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Geometrie, Physical,

and Visual Optics

Michael P. Keating, Ph.D.


College of Optometry
Ferris State University
Big Rapids, Michigan

Butterworths
Boston London Singapore Sydney Toronto Wellington
Copyright 1988 by Michael P. Keating.
All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a


retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,
without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in -Publication Data


Keating, Michael P.
Geometric, physical, and visual optics.
Bibliography: p.
Includes index.
1. Optometry. 2. Optics. I. Title.
RE951.K43 1988 617.7'5 87-25699
ISBN 0-409-90106-7

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

Keating, Michael P.
Geometric, physical and visual optics.
1. Optics 2. Optics , Physiological
I. Title
535'.0246177 QC355.2
ISBN 0-409-90106-7

Butterworth Publishers
80 Montvale Avenue
Stoneham, MA 02180

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Printed in the United States of America


For all who have been supportiveespecially family, friends,
colleagues, teachers, and my wife Mary Jean.
Preface

This basic textbook, written primarily for optometry intuition and conceptual understanding, so that the
students, contains an integrated approach to geomet- numbers mean something to the reader. Chapters 2
ric, physical, and introductory visual optics. This book through 4 emphasize concepts that are sometimes lost
is nontraditional in the integration, sequencing, and in the rush to get to the equations and calculations of
conceptual development of the material. The nontra- Chapters 5 and beyond. I have included many worked
ditional aspects include an early emphasis on image examples, but I strongly encourage students to first
formation, the use of the vergence-dioptric power work out their own solutions before checking mine.
approach from the beginning, the relation of vergence Due to the needs of optometry students, the physical
to the geometric properties of wavefronts, and the optics chapters are more qualitative than the geomet-
interchangeability of the wavefront representation ric optics chapters.
with the ray representation. This approach has worked There are optical effects everywhere we look, and I
extremely well for me and for my students over a have tried to incorporate them into this book so that
15-year period. In particular, the integration of visual the world becomes optically alive to the reader. This
optics makes the optometry students feel that basic is, perhaps surprisingly, true of physical optics as well
optics is highly relevant to their profession. I wrote as geometric optics. Visual optics in particular is illus-
this book so that others can share in the benefits. trated by the many characters that appear in the book.
The mathematical level of the book assumes a In many cases, subsequent chapters in the book
knowledge of algebra and trigonometry. While some build on previous chapters. For example, Chapter 7 is
introductory knowledge of calculus is helpful, it is not a long chapter, but in fact most of the concepts have
necessary for the level of this text. Since the advent of already been developed in the previous chapters, and
calculators and microcomputers, basic matrix algebra Chapter 7 goes fairly easily despite its length. Chapter
is being increasingly incorporated into high school and 3 is very short, but the concepts are fundamental and
undergraduate algebra courses. After paraxial image often not dealt with very extensively in optics texts.
formation by spherical systems is covered (Chapters 1 There is no doubt that parts of optics are conceptu-
through 11), I do take advantage of matrices in some ally difficult because many of the concepts require
chapters (particularly 12, 16, and a little in 18). Ap- formal operational reasoning (as opposed to concrete
pendix A covers the needed matrix algebra. operational). That is part of the fun and challenge of
For optometry students, the sections on astigmatism teaching it well.
are a very important part of this book. Chapter 15 While this book was written primarily for optome-
gives an integrated treatment of the on-axis aspects, try students, I believe that it offers benefits for other
while Chapter 16 treats the more difficult off-axis students interested in the vergence approach to optics
aspects. and vision. This might include physics undergraduate
There is an emphasis in the book on developing students as well as perceptual psychology students.

xiii
Acknowledgments

To begin, I want to thank Dean Jack Bennett of the addition, I want to thank Associate Dean Jerald
Ferris College of Optometry for his enthusiastic sup- Strickland of the University of Houston College of
port of this book. Next, I want to thank my Ferris Optometry for his role in making the visiting pro-
colleagues, Dr. C. Allyn Uniacke, for his very willing fessorship possible.
help, advice, and critiques; Drs. Vince King and I also want to thank Dr. Norman Wallis, executive
Gerald Lowther for their encouragement and advice; director of the National Board of Examiners in Op-
Barbara Swanson and Doug Nadeau from the Ferris tometry, for his encouragement of this project, and
graphics department for their work on the figures; and Dr. James Carroll of the Pennsylvania College of
a number of my students, Marie Walters, Mike McNa- Optometry for his role in initially getting me involved
mara, Carol McMannan, Sue Ward, Dean Luplow, with optometry.
Kerry Kondal, and Chris Theodoroff, who have I particularly need to thank my wife Mary Jean,
proofed and critiqued various chapters. and my children Mikala, Kristen, and Kevin for their
The goal of writing this book originated as a result support and understanding during the many extra
of a sabbatical year I spent as a visiting professor at hours that it took to write this book.
the University of Houston. Thus, I need to thank both While others have critiqued various sections of this
Ferris State University and the University of Houston work, I clearly am the person solely responsible for
for their financial support during the sabbatical. In any mistakes.

XV
CHAPTER ONE

Optics, Light,
and Vision

1.1 The Search for Solutions Patterns Science is the search for patterns, and pat-
terns are not just pictures, but predictions. Thus, the
"That's one small step for man. One giant leap for ability to discern patterns, to organize and reorganize
mankind." So stated Neil Armstrong, Jr., as he the fruits of vision and evidence, is indispensable.
stepped down onto the moon's surface. The problem
was how to send men to the moon and bring them Context To see an object within its framework means
back alive. The solution required commitment and to see it in context. All problem solving requires
financial resources, as well as scientific and technical trained powers of observation and an attitude of mind
knowledge. ready for the unexpected and eager of examine every
How was the knowledge acquired? How do we clue that chance presents.
proceed in developing new knowledge and solving new
scientific problems? In The Search for Solutions, Modeling Problem solving requires that models be
Horace Judson lists nine problem solving techniques used at every stage from definition to solution. As
of the scientific method. These are: investigation, simple representations of complex forms, processes,
evidence, trial and error, patterns, context, modeling, and functions, they reduce risk, cost, and complexity
prediction, adaptation, and theory. Judson's capsul- to manageable size.
ized summaries of these techniques are: Prediction One of our oldest endeavors is to learn to
avoid the destructive aspects of the environment, to
Investigation Each of us discovers our world by in- capitalize on the positive factors, and to plan ahead.
vestigationtasting, watching, smelling, listeningso Prediction is the search for laws on which to base such
that eventually we turn bits and pieces of experience forecasts.
into generalizations and categories.
Adaptation Frequently, problems change as they are
Evidence We need information to solve problems. being solved. As a consequence, solutions have to
For the scientist, gathering evidence is just the first adapt to complex new realities. Feedback is the sys-
step. Each clue then must be tested and retested, tematic adaptive response to situations in which the
verified and interpreted. problem and solution are in constant changing rela-
tionship.
Trial and error Trial and error is as basic as learning
itself, and errors are essential to the process. Problem Theory The universal human need to tell stories, and
solvers must organize and direct a plan of attack, to explain events, forms the foundation of theory
order priorities, determine the essential elements to making. Theories enable both the scientist and the
combine, and then decide how a desired result is to be layperson to see significance in seemingly random
obtained. events and objects.
1
2 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

These techniques are just as essential to optics as Some aspects of quantum theory are presented in later
they are to the space program. The optics that this chapters.
book addresses is a simplified model of the complex Historically, optics has been divided into two sub-
optical world. As stated by Judson, the modeling step areas: geometric optics and physical optics. Geometric
reduces complexity to a manageable size. optics deals with the image-forming properties of len-
There have been many scientific advances that, like ses, mirrors, and prisms, and as such, is very import-
the lunar landing, were the result of the well-estab- ant to visual optics. Physical optics deals with the
lished developmental plan, but the most revolutionary physical character and behavior of light and its interac-
advances frequently occur unexpectedly. In those par- tion with matter. Physical optics can be further sub-
ticular cases, the people involved in looking for the divided into such areas as wave optics, quantum op-
general patterns and context discover fundamental and tics, and Fourier optics.
important scientific phenomena for which they were
not specifically looking. Patterns, context, adaptation,
and prediction are all important in this process. This
book is based on experimental investigations, evi- 1.3 An Overview of the Human Visual Process
dence, and trial and errors of many people. Hopefully,
the reader will also have the opportunity to recreate Modern man is well aware of the optical images
and experience firsthand some of these experimental formed by slide and motion picture projectors as well
investigations. as with camera television images. In developed coun-
tries, even elementary school children are aware that
the human eye forms an optical image on the retina.
Typically, modern man is less aware that his perceived
image can differ significantly from his retinal image.
1.2 The Scope of Optics and Its Subfields This difference is due to the physiology and perceptual
psychology of the human visual system. The study of
The main body of optics deals with light and its vision is formally called physiological optics. It is
behavior. As such, optics is a branch of physics. The interdisciplinary in that it includes the physiology and
impact of optics on modern man is enormous. Mi- perceptual psychology of the visual system as well as
croscopes opened the ultrasmall world of bacteria, visual optics.
histology, and biological cells. Telescopes opened the Figure 1.1 shows a flow chart of the human visual
ultralarge world of planets, stars, and galaxies, and process. The process begins with a primary light
enabled humans to study distant terrestrial objects source that serves as the initial generator of the light.
including enemy armies and wild animals. Cameras Some examples are the sun, fire, tungsten filament
opened an incredible world of information capture and light bulbs, flourescent lights, light emitting diodes
provided an aesthetic medium that produces beautiful (LEDs), and lasers. The light from the primary source
results in the hands of an artistic photographer. Inter- illuminates an object. On a molecular scale, the object
ferometers contribute to the ultraprecision world of absorbs the incident light and then reradiates some of
modern manufacturing. Spectacle and contact lenses it. The reradiated light diverges away from the object
enable many of us to overcome the visual handicap of and is incident on the eye. The object that absorbs and
optical defects in our eyes. reradiates is called a secondary source of light. Some
As time passed, the borders of optics pushed out to examples include sailboats illuminated by sunlight,
include nonvisible parts of the electromagnetic spec- actors and actresses illuminated by floodlights, a ra-
trum, especially the infrared and ultraviolet regions. coon illuminated by a flashlight, as well as most of the
Optics combined with electronics to produce televi- other objects that we see. The cornea and the crystal-
sion, photocopiers, and night vision scopes. Lasers, line lens of each eye converge the incident light to
fiber optics, thin films, spatial filtering, computerized form a small inverted image of the object on the retina
image analysis and enhancement, and robot vision are of each eye. Light is the carrier of information from
areas of current activity and development. the secondary source to the retina of the eye.
Theories involving the nature of light, its speed, The retina is composed of ten layers. The rod and
and its interaction with matter have another impres- cone layer absorbs light, and the energy gained is used
sive legacy. These theories were intimately involved to generate neural signals. The neural signals are
with two of the greatest conceptual revolutions of processed in some of the intermediate layers of the
modern man: Einstein's special theory of relativity and retina so that the signals leaving the retina as a whole
the quantum theory of matter. Relativity is a fascinat- are different from the signals that left the layer of rods
ing topic, but it lies outside the scope of this book. and cones. The neural signals then proceed via the
Optics, Light, and Vision 3

Primary
light
source

neural signal
Lateral Geniculate
Bodies

Primary
Visual
Cortex
Perceived
Image FIGURE 1.1. Flow chart for the human
visual process.

optic nerve fibers to the lateral geniculate bodies of than monocular visual performance. In particular,
the thalamus. There the fibers synapse, and the signals binocular depth perception is better than monocular
are processed further and sent to the primary visual depth perception.
cortex, which is adjacent to the back of the skull. The
primary visual cortex has a mass of interconnections to
and from other parts of the brain, and the resulting
electrophysiological activity somehow results in the 1.4 Perceptual Aspects of the Visual Process
visually perceived image. The whole neural process is
amazing in that the neural signals that travel the visual Normal individuals perceive one three-dimensional
pathway are basically the same types of signals that image. The distal stimulus for this image is the illumi-
travel the other neural pathways, such as the auditory nated world. The proximal stimuli are the two-dimen-
pathway; yet, one results in a perceived image and the sional retinal images of the right and left eyes. Our
other results in perceived sound. normal visual experience is coordinated with our
Figure 1.2 shows a schematic representation of the motor experience. Not only do we see the coffee cup
human visual system as viewed from above. The com- on the left side of the desk top, we can also reach out
ponents represented are the two eyes with their re- and pick it up. This coordination typically leads to a
spective optic nerves, the optic chiasm, the lateral seeing is believing philosophy.
geniculate bodies, and the primary visual cortex. On the other hand, vision has many illusionary
Humans can function quite well monocularly. How- aspects to it. Two examples are given to illustrate
ever, in general, binocular visual performance is better some of the illusionary aspects of vision. The first
example is a binocular example in that it depends on
information from both eyes. The second example oc-
curs when viewing with only one eye, so it is a
monocular example.
The first example is the hole-in-the-hand illusion.
People with normal binocular vision may perceive this
illusion as follows. Take a sheet of paper and roll it
into a small tube. Hold the tube close to your right eye
and look through it at a distant object. Place your left
hand, palm inward, against the left outer edge of the
tube at a point near the far end of the tube. Your left
eye is looking at the palm of your hand while your
right eye is looking through the tube at the distant
object. The perceived three-dimensional image is that
of looking through a hole in your hand at the distant
object. Here the visual system has taken two separate
FIGURE 1.2. Schematic representation of the human visual retinal images and processed them into one three-
system (top view). dimensional perceived image.
4 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

The second example is the moon illusion. Unlike The cornea is followed by a chamber filled with a
the first example, the moon illusion can be observed transparent watery liquid called the aqueous humor.
monocularly as well as binocularly. When a full moon Near the rear of the aqueous humor chamber is the
first rises above the horizon, it is frequently perceived iris. The iris is opaque but has an opening at its center
as being much larger than when it is higher in the sky. called the pupil. The iris contains involuntary muscles,
This illusion occurs despite the fact that the retinal which enable it to constrict or dilate, thus changing the
image size of the moon is the same regardless of its size of the pupil.
elevation in the sky. The difference in the perceived Behind the iris and the aqueous humor lies the
size is due to the difference in the visual information crystalline lens. The crystalline lens is a transparent
or cues between the two different situations. The high-protein material that is surrounded by fibers con-
horizon apparently provides the visual cues that fool necting it to the ciliary muscle. Contraction of the
the perceptual system. ciliary muscle results in changes in the focusing power
These illusions, as well as many others, are dis- of the eye. This process, referred to as accommoda-
cussed in a number of perceptual psychology books. tion, enables the eye to view near objects as well as
This book discusses visual optics and characteristics of distant objects. As the crystalline lens ages, it becomes
the retinal image. You should keep in mind that the less flexible, and consequently a person's ability to
retinal images are the stimuli for the perceived image accommodate is slowly lost with time.
and not the perceived image itself. The crystalline lens is followed by a dark chamber,
which is filled with a transparent gelatinous substance
called the vitreous humor. The retina is the rear
boundary of this chamber.
The rods and cones in the retina absorb some of
1.5 The Eye the incident light and convert the energy into a neural
signal. The rods and cones are not distributed uni-
Insofar as image formation is concerned, the human formly. The region of the retina most sensitive to
eye can be compared to a camera. A camera has a detail is the foveal area, which has many closely
dark interior chamber so that the desired image is not packed cones and only a few rods. Away from the
washed out by stray light. A camera also has a vari- fovea the cones become progressively less dense and
able aperture to let in more or less light and an the number of rods increases. The peripheral region of
adjustable focus in order to image objects at different the retina, dominated by the rods, is best at light and
distances. The human eye has each of these three motion detection, while the foveal area, dominated by
features. cones, is best at form detection, color detection, and
Figure 1.3 is a simplified diagram of the eye. The resolution of fine detail. There are no rods or cones at
cornea is the curved transparent front surface of the the place where the optic nerve leaves the retina, so
eye and constitues the major converging element of this area is blind.
the eye. The tear film on the front of the cornea fills in
the irregularities in the corneal surface and is thus
important to the optical quality of the cornea.
1.6 Electromagnetic Radiation

