differences in the grain at these temperatures (Surdanl et al, 1989). Downhole
composition and diagenetic history of these horizons. temperatures measured in the Porong-1 well show that
The evidence thus far, however, suggests the the Late Pliocene secondary porosity zone is situated
following diagenetic relationships. exactly within this temperature window (Figure 5).
Seismic data suggest that the Porong-1 Late Pliocene
section was never buried deeper than its current depth,
a. Eady Venus Late Secondary Porosity and the WD-8 Late Pliocene sequence is presumed to
have experienced a similar burial and temperature
The predominance of secondary porosity within the history.
Porong-1 sequence appears to occur very abruptly at
approximately 4,067 feet, close to the Plio- No analysis of organic acids were performed on
Pleistocene boundary (Figure 5). The abruptness formation waters, but the high concentrations of
could arguably be an artifact of the lower sampling iodide (100 ppm) and bromide (4,000 ppm) within
density below this depth. Diagenetic fabrics seen in water produced from Late Pliocene horizons in the
thin section, however, suggest that the style and WD-8 area are intriguing. A correlation between high
timing of secondary porosity evolution may be organic acid and iodidelbromide content has been
different for the Pleistocene and Late Pliocene noted by some researchers (pers. comm. J.R. Boles
horizons. Secondary porosity evolution within the and S.G. Franks, 311994). Significantly lower iodide
Pleistocene samples appears to be very early, prior to (4 ppm) and bromide (1 ppm) concentrations were
major compaction, while virtually all the secondary noted in water produced from Pleistocene horizons
porosity within the Late Pliocene samples appears to within a Porong-1 area water well.
be a late stage, post-major compaction phenomenon.

