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MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT
THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA

State State of of the the Environment Environment Report Report

Indonesia Indonesia 2012 2012

PillarsPillars ofof thethe EnvironmentEnvironment ofof IndonesiaIndonesia

Status Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia 2012

Pilar Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia

Environment of of Indonesia Indonesia S tatus L ingkungan H idup I ndonesia 2012 Pilar Lingkungan
Environment of of Indonesia Indonesia S tatus L ingkungan H idup I ndonesia 2012 Pilar Lingkungan
Environment of of Indonesia Indonesia S tatus L ingkungan H idup I ndonesia 2012 Pilar Lingkungan
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA S tate S tate of of the the
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA S tate S tate of of the the
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA S tate S tate of of the the

MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA

MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA S tate S tate of of the the E
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA S tate S tate of of the the E

State State of of the the Environment Environment Report Report

Indonesia Indonesia 2012 2012

PillarsPillars ofof thethe EnvironmentEnvironment ofof IndonesiaIndonesia

Status Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia 2012

Pilar Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia

Environment of of Indonesia Indonesia S tatus L ingkungan H idup I ndonesia 2012 Pilar Lingkungan
Environment of of Indonesia Indonesia S tatus L ingkungan H idup I ndonesia 2012 Pilar Lingkungan
Environment of of Indonesia Indonesia S tatus L ingkungan H idup I ndonesia 2012 Pilar Lingkungan
Environment of of Indonesia Indonesia S tatus L ingkungan H idup I ndonesia 2012 Pilar Lingkungan
Environment of of Indonesia Indonesia S tatus L ingkungan H idup I ndonesia 2012 Pilar Lingkungan
Environment of of Indonesia Indonesia S tatus L ingkungan H idup I ndonesia 2012 Pilar Lingkungan
Environment of of Indonesia Indonesia S tatus L ingkungan H idup I ndonesia 2012 Pilar Lingkungan
Environment of of Indonesia Indonesia S tatus L ingkungan H idup I ndonesia 2012 Pilar Lingkungan
Environment of of Indonesia Indonesia S tatus L ingkungan H idup I ndonesia 2012 Pilar Lingkungan
Environment of of Indonesia Indonesia S tatus L ingkungan H idup I ndonesia 2012 Pilar Lingkungan
Environment of of Indonesia Indonesia S tatus L ingkungan H idup I ndonesia 2012 Pilar Lingkungan
Environment of of Indonesia Indonesia S tatus L ingkungan H idup I ndonesia 2012 Pilar Lingkungan
Environment of of Indonesia Indonesia S tatus L ingkungan H idup I ndonesia 2012 Pilar Lingkungan
Environment of of Indonesia Indonesia S tatus L ingkungan H idup I ndonesia 2012 Pilar Lingkungan
Environment of of Indonesia Indonesia S tatus L ingkungan H idup I ndonesia 2012 Pilar Lingkungan
Environment of of Indonesia Indonesia S tatus L ingkungan H idup I ndonesia 2012 Pilar Lingkungan
Environment of of Indonesia Indonesia S tatus L ingkungan H idup I ndonesia 2012 Pilar Lingkungan

KATA PENGANTAR

KATA PENGANTAR

PembangunannasionalIndonesiabertujuanmewujudkanmasyarakatyangadildanmakmur,sertamembangunmanusiaIndonesiaseutuhnya. Pelaksanaannya perlu memperhatikan keseimbangan tiga pilar pembangunan berkelanjutan, yakni sosial, ekonomi dan lingkungan hidup. Hal ini sesuai dengan hasil kesepakatan dunia dalam Konferensi PBB tentang Lingkungan Hidup yang diadakan di Stockholm Tahun 1972 dan Deklarasi Lingkungan Hidup pada KTT Bumi di Rio de Janeiro Tahun 1992 yang menyepakati prinsip-prinsip dalam pengambilan keputusan pembangunan harus memperhatikan dimensi lingkungan, ekonomi dan manusia.

Indonesia yang dikaruniai kekayaan sumber daya alam dengan keanekaragaman hayati yang berlimpah seyogyanya dapat membawa bangsa dan negara kita menjadi salah satu yang terbesar di dunia serta, yang terpenting, dapat menjamin tingginya tingkat kesejahteraan rakyat Indonesia secara merata. Sasaran tersebut sesuai dengan arahan Presiden Republik Indonesia tentang Sustainable Growth with Equity, atau Pertumbuhan yang berkelanjutan dan berkeadilan.

Dengan memperhatikan tiga pilar pembangunan berkelanjutan secara seimbang, maka dari sisi dimensi lingkungannya diperlukan kebijakan dan pelaksanaan pengelolaan lingkungan hidup sepenuhnya yang melibatkan semua pemangku kepentingan. Dengan begitu pembangunan akan sesuai dengan kaidah-kaidah lingkungan hidup, yaitu meningkatkan nilai dan fungsi lingkungan hidup. Hal yang harus diperhatikan adalah daya dukung, daya tampung dan aspek pencadangannya serta tata ruang sehingga tidak menimbulkan berbagai bencana lingkungan seperti pencemaran lingkungan, kerusakan hutan dan lahan, banjir, longsor, kekeringan serta berbagai wabah penyakit. Semua itu menyebabkan krisis energi, air dan pangan yang pada akhirnya menjadi ancaman bagi peri kehidupan kita.

Patut kita sesali bersama karena pada kenyataannya lingkungan hidup Indonesia telah banyak yang rusak dan cemar serta sumber daya alam kita semakin terkikis. Sesal saja sangat tidak cukup, keterpurukan ini harus menjadi “wake-up call” pada kita semua untuk bersama-sama berupaya meningkatkan kapasitas diri dalam mengatasi semua permasalahan lingkungan hidup. Upaya tersebut di atas dipengaruhi oleh perilaku semua pemangku kepentingan baik secara individu maupun kolektif. Oleh karenanya, perilaku ini yang harus diubah menjadi lebih ramah lingkungan. Hal ini sesuai dengan tema Tema Hari Lingkungan Hidup Tahun 2013 “Ubah Perilaku dan Pola Konsumsi Untuk Selamatkan Lingkungan”. Tema ini dimaksudkan untuk meningkatkan kepedulian kita atas pentingnya pemanfaatan sumber daya alam secara bijak dan berwawasan lingkungan hidup. Tema ini diadopsi dari Tema Hari Lingkungan Hidup Sedunia 2013 yang dikeluarkan oleh Badan Lingkungan Hidup Dunia, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), yaitu “Think.Eat.Save”, mengingat perilaku dan pola konsumsi terutama dalam menyikapi daur hidup pangan berpengaruh terhadap lingkungan hidup.

Laporan Status Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia Tematik (SLHI) Tahun 2012 disusun untuk memberikan pemahaman akan kondisi lingkungan hidup Indonesia dan bagaimana semua pemangku kepentingan berupaya untuk melindungi dan mengelolanya. Laporan ini difokuskan pada tema kapasitas pengelolaan lingkungan hidup di Indonesia dengan judul “Pilar Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia”. Laporan ini menyajikan kecenderungan kualitas lingkungan hidup, gambaran interaksi dinamis antara kapasitas dan kualitas lingkungan hidup serta faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhinya. Kapasitas pengelolaan lingkungan hidup yang memadai merupakan elemen penting yang akan menentukan status lingkungan hidup Indonesia di masa depan.

Atas nama Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup, pada kesempatan ini saya mengucapkan banyak terima kasih kepada Tim Pakar dan semua pihak yang telah membantu penyusunan buku Status Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia 2012 ini. Mudah-mudahan buku ini dapat bermanfaat bagi para pemangku kepentingan, yakni pembuat kebijakan, dunia akademisi, lembaga swadaya masyarakat, dunia usaha, media massa serta masyarakat luas.

FOREWORD

T he objective of Indonesia’s national development is to establish an equitable and prosperous society and to develop the Indonesian people holisticly. All development efforts must heed the balance of the three pillars –

social, economic and environmental – of sustainable development. This commitment reflects the agreement reached at the 1972 UN Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm and the Declaration on Environment and Development produced at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, which acknowledge that development decision- making principles must take into account environmental, economic and social dimensions.

Indonesia’s abundance of natural resources and biodiversity should enable our nation and country to reach a leading position in the world and, most importantly, ensure the prosperity of the entire Indonesian people. This objective concurs with the remarks of the President of the Republic of Indonesia on Sustainable Growth with Equity.

The environmental dimension necessitates environmental management policies and practices that call for the active engagement of all stakeholders, so that all three pillars of sustainable development can be accommodated equally. In this way development will proceed according to environmental principles, and enhance the value and the function of the environment. It is important to consider matters such as carrying capacities, assimilative capacities and conservation issues as well as spatial planning to prevent environmental disasters such as environmental pollution, forest and land damage, floods, landslides, droughts or outbreaks of diseases. All of these threats may cause crises related to energy, water and food supply, which in turn will endanger our livelihoods.

Unfortunately, much of Indonesia’s environment is damaged and polluted and our natural resources are becoming increasingly depleted. However, merely regretting the situation is not enough. We must heed this wake-up call and work together to increase our capacities to overcome all environmental problems.

The above-mentioned efforts are influenced by the individual and collective behavior of all stakeholders. Their behavior must become more environmentally friendly. This message was also conveyed by the theme of the 2013 Environment Day,“Change Behaviors and Consumption Patterns to Save the Environment”, which aimed to raise awareness about the importance of consuming natural resources in a sensible and environmentally sound way. The theme was adapted from the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) World Environment Day theme for 2013, “Think.Eat.Save”, because attitudes and consumption patterns, particularly in regard to the cycle of food consumption, have an impact on the environment.

This thematic State of the Environment Report (SoER) of Indonesia aims to provide an understanding of environmental conditions in Indonesia and of how the various stakeholders engage in its protection and management. The report focuses on the theme of environmental management capacities and is entitled“Pillars of the Environment of Indonesia”. It presents trends in environmental quality and describes the dynamic interaction between environmental capacities and quality along with influencing factors. Adequate environmental management capacities are important elements that will determine the state of the environment in Indonesia in the years to come.

On behalf of the Ministry of the Environment, I would like to thank the Team of Experts as well as all parties that participated in the preparation of the State of the Environment Report of Indonesia 2012. May this report be useful for all stakeholders, whether the are policy makers, academia, non-governmental organizations, the private sector, the mass media or the public.

Jakarta, 5 June 2013

organizations, the private sector, the mass media or the public. Jakarta, 5 June 2013 Prof. Dr.

Prof. Dr. Balthasar Kambuaya, MBA

State of the Environment Report of Indonesia 2012

Status Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia 2012

Published by :

diterbitkan oleh :

Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Indonesia

Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup Republik Indonesia

Jl. D. I. Panjaitan Kav. 24 Jakarta 13410

Telp

:

021 -8580081

Fax

:

021 -8580081

ISBN 978-602-8358-67-5

-8580081 Fax : 021 -8580081 ISBN 978-602-8358-67-5 MINISTRY OF ENVIRON MENT THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA The

MINISTRY OF ENVIRON MENT THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA

The content and material of this report may be freely reproduced and distributed provided that the content and meaning of this document are not altered. Quoting is allowed with reference to the source.

Isi dan materi yang ada dalam buku ini boleh di reproduksi dan disebarluaskan dengan tidak mengurangi isi dan arti dari dokumen ini. Diperbolehkan mengutip isi buku ini dengan menyebutkan sumbernya.

Patron / pelindung :

Prof. Dr. Balthasar Kambuaya, MBA, Minister of Environment

Prof. Dr. Balthasar Kambuaya, MBA, Menteri Lingkungan Hdup

Steering Officer / pengarah :

DR. Henry Bastaman, Deputy for Technical Infrastructure and Capacity Building in Environmental Management

DR. Henry Bastaman, Deputi MENLH Bidang Pembinaan Sarana Teknis Lingkungan dan Peningkatan Kapasitas

Executive in Charge / penanggung jawab :

Ir. Laksmi Dhewanthi, MA, Assistant Deputy for Environmental Data and Information

Ir. Laksmi Dhewanthi, MA, Asisten Deputi Data dan Informasi Lingkungan

Editors / editor :

Dida Gardera, Eri Rura, Luhut P Lumban Gaol, Lindawati, Nuke Mutikania, Harimurti, Heru Harnowo, R.Susanto, Adi Fajar Ramly, Hasan Nurdin, Heru Subroto, Indira Siregar, Abdul Aziz Sitepu, Wahyudi Suryatna

Writers / penulis :

Prof. Dr. Akhmad Fauzi, Prof. Dr. Dedy Darnaedi MSc., Prof. Dr. Lilik Budi Prasetyo, Dr. Budhi Gunawan, Dr. Driejana, Ir. Idris Maxdoni Kamil, M.Sc.,Ph.D., Dr. Herto Dwi Ariesyadi, Hernani Yulinawati, ST., MURP, Ph.D., Ano Herwana, SE, MM., Dida Gardera, S.T., M.Sc., Dr. Esrom Hamonangan, Ir. Dewi Ratnaningsih, Jetro, S.T., Ernawita Nazir, Emalya Rachmawaty, Dyah Aprianti, Niniek Triana Wardhani.