Visible light is electromagnetic radiation that the reti-


nal rods and cones are capable of absorbing, with the
subsequent generation of a neural signal in the visual
pathways. Visible light constitutes only a small part of
the electromagnetic spectrum. From long to short
wavelengths, the electromagnetic spectrum includes
radio waves, television waves, radar waves, mi-
crowaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet
radiation, x-rays, and gamma rays.
The emitters and absorbers of electromagnetic
radiation are the electrically charged particles of mat-
ter. The outer atomic electrons are the usual emitters
and absorbers of visible light. The atomic and molecu-
lar structure of a material determines the intrinsic
FIGURE 1.3. Simplified diagram of the human eye. absorption properties of the electrons in the material.
Optics, Light, and Vision 5

All components of the electromagnetic spectrum 1.7 Wavelengths and Color


propagate through a vacuum with a speed c of about
3 x 108 m/s. (The actual value is 299,792,458 m/s.) Human vision is wonderful in that we not only see
The speed of electromagnetic radiation in a vacuum objects, but we see them in color. Color vision de-
is one of the fundamental constants of the world. The pends on the fact that there are three different types
speed c is independent of both the speed of the source of cones in the retina, each type of which absorbs
of the radiation and the speed of the detector of the maximally at a different wavelength of incident light.
radiation. These are two of the experimental founda- Three neural signals are then generated and processed
tions of the special theory of relativity. and ultimately produce the perceptual color response.
The propagation of electromagnetic radiation The optical stimulus for color is the wavelength
through space can be described by wave equations. distribution of the incident light. Light that has an
The vacuum wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation equal mixture of all visible wavelengths is the stimulus
range from 10"13 m to 105 m. The interaction of for a white, gray, or black response depending on the
electromagnetic radiation with matter is wavelength- amount of light coming from the object and its back-
dependent. Consequently, wavelengths are one of the ground. Light that consists of a single wavelength is
ways used to classify the components of the spectrum. the stimulus for a pure color response. Light of a
The vacuum wavelengths for visible light range from single wavelength is thus called monochromatic light.
about 400 nm to 700 nm. (One nanometer (nm) equals The color response for monochromatic light ranging
10~ 9 m). from long to short wavelengths is: red, orange, yellow,
The ability of waves to propagate around corners is green, blue, (indigo), violet. Indigo is actually a deep
referred to as diffraction. (We are very familiar with blue and not considered a separate color. (The name
the diffraction of sound waves, which, incidentally, are ROY G BIV, is often used to remember the wave-
not electromagnetic waves.) The ability of a wave to length ordering of the spectrum.) Table 1.1 gives the
bend around a corner depends on its wavelength. The color responses as a function of incident vacuum
longer the wavelength, the more the wave bends. The wavelengths. Note that in the electromagnetic spec-
shorter the wavelength, the less it bends. Thus, the trum, infrared is next to visible red and ultraviolet is
diffraction of electromagnetic radiation is more appar- next to visible violet. You should keep in mind that as
ent for the longer wavelength components of the the wavelength is changed, one color smoothly blends
spectrum. This is evident in the names of the longer into another color. Hence, 590 nm light looks oran-
wavelength components (radio waves, television gish-yellow, while 560 nm light looks greenish-yellow,
waves, microwaves) vs the shorter wavelength compo- etc.
nents (x-rays, gamma rays). Monochromatic light that consists of an incident
The 400 nm to 700 nm wavelengths of visible light wavelength of 530 nm typically generates a pure or
are relatively small; hence, diffraction of light is often saturated green response. Incident light that has equal
negligible. In these situations we talk of straight line amounts of all wavelengths together with an extra
or rectilinear propagation of the light. Nevertheless, amount of 530 nm wavelength generates a desaturated
particularly when light propagates through a small green response. When the amount of 530 nm light is
opening, such as the spaces in a bird's feather, diffrac- increased, the response moves toward the saturated
tion can become a dominant effect. For a small pupil green. When the amount of 530 nm light is decreased,
size, diffraction introduces some blur into the retinal the response further desaturates and moves toward
image of the human eye. Diffraction is discussed in white. However, a desaturated green response can
later chapters of this book together with other wave also be generated by combinations of longer and
effects, such as interference and polarization.
The quantum theory of matter attributes wave
propagation properties to all particles including elec- TABLE 1.1
trons, protons, and neutrons. The quantum theory Color Response vs Vacuum Wavelength
also states that electromagnetic radiation is composed
of zero rest mass particles called photons. Typical light Color Response Vacuum Wavelength (nm)
levels consist of stupendous numbers of photons. A
60-watt light bulb puts out about 1019 photons/s. Red 780-620
Orange 620-590
Millions of photons can be added to or removed from Yellow 590-560
the 1019 level without any visible effect. Therefore, we Green 560-490
are not aware of the particle nature of light. The wave Blue 490-450
nature of light is simply a manifestation of the wave Indigo 450-430
Violet 430-380
propagation properties of the individual photons.
6 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

shorter wavelengths that do not contain 530 nm and At the other extreme are weak absorbers. Weak
that by themselves do not generate a green response. absorbers are usually transparent, but even a weak
In addition, light containing 530 nm together with absorber can become opaque if the thickness is great
longer wavelengths stimulates a color perception that enough. Water absorbs red light weakly. In typical
tends toward yellow or orange. Thus, light of wave- quantities, such as in fishbowls, bathtubs, and swim-
length 530 nm is not intrinsically green, but instead is a ming pools, water is transparent for all wavelengths
stimulus to the green response. including red. However, in oceans illuminated by sun-
Benham's top provides a neat example of the light, the red light fails to penetrate deeper than
psychophysiological dependence of color perception. 30 meters.
The top has a black and white pattern on it. When the Clear glass is evenly transparent at normal thick-
top is rotated at the correct frequency, flashing col- nesses. Tinted glass, as in stained glass windows, has a
ored spots appear on it. Somehow the varying light reduced transmission for the absorbed wavelengths.
levels from the rotating black and white pattern are
neurally processed to give the perceived color re-
sponses.
The psychophysiological dependence of color per- 1.9 Reflection
ception can also be noted by viewing the same color
against different backgrounds. The appearance of the Transmission of light through a medium is decreased
color changes slightly but definitely with the changing by any absorption that may be present. In addition to
surroundings. absorption, the amount of transmitted light can be
While color is clearly recognized as a perceptual reduced by surface reflection. The word reflection
response, it is still convenient to tag or label mono- comes from the Latin word reflectere, which means to
chromatic light by the color responses listed in Table bend back. Reflection is a surface or boundary
1.1. In other words, monochromatic light of vacuum phenomenon. In general, whenever light is incident on
wavelength 530 nm is referred to as green light, mono- a surface or a boundary between two different med-
chromatic light of vacuum wavelength 650 nm is re- iums, some of the incident light is reflected or bent
ferred to as red light, and monochromatic light of back. The percent of the light reflected, and the
vacuum wavelength 460 nm is referred to as blue light. wavelength dependence of that percentage, depends
on the materials involved and the angle of incidence of
incident light.
On a molecular level, the reflection process
involves an interaction of the incident light with the
1.8 Absorption electrons in the atoms and molecules of the surface
layers. There is a connection between a material's
Different materials have different absorption strengths absorption properties and its reflection properties.
for visible light. In many cases, the absorption Strong absorbers, such as metals, are strong reflectors.
strength of a material is also a function of the incident Weak absorbers, such as water and clear glass, are
wavelength. A material may absorb the long (or red) weak reflectors.
wavelengths more than the short (or blue) wave- Reflection is classified as either specular or diffuse.
lengths. Wavelength-dependent absorption is called The word specular means mirrorlike. Specular reflec-
selective absorption. tion occurs when the surface is smooth and is the
The total amount of light absorbed in a medium reflection involved in the formation of images by
depends on the absorption strength and on the dis- mirrors or other smooth surfaces such as a pond of
tance that the light travels in the medium. A strong water. Diffuse reflection occurs when the surface is
absorber is usually opaque, but when made thin rough.
enough it can transmit a significant percentage of the Let us consider specular reflection first. Under
incident light. rectilinear propagation conditions, the direction that
Gold, like other metals, is a strong absorber and is light is traveling can be represented by straight lines
opaque for typical thicknessess. However, a thin film called rays. Figure 1.4a shows a ray incident on a
of gold, deposited by vacuum evaporation techniques, smooth surface. The line perpendicular to the surface
transmits a significant percentage of light. The trans- is called the normal to the surface. The angle of
mission of the thin gold film is actually a selective incidence of the ray is defined as the angle 6j that the
transmission. Gold absorbs more strongly in the red ray makes with the normal. The angle of reflection is
part of the spectrum. Thus, the transmitted light is defined as the angle 6S that the reflected ray makes
greenish-blue. with the normal. The law of reflection states that the
Optics, Light, and Vision 7

normal normal

surface surface
a) b)

I normal
point w observer's eye
source |

surface

FIGURE 1.4. Reflections from smooth sur-


faces. a. One ray. b. Parallel rays. c. Position
of the reflected image.

angle of reflection 9S is equal to the angle of the smooth. At some stage a reflected image starts to
incidence 0i5 or mathematically, become visible. Initially, the image is a degraded or
e, = e, (l.i) poor quality image instead of a perfectly clear image,
as in specular reflection from a perfectly smooth sur-
The law of reflection is easy to determine and was face. The reflection from the partially polished surface
known by the ancient Greeks. The law of reflection is has a specularlike component that produces the image
independent of the wavelength of the incident light. plus a diffuselike component that degrades the image.
Figure 1.4b shows three parallel rays incident on Many naturally occurring surfaces give this type of
the smooth surface. The law of reflection applies to mixed reflection.
each ray so the three reflected rays are still parallel. The percent of light reflected can be selective. Gold
Figure 1.4c shows three rays diverging from a point absorbs reds more strongly than the blues and, con-
source of light. Again, the law of reflection applies to sequently, reflects reds more strongly than blues. This
each ray. A scaled drawing easily shows that the can be observed by looking at the color of the image
reflected rays appear to be diverging away from a of a blue sky formed by reflection off a smooth gold
point below the surface. This is the image point that surface. In contrast to gold, silver absorbs and reflects
an observer looking at the reflected light would see. uniformly across the visible spectrum. Transparent
Flat bathroom mirrors as well as smooth water sur- materials also reflect uniformly across the visible
faces form reflected images in this manner. spectrum.
Now let us consider diffuse reflection. Figure 1.5
shows four parallel rays incident on a rough surface.
Here the law of reflection still applies for each ray;
however, the incident angles of each ray are different
and, consequently, the reflected light is diffused in all
directions. In diffuse reflection, the information car-
ried by the incident light beam is lost and no reflected
image of the original source can be seen. Instead, the
diffusing surface itself becomes a secondary source.
Suppose we take a rough metal surface that gives
perfectly diffuse reflection and start polishing it FIGURE 1.5. Reflection from a rough surface.
8 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

Wow!
What a
beautiful
blue
sky!

FIGURE 1.6. Some effects of atmospheric light


scattering.

1.10 Scattering are smaller than the wavelength of light is called


Rayleigh scattering.
In an optically homogeneous material, a light beam is The moon has no atmosphere. Therefore, if one
attenuated either by absorption in the medium or by were to stand on the moon and look at the sky away
reflection at the boundaries between the mediums. from the sun, the sky would appear black because
However, when the material is not optically homoge- there is no scattering of light. Can you guess how a
neous, the light beam can also be attenuated by lunar sunset would appear?
scattering at each of the nonhomogeneous particles. Clouds contain either water droplets or ice crystals
(As a model for homogeneous and nonhomogeneous suspended in the air, while fogs contain suspended
materials, you might think of vanilla ice cream as water droplets. The suspended water droplets are
homogeneous and chocolate chip ice cream as non- gigantic relative to the air molecules. Each water
homogeneous.) droplet scatters light predominately by surface reflec-
The amount of scattering depends on the relative tions. The scattering from the water droplets is essen-
properties of the nonhomogeneous material and on tially wavelength-independent so the scattered light
the number of nonhomogeneous particles. Scattering looks white. Since multiple scattering can occur in
occurs throughout the nonhomogeneous material, and clouds and fogs, some of the scattered light emerges in
just as for absorption, the attenuation of a light beam the forward direction. A frequent effect of this type of
is a function of the total thickness of the scattering scattering is that the forward scattered light also enters
medium. the eye causing a contrast reduction in the retinal
Scattering can also be selective or nonselective. image of distant objects. The distant objects then
The blue sky is a familiar example of selective scatter- seem to be in a haze or may even become invisible.
ing. Air molecules are very weak light scatterers. They Materials that diffuse or scatter transmitted light
do, as does any object much smaller than visible light are called translucent materials. They are sometimes
wavelengths, scatter blue light more than red light beneficial as in supplying softer lighting, and some-
(i.e., shorter wavelengths more than longer wave- times detrimental as in dense fogs.
lengths). Thus, when we look at the sky away from the
sun, it appears blue because it is the scattered light
that is reaching our eye. In Figure 1.6, the observer at
A looking toward C sees the scattered light, which is 1.11 The Speed of Light in a Medium
predominately blue. The observer at B looking toward
C sees the setting sun. The light reaching B's eye has When light enters a transparent medium from a vac-
lost more blue light than red light due to scattering by uum, it slows down. The speed of the light in the
the air molecules as well as by suspended dust in the medium is characteristic of that medium and of the
lower atmosphere, so the observer at B sees a reddish wavelength of the incident light. The index of refrac-
or orangish setting sun. The predominately bluish tion n of the medium is a ratio of the speed c of the
scattering characteristic of molecules or particles that light in a vacuum to the speed v of the light in the
Optics, Light, and Vision 9

medium, or travel in the water is different from that in the air. The
rays indicating the direction of travel are perpendicu-
n = c/v. (1.2)
lar to the wavefront. In both air and water the rays are
Equation 1.2 can be rearranged to give straight lines, but at the air-water boundary the rays
are bent. The law of refraction states that the angle of
v = c/n. (1.3)
incidence fy, made with the normal to the surface, is
For incident light of wavelength 589.3 nm, the indices related to the angle of refration , made with the
of refraction of some common transparent materials normal to the surface, by the equation
are: water, 1.33; plastic, 1.44 to 1.49; crown glass,
n1 sin 6j = n2 sin 0 r , (1.4)
1.523; other glasses, 1.5 to 1.9; diamond, 2.4. The
index of refraction of air at 20C and 1 atmosphere of where nl is the index of refraction of the medium in
pressure is 1.0003. The wavelength dependence of the which the light is incident, and n2 is the index of
index of refraction of transparent materials is slight refraction of the medium in which the light leaves
and is ignored until Chapter 20. (Figure 1.8).
When the angles 6j and are small, Eq. 1.4 can be
simplified by its small angle approximation,
n ^ n ^ . (1.5)
1.12 Refraction
For light in air (n=1.00) incident on a flat water
When you stick a straight object such as a ballpoint (n = 1.33) surface at an incident angle of 6, Eq. 1.5
pen into some water, the object appears to be bent at gives the angle of refraction as:
the water's surface. Actually, the object remains (1.00)6 = (1.33),
straight, but the light traveling through the surface is
= 6/1.33 = 4.51.
bent. The bending of light at a surface is called
refraction. The word refraction comes from the Latin For light going from air into water the rays get bent
word refractus which means to break back. toward the normal. In fact, Eq. 1.4 or 1.5 shows that
Refraction occurs because of the speed change that bending toward the normal occurs whenever the light
light undergoes when it changes mediums. Consider is entering the higher index medium. When light
light waves in air incident on a flat water surface. travels from the higher index medium to the lower
Assume that the index of refraction, n, of the air is index medium, then Eq. 1.4 or 1.5 shows that the rays
1.00, and that the index of refraction, n, of the water get bent away from the normal.
is 1.33. For a distant point source the incident wave- The phenomenon of refraction was studied by the
fronts are flat, as shown in Figure 1.7a, and are ancient Greeks. Ptolemy of Alexandria made accurate
perpendicular to the direction of travel, as shown by measurements on the refraction angles in 130 AD but
the rays in Figure 1.7b. failed to determine a describing equation. Later,
The lower edge of the incident wavefront enters the about 1000 AD, the Moslem scholar known as
water first, and hence slows down first. Thus, in the Alhazen extended the currently known knowledge of
same amount of elapsed time, that part of the wave- optics and studied refraction, but also failed to de-
front in the water travels a smaller distance than that termine a describing equation. By 1611 AD, Johannes
part of the wavefront in air. The net effect is that the Kepler had determined the equation (Eq. 1.5) that
wavefront becomes skewed so that its direction of describes refraction for small angles, but it was not