The style of grain-leaching also appears different. In c. Reasons For Low Cementation
thc Pleistocene samples, plagioclase dissolution is less
complete with development of mainly elongate The relatively low cementation within the
intragranular pores along cleavage planes (Figure 6A). Plio-Pleistocene horizons could possibly be related to
Dissolution is more advanced within the Late Pliocene the reservoirs being "open" rather than "closed"
samples as the central portion of the plagioclase grains systems. High rates of porewater flow can inhibit
usually is completely leached out, leaving a thin rim cement precipitation by continually removing
of plagioclase surrounding a large grain-mouldic pore cement-forming ions (Hayes et al, 1976; Mathisen,
(Figurcs 6B and 6 C ) . 1984).
DISCUSSlON AND LITERATURE REVEW OF Plio-Pleistocene volcaniclastics from the Philippines
WORLDWIDE VOLCANICLASTIC RESERVOIRS that are very similar to the East Java examples of this
AND FIELDS. study. The high porosity is attributed to a
combination of non-marine deposition, shallow burial
Negative Aspects (400-900m), early grain dissolution and high porefluid
flow rates.
While the majority of the paper is concerned with
volcaniclastics that have good reservoir quality, it Mathisen and McPherson (1991) present a good
should not be forgotten that poor quality volcaniclastic review of the various factors that control porosity
reservoirs do exist. A local example from East Java preservation and destruction in volcaniclastic
is the Late Miocene Kerek Formation which contains sandstones. They indicate that the most favorable
turbidite sandstones and conglomerates composed of conditions arc achieved in reworked, distal
a mixture of volcaniclastic and calcareous bioclastic non-marine, epiclastic and pyroclastic fall deposits
sediments (de Gcnevraye and Samuel, 1972; van with shallow burial, high geothermal gradients and
Gorse1 and Troelstra, 198 1). The porosity observed in high-rate porewater flow (Table 1).
outcrop is generally less than 5-10% due to early
calcite cementation brought about largely by the Hydrocahon Production from Volcaniclastics.
abundance of calcareous bioclasts.
Even though volcaniclastics represent reservoirs far
Calcite and other cements such as zeolite and clays less common than carbonates and quartzose
are the major cause of poor reservoir quality in other sandstones, oil and gas is commercially produced
examples such as Neogene volcaniclastics from from or associated with them in examples from all
Slovakia (Reed and Gipson, 1991) and arc-derived over the world (Table 1). Productive volcaniclastics
sands from Alaska (Galloway, 1979) and New are most often of Tertiary age, but examples as old as
Zealand (Surdam and Boles, 1979). In these examples Permian are known. Most of the productive fields are
the cements were formed as a result of early located along past or present subduction zone. /
diagenetic alteration of the volcaniclastic sediments. volcanic-arc tracts. These incIude the ancient vol-
Another example is Stewart (1976) who writes-off the canic belts of the former Soviet Union (Georgia,
hydrocarbon potential of the Aleutian chain based Azerbaidzhan), Australia and China, as well as the
upon a single ODP well. present-day "ring of fire" which rims the Pacific Basin
(Indonesia, Japan, New Zealand and Argentina).
Prior to 1985, most authors seem to have generally
focused on the negative aspects of volcaniclastics. Indonesian examples include the Jatibarang
This is no more apparent than in the 1979 SEPM volcaniclastics which produce oil and gas from the
special publication "Aspects of Diagenesis" in which Jatibarang Field (Table 1). The long abandoned Kuti
no less than four very negative papers appeared and Metatu Fields were discovered near Surabaya in
(Surdam and Boles, 1979; Davies et al, 1979; Bums Northeast Java over 100 years ago (Figure 2). The
and Ethridge, 1979; Galloway, 1979) (Table 1). This Kuti Field produced 0.75 MMBO from Pleistocene
publication may to a large extent be responsible for tuffaceous sandstone while Metatu produced 0.3
the negative attitude to volcaniclastics that still MMBO from the same Pleistocene volcaniclastics and
persists today. from underlying Pliocene calcarenites (Soetantri et al,
1973).
Positive Aspects
The Samgori Field in Georgia, the former Soviet
Since 1985 the literature has presented a more Union, represents the largest volcaniclastic oil field
balanced view of volcaniclastic reservoirs. Conolly described in the available literature. The field has
(1985) and Hawlader (1990) both mention the oil and produced over 165 MMBO since its discovery in 1974
gas production within Mesozoic volcaniclastics in the from hydrothermally altered tuffs and tuffaceous
Surat and Bowen Basins of Australia, and the untested sandstones. The porosity is reportedly mostly
potential of new reservoir fairways. Mathisen (1984) secondary and the result of zeolitization and fracturing
describes excellent reservoir quality in shallow (Grcnberg et al, 1991; Patton, 1993).
ACKNOWLEGMENTS reservoir fairway in back-arc basins, Eastern Australia,
AAPG Bulletin 69, p.246 (abstract).
The authors are indebted to the Brantas PSC group
(Huffco Brantas, Inc. (Operator), Inpex Brantas, Ltd, Courteney, S., Cockcroft, P., Miller, R., Phoa, R.S.K.
Norcen Brantas Ltd. and Oryx Indonesia Brantas and Wight, A.W.R., (ed.) 1989. Indonesian Oil and
Company) and to the Tuban JOB group (Santa Fe, Gas Fields Atlas, Volume 1V: Java. IPA.
Pertamina, Total, RS Resources and Ensearch) as well
as PT Kimia Farma for making the present data Davies, D.K., W.R. Almon, S.B. Bonis and B.E.
available for publication. Hunter, 1979. Deposition and Diagenesis of
Tertiary-Holocene Volcaniclastics, Guatemala, b
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Southwest Arkansas, 36th Annual Gulf Coast Reservoir Quality in Arc-Derived Sandstones,
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Gulf Coast, & Clastic Diagenesis, D.A. McDonald
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(second series), Mineral Resources Development East Java, Some Unusual Aspects of Stratigraphy,
Series No.29, United Nations, 64-80. Proceedings of the Indonesian Association of
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Siahaan, M. and Wirabudi, A.D., 1993. The southern Early Development of Secondary Porosity in Volcanic
fore-arc zone of Sumatra: Cainozoic basin fornting Sandstones, & Clastic Diagenesis, D.A. McDonald
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McManamon, D., 19%. Kora exploration and drilling
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A lmka Geological Society, p.J 1-27, analysis, reprinted English translation by T.H. Nilsen,
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Khatchikian, A., 1983. Log Evaluation of oil-bearing Patton, D.K., 1993. Samgori Field, Republic of
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Loucks, R.G., M.M. Dodge and W.E. Galloway, 1984, Soeria-Atmadja, R., R.C. Murray, H. Bellon, Y.S.
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~ Convention Proceedings, pp. 90-134.
112