Secretariat / sekretariat :

Suhartono, Trileni Ratna Aprita, Saeprudi

Support / pendukung :

Baiah, Wiyoga, Agnes Swastikarina Gusthi, Sudarmanto, Tommy Aromdani, Juarno, Sarjono, S Dombot Sunaryedi, Yayat Rukhiyat, Nurheni Astuti, Anastasia, M. Bambang Eko Ariwibowo, Rio Kurniawan M, Tri Prihartiningsih

iv

Acknowledgements

Ucapan Terima Kasih

The Ministry of Environment would like to thank all parties that have participated in and contributed to the preparation of the 2012 State of the Environment Report of Indonesia.

Contributors Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Public Works, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Ministry of Forestry, Ministry of Transportation, Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Industry, Ministry of Energi and Mineral Resources, Statistics Indonesia, National Planning Agency, Indonesia Institute of Sciences, Indonesia Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency.

Photo contributor : Sugiarti

Cover explanation Referring to the title of the 2012 SoER, “Pillars of the Environment of Indonesia”, the cover art represents the balance of the three pillars of sustainable development in Indonesia, namely social, economic and environmental, which aim to establish an equitable and prosperous society and develop the Indonesia man as a whole.

v

Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup Mengucapkan terima kasih kepada semua pihak yang telah berpartisipasi dan berkontribusi dalam penyusunan Laporan Status Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia tahun 2012

Kontributor Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup, Kementerian Kesehatan, Kementerian Pekerjaan Umum, Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan, Kementerian Kehutanan, Kementerian Perhubungan, Kementerian Dalam Negeri, Kementerian Pekerjaan Umum, Kementerian Perindustrian, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral, Badan Pusat Statistik, Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional, Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia, Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi dan Geofisika.

Kontributor Foto : Sugiarti

Penjelasan Cover Sesuai dengan judul SLHI 2012 yaitu “ Pilar Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia ”, cover ini berusaha menampilkan keseimbangan tiga pilar pembangunan Indonesia berkelanjutan yakni sosial, ekonomi dan lingkungan hidup yang bertujuan mewujudkan masyarakat yang adil dan makmur, serta membangun manusia Indonesia seutuhnya.

Table of Contents

Daftar Isi

Inside Cover Cover Dalam Foreword Kata Pengantar

i

ii-iii

Acknowledgements Ucapan Terima Kasih

v

Table of Contents Daftar Isi List of Figures Daftar Gambar List of Tables Daftar Tabel List of Boxes Daftar Kotak

vi

x

xvi

xviii

1.

INTERACTION OF MANAGEMENT CAPACITIES AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

2

INTERAKSI KAPASITAS PENGELOLAAN DENGAN KUALITAS LINGKUNGAN

ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES TANTANGAN LINGKUNGAN MAPPING MANAGEMENT CAPACITIES AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

6

8

MEMETAKAN KAPASITAS PENGELOLAAN DAN KUALITAS LINGKUNGAN

2. STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT OF INDONESIA

12

KONDISI LINGKUNGAN HIDUP INDONESIA

 

AIR UDARA

16

WATER AIR River Water Quality Kualitas Air Sungai Pollution Load Reduction Penurunan Beban Pencemar Lake Water Quality Kualitas Air Danau Impacts of Water Quality Deterioration Dampak Penurunan Kualitas Air Water Quantity Kuantitas Air Impacts of Changes in Water Quantity Dampak Perubahan Kuantitas Air FORESTS AND LAND HUTAN DAN LAHAN Critical Lands Lahan Kritis COAST AND MARINE PESISIR DAN LAUT Seawater Quality Kualitas Air Laut

33

35

38

38

42

43

46

52

64

68

75

BIODIVERSITY KEANEKARAGAMAN HAYATI

80

 

Biodiversity protected by legislation of the Republic of Indonesia

81

Keanekaragaman Hayati yang Dilindungi Perundang-Undangan Republik Indonesia

Flora and Fauna listed on the “Red Data List” of the IUCN

82

Flora Fauna Dalam “Red Data List” IUCN

Invasive Flora, Fauna and Microbes Flora Fauna dan Mikroba Invasif

84

3.

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT CAPACITIES

88

KAPASITAS PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

92

KELEMBAGAAN PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

vi

National Institutions in Environmental Management

93

Lembaga Nasional Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup

Integrated Services Units Unit Pelayanan Terpadu

93

Indonesia National Single Window Indonesia National Single Window

95

Regional Institutions in Environmental Management

97

Lembaga Daerah Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup

Facilities and Infrastructure Sarana dan Prasarana

102

Laboratories Laboratorium

102

The Indonesian Environmental Impact Control Facility (PUSARPEDAL)

102

Pusat Pengendalian Dampak Lingkungan (PUSARPEDAL)

Regional State of the Environment Reports (SLHD)

103

Laporan Status Lingkungan Hidup Daerah (SLHD) HUMAN RESOURCES SUMBER DAYA MANUSIA PENGELOLA

106

Environmental Budget Anggaran Lingkungan Hidup

108

CONSOLIDATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAW PENAATAN HUKUM LINGKUNGAN

113

System Development Pengembangan Sistem

117

Handling of Environmental Cases Penanganan Kasus Lingkungan

119

Environmental Impact Assessment Analisis Mengenai Dampak Lingkungan

122

Compliance in a Development Context Penaatan Dalam Konteks Pembinaan

123

Formal Education Pendidikan Formal

124

Non-Formal Education Pendidikan Non Formal

124

Informal Education Pendidikan Informal

125

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS PROGRAM PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

128

The Internationalization of the Environment Internasionalisasi Lingkungan Hidup

128

Indonesia’s Role in International Forums Peran Indonesia di Forum Internasional

128

Indonesia as Host of International Meetings

132

Indonesia Sebagai Tuan Rumah Dalam Pertemuan Internasional

Indonesia’s Active Participation in Regional/International Organizations

134

Partisipasti Aktif Indonesia dalam Organisasi Regional/Internasional

Bilateral Cooperation Kerja sama Bilateral

134

Forests and Lands Hutan dan Lahan

135

Environmental Management Capacities of the Ministry of Forestry

138

Kapasitas Pengelolaan Lingkungan di Kementerian Kehutanan

One Billion Indonesian Trees Program Gerakan Penanaman 1 Miliar Pohon

140

Water Air

141

Environmental Management Capacities of the Directorate-General of Water Resources

141

Kapasitas Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup di Direktorat Jenderal Sumber Daya Air

Civil Servant Investigators in the Field of Water Resources

143

Penyidik Pegawai Negeri Sipil Sumber Daya Air Biodiversity Keanekaragaman Hayati

146

Biodiversity Clearing House Balai Kliring Keamanan Hayati

148

Biodiversity Parks Taman Keanekaragaman Hayati

148

vii

The Nagoya Protocol Protokol Nagoya Bill on Management of Genetic Resources

148

150

Rancangan Undang-Undang Pengelolaan Sumber Daya Genetik

Plant Conservation in Ex-Situ Conservation Areas

151

Konservasi Tumbuhan di Kawasan Ex-situ Konservasi

Coastal and Marine Pesisir dan Laut The Golden Chain Program –Coastal Rehabilitation Benefits Local Communities

153

153

Program Rantai Emas – Rehabilitasi Pantai, Entaskan Masyarakat Setempat

Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management Program – COREMAP

153

Program rehabilitasi dan Pengelolaan Terumbu Karang – COREMAP Air Udara Climate Change Perubahan Iklim

156

161

Efforts in the Industrial Sector Upaya Sektor Industri National Greenhouse Gas Inventory System (SIGN)

165

167

Sistem Inventarisasi Gas Rumah Kaca Nasional (SIGN)

Solid Waste Sampah ACCESS TO PARTICIPATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

168

171

AKSES PARTISIPASI PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN

The Private Sector Dunia Usaha Corporate Environmental Performance Rating Program - PROPER

171

171

Program Peringkat Kinerja Perusahaan (PROPER)

Development of Green Industry Pengembangan Industri Hijau Assessment on Green Industry and the Environment

174

175

Pengkajian Industri Hijau dan Lingkungan Hidup

State-Owned Enterprises Badan Usaha Milik Negara Non-Governmental Organizations Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat

178

180

Indigenous people Masyarakat Hukum Adat Universities Perguruan Tinggi

183

185

Development of Environmental Engineering in Indonesia

187

Pengembangan Pendidikan Teknik Lingkungan di Indonesia Mass Media Media Massa General Public Masyarakat Umum Pro-Environment Stakeholders Pemangku Kepentingan Pro Lingkungan Hidup

188

190

196

4. SPECIAL NOTES ON ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

198

CATATAN KHUSUS PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

CHANGES IN LAND COVER PERUBAHAN TUTUPAN LAHAN

201

The Island of Sumatra Pulau Sumatera Kalimantan Island Pulau Kalimantan The Island of Papua Pulau Papua

201

204

207

viii

CONTROL OVER RIVER DESTRUCTION PENGENDALIAN KERUSAKAN SUNGAI

216

Ciliwung River Sungai Ciliwung Citarum River Sungai Citarum Cisadane River Sungai Cisadane Brantas River Sungai Brantas LAKE CONSERVATION GERAKAN PENYELAMATAN DANAU Lake Limboto Danau Limboto Lake Singkarak Danau Singkarak Lake Rawa Pening Danau Rawa Pening Lake Ayamaru Danau Ayamaru

216

225

230

232

236

236

237

238

240

VARIOUS ACTIONS AND LESSONS LEARNED RAGAM AKSI DAN HIKMAH PEMBELAJARAN Gulf of Tomini Management Action Aksi Pengelolaan Teluk Tomini Bali Strait Environmental Management Action Aksi Pengelolaan Lingkungan Selat Bali Village-Level Regulations for the Protection of Coral Reefs

241

243

245

245

 

Peraturan Tingkat Kampung Melindungi Terumbu Karang

Efforts to Preserve the Javan and Sumatran Rhinoceros

249

Usaha Pelestarian Badak Jawa dan Sumatera Preservation of Bamboo Species Pelestarian Ratusan Spesies Bambu Giant Land Conversion Project Proyek Raksasa Konservasi Lahan Disposal of Hazardous Waste Pembuangan Limbah Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun

252

254

255

5.

QUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND MANAGEMENT CAPACITIES

258

KUALITAS LINGKUNGAN DAN KAPASITAS PENGELOLAANNYA

CURRENT CONDITION KONDISI SAAT INI POTENTIAL PRESSURES AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN THE FUTURE

260

268

POTENSI TEKANAN DAN ISU LINGKUNGAN DI MASA DEPAN

 

Population Distribution and Growth Sebaran dan Pertumbuhan Penduduk

268

Poverty Kemiskinan Land Use Change Alih Fungsi Lahan Growth of Transportation Sector Pertumbuhan Sektor Transportasi Energy Demand Permintaan Energi

272

275

277

279

Environmentally Friendly Behavior Perilaku Peduli Lingkungan ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT CAPACITIES IN THE FUTURE

281

282

KAPASITAS PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP MASA DEPAN

6.

SYNERGY FOR THE FUTURE

285

BERSINERGI MENATAP MASA DEPAN

SYNTHESIS SINTESIS EXPECTATIONS FOR THE FUTURE HARAPAN KE DEPAN

286

291

ix

List of Figures

Daftar Gambar

Figure Gambar 1. Figure Gambar 2. Figure Gambar 3.

Deforestation, Coal Exploitation Foto Deforestasi Hutan, Eksploitasi BatuBara

5

Driver-Pressure-State-Impacts-Response Scheme Skema Driver-Pressure-State-Impacts-Response Environmental Management Capacity vs. Environmental Quality

9

10

 

Kapasitas Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup vs Kualitas Lingkungan Hidup

Figure Gambar 2.1.

Energy Consumption in Various Sectors in Indonesia 1990 – 2009

16

 

Konsumsi Energi di Indonesia Tahun 1990 – 2009 dari Berbagai Sektor

 

Figure Gambar 2.2.

National trends in the number of (land) motor vehicles for (a) cars, trucks and buses, (b) motorcycles

18

Tren Peningkatan Jumlah Kendaraan Bermotor (Darat) Nasional Untuk Kategori (A) Mobil, Truk Dan Bus, (B) Sepeda Motor

Figure Gambar 2.3.

Annual Average Trends for Passive Measurement of (A) NO 2 ; (B) SO 2 in 33 Provincial Capitals

19

Tren Rata-Rata Tahunan Pengukuran Metode Pasif (A) NO 2 ; (B) SO 2 di 33 Ibukota Provinsi

Figure Gambar 2.4.

Average NO 2 and SO 2 Concentration Distribution in 248 Cities/Regencies in Indonesia

21

Sebaran Konsentrasi Rata-Rata NO 2 dan SO 2 Di 248 Kota/Kabupaten di Indonesia

Figure Gambar 2.5.

SO 2 and NO 2 Concentrations from the Transportation Sector, 2011

21

Konsentrasi SO 2 dan NO 2 dari Sektor Transportasi Tahun 2011

Figure Gambar 2.6.

SO 2 and NO 2 Concentrations from the Housing Sector, 2011

21

Konsentrasi SO 2 dan NO 2 dari Sektor Pemukiman Tahun 2011

Figure Gambar 2.7.

SO 2 and NO 2 Concentrations from the Commercial Sector, 2011

22

Konsentrasi SO 2 dan NO 2 dari Sektor Komersial Tahun 2011

Figure Gambar 2.8.