FIGURE 1.7. Refraction at a flat air-water inter-


face. a. Wavefronts. b. Wavefronts and rays.
10 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

normal normal

FIGURE 1 8. Refraction angles, a. n 2 >n,. b.


n2 <n,.

until 1621 AD that Willebrord Snell discovered an slightly different angles that shadows made at high
equation that described refraction for large as well as noon in deep holes that were located many miles apart
small angles. In 1637 AD, Ren Descartes published from each other.
the law of refraction in the form given in Eq. 1.4. When more than one light source is present, then
There is a historical controversy about whether De- the partial shadows can be formed as well as full
scartes independently discovered the law of refraction shadows. A full shadow is called an umbra while a
or whether he had seen Snell's previous but un- partial shadow is called a penumbra.
published work. As a result of this controversy, the Shadows provide some relief on hot summer days,
law of refraction is variously called Descartes' Law but they have an even more important use. Shadows
(especially in French speaking countries) and Snell's provide information or cues about the three-dimen-
Law (especially in English speaking countries). The sionality of solid objects, and these cues are used by
determination of the long hidden law of refraction was our visual system as an aid in depth perception.
a crucial and necessary step in the development of The law of rectilinear propagation breaks down in
high quality optical instruments. those situations in which diffraction of light waves
becomes important. The law of rectilinear propagation
also breaks down when a medium is not optically
isotropic. (Isotropie means uniform in all directions.)
1.13 Rectilinear Propagation, Shadows, The index of refraction of air is temperature-depen-
and Mirages dent. On occasion, this temperature dependence can
lead to observable effects. The air directly above a hot
In most situations, light exhibits a definite straight line surface on a sunny summer day is warmer than the air
or rectilinear propagation. In nature, rectilinear prop- at higher levels above the surface. Because of this, the
agation is observed when shafts of sunlight propagate index of refraction of the air smoothly changes as a
in straight lines through holes between adjacent clouds. function of altitude above the surface, so the air is not
(Such shafts spreading across the sky are called cre- optically isotropic.
puscular rays.) Light rays propagating through the hotter air near
Shadows are another manifestation of rectilinear the surface bend upward while the rays at higher levels
propagation. You are not doubt familiar with your above the surface remain straight. The result is a
own shadow and well aware that you can count your mirage. The person can see both the object and a
fingers by looking at the shadow of your hand, or even shimmering inverted image of it (Figure 1.9). This
use your hands to make shadows that resemble those type of mirage is called an inferior mirage because the
of wolves, elephants, etc. You can also tell the direc- image appears below the object. Automobile drivers
tion of the primary light source by noting the relative are familiar with the inferior mirage as the shimmering
locations of the shadow and the object that is blocking "water" on the road ahead. The shimmering water is
the light. actually an inferior mirage of the sky above. Next time
It is interesting to note that the ancient Greeks you see this inferior mirage, check for the inverted
believed the Earth was round, not flat as was believed image of an automobile or truck in front of you.
by the later Europeans. As one of the supports for this There are many other types of mirages depending
belief, the Greeks cited the shape of the Earth's on the index profile. These include the superior mir-
shadow seen on the moon during a lunar eclipse. They age and the fata morgana mirage. To pursue mirages
contended that the shadow indicated a spherical Earth would unfortunately lead us away from the goals of
and not a flat Earth. To make a reasonable estimate of this book, just as desert mirages have allegedly misled
the radius of the Earth, the Greeks also used the thirsty travelers.
Optics, Light, and Vision 11

u
hot road

FIGURE 1.9. a. Curved rays. b. The in-


ferior mirage.

Problems 5. Light in water (n = 1.33) is incident on a water-air


interface at 4.0 incident angle. Use the small
angle version of Snell's Law to find the angle of
1. Light travels at a speed of 1 . 8 x l 0 8 m / s in a refraction. Does the ray bend toward or away
transparent medium. What is the refractive index from the normal?
of the medium?
6. Light in air is incident on glass (n= 1.56). When
2. The refractive index of water is 1.33. What is the the angle of incidence is 43, what is the angle of
speed of light in water? reflection?
3. Light in air is incident on air-glass (n = 1.523) 7. What is an isotropic medium?
interface. When the angle of incidence is 52, what
is the angle of refraction? Does the light bend 8. What is a homogeneous medium?
toward or away from the normal? 9. White light is incident on a red leaf. Does the light
4. Light in air is incident on an air-glass (n = 1.616) that is diffusely reflected from the leaf contain an
interface at an angle of 3.5. Use the small angle abundance of short wavelengths or an abundance
approximation to Snell's Law to find the angle of of long wavelengths?
refraction. Now use the exact version of Snell's 10. Specify the vacuum wavelengths that are in the
Law to find the angle of refraction. How close are middle of the following regions of the visible light
the answers from the two methods? spectrum: orange, yellow, green, and blue.
CHAPTER TWO

The Geometric
Behavior of Light

2.1 Point Sources, Wavefronts, and Rays wavefront. Figure 2.3 presents the rays for the situa-
tion shown in Figure 2.2. Since the medium is not
The geometric optics theory of image formation is uniform in the upper half of Figure 2.3, the wavefronts
built on the concept of point sources and point images. there are not spherical. Since the wavefronts are not
Consider an isolated point source in a uniform spherical, the rays are curved instead of straight even
medium. The isolated point source emits light waves though they are drawn in perpendicular to each wave-
equally in all directions and the waves travel away front. These curved rays are the type that can occur in
from the source at the same speed. The light waves mirages, in atmospheric refraction, or in gradient
leaving the point source are represented by the wave- index materials. (The acronym currently used for
fronts in Figure 2.1a. Since the wavefronts propagate gradient index is GRIN.) In the lower half of Figure
away from the source at the same speed in all direc- 2.3 the medium is uniform, so the wavefronts there
tions, they have a spherical shape. Each of the diverg- are spherical in shape. Consequently, the rays form
ing spherical wavefronts is centered on the point straight lines pointing away from the point source.
source. Rays and wavefronts provide interchangeable infor-
Figure 2.1b shows a point source embedded in the mation. When the positions of the wavefronts are
surface of a wall. The embedded point source emits known, then one can always draw the rays. Converse-
light in the geometrically allowed directions. In the ly, when the positions of the rays are known, then one
case of the embedded point source, the diverging can always draw the wavefronts. In discussing the
wavefronts are again parts of concentric spheres cen- optics of image formation, it is sometimes conceptual-
tered on the point source. ly easier to use the rays, while at other times it is
If the medium is not uniform, then the wavefronts conceptually easier to use the wavefronts.
will not propagate away at equal speeds. Figure 2.2 In most situations the rays represent the direction
shows a situation in which the lower half of the in which the electromagnetic energy propagated by the
medium is uniform but the upper half is not. The wave is traveling. The exception occurs in light propa-
index of refraction in the upper half of the medium gation through certain anisotropic crystals. The crystal
decreases as a function of vertical distance above the case is not of major concern in this book.
point source. While the wavefronts in the lower half of The situations of major interest in this book are
the medium are spherical, the wavefronts in the upper the situations involving an isotropic homogeneous
half of the medium lose their sphericity because the medium. Therefore, the wavefronts diverging from a
waves propagating upward are moving faster than the point source are spherical in shape, and the corres-
waves propagating outward or downward. ponding rays are straight lines pointing away from the
A ray is defined as a trajectory orthogonal to the point source. The collection of rays or wavefronts
wavefronts. When given the wavefronts, one can draw coming from a single point source is called a homocen-
the rays by having them pass perpendicular to each tric (or monocentric) bundle. A cross section of a
13
14 Geometric, Physical, and Visual Optics

ure 2.5a are all parts of concentric spheres. Each of


the wavefronts is centered on the same point. The
converging light leaving the system forms the point
image and then diverges away from it. Since the
converging wavefronts are spherical, the rays leaving
a) b)
the system are straight lines that point toward the
image point (as shown in Figures 2.5b and 2.5c). The
FIGURE 2.1. a. Diverging waves from an isolated point source. rays remain straight and after passing through the
b. Diverging waves from a point source embedded at B. image point diverge away from it.
When the apertures in the optical system are circu-
lar, then a screen placed in front of the image point
would have a circular illumination patch on it (e.g., at
position A in Figure 2.5c). The circular illumination
patch is called a blur circle. The diameter of the blur
circle is specified by the outer rays. As the screen is
moved back to the image position (position B in
Figure 2.5c), the blur circle decreases in size and
becomes a point. When the screen is moved past the
FIGURE 2.2. Wavefront propagation in a medium that is
nonuniform above the dashed line and uniform below. image position (e.g., toward position C in Figure
2.5c), the blur circle increases in size.
As discussed in Chapter 1, theories are actually
models of the real world. The concept of a point
image occurs in the model represented by the theory
of geometric optics. In the real world only approxi-
mate point images occur. The optical system may not
be perfect so that the converging wavefronts leaving
are not perfectly spherical and a perfect point image is
not formed. Such deviations from perfection are called
FIGURE 2.3. The rays for propagation in a nonuniform (top) aberrations and are discussed in Chapter 20.
region vs uniform (bottom). Even more fundamentally, light propagates
through space in a wavelike manner and waves exhibit
diffraction effects. All optical systems have some aper-
tures in them. Even a single lens has a finite size and
therefore is not only a lens but also an aperture. The
a) finite size apertures cause some diffraction of the light
waves, which prevents the formation of a perfect point
FIGURE 2.4. Uniform propagation from a point source, a. image. Nevertheless, in many cases the apertures are
Spherical diverging wavefronts and rays. b. Rays only.
much much larger than the wavelength of the light,
and the diffraction effects are so small that the image
homocentric bundle and its point source is called a can be considered a point image. Consequently, the
pencil (Figure 2.4). theory of geometric optics is tremendously useful in
describing the image formation process even though it
neglects diffraction. Note that the behavior of a sys-
tem with smaller and smaller apertures eventually
2.2 Converging Wavefronts, Point Images, begins to deviate from the geometric optics de-
and Blur Circles scription.
For the present, assume that diffraction is neglig-
The ideal imaging system takes incoming spherical ible and that the wavefronts leaving an optical system
diverging wavefronts and changes them into outgoing are spherical wavefronts. This assumption holds well
spherical converging wavefronts. The outgoing wave- for regions near the axis of the optical system, or more
fronts then converge to a point as shown in Figure mathematically, for regions in which the paraxial ap-
2.5a. This point is called the image point. Figure 2.5a proximation (literally near the axis) is valid. To be
represents the imaging process in terms of the wave- classified as paraxial, a ray must be near the axis and
fronts, Figure 2.5b shows the rays as well as the make a small angle with the axis. When this condition
wavefronts, and Figure 2.5c shows the rays only. is met, we can use the small angle version of the law of
The outgoing converging wavefronts shown in Fig- refraction for paraxial rays (Eq. 1.5).
The Geometric Behavior of Light 15

point image

point source

FIGURE 2.5. Ideal imaging process. The optical sys-


tem is represented by the box. a. Wavefronts. b. Wave-
fronts and rays. c. Rays only.

2.3 Diverging Wavefronts, Plane Waves, waves coming from it can be considered plane waves,
and Optical Infinity the object point is said to be at optical infinity.
Figure 2.7a shows another representation of the
Everyone who has driven a car or ridden a bicycle is plane wave case. The wavefronts on the right are
intuitively familiar with the concept of curvature. One effectively flat in the localized region under consider-
must slow the car or bike down in order to negotiate a ation because they have traveled a sufficiently large
sharp or highly curved turn. On the other hand, one distance from the point source. Figure 2.7b shows the
can speed through a gradual or relatively flat turn that corresponding rays. When the wavefronts are flat,
has a small curvature. then the rays drawn in perpendicular to the wavefronts
Consider the diverging wavefronts shown in Figure are parallel to each other. These parallel rays can be
2.6. Each of the wavefronts is part of a sphere that is thought of as being very slightly divergent. However,
centered on the point source. The wavefronts nearest in the plane wave region the degree of divergence is so
the point source have a high curvature while the slight that the rays are effectively parallel to each
wavefronts farthest from the point source have a other. Even though these rays are then drawn as
smaller curvature. In fact, the wavefront farthest from parallel, one should keep in mind that they originated
the point source is part of an extremely large sphere at the point source at optical infinity.
and, in the localized region shown, is almost flat. Figure 2.8a shows converging spherical wavefronts
From Figure 2.6, it is clear that the spherical leaving an optical system. Each of the converging
diverging wavefronts lose curvature as they move out wavefronts is spherical and centered on the image
away from the point source. In a localized region far point. The converging wavefronts gain curvature as
away from the point source the wavefronts are very they travel away from the optical system toward the
flat (as shown on the right in Figure 2.6). In the local image point. In particular, the closer the wavefronts
regions where the wavefronts become very flat, they are to the image point, the higher the wavefront
are referred to as plane waves (plane meaning flat). curvature.
When the object point is far enough away so that the Suppose the light leaving an optical system is only

observer's
eye

))
FIGURE 2.6. Diverging spherical wave-
front. Each wavefront is centered on the point
source.
16 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

>. is neglected, and the index of air is assumed to


equal 1.
point source large i As discussed in the previous sections, the wave-
distance \ fronts associated with point objects and point images
Or) are spherical. From calculus, the curvature of a sphere
is equal to the reciprocal of the radius of the sphere.
plane waves In air (n = 1), the curvature of the spherical wavefront
a) is directly related to the degree of convergence or
| divergence of the light at the position of the wave-
%_ front.
1
The quantitative measure of the degree of converg-
distance ^
V ence or divergence of light in air at a particular
3 ^ position is called the vergence of the light. For light in
air, the vergence at a position is equal to the curvature
FIGURE 2.7. Plane waves that originated at the point source. of the wavefront at that position. The unit for ver-
a. Wavefronts. b. Wavefronts and rays. gence is the diopter (D), which is dimensionally equal
to the reciprocal of a meter (m). Let V stand for the
vergence of the light at a particular position, Q stand
for the curvature of the wavefront at that position, and
q stand for the radius of curvature of the wavefront.
image point Mathematically,
V=Q, (2.1)
and for a sphere,

wttt 1 | | | >
m\
111 > (2.2)
image point formed far away -
Therefore,
b)
FIGURE 2.8. a. A converging bundle leaving a system, b. Very q in meters. (2.3)
slightly converging bundle leaving a system. q
In order to distinguish converging light from di-
verging light, a negative vergence value is used for
very slightly convergent. In this case, the convergent diverging light and a positive vergence value is used
wavefronts leaving the system have only the minutest for converging light. Equations 2.1 to 2.3 can be put in
amount of curvature, and the image point, which is absolute values and then used to get the magnitude of
located at the center of curvature of the converging the vergence. The appropriate plus or minus sign can
wavefront, is exceedingly far away. Then we say that then be inserted depending on whether the light is
the image point is at optical infinity, and it is conven- converging or diverging.
ient to approximate the very slightly converging wave- Alternatively, one can use q as a directed distance
fronts by plane waves. The rays representing the light instead of just a magnitude and establish a plus-minus
are really very slightly convergent, but for all intents sign convention for q. The sign convention for q is as
and purposes they can be considered parallel to each follows. Always measure q from the wavefront to the
other at least in the region immediately behind the center of curvature of the wavefront. When the di-
optical system. rected distance from the wavefront to the center of
curvature of the wavefront is in the same direction
that the light is traveling, then q is a positive value. If
the directed distance from the wavefront to the center
2.4 The Concept of Vergence of curvature of the wavefront is opposite to the direc-
tion that the light is traveling, then q is a negative
The index of refraction of a vacuum is, by definition, value. With these sign conventions, q is always nega-
exactly 1. The index of refraction of air is just slightly tive for a diverging wave and positive for a converging
larger (typically 1.0003). For now, the small difference wave.
The Geometric Behavior of Light 17

labeled A is a distance of 5 cm or 0.05 m from the


point source. The directed distance from this wave-
front to the point source is opposite to the direction
that the light is traveling, so the radius q is negative.
Therefore, q equals -0.05 m. Then, from Eq. 2.3,
a) b) 1
V= = -20.00 D.
FIGURE 2.9. a. A diverging wavefront propagating to the (-0.05 m)
right, b, A converging wavefront propagating to the right.
The wavefront at B is a distance of 25 cm or 0.25 m
from the point source, so q is -0.25 m. Then,
In Figure 2.9a, a diverging wavefront is propagat-
ing to the right. The center of curvature of the diverg- 1
V= = -4.00D.
ing wavefront is at point A, which is to the left of the (-0.25 m)
wavefront. The directed distance from the wavefront
In Figure 2.11, the center of curvature of each of
to its center of curvature is opposite to the direction
the converging wavefronts is at the point image posi-
that the wavefront is traveling; therefore, q is nega-
tion. Since the light is converging, the vergence of
tive. In Figure 2.9b, a converging wavefront is prop-
each wavefront is positive. The wavefront on the left is
agating to the right. The center of curvature of the 1 m from the point image. The directed distance from
converging wavefront is at point B, which is to the the wavefront to the point image is in the direction
right of the wavefront. The directed distance from the that the light is propagating; therefore, q equals +1 m.
wavefront to point B is in the same direction that the From Eq. 2.5.
light is propagating, so q is positive. The values q, Q,
and V in Eqs. 2.1 to 2.3 are all negative for diverging 1
light and all positive for converging light. Note, the V= = +1.00D.
( + lm)
fundamental assignment was that diverging light has a
negative vergence and that converging light has a The next wavefront is 0.5 m from the point image, and
positive vergence. from Eq. 2.5,
Consider the diverging waves shown in Figure 2.10.
Since the wavefronts are diverging, the vergence of
V= = +2.00D.
each wavefront is going to be negative. The wavefront (+0.5 m)

-100.D-20.D -10.D -5.D -4.D -2.D -1.D

point y
source * /

0 1. 5. 20. 50. 100. FIGURE 2.10. Vergence values for


distance in centimeters - wavefronts diverging from a point source.