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VOLCANIC FACIES BELTS
C
0 PROXI- MEDIAL DISTAL
R MAL
, E
NON-MARINE MARINE

Lava Glowing
,
uvalanche Alluvial fans Sinous & Braided channels, Iffshore bars,
flood plain and coastline !elta front,
rurbidi tes

(After Vessell and Davies, 1981 and Mathisen and McPherton , 1991)

FIGURE 1 - Overview of Volcaniclastic Facies


lu
uu JAVA SEA

- *.
INDIANOCEAN

VOLCANIC COMPL

NE JAVA

MIOCENE TO PLEISTOCENE

----
0
---- RECENT ALLUVIUM

SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS

P.W. APRIL 0 V 4
HX- 1407/ M- 2

FIGURE 2 - Index map of East Java study area


PONDOK PLOSO WD-8 PORONG-1 BANGIL
DAM SITE OUTCROP WELL WELL OUTCROP

ABSENT

CLASTC
a RESERVOIRS

a SHALE

(NJ MARL

LIMESTONE

& PLANKTONIC
FORAMS
0 CORALS

tLUNT ZONATION ( LUNT, 1991 1

FIGURE 3 - Generalized stratigraphic frame work of East Java


L. PLIOCENE PLEISTOCENE
OUTER OUTER MIDDLE
- MIDDLE NERlTlC
NERlTlC NERlTlC
A A 4 A
rU Q)
VI 0
n
0 n
n n \
. \ \ W
(D 0) 0
nJ
< 0
EQUIVALENT DEPTH OF
BURIAL
I 1
LATE PLIOCENE
D E E P M I D D L E OR OUTER NERlTlC
1m la 1
118

FIGURE 6A: Poroag-1 ~ Sidewaa Core - ~1586It, lqeistoceae FIGURE 6B: Poreag-I WeD Sidewall Core - 6S28 It., Late Pliocene
Transitional marine facies volcaniclutic sandstone, Med, med well-sorted, Secondary porosity from plngioclnsc dissolution is major porosity type i*~
with primary inte~ranular porosity (1), plngiodase (white grains), volcan- middle-outer neritic Late Pliocene facies. Note solution style with large
ic roCk fragments Or) and heavy mlncrals (H). N0t low compaction, grain-monldic pore center (G), surrounded by remnant rim of ptagiocla~c
loose gzein-packing and minor zeolite cementation (Z). (4b'X) (arrows). Compactionhasdeatmyedmnatintergranularpomsity. (IlOX)

FIGURE 6C: ~ Web Cmventkmal C o r e - 464.05m, Late Plineme PLATE6D: Outcrep Near Poadok Dam Site, PleistoceeeKalmhFm.
Secondary porosity is similar to that in Figure 6B. Note plngioclase Well developed primary intcrgranular porosity (I) (30%) in Med-Cs,
dissolution style with grain-mouldic center ((3) and remnant rim (R), rood-well sorted, non-marine fluviatile volcaniclastic sandstone. Note
leached volcanic rock fragment w/plngioclase microlites (V), intergrane- loose grain packing; plagioclase OF), volcanic rock fragments (V), heavy
lar porosity (1) and pore-lining zcoflte cement (arrows). (ItOX) ~ n c r m ( m and ~ched ~raim (L). (4sx)

I'LATIg 6E: ~ Anticl~e Oat~mp, Ple/stecxme ! ~ , ~ - - , ~ Fro. FIGURE 6F: WD-g Well Conventional Core - 448.13m, Late l'iioome
Localized heavy fetzoan--calclte cementation in bioclast-rich lag deposit at SEM photomicrograph showing the dingenctie sequence of several frc-
base of deltaic channd. All intetgramilaf porosity is ferroan calcite-filled queer cements. The "webby" grain-coating authigenic smectite clay (C)
(C). Note pelecypod fragment OF), planktonic f0ram OF), volcanic rock was formed prior to the tabular-shaped crystals of zeolite (clinoptilolitc)
fragment (3/) and plagioclase (while grains). (4b'X) cement. (370X)

FIGURE 6 - Thin Section and SEM Photomicrographs