SO 2 and NO 2 Concentrations from the Industrial Sector, 2011

22

Konsentrasi SO 2 dan NO 2 dari Sektor Industri Tahun 2011

Figure Gambar 2.10.

CO Concentration in Urban Areas (Road Monitoring), 2011-2012

23

Konsentrasi CO Tahun 2011-2012 di Perkotaan (Road Monitoring)

Figure Gambar 2.11.

NO 2 Concentration, Road Side Monitoring ,2011-2012

23

Konsentrasi Road Side Monitoring NO 2 Tahun 2011-2012

Figure Gambar 2.12.

TSP Concentration, Road Side Monitoring, 2011-2012

24

Konsentrasi Road Side Monitoring TSP Tahun 2011-2012

Figure Gambar 2.13.

SO 2 Concentration, Road Side Monitoring, 2011-2012

24

Konsentrasi Road Side Monitoring SO 2 Tahun 2011-2012

Figure Gambar 2.14.

Hydrocarbon Concentration, Road Side Monitoring, 2011-2012

25

Konsentrasi Road Side Monitoring Hidrokarbon Tahun 2011-2012

Figure Gambar 2.15.

O

3 Concentration, Road Side Monitoring, 2011-2012

25

Konsentrasi Road Side Monitoring O 3 Tahun 2011-2012

Figure Gambar 2.16.

Average PM 10 and PM 2,5 Concentration in Ten Indonesian Cities, 2012

28

Figure Gambar 2.17. Figure Gambar 2.18.

Konsentrasi Rata-Rata PM 10 dan PM 2,5 di Sepuluh Kota Indonesia Tahun 2012 Heavy Metal Content (ng/m 3 ) in PM, 2012 Kandungan Logam Berat (ng/m 3 ) Dalam PM Tahun 2012

28

Annual Average Sulfate Concentration (µmol/L) in Rainwater, 2001-2011

31

 

Konsentrasi Sulfat (µmol/L) Air Hujan Rata-Rata Tahunan, 2001-2011

Figure Gambar 2.19.

Annual Average Nitrate Concentration (µmol/l) in Rainwater, 2001-2011

31

Konsentrasi Nitrat (µmol/l) Air Hujan Rata-Rata Tahunan, 2001-2011

Figure Gambar 2.20.

Impacts of acid deposition Dampak Deposisi Asam

33

x

Figure Gambar 2.21.

Case Fatality Rate in Diarrhea Outbreaks in Indonesia, 2005-2012

34

Case Fatality Rate KLB Diare di Indonesia Tahun 2005-2012

Figure Gambar 2.22.

Percentage of River Water Monitoring Points in Indonesia with Heavily Polluted Status as defined in the Class 2 Water Quality Criteria of Government Regulation 82/2001

36

Persentase Titik Pantau Air Sungai di Indonesia dengan Status Tercemar Berat Berdasarkan Kriteria Mutu Air Kelas II PP 82 Tahun 2001

Figure Gambar 2.23.

Degradation of river quality in Indonesia (2008 and 2012 maps)

37

Penurunan Kualitas Sungai di Indonesia (peta 2008 dan 2012)

Figure Gambar 2.24.

Distribution of BOD/COD ratios and Organic Pollutant Data by Province

36

Sebaran nilai rasio BOD/COD dan Nilai Pencemar Organik Berdasarkan Provinsi

Figure Gambar 2.25.

Percentage of Water Quality Parameters 2008-2012 That Do Not Meet the Class 2 Water Quality Criteria of Government Regulation 82/2001

38

Persentase Parameter Kualitas Air 2008-2012 yang Tidak Memenuhi Kriteria Mutu Air Kelas II PP 82/2001

Figure Gambar 2.26.

Proportion of Households with Access to Safe Drinking Water (Urban and Rural Areas)

43

Proporsi Rumah Tangga dengan Akses Terhadap Air Minum Layak (Perkotaan dan Perdesaan)

Figure Gambar 2.27.

Per capita water potential and water availability Potensi Air dan Ketersediaan Air per Kapita

45

Figure Gambar 2.28.

Water Resources During the Rainy Season by Island Sumber Daya Air per Pulau pada Musim Hujan

45

Figure Gambar 2.29.

Precipitation by Island (mm/year) Tinggi Curah Hujan di Tiap Pulau (mm/tahun)

45

Figure Gambar 2.30.

Distribution of Critical River Basins in 1984, 1992 and 2005

48

Sebaran DAS Kritis pada Tahun 1984, 1992, dan 2005

Figure Gambar 2.31.

Number of Flood Incidents in Indonesia Jumlah Kejadian Banjir di Indonesia

47

Figure Gambar 2.32.

Several critical watershed areas Beberapa Potret DAS Kritis di Indonesia

47

Figure Gambar 2.33.

Decrease of Forest Area, 2000 – 2011 Penurunan Luasan Hutan pada Periode 2000 – 2011

53

Figure Gambar 2.34.

Percentage of Forest Conversion, 2000 – 2011 Persentase Perubahan Hutan pada Periode 2000 -2011

56

Figure Gambar 2.35.

Percentage of Mangrove Forest Conversion, 2000 – 2011

56

Persentase Perubahan Hutan Mangrove pada Periode 2000 – 2011

Figure Gambar 2.36.

Decrease of Forest Area by Province, 2000 – 2011

59

Penurunan Luasan Hutan pada periode 2000 – 2011 per Propinsi

Figure Gambar 2.37.

Distribution of Flood Disasters & Flood Disasters with Landslides from 2004 to 2011

67

Sebaran Kejadian Bencana Banjir & Bencana Banjir Yang Disertai Longsor Tahun 2004 Sampai Dengan Tahun 2011

Figure Gambar 2.38.

Distribution of Drought Incidents from 2004 to 2011

67

Sebaran Kejadian Kekeringan Tahun 2004 Sampai Dengan Tahun 2011

Figure Gambar 2.39.

Condition of Coral Reefs in Indonesia (%) Kondisi Terumbu Karang di Indonesia (%)

69

Figure Gambar 2.40.

Ammonia Levels in Ports Kandungan Amoniak di Pelabuhan

76

Figure Gambar 2.41.

Comparison of Dissolved Oxygen Levels in the Port of Tanjung Priok and in Gorontalo, 2011 – 2012

76

Perbandingan Kandungan Oksigen Terlarut di Pelabuhan Tanjung Priok dan Gorontalo Tahun 2011 – 2012

Figure Gambar 2.42.

Comparison of Phenol Levels in the Port of Tanjung Priok and Gorontalo, 2011 – 2012

77

Perbandingan Kandungan Fenol di Pelabuhan Tanjung Priok dan Gorontalo Tahun 2011 – 2012

Figure Gambar 2.43.

Comparison of Ammonia Levels in the Port of Tanjung Priok, 2011 – 2012

77

Figure Gambar 2.44.

Perbandingan Kandungan Amoniak di Pelabuhan Tanjung Priok Tahun 2011-2012 TSS levels in Tourist Areas Kandungan TSS di Daerah Wisata

78

xi

Figure Gambar 2.45. Figure Gambar 2.46. Figure Gambar 2.47. Figure Gambar 2.48. Figure Gambar 2.49. Figure Gambar 2.50.

Dissolved Oxygen Levels in Tourist Areas Kandungan Oksigen Terlarut di Daerah Wisata Oil and Fat Levels in Tourist Areas Kandungan Minyak dan Lemak di Daerah Wisata Phenol levels in Tourist Areas Kandungan Fenol di Daerah Wisata Ammonia levels in Tourist Areas Kandungan Amoniak di Daerah Wisata MBAS levels in Tourist Areas Kandungan MBAS di Daerah Wisata

78

79

79

79

79

Flora and Fauna Protected by Indonesia Law

82

Figure Gambar 2.51. Figure Gambar 2.52. Figure Gambar 2.53. Figure Gambar 2.54.

Flora Fauna Yang Dilindungi Oleh Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Flora and Fauna by IUCN Criteria Flora-Fauna Berdasarkan Kriteria IUCN

82

IUCN Categories and Criteria for Fauna Kategori Kriteria IUCN pada Fauna IUCN Categories and Criteria for Flora Kategori Kriteria IUCN pada Flora Number of Invasive Flora, Fauna and Microbial Species Jumlah Jenis Flora Fauna danMikroba Invasif

83

83

85

Figure Gambar 3.1.

Total Number of Services Provided by Integrated Services Units

94

 

Total Pelayanan Unit Pelayanan Terpadu

Figure Gambar 3.2.

Total number of applicants for services provided by Integrated Services Units

95

Jumlah Total Pemohon Layanan Unit Pelayanan Terpadu

Figure Gambar 3.3.

Decrease in Number of Hazardous substances Registration Types Ministry of Environment

96

Penurunan Jumlah Jenis Registrasi Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup

Figure Gambar 3.4.

Increase in Total Quality of Hazardous substances (million tonnes)

96

Peningkatan Total Kualitas Impor Bahan Beracun dan Berbahaya (juta ton)

Figure Gambar 3.5.

Implementation of Minimum Service Standards for Environmental Services on the Provincial/National Level

99

Laporan Penerapan Standar Pelayanan Minimal Bidang Lingkungan Hidup Tingkat Provinsi Nasional

Figure Gambar 3.6.

Indicator Attainment Status for the Implementation of Minimum Service Standards for Environmental Services on the Provincial/National Level

99

Laporan Capaian Indikator Penerapan Standar Pelayanan Minimal Bidang Lingkungan Hidup Tingkat Provinsi Nasional

Figure Gambar 3.7.

Implementation of Minimum Service Standards for Environmental Services on the Regency/City Level

100

Laporan Penerapan Standar Pelayanan Minimal Bidang Lingkungan Hidup Tingkat Kabupaten/Kota

Figure Gambar 3.8.

Indicator Attainment Status for the Implementation of Minimum Service Standards for Environmental Services on the Regency/City Level

100

Laporan Capaian Indikator Standar Pelayanan Minimal Bidang Lingkungan Hidup Tingkat Kabupaten/Kota

Figure Gambar 3.9.

Number of Regional State of the Environment Reports on the Provincial Level

106

Jumlah Laporan Status Lingkungan Hidup Daerah Tingkat Provinsi

Figure Gambar 3.10.

Distribution of Environmental Impact Control Functional Officials

107

Sebaran Jabatan Fungsional Pengendali Dampak Lingkungan

Figure Gambar 3.11.

Environmental Budget vs. Total State Budget

108

Anggaran Fungsi Lingkungan Hidup vs Total Belanja Pemerintah RI

Figure Gambar 3.12.

Allotment of Special Allocation Funds for the Environment, 2006 – 2012

112

Pembagian Dana Alokasi Khusus Lingkungan 2006 – 2012

xii

Figure Gambar 3.13. Figure Gambar 3.14.

Public Complaints Procedure Mekanisme Tata Cara Penanganan Pengaduan

120

Number of Administrative Sanctions Issued in 2012

120

 

Jumlah Sanksi Administrasi yang dikeluarkan tahun 2012

Figure Gambar 3.15.

Control of the Implementation of Administrative Sanctions

121

Hasil Pengawasan Penaatan Pelaksanaan Sanksi Administrasi

Figure Gambar 3.16.

Performance Evaluation of EIA Review Commissions at the Provincial and Regency/City-Level

123

Figure Gambar 3.17. Figure Gambar 3.18. Figure Gambar 3.19. Figure Gambar 3.20.

Hasil Evaluasi Kinerja Komisi Penilai Amdal Provinsi dan Kabupaten/Kota MOE Education and Training, 2010 – 2012 Pendidikan dan Pelatihan KLH Tahun 2010 – 2012 Biodiversity Management Flowchart Alur proses pengelolaan Keanekaragaman Hayati

125

147

Development of Botanical Gardens Pengembangan Kebun Raya Air Quality Monitoring Station Network in Indonesia

152

157

 

Jaringan Stasiun di Indonesia Pemantau Kualitas Udara

Figure Gambar 3.21.

The National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Reporting System

167

Sistem Pelaporan Inventarisasi Gas Rumah Kaca Nasional

Figure Gambar 3.22.

Performance of Final Waste Disposal Sites, 2011-2012

170

Kinerja Penanganan Tempat Pembuangan Akhir Tahun 2011-2012

Figure Gambar 3.23. Figure Gambar 3.24.

Number of Companies Participating in PROPER Jumlah Perusahaan Peserta PROPER Hazardous Waste Balance Sheet, Energy, Oil & Gas

172

172

 

Neraca Limbah B3 Kegiatan Pertambangan, Energi Migas

Figure Gambar 3.25.

Hazardous Waste Balance Sheet, Estates & Services

173

Figure Gambar 3.26. Figure Gambar 3.27.

Neraca Limbah B3 Sektor Kawasan & Jasa Budget for Community Development Jumlah Anggaran Community Development

178

Environmental News/Information in the Mass Media

189

Figure Gambar 3. 28. Figure Gambar 3.29.

Media Massa Dalam Pemberitaan/InformasiLingkunganHidup Kalpataru Award Penghargaan Kalpataru

196

Number and Percentage of Pro-Environment Stakeholders

197

 

Jumlah dan Prosentase Pemangku Kepentingan Pro Lingkungan Hidup

Figure Gambar 4.1.