+ 1.D + 2.D + 4.D +5.0D + 10.D +20.D

W//
i J_
/ / / / /

L
[ / , point

m
I \ image
\
\ 1
100. 50. 25. 20. 10. 5.r1
0 FIGURE 2.11. Vergence values for converging
distance in cm to the point image wavefronts.
18 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

2.5 Vergence: Conversion Factors the vergence gets closer to zero as the wavefronts
move further from the point source. This is a result of
Frequently, the distances of optical interest are ex- the flattening of the diverging waves as they move
pressed in centimeters (cm) or in millimeters (mm), away from the point source (Figure 2.10). For large
instead of in meters. The distances can be converted enough distances, the vergence is effectively zero and
to meters and then Eq. 2.3 is used to calculate ver- the waves are considered plane waves. The distance is
gence. However, sometimes it is quicker and intuitive- then designated by the infinity symbol (00).
ly easier to use the conversion factor explicitly in the In terms of Eq. 2.5, when the absolute value of q,
vergence equation. labeled \q\, is a very large number, then V is a very
Suppose the radius q is expressed in centimeters. small number. As \q\ gets larger and larger, V gets
Since there are 100cm/m, Eq. 2.3 becomes closer and closer to zero. In the limit of\q\ going to 00,
V goes to zero.
V = In Figure 2.11, the center of curvature of each of
^/(lOO cm/m)' ^2'4^ the converging wavefronts is at the point image posi-
When algebraically simplified, Eq. 2.4 results in tion. Since the light is converging, the vergence of
each wavefront is positive. The wavefront on the left is
(100 cm/m)
q in cm. (2.5) 100 cm from the point image. The directed distance
from the wavefront to the point image is in the
Equation 2.5 shows that the conversion factor can be direction that the light is propagating, therefore, q is
written in the numerator. + 100 cm. From Eq. 2.5,
Again consider the diverging waves shown in Fi- lOOcnWm
gure 2.10. The wavefront labeled A is a distance of
( + 100 cm)
0.05 m or 5 cm from the point source, so q equals
- 5 cm. Then, from Eq. 2.5, The next wavefront is 50 cm from the point image, and
from Eq. 2.5,
w 100cm/m ~
V = -7z 7- = -20.00 D, 100
( - 5 cm) V = (+50) = +2.00D.
which is the same value as before.
Similarly, the wavefront at B is a distance of 0.25 m The vergence values for the other wavefronts are
or 25 cm from the point source, so q equals - 2 5 cm. found similarly and are listed in Table 2.2. Note that
Then, the vergence of the converging light increases as the
light moves closer to the point image position. This
100
V= = -4.00D occurs because the curvature of the converging wave-
(-25) fronts is increasing as the light moves closer to the
Table 2.1 shows the vergence values for diverging image position.
wavefronts as a function of the distance (absolute When the radius q is expressed in millimeters, then
value) from the point source. Note in Table 2.1 that q can be converted to meters and the reciprocal taken
to get the vergence (Eq. 2.3). Alternatively, the con-
version factor can be put in algebraically, in which
case it again ends up in the numerator, or
TABLE 2.1
Vergence Values for Diverging Light 7 (1000 mm/m) .
v , q 111 111111. Vz',u/

Distance from Point Source \q\ Vergence (V) (in air)


(cm) (D)
TABLE 2.2
1 -100.00 Vergence Values for Converging Light
5 -20.00
10 -10.00
20 -5.00 Distance to Point Image (cm) Vergence (D)
25 -4.00
50 -2.00 100 + 1.00
100 -1.00 50 +2.00
200 -0.50 25 +4.00
500 -0.20 20 +5.00
1000 -0.10 10 + 10.00
00 0 5 +20.00
The Geometric Behavior of Light 19

As an example, consider a converging wavefront the point source. From Eq. 2.8,
with a 20 mm radius of curvature. (Note, by the sign
40
convention chosen the vergence must be positive since v
the light is converging.) From Eq. 2.6, ~F3) = _ 3 - 0 8 D
The difference between the approximate value
1000 mm/m (-3.08 D) and the exact value (-3.03 D) is 0.05 D. In
V = =+50.00 D.
(+20 mm) most visual optics cases this difference is negligible.
For a diverging wavefront 2 mm away from the point
source,
1000 2.6 Upstream and Downstream Vergence
V= =-500.00 D.
(-2) Changes
The metric system conversion factors are multiples This section discusses examples of how to compute
of 10 and are all extremely easy to use. If the radius of vergences either upstream or downstream from the
the wavefront is given in inches or feet, then the location of a known vergence value. As mentioned in
conversion factors are not convenient multiples of ten. the last section, one can use the absolute values of the
There are 2.54 centimeters per inch or 1/2.54 inches radius of curvature q of the wavefronts and get the
per centimeter. The reciprocal of 2.54 is 0.394. In one correct sign for the vergence by checking whether the
meter there are 100 cm and, consequently, 39.4 inches. light is diverging or converging. The latter method has
The conversion factor of 39.4 in/m can be used to get the advantages that one does not have to worry about
the relationship, the correct plus-minus sign for q. More importantly, it
(39.4 in/m) helps one to think in terms of whether the light is
q in inches. (2.7) converging or diverging. All the examples in this
section are worked using the absolute value of the
As an example, consider the vergence of a diverg- radius of curvature.
ing wavefront located 13 inches from a point source.
EXAMPLE 2.1
39 4 Consider diverging light traveling to the right as
V= = - 3 03 D shown in Figure 2.12. The vergence of the light at
point A is -10.00 D. What is the vergence of the
The conversion factor of 39.4 is not as easy to work light at point B, which is 15 cm downstream from
with as the metric system units particularly when a A?
calculator is not available. For cases in which precision A good problem solver tries to anticipate or
predict what characteristics the answer will have.
is not needed, the conversion factor of 39.4 in/m is From the sketch, the wavefronts at B will still be
approximated by 40 in/m. With this approximation, diverging and will be flatter than the wavefronts at
A. Therefore, the expected vergence at B will be
(40 in/m) minus and will be a number smaller in magnitude
V q in inches. (2.8)
than 10.00D (i.e., we expect a number like - 8 D
or - 4 D as opposed to a number like - 1 2 D or
Now reconsider the example immediately above. -16 D). Now that we have our expectations, let's
There, a diverging wavefront was 13 inches away from do the calculation.

-10.0

\ \
point source <


v
"~Y~ ltm
FIGURE 2.12. Downstream vergence example.
20 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

The magnitude of the radius of curvature of the is shorter than the radius of the wavefront at C, or
wavefront at A is k D l = kcl-3cm,
100cm/m and
kAl = VA | qO| = 50 cm - 30 cm = 20 cm.
Then
100cm/m 100 cm/ml
I*AI = 10.00 cm. |v D | = = 5.00D.
(-IO.OOD)I (20 cm)
From Figure 2.12, the radius of curvature of the Since the light is diverging, the vergence is negative
wavefront at B is greater in magnitude than that at and
A, or VD = - 5 . 0 0 D ,
kBl = kAl + 15cm, which agrees with our anticipated results.
and
EXAMPLE 2.3
I qB | = 10 cm + 15 cm = 25 cm. The vergence of light at point C is +18.12 D. What
is the vergence of the light at point B, which is
The magnitude of the vergence VB of the wavefront
36.75 cm upstream? Try doing a quick sketch to
at B is then
convince yourself that VB should be positive and
100 cm/m less than +18.12 D. Then verify that the vergence
|v B | = = 4.00D, at position B is +2.37 D.
(25 cm)
Since the light is diverging, VB is minus, or EXAMPLE 2.4
VB = -4.00 D. Consider converging light traveling to the right
(Figure 2.14). The vergence of the light at point A
The answer qualitatively agrees with our antici- is +8.00 D. What is the vergence at point B, which
pated results that the wavefront would be flatter. is 5 cm downstream from A? The magnitude of the
radius of curvature of the wavefront at A is
EXAMPLE 2.2 100 cm/ m
In Figure 2.13, the vergence of light at position C is kAl = 12.5 cm.
(8.00 D)
-2.00 D. What is the vergence at position D, which
is 30 cm upstream from position C? The wavefronts are still converging at point B, so
Since diverging wavefronts lose curvature as the wavefront there is steeper than at point A
they propagate, the wavefront at D is more highly (Figure 2.14). Therefore, we expect the vergence
curved than the wavefront at C. (The conventional at B to be a number like + 1 0 D , + 1 5 D , or +20 D,
terminology is that the wavefront at D is steeper as opposed to + 6 D , + 4 D , or + 2 D .
than the wavefront at C.) Therefore, we expect From the sketch, the magnitude of the radius of
that the vergence at D will be more minus than the curvature at B is
vergence at C (i.e., we expect numbers like - 5 D \qB\ = 12.5 cm - 5 cm = 7.5 cm.
or - 1 0 D as opposed to - I D or - 0 . 5 D).
Then
The magnitude of the radius of curvature of the
wavefront at position C is 100 cm/ml
|vJ = = 13.33 D.
(7.5 cm)
100 cm/m Since the light is converging at point B, the ver-
= 50 cm.
kcl (-2.00) gence is positive and
From Figure 2.13, the radius of the wavefront at D VB = + 1 3 . 3 3 D.

-2.D
\

V
point source
# image point
l
Y '
1
/ ] /
1*1 I
Y
)
>r~- IQBT
L 30 cm ) ^ 5 cm
Y T
FIGURE 2.13. Upstream vergence example. FIGURE 2.14. Downstream vergence example.
The Geometric Behavior of Light 21

spherical wavefronts,

Q=-, (2.10)

where q is the radius of curvature. Therefore,

v=^. (2.11)

The index of refraction is a dimensionless number;


thus, the units remain the same as before. The ver-
gence V is in diopters when the radius q is in meters.
FIGURE 2.15. Downstream vergence example for point image Alternatively, conversion factors can be used in the
between wavefronts.
numerator when q is expressed in units other than
meters.
As an example, consider a point source in water
EXAMPLE 2.5 (n = 1.33). What is the vergence of the light in the
As a final example in this section, consider light at water at a distance of 28 cm from the point source?
position A with a vergence of +25.00 D (Figure According to the sign convention,
2.15). What is the vergence of the light at a posi-
tion 15 cm downstream? (Try working it out before q = - 2 8 cm,
you read the solution and be sure to try to antici-
pate the results.) and from Eq. 2.11,
The solution is as follows. The magnitude of the
radius of curvature of the wavefront at A is (1.33)(100cm/m)
V=
(-28 cm)
100cm/m
\qA = 4.00 cm. 133
(25.00 D) V=
(-28)'
A quick sketch shows that the light converges to a
point image 4 cm downstream from A and then or
diverges away from that position. Therefore, the V=-4.75D.
wavefront at position B will be diverging.
From the sketch, the magnitude of the radius of Note that the vergence is negative as it should be for
curvature of the diverging wavefront at B is diverging light.
Historically, generalized vergence has been re-
| qB | = 15 cm - 4 cm = 11 cm. ferred to by the name of reduced vergence. The
The magnitude of the vergence at B is ratonale for this terminology and the generalized defi-
nition of vergence will be given in Chapter 8.
lOOcnWm Note that if the light is in air, then n equals one and
1 Bl
(11 cm) the equations in this section then become identical to
Since the wavefront is diverging, the equations in the previous sections. Further, nu-
merical examples of light in media other than air will
VB = -9.09D. be deferred to Chapter 7.

2.7 Generalized or Reduced Vergence


2.8 Extended Sources and Beams
For light propagating in a medium in which the index
Common objects such as trees, people, and books
of refraction differs from one, the definition of ver-
consist of many different point sources. (Conceptual-
gence is generalized as follows: The vergence of light
ly, we might consider each atom in the object as a
at a position A in a medium of refractive index n is
point source.) A primary or secondary source consist-
equal to n times the curvature of the wavefront at ing of laterally separated point sources is called an
position A. Mathematically, extended source. Each point source on the extended
V=nQ (2.9) source puts out its own bundle of light. The collection
of all the bundles put out by the points on the source
where Q is the curvature and V is the vergence. For is called a beam.
22 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

Let us now consider the beam coming from a slide


or motion picture projector. The beam leaving the
projector is also frequently visible due to light scatter-
ing off dust, smoke, or suspended water droplets in
the air. The beam is diverging or spreading out as it
moves away from the projector. However, the diverg-
ing beam leaving the projector is made up of converg-
ing bundles rather than diverging bundles. Figure 2.17
shows the image formation portion of the projector
system. The bundle leaving the bottom point on the
FIGURE 2.16. A diverging beam made up of diverging bun- object is converged by the projector lens and eventual-
dles.
ly forms the top image point. The bundle leaving the
top point on the object is converged by the lens and
eventually forms the bottom image point. The extreme
The beam from typical primary and secondary ex- top and bottom rays are the beam boundaries. The
tended sources is a diverging beam made up of a beam is clearly spreading out or diverging even though
collection of diverging bundles. Consider the beam each individual bundle is converging. A flashlight
from a common flashlight. At night, the path of the beam never forms an image on a screen because the
flashlight beam is frequently visible due to light scat- individual bundles are diverging. A projector beam
tering off dust or suspended water droplets present in forms an image on a screen because the individual
the air. The beam itself spreads out or diverges as it bundles are converging. The image on the screen is
moves away from the flashlight. The diverging beam is larger than the projector lens because the projector
made up of many individual diverging bundles, each of beam is diverging.
which originated from its own specific point on the Figure 2.18 shows a converging lens that forms an
tungsten filament of the flashlight's bulb (Figure 2.16). extended image that is smaller than the size of the

projector

image

FIGURE 2.17. The light leaving the lens con-


sists of a diverging beam made up of converging
bundles.

