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Forces acting on the mould

As the mould fills it becomes exposed to high metallostatic pressures which


tend to displace or distort the mould sections and cores. These forces can be
accurately predicted and contained by foundry measures.

The first need is for a dense, rigid mould, since the pressure tends to expand
the mould cavity, especially in greensand practice. Rigidity of the mould parts
can be increased by using box bars or cover plates to reinforce the sand
mass; these measures become increasingly necessary with moulds of large
area.

Assuming a rigid mould, the next concern is with the force tending to separate
the mould parts. The upward force acting on a flat mould surface is
equal to h A [N],

where = density of the metal [kg/m ]


h = head of metal, m
A = superficial area, m

A completely flat mould surface gives rise to the maximum lifting force:
calculations for other shapes can thus be safely based upon their projected
areas. The force is resisted by using box clamps and arrangements of plates
and tie-bars to hold the mould parts together and by weighting the top part. In
the latter case the minimum weight required is h A [kg] including the weight
of the cope itself.

Cores too are exposed to an upthrust, equivalent in this case to the weight of
metal displaced; the net upward force is thus considerable except in the
casting of light alloys. The force is countered by high mechanical strength and
rigidity in core construction, enhanced by reinforcing grids and irons.

Cores must be firmly supported against movement in the mould. A core


relying upon a single coreprint in the mould bottom, for example, tends to float
out of position and must be anchored with wires or sprigs. Cores of large
dimensions may require several points of support: if these cannot all be
provided in the form of coreprints, studs or chaplets may be needed to
prevent movement on casting.
Example :
It is required to cast the cast iron part shown in the figure. If the flask
dimensions is mm , the density of steel is g/cm and the
density of sand is g/cm , calculate the required weight that should be
used to prevent the buoyancy force from lifting the upper flask.

h= mm h= mm h= mm
FB = [ . * *( * )/ * ]* FB = [ . *?? * ( * )/ * ]* FB = [ . *?? * ( * )/ * ]*
F= N F =??? N F =??? N

Ws=( * * * )/ * ]* Ws=( *????)/ * ]* Ws=( *????)/ * ]*


Ws= N Ws=??? N Ws=??? N

Required weight = - Required weight = FB - Ws Required weight = FB - Ws


RW= N RW=??? N RW=??? N
Example :
It is required to cast the cast iron tube shown in the figure. If the flask
dimensions is mm , the density of steel is g/cm and the
density of sand is g/cm , calculate:
- the required weight that should be used to prevent the buoyancy force
from lifting the upper flask and
- the force acting on the core

Weight of the replacement molten metal FB =

Weigh of the core

Resultant Force = N

If the core is printed at its two sides, then the bending moment at the middle

of core can be calculated according

-
FB = . (heff )

Heff = - hcg where hcg= mm

Heff = mm

FB = N

Total FB = + N by neglecting sand weight, this will equal the


required weight to prevent the flask from lifting up.
Home Work
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It is required to cast the cast iron part shown in the figure. If the flask
dimensions is mm , the density of steel is g/cm and the
density of sand is g/cm , calculate:
- the required weight that should be used to prevent the buoyancy force
from lifting the upper flask and
- the force acting on the core
Assume the suitable position of the casting inside the mould.