Forest Cover Change on Sumatera Island (a) 2000, (b) 2003, (c) 2006,

 

(d) 2009, (e) 2011, (f ) Deforestation 2000 – 2011

202

Perubahan Tutupan Hutan P. Sumatera (a) 2000, (b) 2003, (c) 2006, (d) 2009, (e) 2011, (f) Deforestasi 2000 – 2011

Figure Gambar 4.2.

Forest Cover Change by Province on Sumatra Island

203

Perubahan Tutupan Hutan Provinsi di Pulau Sumatera

Figure Gambar 4.3.

Conversion of Forest in 2000 to Other Land Cover in 2011 on Sumatra Island

203

Perubahan Hutan Tahun 2000 Menjadi Tutupan Lahan Lain di Tahun 2011di PulauSumatera

Figure Gambar 4.4.

Forest Cover Change on Kalimantan Island (a) 2000 and (b) 2011

204

Perubahan Tutupan Hutan Provinsi di Pulau Kalimantan (a) 2000 dan (b) 2011

Figure Gambar 4.5.

Forest Cover Change by Province on Kalimantan Island

205

Perubahan Tutupan Hutan Provinsi di Pulau Kalimantan

Figure Gambar 4.6.

Conversion of Forest in 2000 to Other Land Cover in 2011 on Kalimantan Island

206

Perubahan Hutan Tahun 2000 Menjadi Tutupan Lahan Lain di Tahun 2011 di Pulau Kalimantan

Figure Gambar 4.7.

Deforestation on Papua Island,2000-2011 Deforestasi Hutan Pulau Papua 2000-2011

208

xiii

Figure Gambar 4.8.

Forest Cover Change by Province on Papua Perubahan Tutupan Hutan Provinsi di Pulau Papua

209

Figure Gambar 4.9.

Conversion of Forest in 2000 to Other Land Cover in 2011 on Papua Island

209

Perubahan Hutan Tahun 2000 Menjadi Tutupan Lahan Lain di Tahun 2011 di Pulau Papua

Figure Gambar 4.10.

Land Cover Change Diagram for Kuningan Regency in1997, 1999, 2002, 2009

212

Diagram Perubahan Penutupan Lahan Kabupaten Kuningan Tahun1997, 1999, 2002, 2009

Figure Gambar 4.11.

Land Cover Change Map for Kuningan Regency in 1997, 1999, 2002, 2009

212

Peta Perubahan Tutupan Lahan Kabupaten Kuningan Tahun 1997, 1999, 2002, 2009

Figure Gambar 4.12.

Ciliwung River Location Map Peta Lokasi Sungai Ciliwung

217

Figure Gambar 4.13.

Change in Forest and Settlement Areas in the Ciliwung River Basin, 2000-2010

219

Perubahan Luasan Hutan dan Permukiman DAS Ciliwung, Tahun 2000-2010

Figure Gambar 4.14.

Proportion of Land Cover Change in the Ciliwung River Basin, 2000-2010

219

Proporsi Perubahan Tutupan Lahan DAS Ciliwung Tahun 2000-2010

Figure Gambar 4.15. Figure Gambar 4.16.

Land Cover Map for the Ciliwung River Basin, 2010 Peta Tutupan Lahan DAS Ciliwung Tahun 2010 Water Quality Along the Ciliwung River Basin 2010-2012 According to Class 2 Water Quality

220

Criteria of Government Regulation 82/2001

220

Status Mutu Hulu-Hilir DAS Ciliwung Tahun 2010-2012 Berdasarkan KMA Kelas II PP 82/2001

Figure Gambar 4.17.

Outline of Ciliwung Restoration Plan 2012 – 2015

223

Garis Besar Rencana Restorasi Sungai Ciliwung Tahun 2012 – 2015

Figure Gambar 4.18.

Ciliwung River Environmental Quality Restoration Pilot Project 2006 – 2011

224

Pilot Project Pemulihan Kualitas Lingkungan Sungai Ciliwung Tahun 2006 – 2011

Figure Gambar 4.19. Figure Gambar 4.20.

Citarum River Basin Area Map Peta Wilayah DAS Citarum Land-use Change in the Citarum River Basin Exerting Pressure on the condition of the

226

Citarum River

227

Perubahan Tata Guna Lahan di DAS Citarum yang Menekan Kondisi Sungai Citarum

Figure Gambar 4.21.

Annual Water Flow Volume of the Citarum River, 1963-2008

228

Jumlah Aliran Air PerTahun Sungai CitarumTahun 1963-2008

Figure Gambar 4.22.

Pollution Index for the Upper Segment of the Citarum River

228

Indeks Pencemaran di Segmen Sungai Citarum Hulu

Figure Gambar 4.23.

Upgrading of Sanitary Facilities in the Bandung Basin, 2000-2011

229

Peningkatan Fasilitas Sanitasi di Cekungan Bandung Tahun 2000-2011

Figure Gambar 4.24.

Pollution Levels of the Cisadane River Tingkat Pencemaran Sungai Cisadane

231

Figure Gambar 4.25.

Map of the Brantas River Basin Peta DAS Brantas

232

Figure Gambar 4.26.

Water Quality Along the Brantas River Basin in 2012 Compared to Class 2 Water Quality Criteria of Government Regulation 82/2001

233

Status Mutu DAS Brantas Tahun 2012 Dibandingkan Dengan KMA Kelas II PP 82/2001

Figure Gambar 4.27.

Two Adult Females with Three Juveniles (left); Two Adult Male Proboscis Monkeys (right)

Dua Betina Dewasa dan Tiga Anak (kiri); Dua Bekantan Jantan Dewasa (kanan) di Areal Reklamasi

In a Reclamation Area

242

Figure Gambar 4.28.

Species Trial of Forest Plants in Reclamation Areas

243

Figure Gambar 4.29.

Uji coba Penelitian Uji Jenis untuk Tanaman Hutandi Areal Reklamasi Sumatran Rhino Caught on Camera Badak Sumatera yang Berhasil Terekam Kamera

250

xiv

Figure Gambar 4.30. Figure Gambar 4.31.

Historic Range of the Sumatran Rhinoceros Populasi Badak Sumatera di Awal Penyebarannya

250

Current Population of the Sumatran Rhinoceros in Indonesia

251

 

Populasi Badak Sumatera yang Masih Tersisa di Indonesia

Figure Gambar 4.32.

Estimated Population of the Javan Rhinoceros 1967 – 2012

252

Estimasi Populasi Badak Jawa Tahun 1967 – 2012

Figure Gambar 5.1.

Weighting Calculations for Environmental Management Capacities

264

 

Perhitungan Pembobotan Kapasitas Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup

Figure Gambar 5.2.

Correlation Matrix Between Environmental Quality Indices and Environmental Management Capacities by Province, 2009-2012

263

Matriks Korelasi antara Indeks Kualitas Lingkungan Hidup dan Kapasitas Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup

Provinsi2009-2012

Figure Gambar 5.3. Figure Gambar 5.4.

Poverty in Indonesia, 2004-2012 Perkembangan Kemiskinan di Indonesia 2004 – 2012

273

Geographic Distribution of Coal Resources and Reserves, December 2011

277

 

Lokasi Penyebaran Sumber Daya dan Cadangan Batu Bara, Status Desember 2011

Figure Gambar 6.1.

Environmental Management Capacities vs. Environmental Quality

290

Kapasitas Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup vs Kualitas Lingkungan Hidup

xv

List of Tables

Daftar Tabel

Table Tabel 2.1.

PM 10 and PM 2,5 Monitoring in 10 Cities in Indonesia, 2012

27

Pemantauan PM 10 dan PM 2,5 di 10 Kota Indonesia Tahun 2012

Table Tabel 2.2.

Status of Ecosystems in 15 Lakes in Indonesia, 2011

39

Status Ekosistem15 Danau di Indonesia Tahun 2011

Table Tabel 2.3. Table Tabel 2.4. Table Tabel 2.5.

Trophic state and lake water quality Status Trofik dan Kualitas Air Danau Trophic Status Criteria for Lakes Kriteria Status Trofik Danau Infant Mortality Rate, Number of Deaths, Total Fertility Rate and Number of Births by Province, 2011

40

40

49

 

Angka Kematian Bayi, Jumlah Kematian, Angka Fertilitas Total dan Jumlah Kelahiran menurut Provinsi 2011

Table Tabel 2.6.

Number of Smear-Positive Pulmonary TB and Diarrhea Patients by Province, 2009-2010

50

Jumlah Pasien TB Paru Positif dan Diare menurut Provinsi 2009 – 2010

Table Tabel 2.7.

Number of Patients, Fatality Rate and Dengue Fever Incidence Rate by Province, 2008-2010

51

Jumlah Pasien, Tingkat Kefaalan, dan Tingkat Kejadian Penyakit Demam Berdarah menurut Provinsi, 2008 – 2010

Table Tabel 2.9.

Annual Forest Cover Change Rate by Province, 2000-2011

54

Laju Perubahan Tutupan Hutan per Tahun per Provinsi pada Periode 2000 – 2011

Table Tabel 2.10.

Forest Fire Occurrence in Various Functional Forest Types

56

Table Tabel 2.11. Table Tabel 2.12. Table Tabel 2.13.

Perkembangan Kebakaran Hutan di Berbagai Fungsi Hutan Number of Detected Hotspots, 2005-2011 Jumlah Pantauan Hotspot pada Periode 2005-2011

57

Total Area of Critical Lands in Indonesia, 2000-2011 Luas Lahan Kritis Di Indonesia 2000 – 2011 Area and Condition of Mangrove Forests by Province, 2011

66

70

 

Luas dan Kondisi Hutan Mangrove Menurut Provinsi Tahun 2011

Table Tabel 2.14.

Mangrove forest area by province and damage level, 2007, 2010, 2011

72

Luas Penyebaran Hutan Bakau Menurut Provinsi Dan Tingkat Kerusakan, 2007, 2010, 2011

Table Tabel 2.15.

Mangrove Forest Rehabilitation by Province, 2008-2010

72

Rehabilitasi Hutan Bakau Menurut Provinsi 2008 – 2010

Table Tabel 2.16.

Area of Mangrove Forests by Province, 2007 and 2011

73

Luas Penyebaran Hutan Bakau Menurut Provinsi 2007,2011

Table Tabel 2.17. Table Tabel 2.18.

Fisheries Production Volume, 2007-2011 Volume Produksi Perikanan 2007 -2011 Number of Fisheries Facilities and Infrastructure, 2007-2011

74

74

 

Jumlah Sarana dan Prasarana Perikanan 2007 – 2011

Table Tabel 3.1.

Environmental Management Institutions

92

 

Lembaga Pengelola Lingkungan Hidup

Table Tabel 3.2.

Regional Environmental Institutions on a Provincial and Regency/City Level (as of February 2013)

98

Rekapitulasi Bentuk Kelembagaan LH Daerah Provinsi Dan Kabupaten/Kota (per Februari 2013)

Table Tabel 3.3.

Number and Status of Environmental Laboratories in Indonesia by Province

101

Jumlah dan Status Laboratorium Lingkungan di Indonesia TingkatProvinsi

Table Tabel 3.4.

Evaluation Results of 2011 Regional State of the Environment Reports

106

xvi

Hasil Evaluasi SLHD Tahun 2011

Table Tabel 3.5.

Budget for Environmental Functions vs Total Regional Budget

109

Anggaran Fungsi Lingkungan Hidup vs AnggaranPendapatanBelanja Daerah Total

Table Tabel 3.6.

Allocation of Environmental Deconcentration Funds 2012

111

Alokasi Dana Dekonsentrasi Lingkungan 2012

Table Tabel 3.7.

Allotment of Special Allocation Funds for the Environment, 2006-2013

112

Alokasi DAK Bidang LingkunganHidup Tahun 2006 – 2013

Table Tabel 3.8.

Number of forestry workers at Timber Plantation Concessions By educational background until

2011

139

Tenaga Kerja Kehutanan Pada IUPHHK HT Berdasarkan Latar Belakang Pendidikan s/d 2011

Table Tabel 3.9. Table Tabe 3.10.

Name and Area of Botanical Gardens Nama dan Luas Kebun Raya Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GG CO 2 e) in Indonesia, 2000-2005

152

161

 

Perkembangan Emisi Gas Rumah Kaca Indonesia Tahun 2000-2005 (Gg CO2e)

Table Tabel 3.11.

Waste Balance Sheet Based on PROPER Monitoring of 1002 Companies, 2010-2011

173

Neraca Limbah B3 yang Diperoleh dari Hasil Pengawasan PROPER pada Periode 2010-2011

Table Tabel 3.12.

Hazardous Waste Balance Sheet Based on PROPER Monitoring of 1317 Companies, 2011-2012

173

Neraca Limbah B3 yang Diperoleh dari Hasil Pengawasan PROPER pada Periode2011-2012

Table Tabel 3.13.

Environmentally Friendly Behavior Index Indeks Perilaku Peduli Lingkungan

193

Table Tabel 4.1.

Pollution Status of the Cisadane River by Segment

230

 

Status Pencemaran di Segmen Sungai Cisadane

Table Tabel 5.1.

Environmental Quality Index in Indonesia, 2009-2011

262

 

Indeks Kualitas Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia 2009-2011

Table Tabel 5.2.