-?> image

FIGURE 2.18. The light leaving the lens consists of a


converging beam made up of converging bundles.
The Geometric Behavior of Light 23

lens. The individual bundles leaving the lens are con- the tree at position A. Two bundles of rays are shown,
verging, which is why the image is formed. In this and each bundle forms its respective point image at
case the beam leaving the lens is shrinking in size or position A.
converging as it moves away from the lens. The When the object points all subtend a small enough
individual converging bundles form the image, but the angle directly in front of the lens, then the cross-
converging beam is responsible for the image size sectional shape of each bundle is well approximated by
being smaller than the lens size. a circle. If the screen is moved to position B, which is
The above examples show that a diverging beam closer to the lens, each bundle forms a blur circle
can be made with either diverging or converging bun- instead of a point image. The result is a blurred image
dles, and that a converging beam can be made with on the screen. The blurred image can be simulated by
converging bundles. There is a fourth logical possibi- drawing a small circle at each place that a point would
litythat of a converging beam made with diverging occur in the clear image. The result is still a recogniz-
bundles. Is such a case physically possible? The an- able tree, but fine detail (such as a bird's nest) may be
swer is yes. This situation is treated later in connection lost. If the screen is moved to position C, which is still
with the discussion of the exit pupil of an optical closer to the lens, the blur circles get even larger and
system. (In the meantime, you might contemplate how more information is lost. As the process continues, the
such a system would be set up.) blur circles eventually get large enough so that no
Since both beams and bundles can have converging information about the tree is present on the screen.
and diverging properties, what do we mean by con- Each of these steps is simulated by drawing the blur
verging light? The standard usage is that the term circles larger and larger as in Figure 2.19. A similar
converging light means the individual bundles are sequence would occur if the screen were moved from
converging. The beam may or may not be converging. the clear image position back away from the lens.
The light coming out of the movie projector is then
referred to as converging light because the bundles are
converging. The term diverging light means that the
individual bundles are diverging. 2.10 Pinholes or Image Formation by
Blur Minimization
If the screen is left at a blurred image position, the
2.9 Extended Images and Blur amount of blur can be reduced by placing an aperture
next to the lens and making the aperture smaller. This
Figure 2.19 represents light from a tree being con- reduces the cross-sectional size of each bundle, and,
verged by a lens and forming a clear inverted image of consequently, each blur circle is smaller. The degree

image
object

FIGURE 2.19. Effect of blur circle size on


an extended image.
24 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

of blur in the image is then reduced. This blur minimi- blur circles, and the illumination pattern on the screen
zation is sometimes called the pinhole effect. resembles an inverted blurred image of the arrow
Figure 2.20a represents light coming from two object.
points on an arrow object. Assume that the arrowhead Figure 2.20c shows the aperture narrowed down
is red and the bottom of the arrow is green. The light further. The effective blur circles decrease further in
is incident on a screen, but because of the divergence size, and a less blurred inverted image appears on the
of the incident bundles, no image is formed and no screen.
information about the arrow is present on the screen. If diffraction did not exist, one could make the
Figure 2.20b shows a circular aperture placed be- aperture so small that only one ray from each object
tween the object and the screen. The aperture limits point would pass through. The illumination distribu-
the size of each bundle, and the illumination pattern tion on the screen would then have one-to-one corres-
on the screen now has a definite red illuminated region pondence with the object. In other words, a clear
on the bottom and a definite green illuminated region image would be formed. This is called the pinhole
on the top. These illumination patches act just like effect because a small aperture, such as a pinhole, is

red

uniform
illumination
green

a)

red
green

green

b)

red green

green

red ^_ green point

green - red point

d) FIGURE 2.20. The pinhole effect.


The Geometric Behavior of Light 25

needed to form a clear image. In nature, pinhole and


images are sometimes accidentally formed by small
holes in curtains or leaves. tan D = f-y.
The pinhole does not provide a perfect image
because of diffraction. When the aperture is still large, Since C = D,
diffraction is negligible. As the aperture is made smal-
ler, the amount of diffraction steadily increases and (2.12)
the light waves start bending as they pass through the
aperture, just as sound waves bend upon passing (The absolute value signs are used in Eq. 2.121 so
^ that
tViOt
through a doorway. As the aperture size is decreased, we do not have to worry about plus and minus signs at
the diffraction eventually overwhelms the reduction in this time.)
blur gained by the pinhole effect. Even so, pinholes Equation 2.12 can be solved for any one of the four
are optically useful. entities contained in it provided the other three are
The image formed by a pinhole is due to blur known. For example, what image size is produced on
minimization and is not due to convergence of the a screen 10 cm behind a pinhole that is placed 20 m
light. Therefore, the position of the image screen from a 5-m tall elephant? From Eq. 2.12,
behind the pinhole is not crucial. As the screen is
moved a clear image remains; however, the image will
change in size.
IH = |o|xg
Figure 2.21 shows an object of size O and an image or
of size I. The horizontal line is drawn through the
center of the pinhole aperture normal to the aperture (5m)(0.1m)
11
plane. The object stretches from the horizontal line to 20 m
the point A. The aperture is a horizontal distance u 115m
from the object. An image screen is placed a horizon- 11
20 '
tal distance from the aperture.
The ray from the top of the object (point A) passes ., 50 cm _
straight through the pinhole and goes to the image
point B. The ray from the bottom of the object travels If the screen is moved further back from the pinhole,
straight through the pinhole along the horizontal line. the image remains clear but is larger. Objects that are
The angles C and D are formed by these two rays, and closer to the pinhole than the elephant would also be
angle C equals angle D since angles on the opposite imaged on the screen, but their size would be larger.
sides of intersecting lines are equal. From the triangles Historically, a device known as the camera ob-
shown, scura, which originally consisted of a hole in the wall
of a darkroom, was used to form images by the
pinhole effect. This principle was used by Aristotle,
tanC=^ Alhazen, Leonardo da Vinci, and Johannes Kepler,
\u\ and by the late 1600s, small hand-held camera ob-
scuras were popular in Europe.
The eye of the cuttlefish nautilus works on the
camera obscura principle. The nautilus eye has no
A lens. It has an open pinhole that fills with seawater on
immersion. A rattlesnake has a typical vertebrate eye.
However, a rattlesnake also has infrared pits that
work on the pinhole principle and supply enough
information to enable the rattlesnake to strike a local-
V
ized infrared target to within an angular accuracy of
\\ / ^ ^ . 1
5.
1
y " The pinhole effect can be used to clear a blurred
image behind a lens, again by minimizing the blur
B
circle sizes. Blurred vision can be the result of an
optical defect of the eye, but might also be the result
of an ocular or neural pathology. A pinhole can be
used to distinguish between these two cases. If one's
FIGURE 2.21. Pinhole imaging parameters. vision is blurred and a pinhole clears it, then the
26 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

problem is optical. If one's vision is blurred and a blur circles occur on the retina instead of point images
pinhole does not clear it, then the problem is (Figure 2.22b). In this case, the near object appears
pathological. Thus, the pinhole is an important tool blurred to the unaccommodated emmtrope. When
for optometrists and ophthalmologists. the ciliary muscle contracts, converging power is
added to the crystalline lens and the point image is
pulled forward onto the retina. Thus, the accommo-
dated emmetropic eye can clearly see the near object
2.11 Refracting States of the Eye (Figure 2.22c).
The emmtrope can clearly view a range of objects
In the emmetropic eye, the cornea and unaccommo- from far to near by changing the amount of accommo-
dated crystalline lens converge the light from a distant dation. The nearer the object, the more accommoda-
object and form a clear image on the retina (Figure tion is required. When the ciliary muscle contracts
2.22a). Remember that the ciliary muscle around the maximally, maximum accommodation occurs. As an
crystalline lens is relaxed when the eye is unaccommo- object is brought closer and closer to the eye, the
dated. The unaccommodated emmtrope can then see maximum amount of accommodation is eventually
distant objects clearly. reached. If the object continues to be brought closer
When the object is moved closer to the eye, the to the eye, it begins to blur. Just as a person cannot
divergence of the incident light increases. (For exam- sprint at full speed for very long, so too a person
ple, a point source 25 cm away from the eye produces cannot accommodate maximally for very long. If the
a wavefront that when incident on the eye has a object is held at a point requiring a considerable
vergence of -4.00 D; whereas, a distant point source amount of accommodation, fatigue eventually occurs,
produces a wavefront that when incident on the eye accommodation decreases, and the near object ap-
has a vergence of zero.) The unaccommodated em- pears blurred.
metropic eye will converge the light from the near The maximum amount of accommodation available
object, but the converging light runs into the retina declines as a natural part of aging. This is apparently
before the point images are formed. Consequently, due to the fact that the crystalline lens grows in layers
like an onion. The interior or core of the lens hardens
with age and slowly ceases to change its shape when
the ciliary muscle contracts. The symptom of the loss
of accommodative ability is that the aging emmtrope
has to hold things further away to see them clearly.
When an older emmtrope can no longer see near
a) objects clearly, the condition is called presbyopia or
"old age" vision.
The myopic eye is an eye that is too long for the
converging power of the eye (Figure 2.23a). The
unaccommodated myopic eye forms the image of a
distant object in front of the retina somewhere in the
vitreous humor. The light then diverges from this
point and blur circles are formed on the retina. If the
myopic eye accommodates, the point image is formed
even further in front of the retina and the retinal blur
b) gets worse.
When the distant object is moved closer to the
unaccommodated myopic eye, the divergence of the
incident light wave is increased and the image moves
back towards the retina. At some near point the
object will be close enough so that the image point is
formed on the retina. At this point the unaccommo-
dated myopic eye can clearly see the near object
(position A in Figure 2.23b). If the myope now ac-
commodates, objects closer than A can be seen clearly
(position B in Figure 2.23c). The condition of myopia
FIGURE 2.22. Emmtrope, a. Unaccommodated and viewing a is commonly called nearsightedness since an uncorrec-
distant object, b. Unaccommodated and viewing a near object, c. ted myope cannot clearly see distant objects but is
Accommodated for the near object. able to clearly see near objects.
The Geometric Behavior of Light 27

The hyperopic eye is an eye that is too short for the


1} blur
converging power of the eye (Figure 2.24a). The
unaccommodated hyperopic eye converges light from
a distant object, but the image points are not yet
a) formed when the light reaches the retina, so the
retinal image is blurred.
When the hyperopic eye accommodates, the light
inside the eye converges faster and the point images
are pulled forward onto the retina. In this case, the
accommodated hyperopic eye can clearly see a distant
/> object (Figure 2.24b). The hyperopic eye uses up
accommodation for a distant object and needs even
more for a near object. Depending on the amount of
b) hyperopia and the amount of accommodation, the
hyperopic eye may not have enough accommodation
left for a near object (Figure 2.24c). The result is that
the uncorrected hyperope sees distant objects clearly
(by accommodating), but near objects are blurred.
Thus, the condition of hyperopia is commonly called
A
farsightedness.
Unaccommodated hyperopic and myopic eyes
viewing a distant object both produce spherical con-
verging wavefronts inside the eye, and these spherical
c)
converging wavefronts can form point images. The
FIGURE 2.23. Myope, a. Unaccommodated and viewing a optical defect is that the image points do not lie on the
distant object, b. Unaccommodated and viewing a near object at retina. Myopes and hyperopes are collectively called
A. c. Accommodated and viewing a near object at B.
spherical ametropes. (Ametrope literally means not an
emmtrope.) Another optical defect of the eye occurs
when the converging wavefronts are not spherical,
and, consequently, a point image is not formed any-

rza blur where. The resulting condition is called astigmatism.


Stigmatus is the Latin word for point and astigmatism
literally means no point. Astigmatism is discussed in
Chapter 15.
a)
Occasionally, cateracts develop and grow in the
crystalline lens. The cataracts degrade vision by scat-
tering light, which causes the retinal image to become
washed out. One cure for cataracts is to surgically
remove the crystalline lens. The resulting eye has no
accommodative abilities but is correctable with specta-
ZT3 cle lenses, contact lenses, or intraocular lens implants.
An eye without a crystalline lens is called an aphakic
b)
eye {a = without', phakic = Latin for lens).

Problems

blur 1. What is the vergence of the light at a distance of


8 cm from a point source? At 42 cm? At 123 cm?
Draw a sketch of the wavefronts and indicate
whether the wavefronts are gaining or losing cur-
vature as they move away from the point source.
2. What is the vergence of converging light at 83 cm
FIGURE 2.24. Hyperope. a. Unaccommodated and viewing a
distant object, b. Accommodated and viewing a distant object, c. from the image point? At 32 cm? At 13 cm? At
Accommodated and viewing a near object. 4 mm? Draw a sketch of the wavefronts and indi-
28 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

cate whether the wavefronts are gaining or losing 9. Given a -8.00 D diverging wavefront in air, how
curvature as they move towards the image point. far (in cm) is the wave from its point source? For
3. The light at position A has a vergence of +4.50 D. a -6.00 D wavefront?
What is the vergence at position B, which is 14 cm 10. Given a +7.00 D converging wavefront, how far
downstream from position A? At a point C, which (in cm) is the image point? For a +3.00 D wave-
is 43 cm downstream from position A? front?
4. The light at position A has a vergence of 11. An object is 6 m from a pinhole. A screen is
-15.50 D. What is the vergence at position B, placed 15 cm behind the pinhole. When the object
which is 21 cm downstream from position A? is 2 m tall, what is the size of the image?
5. The light at position A has a vergence of 12. If the screen in no. 11 is moved closer to the
+ 13.50 D. What is the vergence at position B, pinhole, what happens to the image? If the screen
which is 3 cm upstream from position A? is moved further from the pinhole, what happens
6. The light at position A has a vergence of -6.30 D. to the image?
What is the vergence at position B, which is 9 cm 13. If the screen is fixed 15 cm from a pinhole, what
upstream from position A? At position C, which is happens to the image as the object is moved closer
37 cm upstream from A? to the pinhole?
7. A point source is under water (n = 1.33). What is 14. A piece of film 3 in x 5 in is placed 6 in from a
the vergence in the water at a distance of 11cm pinhole. What would be the linear field of view of
from the source? At 21 cm from the source? this pinhole in object space at a distance of 40 feet
8. A point source is in air. What is the vergence of from the pinhole?
the light 6 in from the point source? At 17 in?
CHAPTER THREE

Optical Objects
and Images

3.1 Optically Real vs Physically say that an optical system has an optically real object
Real Objects whenever the light incident on the system is diverging.
The optically real object may or may not be physically
Figure 3.1 shows light waves from a specific source, a real.
tree, incident on a specific optical system, a camera. The location of an optically real object point can be
The tree is a physically real entity. However, the specified in terms of the diverging spherical wavefront
optical stimulus for the camera is provided exclusively that is incident on the optical system (Figure 3.3). The
by the incident divergent light waves. These waves location assigned to the optically real object point for
leave the tree, travel across the space between the tree the system is at the center of curvature of the incident
and the camera, and are then incident on the camera. spherical wavefront. If a physically real object point
Suppose that light waves identical to those coming produced the incident diverging light wave, then the
from the tree can be artificially generated without the center of curvature of the wavefront is located at the
tree present. In that case, the optical stimulus for the physically real object point. However, if the diverging
camera would be unchanged and the camera would light wave was produced by a hologram, lens, or
photograph a "tree" even though no tree is physically mirror, then there is not a physically real object point
present. at the location assigned to the optically real object
A hologram can be used to artificially generate point.
such light waves. Holograms are usually made optical- The rays associated with the incident diverging
ly, but some can also be computer generated. The wavefront will, when extended back, intersect at the
hologram is a recording of a light wave interference center of curvature of the wavefront. Since the center
pattern. When properly illuminated, the interference of curvature is the assigned object point, the incident
pattern artificially generates the light waves identical rays appear to be diverging away from the assigned
to those coming from the tree (Figure 3.2). Not only object position regardless of whether a physically real
does the camera photograph the tree, but a human object is there or not. Figure 3.2b shows the location
observer looking at the waves coming from the holog- for a point on the tree produced by the hologram.
ram sees the tree complete with three-dimensional
depth and parallax effects.
In the aforementioned cases, the optical system
responds identically regardless of whether the incident 3.2 Optically Real vs Physically
diverging light waves are coming from the physically Real Images
real source, or were artificially generated by the holog-
ram. Since optical systems respond to the incident Figure 3.4a shows an optical system with diverging
light, it is useful to separate the concept of an optically light incident on it and converging light leaving it. The
real object from that of a physically real object. We relative distribution of visible electromagnetic radia-
29
30 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

-eMSSWWu
p observer In analyzing the action of the system, it then
becomes useful to say that the system has an optically
camera real image whenever converging light leaves the sys-
FIGURE 3.1. An observer photographing a tree.
tem. The system has a physically real image only if the
bundles in the converging light are actually allowed to
form point images. In the brick wall case, we would
tion in the object plane is recreated in the image say that the system has an optically real image, but not
plane. The actual electromagnetic radiation at the a physically real image.
image plane constitutes the physically real image. The position assigned to an optically real image
In Figure 3.4b, a brick wall has been placed be- point is at the center of curvature of the converging
tween the back of the system and the position of the spherical wavefront that is leaving the back of the
physically real image. The wall stops the electromag- system (Figure 3.5a). When the brick wall is not
netic radiation from reaching the plane of the phy- present, the bundle actually converges to form the
sically real image. However, the wavefronts leaving physically real image point at the center of curvature
the back of the optical system are still converging and of the exiting wavefront (Figures 3.5b and 3.5c).
still have the same curvature that they had prior to the When the brick wall is present, the light is converging
placement of the brick wall. Furthermore, the angles toward the center of curvature of the exiting wave-
between the different converging bundles leaving the front but is stopped before reaching it (Figure 3.5d).
back of the system are still the same. In effect, the In other words, the optically real image point is the
placement of the brick wall had no effect on the point toward which the light is converging.
converging light waves that are immediately behind The center of curvature of the wavefront that is
the system. leaving the system can be located by drawing in the