Environmental Management Capacities by Province

266

Table Tabel 5.3. Table Tabel 5.4.

Kapasitas Pengelolaan Lingkungan Tingkat Provinsi Population Growth by Province, 2010-2035 Pertumbuhan Penduduk Menurut Provinsi 2010-2035

270

Population Growth Rate by Province, 2010-2035

271

 

Laju PertumbuhanPenduduk MenurutProvinsi 2010-2035

TableTabel5.5.

Poverty Severity Index (P2) by Province, September 2012

274

Indeks Keparahan Kemiskinan (P2) Menurut Provinsi, September 2012

Table Tabel 5.6.

Production, Harvested Area and Productivity for Rice in Indonesia

276

Produksi, Luas Panen dan Produktivitas Padi di Indonesia

Table Tabel 5.7.

Growth of Motor Vehicles by Types in 1987-2011

279

Perkembangan Jumlah Kendaraan Bermotor Menurut Jenis tahun 1987-2011

xvii

List of Boxes

Daftar Kotak

Box: Acid Rain/Acid Deposition HujanAsam/DeposisiAsam

30

Box: The Trophic State of Several Lakes Status Berbagai DanauDengan Status Trofiknya

40

Box: Matters Regarding Environmental Permit Ihwal Izin Lingkungan

114

Box: Strong Foundation for Waste Management Landasan Kuat Bagi Pengelolaan Sampah

115

Box: A Brief History of WALHI Sepenggal Jejak WALHI

182

Box: Centers for Environmental Studies at Universities Pusat Studi Lingkungan Hidup Perguruan Tinggi

186

Box: Success Story of Forest Conservation in Kuningan Regency Keberhasilan Kuningan Dalam Konservasi Hutan

210

xviii

1ANDENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

INTERACTION OF

MANAGEMENT CAPACITIES

1 ANDENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY INTERACTION OF MANAGEMENT CAPACITIES

INTERAKSI KAPASITAS PENGELOLAAN DENGAN KUALITAS LINGKUNGAN

INTERAKSI KAPASITAS PENGELOLAAN DENGAN KUALITAS LINGKUNGAN

1

Interaction of Management Capacities and Environmental Quality

“The thematically-structured State of The Environment Report Indonesia 2012 describes the management capacities that have been developed to respond to environmental dynamics. Management capacities and environmental quality are interrelated. Adaquate capacities will determine the quality of the environment by analyzing, responding and implementing the action to cope with the challenges.”

Given the importance of achieving a sustainable environment, this document focuses on environmental management capacities and includes descriptions of environmental institutions, policies and programs on both the national and regional level.

The report aims to explain the dynamic interaction between environmental capacities and environmental quality and highlights influencing factors. The descriptions in this report reflect the various constraints and difficulties encountered during its preparation, of which the availability and validity of data and information are of particular concern. Nevertheless, this report was compiled from many sources and will potentially become a common reference.

Ensuring the sustainability of the environment and natural resources requires well-developed environmental management capacities. Strong capacities are crucial in determining the state of the environment in the future.

The SoER 2012 is divided into six chapters. The first chapter outlines the background and purpose of the report. The second chapter provides brief descriptions of the state of the environment by its components: Forest and land resources, coastal and marine resources, water resources, air and biodiversity.

The third chapter delves into the main subject of environmental management capacities in Indonesia. The fourth chapter presents lessons learned and

4

“Penulisan Status Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia 2012 ini bersifat tematik, yang bertujuan memaparkan kapasitas pengelolaan dalam merespon dinamika lingkungan hidup. Kapasitas pengelolaan dan kualitas lingkungan hidup memiliki relasi timbal-balik. Kapasitas yang memadai akan menentukan mutu lingkungan, dengan menganalisis, merespon dan menentukan aksi dalam menjawab tantangan.”

Dengan begitu, menimbang betapa krusial ikhtiar meraih keberlanjutan lingkungan hidup, pustaka ini menyajikan pokok bahasan ihwal kapasitas pengelolaan lingkungan. Hal itu mencakup kelembagaan, kebijakan, serta program lingkungan tingkat nasional dan daerah.

Pendek kata, laporan ini hendak memaparkan interaksi dinamis antara kapasitas dengan kualitas lingkungan hidup, beserta faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhinya. Tentu saja, paparan yang termuat dalam pustaka ini masih menyimpan keterbatasan dan kekurangan. Satu hal yang perlu menjadi catatan bersama adalah ketersediaan dan validitas data-informasi. Namun demikian, laporan ini disusun dengan melibatkan banyak pihak sehingga dapat dijadikan acuan bersama.

Kelestarian lingkungan dan sumberdaya alam, yang melibatkan para pemangku kepentingan, mensyaratkan kecakapan kapasitas pengelolaan lingkungan. Kapasitas yang mumpuni menjadi salah satu elemen penting yang akan menentukan status lingkungan hidup di masa depan.

Pustaka SLHI 2012 memuat enam bab. Bab pertama berisi latar belakang dan tujuan penulisan. Bab kedua menguraikan secara ringkas status lingkungan hidup yang diwakili komponen: sumberdaya hutan dan lahan, sumberdaya pesisir dan laut, sumberdaya air, udara, dan keanekaragaman hayati.

Bab ketiga baru memasuki fokus utama tentang kapasitas pengelolaan lingkungan di Indonesia. Lantas, bab keempat menyajikan pembelajaran, dengan memusatkan pada masalah dan kondisi

Interaksi Kapasitas Pengelolaan dengan Kualitas Lingkungan

1

focuses on specific environmental problems and conditions, as well as on the capacities that are needed to address those problems.

The environment will face even heavier pressures in the future. The fifth chapter sets out to identify potential future pressures and challenges, and then outlines the management capacities that will be needed to face future challenges. The sixth and final chapter presents conclusions and a number of important notes.

Figure 1. Deforestation, Coal Exploitation

Gambar 1. Foto Deforestasi Hutan, Eksploitasi Batu Bara

5

lingkungan tertentu, serta kebutuhan kapasitas untuk mengatasinya.

Seiring kemajuan zaman, lingkungan hidup nampaknya akan menghadapi tekanan lebih berat di masa datang. Untuk itu, bab kelima akan meneropong potensi tekanan dan tantangan ke depan. Paparan juga akan menyajikan pemikiran tentang kapasitas pengelolaan yang diperlukan, yang diharapkan mampu menghadapi tantangan zaman. Bab keenam sebagai bab terakhir akan menyajikan kesimpulan dan beberapa catatan penting.

1

Interaction of Management Capacities and Environmental Quality

ENVIRONMENTAL

CHALLENGES

The Indonesian archipelago consists of 13,466 islands (Geospatial Information Agency/BIG, 2010) with abundant natural resources and environment. This wealth has supported Indonesia’s economic development for the last four decades. Although severely affected by the Asian crisis of the late 1990s, the country managed to perform quite well in terms of development. Unfortunately, economic growth in that period was accompanied by the decline in natural resources and deterioration of the environment. Indonesia now faces the problem of depleted resources and decreasing environmental quality.

One of the most prominent development-related issues is the drastic loss of forests since the 1970s. In spite of reforestation efforts, the last decade has seen forest cover decrease from 104,747,566 hectare in 2000 to 98,242,002 hectare in 2011 (Ministry of Forestry).

The situation is getting worse: Apart from forest degradation, there are the issues of global warming and climate change, conversion of forests to industry and cultivation uses, as well as forest fires.

Further problem areas in environmental management include coastal and marine environments, water quality and quantity, air quality in urban areas and industrial estates, and biodiversity. This is compounded by the growing number of natural disasters that occur in all parts of the country and is a source of great concern to all parties involved.

Increasingly pressing challenges also arise from uncontrolled population growth. High population densities have different effects in urban and rural settings. For instance, population pressure in rural areas causes the conversion of forests, including that of marginal forest lands into areas for cultivation and settlements, to increase rapidly. An increase in population increases the demand for food, while the extent of agricultural land remains relatively the same, or even tends to decrease.

Meanwhile, the imbalance between the number of people and the available area to accommodate the rapidly growing number of motor vehicles is making air pollution increasingly worse.

6

TANTANGAN

LINGKUNGAN

Kepulauan Indonesia terbentuk dari 13.466 pulau (BIG, 2010) yang bergelimang sumberdaya alam dan lingkungan hidup. Kekayaan yang melimpah ruah itu berperan sebagai bekal pembangunan ekonomi selama empat dekade terakhir. Kendati pernah dihantam krisis pada penghujung 1990-an, tren pembangunan agaknya masih berkinerja lumayan baik. Sayangnya, pertumbuhan ekonomi dalam periode itu diiringi dengan merosotnya sumberdaya alam dan lingkungan hidup. Indonesia menghadapi tantangan tak ringan:

kelangkaan dan kualitas lingkungan menyusut.

Salah satu isu yang menonjol selama pembangunan adalah berkurangnya luas kawasan hutan secara drastis sejak 1970-an. Meski upaya reforestasi telah digelar, dalam satu dekade terakhir misalnya, tutupan hutan masih mengalami penurunan: dari 104.747.566 hektare pada 2000, menjadi 98.242.002 hektar pada 2011 (Kementerian Kehutanan).

Keadaan kian memburuk: degradasi hutan diikuti pula dengan isu pemanasan global dan perubahan iklim serta konversi hutan untuk industri kehutanan, kawasan budidaya, plus kebakaran hutan.

Beban tak ringan dalam mengelola lingkungan hidup juga terpampang di pesisir dan laut, kualitas dan kuantitas air, kualitas udara kota dan kawasan industri, serta keanekaragaman hayati. Belum lagi bencana alam yang makin kerap melanda di berbagai sudut negeri. Keadaan itu membuat banyak pihak mengelus dada.

Tak cukup sampai di situ. Tantangan kian berat lantaran laju pertumbuhan penduduk tak terkendali. Padatnya populasi berdampak berbeda di perdesaan dan perkotaan. Tekanan penduduk di perdesaan, antara lain, telah melejitkan konversi hutan, termasuk merombak lahan marjinal kawasan hutan menjadi lahan budidaya dan permukiman. Penduduk yang bertambah berarti makin banyak perut yang mesti diisi: meningkatkan kebutuhan pangan. Di sisi lain, luas lahan pertanian relatif tetap; bahkan menurun.

Sementara itu, tak imbangnya jumlah penduduk dan luas lahan di laju pertumbuhan kendaraan bermotor meningkat pesat tiap tahunnya. Akibatnya, pencemaran udara semakin bertambah.

Interaksi Kapasitas Pengelolaan dengan Kualitas Lingkungan

1

With exhaust pipes of motor vehicles in some provinces and large cities resembling smoke- belching chimneys, it is not surprising that motor vehicles are the main cause of high levels of NO 2 (nitrogen dioxide), SO 2 (sulfur dioxide) and CO (carbon monoxide). Apart from being hazardous in terms of traffic accidents, roads nowadays also pose a risk factor for health problems. Nitrogen oxide gases, for example, may damage the lungs if inhaled.

Population growth also accelerates industrial development in the manufacturing, forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. The many impacts of industrial development include land use conversion, pollution and the extension of transportation facilities and infrastructure, and eventually result in an increase of carbon and other greenhouse gases.

Poor environmental conditions have indirect impacts as well. An example of this is the deterioration of water quality due to inadequate waste water treatment systems in urban areas. It is apparently still necessary to raise awareness levels among industries in this respect. Management of domestic waste also remains weak. Bad environmental conditions compounded by damaged hydrological regimes may cause disease outbreaks such as diarrhea flare-ups.

Notwithstanding the many problems listed above, Indonesia resolutely strives to avert the deterioration of environmental quality. Indeed, all over the country people are working hard and taking concrete actions to reverse the trend and improve existing conditions.

In addition to seeking to curb the deforestation rate, the government has introduced a number of other measures comprising prevention of further environmental degradation, recovery of damaged environments and conservation of healthy environments. These efforts involve many governmental institutions, the private sector, non-governmental organizations, academia and the public.

7

Di beberapa provinsi dan kota besar, knalpot kendaraan

bermotor ibarat cerobong asap yang berjalan. Tak heran, moda kendaraan bermotor menjadi penyumbang terbesar konsentrasi NO 2 (Nitrogen dioksida), SO 2 (Sulfur dioksida) dan CO (Karbon monoksida). Kini, selain kecelakaan lalu lintas, jalanan juga menebar risiko gangguan kesehatan. Gas Nitrogen oksida misalnya, bila terhirup dapat merusak paru-paru.

Pertumbuhan penduduk juga memicu berkembangnya industri manufaktur, kehutanan, pertanian dan peternakan. Dampak tumbuh-kembangnya industri berderet panjang: alih fungsi lahan, polusi, serta meningkatnya sarana dan prasarana transportasi. Ujung-ujungnya, menghamburkan karbon dan gas rumah kaca lainnya.

Lingkungan hidup yang ganjil punya dampak lanjutan. Tengoklah kualitas air yang merosot karena minimnya sistem pengolahan air limbah di perkotaan. Rupanya kesadaran industri dalam mengelola limbah masih perlu terus didorong. Tapi, jangan lupa pula: limbah dari masyarakat juga belum dikelola secara optimal. Kualitas lingkungan yang buruk dan ditambah pola hidrologis yang rusak menyebabkan timbulnya berbagai bencana termasuk wabah penyakit, misalnya diare.

Di balik daftar panjang masalah di atas, Indonesia tak

pernah lelah berupaya menangkal anjloknya mutu lingkungan hidup. Sejatinya, berbagai pihak dari sekujur negeri bekerja keras memulihkan, merespon dan beraksi nyata bagi lingkungan hidup.

Di samping telah ada aksi mengurangi laju deforestasi,

berbagai upaya lain juga telah dilakukan pemerintah. Upaya itu berada di tiga jalur: mencegah degradasi lingkungan terus berlanjut, merehabilitasi kerusakan, serta melestarikan alam lingkungan yang masih baik. Tentu, kerja keras itu menggandeng berbagai instansi

pemerintah, kalangan dunia usaha, organisasi non- pemerintah, perguruan tinggi, dan masyarakat luas.

1

Interaction of Management Capacities and Environmental Quality

MAPPING MANAGEMENT CAPACITIES AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

This report is based on the Driver-Pressure-State- Impacts-Response (DPSIR) framework developed by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). As shown in Figure 3, the DPSIR framework assumes causal relations between the following interacting social, economic and environmental components:

Driving force (D), a force that affects the environment, e.g. socioeconomic activities such as industry or agriculture.

Pressure (P), direct pressure that affects the environment, e.g. pollutant gases emissions.

State (S), the state of environmental change caused by pressure, e.g. deterioration of air quality due to increased emissions of toxic exhaust gases from industrial sources.

Impact (I), the impact of environmental change, e.g. health problems due to inhalation of polluted air.

Response (R), the response of the government and the public to the four components (D-P-S-I), e.g. formulation of policies and regulation regarding the limit of gas emissions for industries and other actors.

8

MEMETAKAN KAPASITAS PENGELOLAAN DAN KUALITAS LINGKUNGAN

Laporan ini memakai pendekatan konseptual Driver- Pressure-State-Impacts-Response (DPSIR) yang dikembangkan United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Sebagaimana disajikan dalam Gambar 3, kerangka pendekatan DPSIR ini mengasumsikan hubungan sebab akibat antara komponen sosial, ekonomi, dan lingkungan yang saling berinteraksi, yang terdiri atas:

Driving force (D), kekuatan pendorong terjadinya perubahan lingkungan. Misalnya: kegiatan sosioekonomi, seperti industri atau pertanian.

Pressure (P), tekanan langsung yang dapat merubah lingkungan. Misalnya: emisi polutan gas ke udara.

State (S), status perubahan lingkungan karena tekanan. Misalnya: penurunan kualitas udara karena meningkatnya emisi gas buang beracun dari industri.

Impact (I), dampak berubahnya status lingkungan. Misalnya: gangguan kesehatan penduduk yang terpaksa menghirup udara tercemar.

Response (R), respon pemerintah dan masyarakat luas terhadap empat komponen itu (D-P-S-I). Misalnya:

perumusan kebijakan dan aturan ambang batas emisi gas bagi industri atau lainnya.

Interaksi Kapasitas Pengelolaan dengan Kualitas Lingkungan

1

Figure 2. Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response Scheme PSR DPSIR-SCHEME D R Response Driving Force (i.e.
Figure 2. Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response Scheme
PSR
DPSIR-SCHEME
D
R
Response
Driving Force
(i.e. sosioeconomic
activities)
(i.e. regulation and measures
to be taken in respon to
human impact)
P
I
Pressure
Impact
(i.e. emisions/dischart from point
and diffuse sources,
rivers and atmosphere )
(i.e. assesment of the effects
of human impact)
S
State of the environment
(present state-natural state as modified by
human impact)
D + P = Human Impact on the environtment

Source: United Nations Environment Programme

Sumber: United Nations Environment Programme

9

1

Interaction of Management Capacities and Environmental Quality

Figure 3. Environmental Management Capacities vs. Environmental Quality. Gambar 3. Kapasitas Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup
Figure 3. Environmental Management Capacities vs. Environmental Quality.
Gambar 3. Kapasitas Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup vs Kualitas Lingkungan Hidup.
High
Environmental Quality
Kualitas Lingkungan
Hidup Tinggi
I
IV
l
High environmental quality
l
High environmental quality
Kualitas Lingkungan Hidup Tinggi
Kualitas Lingkungan Hidup Tinggi
l
Low environmental
management capacity
l
High environmental
management capacity
Kapasitas Pengelolaan Lingkungan
Hidup Rendah
Kapasitas Pengelolaan Lingkungan
Hidup Tinggi
High Environmental
Management
Capacity
Kapasitas Pengelolaan
Lingkungan
Hidup
Tinggi
II
III
l
Low environmental quality
l
Low enviromental quality
Kualitas Lingkungan Hidup Rendah
Kualitas Lingkungan Hidup Rendah
l
Low environmental
management capacity
l
High environmental
management capacity
Kapasitas Pengelolaan Lingkungan
Hidup Rendah
Kapasitas Pengelolaan Lingkungan
Hidup Tinggi
Low
Environmental Quality
Kualitas Lingkungan
Hidup Rendah
Low Environmental
Management
Capacity
Kapasitas Pengelolaan
Lingkungan
Hidup
Rendah

Source: Ministry of Environment, 2012

Sumber: Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup, 2012

10

Interaksi Kapasitas Pengelolaan dengan Kualitas Lingkungan

1

The DPSIR approach facilitates the description of existing environmental changes and potential pressures and helps in identifying appropriate responses, especially in regard to environmental management capacities that will be needed in the future.

By adopting the DPSIR approach, this report aims to elaborate the relationship between management capacities and environmental quality. As shown in Figure 3, there are four possible combinations to represent the correlation between environmental management capacities and environmental quality:

• Quadrant I: high environmental quality but low management capacity,

• Quadrant II: low environmental quality and low management capacity,

• Quadrant III: high management capacity but low environmental quality,

• Quadrant IV: positive correlation between high environmental quality and high management capacity.

Indonesia’s environmental quality and environmental management capacities should occupy Quadrant IV. This quadrant represents an ideal and positive correlation, where high capacities maintain or even improve the quality of the environment. The least desirable conditions are found in Quadrant II, where quality and capacities correlate positively but produce negative results.

Quadrant I and III are anomalies with low capacity and high quality, or vice versa. Quadrant I occurs because of environmental pressures – environmentally unsound human activities and development – that are not yet that pronounced. The reverse applies to Quadrant III. Relatively high management capacities are still insufficient to maintain or improve the quality of the environment in the face of intense pressures.

For a better understanding, please refer to Figure 3, Environmental Management Capacities vs. Environmental Quality.

11

Pendekatan DPSIR dapat menggambarkan perubahan status lingkungan yang telah terjadi dan responnya; potensi tekanan yang mungkin terjadi dan respon yang harus dilakukan. Hal itu khususnya menyangkut kapasitas pengelolaan lingkungan yang diperlukan di masa datang.

Dengan pendekatan DPSIR, laporan ini mencoba menggambarkan keterkaitan antara kapasitas pengelolaan dengan kualitas lingkungan hidup. Sebagaimana disajikan dalam Gambar 3, korelasi antara kapasitas pengelolaan dan kualitas lingkungan hidup dapat membentuk empat kombinasi sebagai berikut:

• Kuadran I: kualitas lingkungan tinggi, namun kapasitas pengelolaan rendah,

• Kuadran II: kualitas lingkungan dan kapasitas pengelolaannya sama-sama rendah,

• Kuadran III: kapasitas pengelolaan tinggi, namun kualitas lingkungan rendah,

• Kuadran IV: korelasi positif antara kualitas lingkungan dengan kapasitas pengelolaan yang tinggi.

Dari empat kuadran tersebut, diharapkan kualitas lingkungan dan kapasitas pengelolaan lingkungan di Indonesia berada pada kuadran IV. Ini merupakan korelasi positif dan ideal, kapasitas yang tinggi akan mampu menjaga atau meningkatkan kualitas lingkungan hidup. Kondisi yang tidak diharapkan adalah kuadran II: kapasitas dan kualitas berkorelasi positif namun negatif.

Sedangkan kuadran I dan III adalah anomali. Kapasitasnya rendah, namun kualitas lingkungan hidup tinggi atau sebaliknya. Kuadran I dapat terjadi karena tekanan terhadap lingkungan—aktivitas manusia dan pembangunan yang tak ramah lingkungan—belum terlalu besar. Hal yang sebaliknya adalah kuadran III:

tekanan sangat besar, sementara kapasitas yang sudah relatif besar, belum mampu memulihkan atau menjaga kualitas lingkungan.

Agar lebih terang dapat dilihat pada Gambar 3, Kapasitas Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup (PLH) versus Kualitas Lingkungan Hidup (LH).

2INDONESIA

STATE OF THE

ENVIRONMENT OF

2 INDONESIA STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT OF

KONDISI LINGKUNGAN

HIDUP

INDONESIA

KONDISI LINGKUNGAN HIDUP INDONESIA

2

State of The Environtment of Indonesia

“This chapter examines

environmental condition that comprise of the components of the air, water, land, coastal- marine and biodiversity. Changes in environmental conditions are monitored over period of time to identify trends and current conditions.”

The environmental components not only provide the basis for development, but also affect the quality of human life. Polluted air, limited access to clean water and poor sanitation obviously have a negative impact on people’s health. In the meantime, forests and lands affect the hydrological cycle, which in turn determines the carrying capacities of river basins. The destruction of forests and lands will inevitably trigger more frequent floods and droughts. The effects will get worse in the future; they pose a threat to biodiversity and may cause food insecurity.

the

Other important areas for the welfare of the people are coastal and marine areas, which also boast biodiversity that is inseparable from human life. An environment that is teeming with life also means more sources of food, building materials and medicine. Apart from determining the level of prosperity, coastal and marine areas also play a role in nutrition and protein intake.

Blessed with abundant biodiversity, Indonesia should be proud and acknowledge its huge responsibility. Experts believe that much of this biodiversity is still unknown to science. The number of flora and fauna considered rare and threatened is an indication of how important it is to preserve this environment.

14

“Kondisi lingkungan hidup mengkaji kondisi lingkungan yang mencakup komponen udara, air, hutan, lahan, pesisir-laut dan keanekaragaman hayati. Perubahan kondisi lingkungan hidup tersebut dapat ditinjau dalam kurun waktu tertentu sehingga bisa diketahui kecenderungan (trend) maupun kondisi terkini.”

Komponen lingkungan itu menjadi modal utama pembangunan, yang juga mempengaruhi tingkat kualitas hidup manusia. Udara yang tercemar, akses atas air bersih, dan sanitasi yang tak layak, jelas mempunyai dampak negatif bagi kesehatan manusia. Sementara itu, hutan dan lahan punya efek pada siklus hidrologi yang menentukan daya dukung dan daya tampung daerah aliran sungai. Tidak dapat dihindari, rusaknya hutan dan lahan membuat banjir dan kekeringan sering terjadi. Dampaknya akan kian membesar: mengancam kelestarian keanekaragaman hayati, yang bisa memicu kerawanan pangan.

Cadangan lain bagi kesejahteraan masyarakat, berada di pesisir dan laut yang juga memiliki banyak keanekaragaman hayati, yang tidak terpisahkan dari kehidupan manusia. Keanekaragaman hayati yang berlimpah berarti memperkaya sumber pangan, papan dan obat-obatan. Selain menentukan derajat kesejahteraan, pesisir dan laut, turut menyumbang asupan nutrisi dan protein.

Dengan keanekaragaman hayati yang melimpah, Indonesia seharusnya bangga dan mempunyai kesadaran untuk menanggung tanggung jawab besar. Sampai pada saat ini, para pakar meyakini masih banyak keanekaragaman hayati yang belum dikenal ilmu pengetahuan. Status kelangkaan atau keterancaman flora dan fauna menjadi indikator penting status lingkungan hidup.

Kondisi Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia

2

White tiger Harimau putih Photo / Foto : Bhisma.

2

State of The Environtment of Indonesia

AIR

UDARA

2 State of The Environtment of Indonesia AIR UDARA Air pollution due to the increase of

Air pollution due to the increase of motor vehicles. Photo: Doc. Ministry of Environment

Over the years, fossil fuel consumption in Indonesia has risen in all sectors (Figure 2.1). The increase in energy consumption in the domestic sector from 1990 – 2009, for instance, was caused by population growth (s. Chapter 5). However, in terms of energy consumption this sector is not too significant compared to the industry and transportation sectors.

Polusi udara akibat dari bertambahnya jumlah kendaraan bermotor. Foto: Dok. Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup

Dari waktu ke waktu, pemakaian energi fosil di Indonesia menunjukan tren yang terus meningkat

di semua sektor (Gambar 2.1.) Selama 1990 – 2009,

meningkatnya konsumsi energi pada sektor domestik misalnya, karena meningkatnya populasi manusia

(lihat Bab 5). Hanya saja, pemakaian energi di sektor

ini tidak terlalu besar dibandingkan sektor industri dan

transportasi.