> observer
From
primary
light
source hologram camera

a)

apparent
"tree"

hologram
FIGURE 3.2. a. The hologram generates light waves
identical to those coming from the tree. b. The apparent
b) tree as seen by the camera and the observer.

incident spherical
incident spherical wavefront
wavefront

0-
center of
curvature,

L^

FIGURE 3.3. a. Incident spherical wavefront. b. Locating the


a) center of curvature of the incident wavefront.
Optical Objects and Images 31

FIGURE 3.4. a. Converging light forms a physically


real image, b. Converging light is still leaving the system,
but a brick wall stops formation of the physically real
image.

corresponding rays. These rays are of course converg- path of converging bundles and thus prevent the for-
ing and will pass through the center of curvature in mation of the physically real image. The concept of
those cases where the physically real image is formed. the optically real image is then useful in analyzing the
In the brick wall case, the rays are pointing toward the components that formed the converging bundles.
center of curvature when they are stopped by the wall,
but the rays can still be extended straight ahead to
locate the center of curvature. The ray extensions are
the dashed lines in Figure 3.5d. 3.3 Real Images as Objects for
Brick walls are not usually introduced as discussed the Eye
above. However, in a multiple-component optical sys-
tem, lenses or mirrors are frequently placed in the In our everyday lives, we are familiar with the real
images formed by movie and slide projectors. The
light leaving the projector system is converging and a
screen is placed at the position of the clear image. The
light then diffusely reflects from the screen, and the
now diverging bundles travel to the various observers'
eyes (Figure 3.6a). The (physically) real image on the
a) screen serves as the real object for the observers' eyes.
On the other hand, a real image can also be
directly viewed without the use of a screen. When no
screen is present, each bundle of the converging light
leaving the lens system forms a point image and then
diverges away from that point. To view the real image
b) directly, the observer needs to move his eye into the
path of the diverging light (Figure 3.6b). The real
image for the lens directly serves as the real object for
the observer's eye.
The real image for a single lens is inverted relative
to the original object and, depending on the object
distance, may be larger or smaller than the original
object. In Figure 3.6c, the original object is a tree and
the observer is looking at the small inverted real image
of the tree. Since the real image is inverted, it is
particularly easy for the observer to realize that he is
looking at the real image and not at the original
d) object.
The real image is, in effect, floating out in air with
FIGURE 3.5. A converging wavefront leaving the system, a.
Exiting wavefront and its center of curvature C. b. Wavefronts
no solid objects around it and, as such, is called an
converging to C. c. Wavefronts and rays. d. Brick wall does not aerial image. Consequently, the observer may have
change location of C but blocks light from reaching C. depth perception difficulties. The image may be per-
32 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

eye 5

eye'

aerial image

~^> eye

b)

distant tree

lens
inverted image of tree

FIGURE 3.6. a. A screen makes an image vis-


ible to different observers, b. An aerial image
viewed without a screen, c. Appearance of a real
aerial image to the observer.

ceived as being on the other side of the lens when in In our everyday lives, we are familiar with the
fact the image is between the lens and the observer. images formed by mirrors. However, your image
This misperception is due to the absence of the normal formed by a flat bathroom mirror is not a real image.
perceptual cues when viewing the aerial image. The light leaving the bathroom mirror is diverging, not
Remember that the reason the observer sees the converging. Nevertheless, the mirror's image is clearly
object, whether it is the real tree or the inverted real visible and has some of its own characteristics. For
image of the tree, is that the refracting elements of the example, when you wave your left hand at your image
observer's eye form a real image on the retina. In in the mirror, it waves its right hand back at you.
Figure 3.6c, the inverted real image that the lens Spherical diverging mirrors are now commonly
forms is serving as the real object for the eye and is used for security purposes as well as for giving an
thus the distal stimulus for the observer's visual per- increased field of view in automobile and truck mir-
ception. The proximal stimulus for the observer's vis- rors. Your image formed by a spherical diverging
ual perception is the retinal image formed by the mirror is smaller than you, but it still waves its right
refracting elements of the eye. hand when you wave your left hand. Again, the image
is not a real image because the light leaving the mirror
is diverging and not converging. While the images of
these mirrors are not real, they are certainly visible
3.4 Virtual Images and have the attributes of an image.
Images analogous to those of mirrors can also be
Virtual, adjective Being in essence or in effect formed by lenses (or even by holograms). In general,
though not formally recognized or admitted, for exam- whenever diverging light is leaving an optical system,
ple, He was a virtual saint. we say that the system has a virtual image. Virtual
Optical Objects and Images 33

, observer

center of curvature
of diverging
wavefront leaving
the mirror
point source 2 * FIGURE 3.7. Observer viewing a mirror's image.

images cannot be formed on a screen because converg- assigned to the virtual image point is the point from
ing light is needed to form images on screens. How- which the light appears to be diverging.
ever, virtual images can serve as optically real objects For a flat mirror, the position assigned to the
for our eyes or for other optical systems such as virtual image (i.e., at the center of curvature of the
cameras. In fact it makes no optical difference to an diverging wavefront that leaves the mirror) is where
eye or camera whether it is looking at a real or virtual the image perceptually appears to be. When you stand
image. In each case, the light incident on the eye or 1 m in front of your bathroom mirror, your image
camera is diverging. appears to be 1 m behind it. Note that no light is
The position assigned to a virtual image point is at physically present behind the mirror. You can build a
the center of curvature of the diverging spherical brick wall against the back of your bathroom mirror
wavefront that is leaving the back of the system and it won't affect your image in the mirror.
(Figure 3.7). The rays associated with the exiting Figure 3.8a shows a tree in front of a diverging
diverging wavefront will, when extended back, inter- lens. For each point on the tree, the lens creates a
sect at the center of curvature point that is the as- virtual image point, and its position is assigned to be
signed image position. The ray extensions are the at the center of curvature of the wavefront leaving the
dashed lines in Figure 3.7. In other words, the position back of the lens. An observer looking through the lens

T^> observer

a)

t> observer

b)

distant tree
lens

virtual image

FIGURE 3.8. a. Wavefronts for light passing through a diverg-


c) ing lens. b. Rays showing virtual image location, c. Appearance of
virtual image to the observer.
34 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

at the large tree sees the virtual image, which is the


small, erect tree.
The virtual image is specified by the diverging
wavefronts that leave the lens. These wavefronts then
travel to the next optical system, which can be an
observer's eye. The object for the observer's eye is FIGURE 3.9. Converging light incident on a system. The cen-
then an optically real object that is specified by the ter of curvature C of the incident wavefront serves as the location
for the virtual object.
diverging wavefronts incident on the eye. The phy-
sically real entities are the diverging light waves that
leave the lens and are incident on the eye. The virtual
image of the diverging lens is the optically real object fronts and in the angles that the individual bundles
for the observer's eye, and is the distal stimulus for the make with each other. Optically, objects for systems
observer's visual perception. The retinal image that are defined in terms of this incoming information.
the eye forms is physically real and is the proximal Consequently, when the incident light is converging,
stimulus for the observer's visual perception. Diverg- we say that the system has a virtual object. The
ing corrective lenses are worn by myopes. position assigned to a virtual object point is at the
center of the curvature of the incident converging
spherical wavefront.
For a convergent wavefront incident on the front
3.5 Virtual Objects surface of a system, the center of curvature is located
behind the front surface (Figure 3.9). The rays as-
When an optical system has diverging wavefronts inci- sociated with the incident converging wavefront are
dent on it, we say that the object is an optically real pointing toward the center of curvature when they hit
object and we assign its position at the center of the front of the system. The ray extensions (the
curvature point of the incident diverging wavefront. dashed lines in Figure 3.9) pass through the center of
As discussed in Section 3.1, there may or may not be a curvature point. Hence, the rays incident on the front
physically real object at that point. The geometric surface of the system are converging toward the virtual
information carried by the incident waves is encoded object position.
in the curvature of the wavefronts and in the angles Normally, the light leaving a source (either primary
that the different bundles make with each other. or secondary) is diverging. Therefore, to get converg-
In general, it makes no difference to the optical ing light incident on an optical system, that light must
system whether the incident light is diverging or con- leave the source and then be converged by some
verging. When diverging light is incident on a strong preceding optical system. The converging light leaving
enough converging system, the exiting light is converg- the first system is then incident on the second system.
ing, and when converging light is incident on the same The second system, with the incident converging light,
converging system, the system simply converges the has a virtual object. The wavefronts leaving the first
light even more. When diverging light is incident on a system and traveling to the second system specify both
diverging system, the system diverges the light even the real image for the first system and the virtual
more, and when converging light is incident on the object for the second system. In effect, the real image
same diverging system, the system still has a divergent for system one is the virtual object for system two
effect on the light. (The exiting light is either less (Figure 3.10).
convergent or may even be divergent depending on Hyperopes are corrected by converging lenses.
the diverging strength of the system.) When a corrected hyperope views a distant object, the
When the light incident on the system is converg- light leaving the correcting lens and incident on the
ing, the object for the system is clearly not real. hyperope's eye is converging. The optically real image
However, just as in the case of incident diverging of the correcting lens serves as the virtual object for
waves, the incident converging waves carry geometric the hyperope's eye. The optical position of this virtual
information encoded in the curvature of the wave- object is at the center of curvature of the wavefront

FIGURE 3.10. The converging light leaving system #1 is


incident on system # 2 . The wavefronts are all centered on C.
Optical Objects and Images 35

incident on the cornea. Since this wavefront is con- at the place from which the exiting light appears to be
verging, the assigned position is behind the eye. How- diverging.
ever, while the optics of the hyperope's eye are anal-
yzed with the virtual object position, remember that
the proximal stimulus for the hyperope's visual per-
ception is the physically real retinal image of the 3.7 The Image for System 1 Is the
hyperope's eye. Just as with an emmtrope or a Object for System 2
myope, the hyperope perceives the object to be in
front of the eye. Figure 3.11 shows four different two-lens systems. In
each case, a physically real object point is located at
position A in front of the first lens ( L J , and a
physically real image point is located at position C
3.6 Object and Image Summary behind the second lens (L 2 ). In each example, the
image for the first lens and the object for the second
The aforementioned definitions for optical objects lens are located at point B. Depending on the exam-
were in terms of the wavefront that is actually incident ple, the image for the first lens is either real or virtual,
on the system. When you encounter the word object, and the object for the second lens is either real or
you should immediately think in terms of what the virtual.
incident wavefront is doing. The aforementioned defi- In Figure 3.11a, the light leaving the first lens is
nitions for optical images were in terms of the wave- converging and a real image is actually formed at
front that is actually leaving the system. When you position B. The light waves that converge to form the
encounter the word image, you should immediately image point at position B then diverge away from
think in terms of what the exiting wavefront is doing. there and are incident on the second lens. Clearly, the
The discussion given in the previous sections of this real image for the first lens serves as the real object for
chapter is summarized below for quick reference. the second lens. Note that the wavefront leaving the
Whenever diverging light is incident on an optical first lens is converging and has its center of curvature
system, the system is said to have an optically real at B, while the wavefront incident on the second lens
object. Note, the object may not be physically real. is diverging and also has its center of curvature at B.
The position assigned to an optically real object point In Figure 3.11b, the first lens is a diverging lens.
is at the center of curvature of the incident diverging The light incident on it is diverging, and the light
wavefront. Consequently, the position assigned to the leaving it is diverging even more. The center of curva-
optically real object is at the place from which the ture of the wavefront leaving the first lens is at B. We
incident light appears to be diverging. say that the first lens has a virtual image, and the
Whenever converging light is incident on an optical location assigned to the image is at B. The diverging
system, the system is said to have a virtual object. This wavefronts that leave the first lens propagate across
can happen only when some previous system has the space between the two lenses and are incident on
converged the light. The position assigned to a virtual the second lens. The second lens has an optically real
object point is at the center of curvature of the object. The center of curvature of the diverging wave-
incident converging wavefront. Consequently, the po- front incident on the second lens is also at B, as are
sition assigned to the virtual object is at the place the centers of curvature of all the diverging wavefronts
toward which the incident light is converging. between the first and second lenses. The position
Whenever converging light leaves an optical sys- assigned to the object for the second lens is at B. In
tem, the system is said to have an optically real image. effect, the virtual image for the first lens serves as the
(A physically real image exists only when the bundles real object for the second lens.
are actually allowed to form their point images.) The In Figure 3.11c, the first lens is a converging lens.
position assigned to an optically real image point is at However, the light incident on the first lens has a high
the center of curvature of the exiting converging wave- enough divergence so that the light emerging from it is
front. Consequently, the position assigned to the opti- still divergent. The first lens did have a converging
cally real image is at the place toward which the effect since the divergence of the exiting light is less
exiting light is converging. than the divergence of the incident light. All of the
Whenever diverging light leaves an optical system, wavefronts traveling from the first lens to the second
the system is said to have a virtual image. The position lens are diverging and have their centers of curvature
assigned to a virtual image point is at the center of located at B. Since the wavefront emerging from the
curvature of the exiting diverging wavefront. Con- first lens is divergent and has its center of curvature
sequently, the position assigned to the virtual image is located at B, we say that the first lens has a virtual
36 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

^^B

FIGURE 3.11. Object and image positions for


four different two-lens systems. In each case A is
the object for L,, B is the image for L, and the
object for L 2 , C is the image for L 2 .

image located at B. Since the wavefront incident on incident on the second lens. The center of curvature of
the second lens is diverging and also has its center of the wavefront incident on the second lens is also at B.
curvature located at B, we say that the second lens has In effect, the optically real image of the first lens
an optically real object located at B. In effect, the serves as the virtual object for the second lens.
virtual image for the first lens serves as the real object In each of these four cases, the light leaving the
for the second lens. first lens propagates across the space between the two
In Figure 3.lid, the light leaving the first lens is lenses and is incident on the second lens. The light
converging. The converging light is then incident on that leaves the first lens carries information about the
the second lens. All of the converging wavefronts image of the first lens. The light incident on the
traveling from the first lens to the second lens have a second lens carries information about the object for
common center of curvature located at B. Since the the second lens, but the information carried by the
wavefront emerging from the first lens is converging, light leaving the first lens is the same information that
we say that the first lens has an optically real image, the light is carrying when it is incident on the second
and we assign the image position to be at B, which is lens. Since the information transferred is the same, we
the center of curvature of the wavefront leaving the say that the image of the first lens is the object for the
first lens. Note that in this case, no physically real second lens.
image point exists at B. The wavefront incident on the The preceding statement can be extended to other
second lens is converging. We say that the second lens optical systems including mirrors. Consider your bath-
has a virtual object, and we assign the object position room mirror. Use your face as the object for the
to be at the center of curvature of the wavefront mirror. The mirror forms a virtual image of your face.
Optical Objects and Images 37

The mirror's virtual image serves as the object for even try making up your own two- or three-lens
your eye. The object for system two (your eye) is the example and analyzing it.)
image for system one (the mirror).