BOE/Mio Rp SBM/juta rupiah Figure 2.1 Energy consumption in various sectors in Indonesia, 1990 –
BOE/Mio Rp
SBM/juta rupiah
Figure 2.1 Energy consumption in various sectors in Indonesia, 1990 – 2009
Gambar 2.1
Konsumsi energi di Indonesia tahun 1990 – 2009 dari berbagai sektor
0.40
700
0.35
600
0.30
500
0.25
400
0.20
300
0.15
200
0.10
100
0.05
0
-
Industrial Industri
Households Rumah Tangga
Commercial komersial
Transportation Transportasi
ACM and others PKP dan Lain-Lain
Intensity BOE/Mio Rp Intensitas SBM/juta rupiah
Million BOE
Juta SBM
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009

Source: Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, 2012

Sumber: Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral, 2012

16

Kondisi Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia

2

The consumption of fossil fuels continues to outweigh the use of more environmentally friendly forms of energy and this, inadvertently, has had a major effect on air quality, especially in metropolitan areas and big cities (SOER 2010, p. 39). According to data from Statistics Indonesia, oil consumption increased from 99 MBOE (Million Barrel of Oil Equivalent) in 1992 to 186 MBOE in 2003 (Indonesia Statistics/BPS, 2012).

One of the sectors that consume the most fossil fuels is the transportation sector. This sector has shown a rising trend for all modes of transportation: land, air and water (SOER 2010, pp. 44-45). The steepest rise occurs in land transportation, with a total increase in motor vehicles of approx. 10 percent (BPS, 2012). Among all categories of motor vehicles, motorcycles recorded the highest growth. This fact can be observed almost uniformly in all provinces (s. Figure 2.2a and Figure 2.2b).

The burning of fossil fuels has an adverse effect on air quality. Air pollutants commonly produced through combustion, including that of fossil fuels, include nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), dust with a diameter of 10 micron and 2.5 micron or less (PM 10 and PM 2.5 ), as well as hydrocarbon (HC). Other processes may produce pollutants such as H 2 S and NH 3 , heavy metals, aerosols, and secondary gases such as ozone (O 3 ).

To check air quality, the authorities have introduced monitoring systems that utilize a variety of techniques. One such system is the Air Quality Management System (AQMS), a network for continuous automated monitoring in 10 cities. Other techniques include the active manual method for ad-hoc evaluation of air quality in a number of locations as stipulated by regulations, and passive monitoring with passive samplers.

Passive monitoring is cheap and uncomplicated and permits long-term monitoring in many locations to identify spatial variations. The Ministry of Environment has used passive monitoring since 2005 to measure NO 2 and SO 2 levels in 33 provincial capital cities. The purpose of this effort was to identify general trends in air quality. Since 2011, the government has extended this method of NO 2 and SO 2 monitoring to 248 regencies in order to obtain more detailed records of spatial variations on the national level.

17

Tanpa disadari, dominasi pemakaian bahan bakar fosil, dibandingkan energi ramah lingkungan, berpengaruh besar terhadap kualitas udara, terutama di metropolitan dan kota besar (SLHI 2010, hal. 39). Dapat dilihat pada data Badan Pusat Statistik yang mencatat konsumsi minyak meningkat dari 99 MBOE (Million Barel Oil Equivalent) pada 1992, menjadi 186 MBOE pada 2003 (BPS, 2012).

Transportasi menjadi salah satu sektor yang paling banyak menggunakan bahan bakar fosil. Sektor ini terus menunjukkan tren naik di semua jenis transportasi: darat, udara dan air (SLHI 2010, hal. 44- 45). Peningkatan terpesat ada pada transportasi darat, dengan kenaikan total kendaraan bermotor berkisar 10 persen (BPS, 2012). Dari berbagai kategori kendaraan bermotor, jumlah sepeda motor meningkat tinggi. Fakta ini terjadi merata hampir di seluruh provinsi (lihat Gambar 2.2a dan Gambar 2.2b).

Dampak dari pemakaian energi fosil, mempengaruhi kualitas udara. Pencemar udara yang umum dihasilkan dari proses pembakaran, termasuk bahan bakar fosil, adalah Nitrogen oksida (NOx), Karbon monoksida (CO), Sulfur dioksida (SO 2 ), debu diameter 10 mikron dan 2,5 mikron ke bawah (PM 10 dan PM 2,5 ), dan hidrokarbon (HC). Proses-proses lain dapat menghasilkan pencemar, seperti H 2 S dan NH 3 , logam berat, aerosol dan gas sekunder, seperti ozon (O 3 ).

Untuk memeriksa kualitas udara, dilakukan pemantauan dengan berbagai teknik. Seperti pemantauan kontinyu otomatis di 10 kota pada jaringan Air Quality Management System (AQMS), pemantauan dengan metode manual aktif untuk evaluasi kualitas udara secara ad-hoc di sejumlah tempat sesuai peraturan yang berlaku, serta pemantauan secara pasif dengan passive sampler.

Pemantauan secara pasif merupakan metode murah dan tidak rumit, sehingga cocok untuk monitoring jangka panjang di banyak tempat untuk melihat variasi spasial. Pemantauan pasif ini dilakukan Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup sejak 2005, untuk parameter NO 2 dan SO 2 di 33 ibukota provinsi. Tujuannya: mendapatkan tren kualitas udara secara umum. Mulai 2011, untuk mendapat variasi spasial nasional yang lebih baik, pemantauan NO 2 dan SO 2 dengan metode ini diperluas di 248 kabupaten.

2

State of The Environtment of Indonesia

Figure 2.2 National trends in the number of (land) motor vehicles for (a) cars, trucks and buses, (b) motorcycles

Gambar 2.2 Tren peningkatan jumlah kendaraan bermotor (darat) nasional untuk kategori (a) mobil, truk dan bus, (b) sepeda motor

peningkatan jumlah kendaraan bermotor (darat) nasional untuk kategori (a) mobil, truk dan bus, (b) sepeda motor

(A)

peningkatan jumlah kendaraan bermotor (darat) nasional untuk kategori (a) mobil, truk dan bus, (b) sepeda motor

(B)

Source: Processed from Indonesian Police data in Statistics Indonesia 2012

18

Sumber: diolah dari data Polri dalam Statistik Indonesia 2012

Kondisi Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia

2

Figure 2.3 Annual average trends for passive monitoring of (a) NO 2 ; (b) SO 2 in 33 provincial capital cities

Gambar 2.3 Tren rata-rata tahunan pengukuran metode pasif (a) NO 2 ; (b) SO 2 di 33 ibukota provinsi

Gambar 2.3 Tren rata-rata tahunan pengukuran metode pasif (a) NO 2 ; (b) SO 2 di

(A)

Gambar 2.3 Tren rata-rata tahunan pengukuran metode pasif (a) NO 2 ; (b) SO 2 di

(B)

Source: Ministry of Environment, 2012

Sumber: Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup, 2012

19

2

State of The Environtment of Indonesia

Until now, the government performed passive sampler monitoring four times a year, with a duration of one week per monitoring. In each regency/city four monitoring spots were selected based on land use. This included roads (transportation), industrial, residential and commercial areas. The advantage of this method was its ability to provide information with high spatial resolution at low cost, making it suitable for comparing inter-regional or inter-regency/city concentrations of more than 400 locations. Comparison of quality standards with long-term quality standards was possible if the average values were representative of the annual average concentrations.

In qualitative terms, data collected between 2006 and 2012 in 33 provincial capital cities indicated a rising trend in NO 2 concentrations (Figure 2.3a). This might have been the result of increased burning of fossil fuels, especially by motor vehicles. Below is a graphic illustration of these monitoring results (Figure 2.4).

SO 2 concentrations did not show a rising trend, but declining (Figure 2.3b), even though there was a statistic increase in the consumption of coal and diesel fuel. Apart from being emission-related, this phenomenon was caused by the physical-chemical conversion of SO 2 gas in the atmosphere into sulfate aerosols (SO 4 ) that were not detected by gas monitoring devices, including by passive samplers based on the principle of gas diffusion. The presence of sulfate in rainwater and in aerosol particles was indicative of such processes.

In addition to enabling the comparison of air quality between cities/regencies, passive monitoring also provided information about the relative air quality for each observed land use. Figure 2.4 shows that cities withdensepopulationshadhigherNO 2 concentrations, whereas cities with intensive industrial activities exhibited higher SO 2 concentrations compared to other cities.

20

Hingga kini, pemantauan secara pasif telah dilakukan empat kali setahun, dengan durasi satu minggu setiap pengamatan. Di setiap kabupaten/kota ditetapkan empat titik pemantauan berdasarkan tata guna lahan:

jalan (transportasi), wilayah industri, pemukiman dan wilayah komersial. Kelebihan metode ini adalah kemampuannya memberikan informasi dengan resolusi spasial yang tinggi dengan biaya rendah, sehingga cocok untuk membandingkan konsentrasi antar-wilayah— antar-kabupaten/kota, 400 lebih lokasi. Pembandingan dengan baku mutu dapat dilakukan dengan baku mutu jangka panjang, dengan syarat nilai rata-ratanya dapat mewakili konsentrasi rata-rata tahunan.

Secara kualitatif, data dari 33 ibukota provinsi selama 2006 – 2012 menunjukkan konsentrasi NO 2 cenderung naik (Gambar 2.3a). Hal itu mungkin karena pembakaran bahan bakar fosil yang terus meningkat, terutama dari kendaraan bermotor. Hal ini dapat dilihat pada penjelasan berikutnya (Gambar 2.4).

Pada parameter SO 2 , tren kenaikannya belum terlihat, justru terlihat menurun (Gambar 2.3b), walaupun secara statistik pemakaian batubara dan solar meningkat. Penyebab fenomena ini, selain terkait dengan emisi, juga adanya konversi fisik-kimia gas SO 2 di atmosfer menjadi aerosol sulfat (SO 4 ) yang tidak terdeteksi oleh pemantau gas, termasuk oleh passive sampler yang mempunyai prinsip difusi gas. Hal itu dapat dideteksi dari adanya sulfat dalam air hujan maupun partikel aerosol.

Selain pembandingan kualitas udara antar-kota/ kabupaten secara umum, pemantauan pasif juga memberi informasi perbandingan relatif kualitas udara tiap tata guna lahan yang dipantau. Gambar 2.4. menyajikan kota-kota yang padat penduduk punya konsentrasi NO 2 lebih besar. Sedangkan kota dengan aktivitas industri menunjukkan konsentrasi SO 2 relatif tinggi dibandingkan kota-kota lainnya.

Figure 2.4 Distribution of average NO 2 and SO 2 concentrations in 248 cities/regencies in Indonesia Gambar 2.4 Sebaran konsentrasi rata-rata NO 2 dan SO 2 di 248 kota/kabupaten di Indonesia

Kondisi Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia

2

Transportation Industrial Settlement Commercial Transportation Industrial Settlement Commercial NO 2 NO 2 NO 2
Transportation
Industrial
Settlement
Commercial
Transportation
Industrial
Settlement
Commercial
NO 2
NO 2
NO 2
NO 2
SO 2
SO 2
SO 2
SO
2

Figure 2.5 SO 2 and NO 2 concentrations from the transportation sector, 2011 Gambar 2.5 Konsentrasi SO 2 dan NO 2 dari sektor transportasi tahun 2011

Source: Processed from Ministry of Environment passive sampler monitoring data, 2012

Sumber: Diolah dari data pemantauan passive sampler Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup, 2012

SO 2 transportation in 2011 NO 2 transportation in 2011
SO 2 transportation in 2011
NO 2 transportation in 2011

Figure 2.6 SO 2 and NO 2 concentrations from the housing sector, 2011 Gambar 2.6 Konsentrasi SO 2 dan NO 2 dari sektor pemukiman tahun 2011

SO 2 settlement in 2011 21 NO 2 settlement in 2011
SO 2 settlement in 2011
21
NO 2 settlement in 2011

2

State of The Environtment of Indonesia

Figure 2.7 SO 2 and NO 2 concentrations from the commercial sector, 2011 Gambar 2.7 Konsentrasi SO 2 dan NO 2 dari sektor komersial tahun 2011

SO 2 commercial in 2011 NO 2 commercial in 2011
SO 2 commercial in 2011
NO 2 commercial in 2011

Figure 2.8 SO 2 and NO 2 concentrations from the industrial sector, 2011 Gambar 2.8 Konsentrasi SO 2 dan NO 2 dari sektor industri tahun 2011

SO 2 industrial in 2011 NO 2 industrial in 2011
SO 2 industrial in 2011
NO 2 industrial in 2011

Source: Processed from Ministry of Environment passive sampler monitoring data, 2012

Sumber: Diolah dari data pemantauan passive sampler Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup, 2012

22

Kondisi Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia

2

Figure 2.10 CO concentrations in urban areas (road monitoring), 2011-2012 Gambar 2.10 Konsentrasi CO tahun
Figure 2.10 CO concentrations in urban areas (road monitoring), 2011-2012
Gambar 2.10
Konsentrasi CO tahun 2011-2012 di perkotaan (road monitoring)
12.000
2011
2012
Co Standard Baku Mutu
10.000
8.000
6.000
4.000
2.000
0
C i t y
kota
CO Concentration (ug/Nm 3 )
Balikpapan
Bandar Lampung
Bandung
Banjarmasin
Bekasi
Bogor
Denpasar
Depok
West Jakarta
Central Jakarta
South Jakarta
East Jakarta
North Jakarta
Batam City
Makasar
Malang
Medan
Padang
Palembang
Pekanbaru
Samarinda
Semarang
Surabaya
Surakarta
Tangerang
Yogyakarta

Source: Ministry of Environment, 2012

Sumber: Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup, 2012

Figure 2.11 NO 2 concentrations, road side monitoring, 2011-2012 Gambar 2.11 Konsentrasi road side monitoring
Figure 2.11 NO 2 concentrations, road side monitoring, 2011-2012
Gambar 2.11 Konsentrasi road side monitoring NO 2 tahun 2011-2012
200
2011
2012
NO 2 standard Baku Mutu
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
C i t y
kota
NO 2 Concentration (ug/Nm 3 )
Balikpapan
Bandar Lampung
Bandung
Banjarmasin
Bekasi
Bogor
Denpasar
Depok
West Jakarta
Central Jakarta
South Jakarta
East Jakarta
North Jakarta
Batam City
Makasar
Malang
Medan
Padang
Palembang
Pekanbaru
Samarinda
Semarang
Surabaya
Surakarta
Tangerang
Yogyakarta

Source: Ministry of Environment, 2012

Sumber: Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup, 2012

23

2

State of The Environtment of Indonesia

Figure 2.12 TSP concentrations, road side monitoring, 2011-2012 Gambar 2.12 Konsentrasi road side monitoring TSP
Figure 2.12 TSP concentrations, road side monitoring, 2011-2012
Gambar 2.12 Konsentrasi road side monitoring TSP tahun 2011-2012
450
2011
2012
TSP standard Baku Mutu
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
C i t y
kota
TSP Concentration (ug/Nm 3 )
Balikpapan
Bandar Lampung
Bandung
Banjarmasin
Bekasi
Bogor
Denpasar
Depok
West Jakarta
Central Jakarta
South Jakarta
East Jakarta
North Jakarta
Batam City
Makasar
Malang
Medan
Padang
Palembang
Pekanbaru
Samarinda
Semarang
Surabaya
Surakarta
Tangerang
Yogyakarta

Source: Ministry of Environment, 2012

Sumber: Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup, 2012

Figure 2.13 SO 2 concentrations, road side monitoring, 2011-2012 Gambar 2.13 Konsentrasi road side monitoring
Figure 2.13 SO 2 concentrations, road side monitoring, 2011-2012
Gambar 2.13 Konsentrasi road side monitoring SO 2 tahun 2011-2012
400
350
2011
2012
SO 2 standard Baku Mutu
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
C i t y
kota
SO 2 Concentration (ug/Nm 3 )
Balikpapan
Bandar Lampung
Bandung
Banjarmasin
Bekasi
Bogor
Denpasar
Depok
West Jakarta
Central Jakarta
South Jakarta
East Jakarta
North Jakarta
Batam City
Makasar
Malang
Medan
Padang
Palembang
Pekanbaru
Samarinda
Semarang
Surabaya
Surakarta
Tangerang
Yogyakarta

Source: Ministry of Environment, 2012

Sumber: Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup, 2012

24

Kondisi Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia

2

Figure 2.14 Hydrocarbon concentrations, road side monitoring, 2011-2012 Gambar 2.14 Konsentrasi road side monitoring
Figure 2.14 Hydrocarbon concentrations, road side monitoring, 2011-2012
Gambar 2.14 Konsentrasi road side monitoring hidrokarbon tahun 2011-2012
400
2011
2012
HC standard Baku Mutu
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
C i t y
kota
HC Concentration (ug/Nm 3 )
Balikpapan
Bandar Lampung
Bandung
Banjarmasin
Bekasi
Bogor
Denpasar
Depok
West Jakarta
Central Jakarta
South Jakarta
East Jakarta
North Jakarta
Batam City
Makasar
Malang
Medan
Padang
Palembang
Pekanbaru
Samarinda
Semarang
Surabaya
Surakarta
Tangerang
Yogyakarta

Source: Ministry of Environment, 2012

Sumber: Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup, 2012

Figure 2.15 O 3 concentrations, road side monitoring, 2011-2012 Gambar 2.15 Konsentrasi road side monitoring
Figure 2.15 O 3 concentrations, road side monitoring, 2011-2012
Gambar 2.15 Konsentrasi road side monitoring O 3 tahun 2011-2012
400
2011
2012
O 3 standard Baku Mutu
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
C i t y
kota
O 3 Concentration (ug/Nm 3 )
Balikpapan
Bandar Lampung
Bandung
Banjarmasin
Bekasi
Bogor
Denpasar
Depok
West Jakarta
Central Jakarta
South Jakarta
East Jakarta
North Jakarta
Batam City
Makasar
Malang
Medan
Padang
Palembang
Pekanbaru
Samarinda
Semarang
Surabaya
Surakarta
Tangerang
Yogyakarta

Source: Ministry of Environment, 2012

Sumber: Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup, 2012

25

2

State of The Environtment of Indonesia

Air quality monitoring was also included in the Blue Sky Program, with the program’s Urban Air Quality Evaluation (Evaluasi Kualitas Udara Perkotaan = EKUP) measuring air quality in relation to motor vehicle transportation (roadside monitoring). The results were as follows: Tangerang, South Jakarta and Medan achieved the highest Blue Sky scores among metropolitan cities; Batam City, Denpasar and Manado scored the most points among big cities; while Serang, Manokwari and Mataram had the best results of medium and small cities.

EKUP was conducted in 2007-2008 and in 2011-2012

covering 45 cities in 33 provinces in 2012, up from

26 cities in 2011, all of which were re-evaluated in

2012. The results of motor vehicle emissions testing showed that average passing rates of gasoline-fueled vehicles had increased from 85 percent in 2011 to

88 percent in 2012. Diesel-fueled vehicles showed a

negative trend with an average passing rate of 47 percent in 2011 decreasing to 43 percent in 2012.

Parameters for roadside measurement of air quality included carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), SO 2 , TSP, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ). Compared to 2011 monitoring results from 22 cities, a decrease of CO concentrations occurred in all but four cities (Figure 2.10). The reverse applied for NO 2 concentrations, which tended to increase in 2011 and 2012 (Figure 2.11). A similar trend was identifiable for concentrations of TSP (Figure 2.12) and SO 2 (Figure 2.13). In the meantime, hydrocarbon concentrations exceeded the standard in eight cities, although there was an overall decrease compared to 2011 data (Figure 2.14). Ozone concentrations were also declining (Figure 2.15).

Roadside monitoring in several big cities in 2012 showed an increase in a number of air pollutants. This meant that air quality had worsened, which in turn negatively affected health and forest growth, reduced visibility and caused damage to buildings – all because of acid rain.

Apart from causing black smoke, unpleasant odours

as well as eye and respiratory infections, air pollution

also raises the risk of premature deaths, lowers work productivity and hampers agricultural production.

A 2002 Asian Development Bank study showed that

costs related to health problems due to polluted air

in Jakarta amounted to 1.8 trillion Rupiah.

26

Pemantauan kualitas udara juga dilakukan melalui Program Langit Biru dengan Evaluasi Kualitas Udara Perkotaan (EKUP). Salah satu kegiatan EKUP: memantau kualitas udara yang bersumber dari transportasi kendaraan bermotor (roadside monitoring). Berdasarkan kategori kota, tiga kota metropolitan dengan nilai Langit Biru tertinggi adalah: Tangerang, Jakarta Selatan, dan Medan; untuk kota besar: Kota Batam, Denpasar, dan Manado; serta untuk kota sedang dan kecil: Serang, Manokwari, dan Mataram.

EKUP telah digelar pada 2007 – 2008 dan 2011 - 2012. Jumlah kota yang dievaluasi pada 2012 mencapai 45 kota di 33 provinsi, meningkat dari 26 kota pada 2011— yang juga dievaluasi kembali pada 2012. Hasil uji emisi kendaraan bermotor menunjukkan naiknya tingkat kelulusan rerata untuk kendaraan bensin: dari 85 persen pada 2011, menjadi 88 persen pada 2012. Namun, untuk kendaraan solar, tingkat kelulusan rerata menurun: 47 persen pada 2011, menjadi 43 persen pada 2012.

Pengukuran kualitas udara di jalan raya meliputi parameter Karbon monoksida (CO), hidrokarbon (HC), SO 2 , TSP, Ozon, dan Nitrogen dioksida (NO 2 ). Dibandingkan hasil pemantauan pada 2011 di 22 kota, konsentrasi CO cenderung menurun, kecuali di empat kota (Gambar 2.10). Namun, konsentrasi NO 2 terjadi sebaliknya, cenderung meningkat pada 2011 dan 2012 (Gambar 2.11). Kecenderungan serupa juga terjadi untuk konsentrasi TSP (Gambar 2.12) dan SO 2 (Gambar 2.13). Sementara itu, hidrokarbon telah melebihi baku mutu di 8 kota, walaupun cenderung menurun dibandingkan pada 2011 (Gambar 2.14). Penurunan juga terjadi untuk parameter ozon (Gambar 2.15).

Pemantauan udara jalan raya sejumlah kota besar pada 2012 memberikan informasi beberapa pencemar udara meningkat. Hal ini berarti kualitas udara menurun, yang berdampak buruk bagi kesehatan, pertumbuhan hutan, mengurangi jarak pandang, dan merusak bangunan—karena hujan asam.

Selain menimbulkan asap hitam, bau tidak sedap, iritasi mata dan infeksi pernafasan, pencemaran udara juga memicu risiko kematian dini, produktivitas kerja menurun, dan gangguan produksi pertanian. Dapat dilihat pada studi Asian Development Bank (ADB) pada 2002 yang mengidentifikasikan, dampak kesehatan karena udara tercemar di Jakarta menelan biaya Rp 1,8 triliun.

Di beberapa provinsi dan kota besar, kendaraan bermotor menjadi penyumbang terbesar konsentrasi

Kondisi Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia

2

Motor vehicles are the main source of NO 2 , SO 2 and CO concentrations in a number of provinces and big cities, amounting to more than 50 percent of the total. NO 2 gas causes damage to the lungs if inhaled. In combination with incomplete combustion of gasoline and other hydrocarbons, NO 2 forms ground level ozone or smog – the reddish brown fog that envelops some cities.

A further risk factor is particulate matter (PM), which has an even greater impact on humans than other air pollutants. The main components of particulate matter are sulfate, nitrate, ammonia, sodium chloride, carbon, mineral dust and water. Particulate matter consists of a complex mix of air-suspended solid and liquid particles of organic and inorganic materials. Several studies show that PM 2.5 (PM with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less) causes more deaths than PM 10 (PM with a diameter of 10 μm or less). However, particles in the 2.5-10 μm still pose risks in relation to asthma and upper respiratory tract infections (URIs).

Government Regulation No. 41/1999 regarding Air Pollution Control has set the national standards for PM 10 and PM 2.5 . The Ministry of Environment continuously monitors air quality using AQMS, including particulate matter, in 10 cities. However, only three cities use active methods, namely Jakarta, Surabaya and Palangkaraya (MoE, 2011). Monitoring with GENT Stacked Filter Unit Samplers for PM 10 and PM 2.5 monitoring commenced in 2012.

NO 2 , SO 2 dan CO di udara, hingga melebihi 50 persen. Jika gas NO 2 terhirup, akan merusak paru- paru. Jika bereaksi dengan asap bensin yang tidak terbakar sempurna dan zat hidrokarbon lain, NO 2 akan membentuk ozon rendah atau smog—kabut coklat kemerahan yang telah menyelimuti beberapa kota lain di dunia.

Risiko lain adalah particulate matter (PM), yang mempunyai pengaruh lebih besar bagi manusia dibandingkan pencemar udara lain. Komponen utama PM adalah sulfat, nitrat, amonia, natrium klorida, karbon, debu mineral dan air. Particulate matter terdiri dari campuran yang kompleks antara partikel padat dan cair dari bahan organik dan anorganik yang tersuspensi di udara. Beberapa penelitian menunjukkan, lebih banyak kematian karena PM 2,5 (PM di bawah 2,5 µm) dibandingkan PM 10 (PM di bawah 10 µm). Namun, partikel antara 2,5 – 10 µm juga berisiko, jika dikaitkan dengan asma dan infeksi saluran pernafasan atas (ISPA).

Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 41 Tahun 1999 tentang Pengendalian Pencemaran Udara telah menetapkan baku mutu untuk PM 10 dan PM 2,5 . Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup telah memantau udara secara kontinyu (AQMS), termasuk particulate matter, di 10 kota. Namun hanya tiga kota yang aktif, yaitu Jakarta, Surabaya, dan Palangkaraya (KLH, 2011). Mulai 2012 juga dilakukan pemantauan dengan GENT Stacked Filter Unit Sampler untuk pengukuran PM 10 dan PM 2,5 .

Table 2.1 PM 10 and PM 2,5 monitoring in 10 cities in Indonesia, 2012

Tabel 2.1 Pemantauan PM 10 dan PM 2,5 di 10 Kota Indonesia Tahun 2012

 

mean value PM 10 Rata-rata PM 10 (µg/m 3 )

mean value PM 2,5 Rata-rata PM 2,5 (µg/m 3 )

 

Monitoring Period

Location

Lokasi Pemantauan

N

Periode Pemantauan

2012

1. Yogyakarta

23,63

10,33

50

Jan – Des

2. Semarang

29,91

9,28

30

Mar – Des

3. Surabaya

51,14

19,66

13