3.9 Object Space/Image Space


3.8 Conjugate Points and the Principle
of Reversibility The word space has several different definitions and
uses. The word space in object space or image space is
The principle of reversibility states that rays represent- used in an abstract mathematical sense. A definition of
ing the path of light through a system would, upon the mathematical use of the word space is as follows:
reversal of their direction, retrace their original path an aggregate or set of points or things that have a
back through the system. Reversibility at a reflecting common property. Consider the original four cases in
or a refracting surface follows directly from the law of Figures 3.11 again. The light is traveling to the right
reflection (Eq. 1.1) or the law of refraction (Eq. 1.4). and in each case, the assigned object point for lens L2
Suppose in the situations shown in Figure 3.11 that was point B. In the first three cases, point B was the
the light is reversed and made to travel through the postion of an optically real object for L 2 and was in
two lenses from right to left. According to the princi- front of (to the left of) L 2 . In the last case, point B
ple of reversibility, only the direction indicators on the was the position of a virtual object for L2 and was
rays need to be changed. The ray positions and angles located behind (to the right of) L 2 . Remember that in
remain unchanged. all the cases, the object position was taken to be at the
In the reversed (i.e., right to left) situation, lens L 2 center of curvature of the wavefront that is physically
has a real object at C and either a real or a virtual incident on L 2 .
image at B. In the reversed situation for the first three The set of all points, rays, or ray extensions as-
figures (Figures 3.11a, b, and c), the image for L 2 is sociated with the light incident on an optical system
optically real, while in the fourth figure (Figure constitutes the object space for the system. For L 2 , all
3.lid), the image for L 2 is still at B but is now virtual. the points B are in this set, that is, are in the object
In each of the two-lens examples, the two points B space for L 2 . Note, the object space for L2 is a
and C are coupled together. In the left to right mathematical set that includes points both to the left
situation, B was the object point and C the image and to the right of L 2 . The requirement for belonging
point, while in the reversed situation, C was the object to the object space set is not where the point is, but
point and B the image point. Because of the coupling only that the point be associated with the incident
between B and C, they are labeled as conjugate points light.
for lens L 2 . For L 2 , the statement "C is conjugate to For each of the original (left to right) cases shown
B" means, that for light traveling to the right, B is the in Figure 3.11, the image for lens Lj is located at point
object and C is the image, while in the reversed case, B. In the first and last cases, the image for Lr is real
C is the object and B is the image. and point B is located to the right of Ll, while in the
For lens L1? the conjugate points in each case are second and third cases, the image for Lx is virtual and
A and B. For the left to right case, A is the object point B is located to the left of Lj. Remember that the
point and B is the image point, while for the reversed image position was defined as the center of curvature
case, B is the object point and A is the image point. of the wavefront that is physically leaving Lj.
In the left to right situation for the two-lens system The set of points, rays, or ray extensions associated
(both Lt and L 2 ), the original object in each case was with the light leaving an optical system constitutes the
at A and the final image was at C. In the reversed image space for the system. In the original cases of
situation, the system object was at C and the system Figure 3.11, the points B are all in the image space for
image was at A. Thus, the conjugate points for the Lj. Note that the image space set includes points that
two-lens system are A and C. are both left and right of the lens. The requirement for
The ability to determine and use conjugate points is belonging to the image space set is not where the point
an important skill in analyzing optical systems. As is, but only that the point be associated with the light
illustrated by the above discussion, it is crucial to leaving the system.
recognize which lens or lenses are involved. In particu- It may be helpful in initially learning the object
lar, A is conjugate to B for the first lens. However, for space/image space concepts to think about imaging
both lenses together, A is conjugate to C. (You should with a tinted lens. (Sunglasses are common examples
take some time to think about this. In fact you might of tinted lenses.) Figure 3.12 shows four examples of
38 Geometrie,. Physical, and Visual Optics

a)

b)

B *2A red

FIGURE 3.12. The lens in each case is a red tinted lens.


d) The light leaving the lens is red, and the image B is red.

imaging with a tinted lens. In each example, the light In Figure 3.12c and d, a previous lens, which is not
is traveling left to right. shown, has been used to generate white converging
In Figure 3.12a, a white point source is placed in light incident on the red tinted diverging lens. In
front of a red tinted converging lens. The incident Figure 3.12c, the object for the diverging lens is virtual
rays, drawn in black, represent the incident white and is located at the center of curvature of the incident
light. The exiting rays, drawn in red, represent the wavefront. The center of curvature is found by extend-
transmitted red light. Point A is in object space and ing the incident black rays forward until they intersect
point B is in image space. at point A. Point A is shown in black since it is
In Figure 3.12b, the white point source is placed in associated with the incident white light and not with
front of a red tinted diverging lens. The incident rays the exiting red light. The light leaving the lens is still
are black representing the incident diverging light. converging, but not as convergent as the incident light.
The outgoing rays are red and represent the exiting A real image is formed at point B. In this case, point
light, which is more divergent than the incident light. A is in the object space set (or simply, in object
The image is virtual and the associated position is at space), and point B is in the image space set (or
the center of curvature of the exiting wavefront. This simply, in image space), even though they are both to
center of curvature is located by extending the outgo- the right of the lens.
ing red rays backward until they intersect at point B. In Figure 3.12d, the incident white light is converg-
Clearly, point A is in object space. Point B is as- ing, but the degree of convergence is not as high as in
sociated with the red light leaving the lens. Therefore, part c. Consequently, the diverging lens has enough
it is in image space even though it is to the left of the power to make the outgoing red light divergent. Both
lens. the image and the object points are virtual. The object
Optical Objects and Images 39

point is at A, represented in black, and the image lens 1 have a real or virtual image? Is lens 1 a
point is at B, represented in red. Point A is in object converging or a diverging lens?
space even though it is to the right of the lens, and 4. Consider lens 3 in Figure 3.13. Which point (A,
point B is in image space even though it is to the left B, C, or D) is the object position for lens 3? Does
of the lens. lens 3 have a real or a virtual object? Is lens 3
In conclusion, when you see the term object space, converging or diverging? What point serves as the
you should think in terms of the convergence or center of curvature for the wavefront incident on
divergence of the light incident on the system even if lens 3?
the object is virtual and located behind the system.
When you see the term image space, you should think 5. Consider Figure 3.14. Point B is in the object
in terms of the convergence or divergence of the light space for which lens ( 1 , 2 , 3, 4, or 5)? What lens
leaving the system even if the image is virtual and is point B in the image space for?
located in front of the system. Once learned, the 6. Consider Figure 3.14. Point D is in the object
object space/image space concepts serve as a useful space for which lens (1, 2, 3, 4, or 5)? What lens
tool in dealing with multiple-component systems. is point D in the image space for?
7. Consider Figure 3.14. What lens (1, 2, 3, 4, or 5)
is point E in the object space for? What lens is
point E in the image space for?
Problems 8. Consider Figure 3.14. List the converging lenses.
List the diverging lenses.
1. A flat bathroom mirror reflects light without 9. Consider Figure 3.14. For lens 2, what point is
changing the vergence. Suppose you stand in front conjugate to point C? Now consider lens 2 and 3
of the bathroom mirror and look at your image in as one system. For lens 2 and 3 as one system,
the mirror. Is the image formed by the mirror real what point is conjugate to C?
or virtual? The mirror's image serves as the object 10. Consider Figure 3.14. There is light blue water
for your eye. Does your eye have a physically real between lens 1 and 2. There is light green jello
object, an optically real object, or a virtual between lens 2 and 3. There is light red water
object? When you hold your right hand up, does between lens 3 and 4. Draw the wavefronts that
your image in the mirror hold its right or its left have point E as their center of curvature. We want
hand up? to represent point E by the color of the medium
2. Consider lens 2 in Figure 3.13. Which point (A, that these wavefronts are in. What color should
B, C, or D) is the object position for lens 2? Does we use for E?
lens 2 have a real or virtual object? Which point 11. A myope wears a diverging spectacle correction.
serves as the image for lens 2? Is the image for When the myope looks through the spectacle lens
lens 2 real or virtual? Is lens 2 a converging or a at a distant tree, is the optical object for his eye
diverging lens? What point is the center of curva- the tree, or the image of the tree formed by the
ture of the wavefront incident on lens 2? spectacle lens? Is the image of the spectacle lens
3. Consider lens 1 in Figure 3.13. Which point (A, real or virtual? Is the object for the myope's
B, C, or D) is the image position for lens 1? Does cornea real or virtual?

1 2> 2I

<^^ B<C *Z

FIGURE 3.13. Three-lens system refer-


red to in problem nos. 2 through 4.
40 Geometric, Physical, and Visual Optics

FIGURE 3.14. Five-lens system referred


to in problem nos. 5 through 10.

12. A hyperope wears converging spectacle lenses. cornea? The spectacle corrected hyperope has a
When the hyperope looks through the spectacle real image on the retina. For the spectacle lens-
lens at a distant tree, converging light leaves the eye system, what is the retinal image conjugate
spectacle lens and is incident on the hyperope's to?
cornea. Does the hyperope's cornea have a real or 13. Which is the better statement: "Seeing is believ-
virtual object? Where is the center of curvature of ing" or "Sight is an illusion"? Why?
the wavefront that is incident on the hyperope's
CHAPTER FOUR

Thin Lenses and


Ray Diagrams

4.1 How Spherical Lenses Work spherical glass surface in which the air bulges into the
center of the glass surface. The edges of the plane
waves enter the glass surface first and are consequent-
The long glass rod shown in Figure 4.1a has a spheri- ly slowed down before the center section of the plane
cal surface on the front. Plane waves from a distant wave. Thus, when the entire wavefront has entered
point source are incident from the left. In Figure 4.1b, the glass, the edges are lagging behind the center.
the first wavefront is entering the glass. The speed of Within the accuracy of the paraxial approximation, the
the wavefront in the glass is slower than its speed in wavefronts in the glass are spherical diverging wave-
the air. Consequently, the center of the wavefront, fronts.
which enters the glass first, slows down first and starts Figure 4.4 shows plane waves in the glass incident
lagging behind the edges. The result is that the wave- from the opposite direction on the same spherical
fronts in the glass become converging wavefronts. surface shown in Figure 4.3. Here, the middle of the
Within the accuracy of the paraxial approximation, the wavefront enters the air first and thus speeds up first.
converging wavefronts are spherical and form a point Hence, the middle of the emerging wavefront leads
image at position E in Figure 4.1c. the edges, so that the wavefront that emerges into the
Figure 4.2 shows plane waves in the glass incident air is again diverging.
from the opposite direction on the same spherical glass The glass surface shown in Figures 4.3 and 4.4 has
surface. As the first wavefront approaches the surface, the physical property such that, at its center, the air
the edges of the wavefront enter the air (before the bulges into the glass. Note that this surface diverges
center of the wavefront) and speed up. Consequently, plane waves traveling in either direction, i.e., plane
the edges of the wavefront start leading the center of waves initially in the air are diverged when passing
the wavefront that is still in the glass. Within the into the glass (Figure 4.3), and plane waves initially in
accuracy of the paraxial approximation, the exiting the glass are diverged when passing into the air (Fig-
wavefronts in air are converging and spherical and ure 4.4).
form a point image at G. Figure 4.5a shows a converging glass lens made
The spherical glass surface in Figures 4.1 and 4.2 with two spherical surfaces. In the center, each glass
has the physical property of its center bulging out into surface bulges out into the air. Each of the surfaces
the air. This surface converges plane waves no matter contributes to the converging action of the lens. A
which way the waves travel through the surface, i.e., converging lens is thicker in the middle than it is at the
plane waves initially in the air are converged when edges.
passing into the glass (Figure 4.1), and plane waves Figure 4.5b shows a diverging glass lens made with
initially in the glass are converged when passing into two spherical surfaces. In the center, each glass sur-
the air (Figure 4.2). face is indented so that the air bulges into the glass.
Figure 4.3 shows plane waves in air incident on a Each glass surface contributes to the diverging action
41
42 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

>
plane waves
glass

a)

glass

b)

FIGURE 4.1. a. Plane waves in air incident on a


glass rod with a convex spherical surface, b. In the
glass, the middle of the wavefront lags behind the
c) edges, c. The wavefronts in the glass converge to E.

of the lens. A diverging lens is thinner in the middle


than it is at the edges.
Figure 4.6 shows two more glass lenses made with
spherical surfaces. In each case, the left surface of the
lens is convergent and the right surface of the lens is
divergent. The net converging or diverging effect de-
pends on the converging or diverging power of the
glass
individual surfaces. In Figure 4.6a, the converging
surface (left) has more power than the diverging
b) surface (right). Consequently, the net effect of the
FIGURE 4.2. a. Plane waves in the glass incident on the convex lens is to converge light. The tip-off that the lens in
surface of the previous figure, b. In the air, the wavefront edges Figure 4.6a is a converging lens is that it is thicker in
lead the middle resulting in light converging to G. the middle than it is at the edges.
Thin Lenses and Ray Diagrams 43

a)

glass

b) M

FIGURE 4.3. a. Plane waves in air incident on a con-


cave air-glass interface, b. In the glass, the edges of the
wave lag behind the middle, c. The resulting diverging
wavefronts in the glass.

<e

a) a) b)
FIGURE 4.5. a, A converging lens with two converging sur-
^ faces. b. A diverging lens with two diverging surfaces.

b)
FIGURE 4.4. a. Plane waves in the glass incident on the
concave interface of the previous figure, b. In the air, the middle
of the wavefronts leads the edges resulting in diverging waves.

In Figure 4.6b, the diverging surface (right) has


more power than the converging surface (left). The a) b)
net effect of the lens is a diverging effect. The tip-off FIGURE 4.6. a. A converging lens with one converging and
that the lens in Fig. 4.6b is a diverging lens is that it is one diverging surface, b. A diverging lens with one converging
thinner in the middle than it is at the edges. and one diverging surface.
44 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

4.2 Optical Axis of incidence Q{ is zero. Therefore, from Eq. 4.1, the
angle of refraction must also be zero. Therefore, a
Figure 4.7 shows a diverging lens. Each surface of the ray incident normal to a surface passes straight
lens is spherical. The center of curvature of the left through the surface without bending.
spherical surface is marked C1? and the center of Consider an incident ray lying on the optical axis of
curvature of the right spherical surface is marked C 2 . a spherical lens. The optical axis is normal to both of
The dashed lines shown in Figure 4.7a complete the the surfaces, so the angles of incidence and refraction
spheres for which C1 and C2 are the respective centers of the ray are equal to zero for both surfaces. Thus, a
of curvature. ray coming in along the optical axis does not bend
Figure 4.7b shows a straight line drawn through the while passing through the lens. The ray leaves the lens
centers of curvature of both spherical surfaces (i.e., still traveling along the optical axis.
through Cj and C 2 ). This line is a symmetry axis for In order for two points to be conjugate points, any
the lens. A clockwise or counterclockwise rotation of ray associated with the object point must, after passing
the lens around this axis produces no change in the through the lens, also be associated with the image
lens image. This line, through the centers of curvature point. Since a ray incident along the optical axis does
of the two spherical surfaces, is called the optical axis not bend, any object point (real or virtual) lying on
of the lens. Figure 4.8 shows the respective centers of the optical axis has a conjugate image point that also
curvature, C1 and C 2 , for the left and right spherical lies on the optical axis.
surfaces of several other lenses together with the
optical axis.
Whenever a line passes through the center of cur-
vature of a sphere, it is normal to the sphere's surface. 4.3 Thin Lenses
Since the optical axis passes through the center of
curvature of each spherical surface of a lens, it is The central thickness of the lenses discussed in the
normal to each surface. For the diverging lenses previous sections is the thickness of the lenses along
shown in Figures 4.7 and 4.8, the optical axis passes the optical axis. When the central thickness of a lens is
through the thinnest portion of the lens, while for the small enough, the converging and diverging properties
converging lenses, the optical axis passes through the of the lens in air are independent of the shape or form
thickest portion of the lens. of the lens as well as the direction in which the light is
The small angle approximation to Snell's law re- traveling through the lens. In this case, the lens is
lated the incident angle of a light ray to the angle of called a thin lens. All converging thin lenses are
refraction of the light ray by the equation, represented by the symbol shown in Figure 4.9. Figure
4.10 shows the symbol for all diverging thin lenses.
n,6i = n 2 9 r . (4.1)
The optical axis of a thin lens is drawn normal to
The incident angle Q{ and the angle of refraction the lens as shown in Figure 4.11. The point on the lens
were defined relative to the normal for a surface. through which the optical axis passes is called the
When an incident ray is normal to a surface, the angle optical center of the lens.

/ N "^
optical
FIGURE 4.7. C, and C 2 are the respective
axis centers of curvature for the spherical surfaces of
the lens. The optical axis is the line that passes
through C, and C 2 .
a) b)

5- <"
>

FIGURE 4.8. C, and C 2 are the respective


C2 Ci centers of curvature for the spherical sur-
faces of each lens, and the connecting line is
the optical axis.
Thin Lenses and Ray Diagrams 45

A
FIGURE 4.9. Thin converging lenses and the shape-independent
representation.

V
<=

FIGURE 4.10. Thin diverging lenses and the shape-indepen-


A dent representation.

V
4^

v v\
optical optical

optical optical
center center FIGURE 4.11. The optical center and optical axis for thin
V lenses.

4.4 Secondary Focal Point (F2) lens. The basic definition of the secondary focal point
is still the same, i.e., the secondary focal point is the
The secondary focal point (F 2 ) for a thin lens is axial image point conjugate to an axial object point at
defined as the on-axis image point that results when a optical infinity. Again, the waves incident on the lens
bundle of plane waves is incident normally on the lens. from the distant axial object point are effectively flat
An alternative definition is that the secondary focal or plane waves. The lens diverges the waves and the
point F 2 for a thin lens is the on-axis image point axial image point, F 2 , is virtual and located at the
conjugate to an on-axis object point at optical infinity. center of curvature of the exiting diverging wavefront.
The two definitions are equivalent since the on-axis This position is found in Figure 4.13b and c by extend-
object point at optical infinity results in incident plane ing the outgoing rays back until they intersect. (The
waves. Since an axial object point is always conjugate extensions are dashed.)
to an axial image point, F 2 is always located on the For incident light traveling to the right, F 2 lies to
optical axis. the right of a converging lens (Figure 4.12) and to the
Figure 4.12 shows the situation for a thin converg- left of a diverging lens (Figure 4.13). However, for the
ing lens. The wavefronts from the distant axial point diverging lens case, keep in mind that F 2 is a point in
source are effectively flat, or plane waves, when they image space. F 2 is associated with the light leaving the
reach the lens. The lens converges the light and a real lens (i.e., the light physically to the right of the lens)
image point is formed at F 2 on the axis behind the and not with the plane waves incident on the lens.
lens. The location of F 2 relative to the lens is a measure
Figure 4.13 shows the situation for a thin diverging of the converging or diverging power of the lens. A

^
> ^
HHri
>I [ TH FIGURE 4.12. a. Plane waves incident on a
converging lens resulting in waves that con-
**J^ verge to the secondary focal point, b. Wave-
b) c) fronts and rays. c. Rays only.
46 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

->-

IV\M\
^
^F^
TT Wl 1
II 1 1 1 3fe
> ^CH
FIGURE 4.13. a. Plane waves incident on a
J/r*^L/
diverging lens resulting in diverging waves

b)
leaving, b. Wavefronts and rays showing the
virtual secondary focal point, c. Rays only.

strong lens has F 2 located close to the lens, while a lens. In order to get plane waves to leave the diverging
weak lens has F 2 located far away from the lens. lens, the incident light must be converging. The object
point is located at the center of curvature of the
incident wavefront and is virtual. The virtual object
point can be located by extending the incident rays
forward until they intersect. Again, the rays represent-
4.5 Primary Focal Point (F,) ing the light leaving the lens are all parallel to each
other and to the optical axis since one of the rays is
The primary focal point (F x ) is defined as the on-axis traveling along the axis.
object point that results in plane waves leaving the For incident light traveling to the right, Fj lies to
lens. An alternative definition is that the primary focal the left of a converging lens (Figure 4.14) and to the
point Fj is the on-axis object point that is conjugate to right of a diverging lens (Figure 4.15). However, for
an on-axis image point at optical infinity. the diverging lens case, keep in mind that Fx is a point
Figure 4.14 shows the situation for a thin converg- in object space. is associated with the light incident
ing lens. The wavefronts incident on the lens are on the lens, i.e., the light physically to the left of the
diverging, while the wavefronts exiting the lens are lens, and not with the plane waves that are exiting the
plane waves. The rays leaving the lens are effectively lens.
parallel to each other and to the optical axis since one The location of Fx relative to the lens is a measure
of the rays is traveling along the axis. Clearly, for a of the converging or diverging power of the lens. A
thin converging lens, Fj is a real object point. strong lens has Fj located close to the lens, while a
Figure 4.15 shows the situation for a thin diverging weak lens has Fx located far away from the lens.

> 1
^
^~r
^ ^ FIGURE 4.14. a. Wavefronts diverging
* < from the primary focal point result in plane
V 'r waves leaving, b. Wavefronts and rays. c.
b) Rays only.

FIGURE 4.15. a. Converging wave-


fronts incident on a diverging lens resulting
in plane waves leaving. The center of cur-
vature of the incident wavefront is the
primary focal point, b. Wavefronts and
rays. c. Rays only.
Thin Lenses and Ray Diagrams 47

4.6 Equidistance of Focal Points for argument also shows that the primary and secondary
a Thin Lens in Air focal points simply change places when light travels in
the opposite direction through a lens.
When the central thickness of a lens in air is small
enough, then the imaging properties of the lens are
independent of the lens shape and of the direction the
light travels through the lens. This was the thin lens 4.7 Predictable Rays/Converging
assumption. Let us apply this assumption to a converg- Lenses/Off-Axis Object Points
ing lens.
In Figure 4.16a, incident plane waves are traveling Figure 4.17 shows the rays used in defining the pri-
to the right and the secondary focal point, F 2 , is mary and secondary focal points for a thin converging
located 10 cm to the right of the lens. In Figure 4.16b, lens in air. The secondary focal point, F 2 , is an on-axis
plane waves incident on the same lens are traveling to image point conjugate to optical infinity, while the
the left. In this case, since the imaging properties of primary focal point, F l 5 is an on-axis object point
the thin lens in air are independent of the direction in conjugate to optical infinity.
which the light is traveling, F 2 is now located 10 cm to Figure 4.18 shows an extended object located a
the left of the lens. finite distance in front of a thin converging lens. Our
According to the principle of reversibility, rays initial interest is in the off-axis point at the top of the
travel the same path backward through a system; thus, object. The figure shows some of the incident diverg-
only the direction indicators on the rays need to be ing rays from the top object point.
changed. Figure 4.16c shows the principle of re- We cannot predict how most of the rays in Figure
versibility applied to Figure 4.16b. However, in the 4.18 will leave the lens. However, we can use Figure
reversed situation (Figure 4.16c), the light is diverging 4.17 to predict how two of the rays will leave the lens.
away from the point 10 cm to the left of the lens and In Figure 4.17a, the incident rays are all parallel to the
plane waves are leaving the lens. Consequently, the axis and the exiting rays all point toward F 2 . Con-
point labeled F 2 in Figure 4.16b becomes the primary sequently, any incident ray that is parallel to the axis
focal point, Fl9 for the same lens in Figure 4.16c. will point toward F 2 when it leaves the lens. One of
Since the imaging properties of the thin lens in air the incident rays in Figure 4.18 is parallel to the axis;
are independent of the direction in which the light is therefore, it must point toward F 2 when it leaves the
traveling, then by comparing Figures 4.16a and 4.16c, lens. Figure 4.19a shows this ray by itself, and Figure
one can see that the primary and secondary focal 4.19b shows this ray together with the other incident
points are both 10 cm from the lens. This argument rays.
can be repeated for any focal length. Therefore, the In Figure 4.17b, the incident rays all originate at F1
primary and secondary focal points for any thin lens in and the exiting rays are all parallel to the axis. Based
air are always equidistant from the lens. Note, the on Figure 4.17b, we can predict that any incident ray


FIGURE 4.16. a. Plane waves incident
* from the left give a secondary focal point
10 cm right of the lens. b. Plane waves inci-
"2 ^ ^ ^ " \ ' dent from the right give a secondary focal
" point 10 cm to the left of the lens. c. The
10cm % f
principle of reversibility shows that the pri-
10cm mary focal point is also 10 cm from the lens.
b)

>
i1
>
^ s .

F
^5r~Fz
F
<
,>
^
>- ^
s *
FIGURE 4.17. Diagrams used to predict the respective
behavior of rays associated with the focal points of a
a) { 1 b) converging lens.
48 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

Figure 4.21a shows an isolation of the two rays and


Figure 4.21b shows the two rays along with the other
incident rays.
The two exiting rays indicate that the light leaving
the lens is converging. The conjugate image point is
real and is located at the place where the two rays
intersect. Now that the conjugate off-axis image point
is located, all the other incident rays can be traced
FIGURE 4.18. Diverging rays incident on a lens. through the lens. These rays must also pass through
the image point (Figure 4.22a). (Figure 4.22b also
shows the incident diverging wavefronts and the exit-
ing converging wavefronts.)
that, as far as the lens is concerned, appears to be The object under discussion lies in a plane that is
coming from Fl will leave the lens parallel to the axis. perpendicular to the optical axis of the lens. Under
For the off-axis object point in Figure 4.18, one of the paraxial conditions, the image also lies in a plane
incident rays leaves the object point and passes perpendicular to the axis. Since an axial object point
through before hitting the lens. Hence, this ray will must be conjugate to an axial image point, we can
leave the lens parallel to the axis. Figure 4.20a isolates locate the axial image point by simply drawing a
this ray and Figure 4.20b shows this ray together with perpendicular line from the off-axis image point to the
the other incident rays. axis (Figures 4.21 and 4.22).
Taken together, the two predictable rays shown in Consider a second ray trace example for the same
Figures 4.19 and 4.20 are sufficient to indicate whether thin converging lens. The object is now placed be-
the light leaving the lens is converging or diverging. tween Fj and the lens. Figure 4.23 shows some inci-

\
1

/ K ^

Fi FN

a)
\f FIGURE 4.19. a. Isolation of the predictable ray
incident parallel to the axis. b. Path of predictable ray.

i 1

F > ^ > F2
FIGURE 4.20. a. Isolation of the pre-
b) dictable ray through the primary focal
<1 point, b. Path of the predictable ray.

Fr FIGURE 4.21. a. Isolation of the two


predictable rays and resultant image loca-
tion. b. Predictable rays among the others.
Thin Lenses and Ray Diagrams 49

FIGURE 4.22. a. Once the image point


is known, all exiting rays must go there, b,
Wavefronts and rays.

the lens and, as far as the lens is concerned, appears to


i \
be coming from Fj. We can use Figure 4.17b as a
guide to see that this ray must exit the lens parallel to

^ the axis. Figure 4.24b isolates this ray.


Fi F2
Figure 4.25a shows both of the predictable rays.
The exiting rays indicate that the outgoing light is
diverging. Consequently, the image is virtual and can
t
be located by extending the rays backward until they
FIGURE 4.23. Incident rays for object inside the primary focal intersect (Figure 4.25b). The virtual image is erect
point. relative to the object and larger than the object. (This
is an example of a simple magnifying lens.)
All of the outgoing rays must appear to be coming
dent diverging rays. Again, most of these diverging from the same virtual image point. So, the remaining
rays are not predictable. However, one of the incident rays can now be traced as shown in Figure 4.26a.
rays is parallel to the axis; therefore, we can use Figure 4.26b also shows the incident diverging wave-
Figure 4.17a as a guide to see that this ray must exit fronts and the exiting diverging wavefronts. In Figure
the lens pointing toward F 2 . Figure 4.24a isolates this 4.26b, the exiting wavefronts have less divergence
ray. Another of the incident rays in Figure 4.23 hits than the incident wavefronts.

b)
4= FIGURE 4.24. Predictable rays associated
with the focal points.

^ 1 -*--
F, F
FIGURE 4.25. Virtual image location from the
predictable rays. a. Actual rays. b. Backward ex-
a) tensions to locate the image.
50 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

FIGURE 4.27. Ray diagram showing some rays bend down and
other bend up, while the nodal ray passes through the optical
center.

Inspection of Figure 4.27 shows that the unbent ray


passes through the lens at the same point that the
FIGURE 4.26. a. Ray behavior for virtual image, b. Rays and optical axis passes through the lens. This point was
wavefronts.
previously named the optical center of the lens.
The latter property is a general property for thin
lenses and gives us a third predictable ray to use.
Namely, any ray passing through the optical center of
Instructional Comment a thin lens passes straight through without bending.
The ray that does not bend is called the nodal ray, and
Ray diagrams of the type discussed can greatly aid an the optical center of the thin lens is the nodal point for
individual in developing optics intuition. These diagrams
the thin lens.
can be drawn to scale on graph paper, and that is
sometimes necessary. However, in developing optics in-
tuition, I believe that the main utility of ray diagrams is
gained from being able to do a quick and dirty freehand
sketch that provides the needed information. Therefore, I
urge beginners to practice such sketches. 4.9 Further Examples: Converging Lenses
A common pitfall of some beginners is to try to memorize
all the possible types of ray diagrams. Let that be In order to let the ray diagram convey the information
anathema. I believe that one should learn to quickly draw intended, the following convention is used. A ray that
the predictable rays and then trust the ray diagram. In is actually representing light physically present at that
this way, much less memory is required and the skill point in space is drawn as a solid line. Extensions of
gained will tend to remain long after one's memorized the ray either forwards or backwards into regions of
results have been forgotten. space where the light associated with the ray is not
If I give you some fish, you eat for a day.
physically present is shown as a dashed line.
If I teach you to fish, you eat for a lifetime. Consider the dashed line in Figure 4.24b. There,
Old Chinese Proverb the ray of interest left the object and was incident on
the lens as if it had come from the primary focal point,
Fj. The ray was drawn in solid from the object to the
lens, but the extension of the ray from the object to Fl
4.8 Nodal Rays was drawn in dashed.
In Figure 4.25a, the two exiting rays, drawn solid,
Figure 4.27 is a repeat of Figure 4.22a in which the are diverging. Figure 4.25b shows the backward exten-
object was located outside the primary focal point, F ^ sions of the exiting rays in order to locate the virtual
and a conjugate real image was formed. Part of the image. These extensions are dashed. The extensions
incident rays are bent down upon passing through the are associated with the exiting light and not with the
lens and part of the incident rays are bent up upon light that is physically incident on the lens.
passing through the lens. Between the bent up rays Figure 4.28a shows a real object placed outside Fx
and the bent down rays, there must be a ray that of the lens. The incident ray parallel to the axis is
passes straight through the lens without being bent. shown in Figure 4.28b, and it exits the lens pointing
Thin Lenses and Ray Diagrams 51

J_ '

F, Fi I F i \
a) b

K -^
F2 F,
c) *
^ <>

f^rN^ FIGURE 4.28. . Object outside the primary focal


point, b. Predictable ray incident parallel to the axis.
c. Predictable ray through the primary focal point, d.
Predictable ray through the optical center, e. Image
e) location by the three predictable rays.

toward point F 2 . The ray incident on the lens that and the location assigned to the virtual object is at the
passes through Fj exits parallel to the axis as shown in center of curvature of the wavefront incident on the
Figure 4.28c. The nodal ray is shown in Figure 4.28d. lens. The location of the virtual object is found by
Finally, all the rays are shown in Figure 4.28e. extending the converging rays forward until they inter-
Figure 4.29a shows converging light incident on the sect. These extensions are shown as the dashed lines.
lens. The light has been converged by a preceding Out of all the incident converging rays, three are
optical system, which is not shown. Since the incident predictable as discussed previously. Figure 4.29b iso-
light is converging, the object for the lens is virtual lates the nodal ray. Since the nodal ray passes straight

>*

^1
I I "-ta
r^ J

a) y\ >

FIGURE 4.29. a. Converging wavefronts and


rays incident on a converging lens. b. The nodal
ray. c. The ray incident parallel to the axis. d.
The ray incident through the primary focal point.
e. Image location by the three predictable rays. / .
Other rays..
52 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

through the lens without bending, it is drawn entirely the incident light must be converging. Thus, F t must
as a solid line. be a virtual object point. Figure 4.30b shows the rays
Figure 4.29c shows the incident ray that is parallel associated with Fj for a thin diverging lens. Based on
to the axis. This ray exits the lens pointing toward F 2 . Figure 4.30b, any incident ray pointing toward Fj of a
(Recall Figure 4.17a for the general behavior of rays thin diverging lens leaves the lens parallel to the axis.
incident parallel to the axis.) Remember that Fj and F 2 are equidistant from the
Figure 4.29d shows the incident ray that passes lens.
through Fx and exits parallel to the axis. (Recall Figure 4.31a shows the rays from a near extended
Figure 4.17b for the general behavior of rays incident object located in front of a thin diverging lens. Three
through Fj.) of these rays are predictable. Figure 4.31b isolates the
Figure 4.29e shows all three of the incident predict- incident ray parallel to the axis. In accordance with
able rays. The exiting rays, drawn solid and to the Figure 4.30a, this ray appears to be coming from F 2
right of the lens, show that the light leaving the lens is when it leaves the lens. Figure 4.31c isolates the
converging and forms a real image, which is erect and incident ray that is pointing toward F ^ In accordance
smaller relative to the virtual object. with Figure 4.30b, this ray leaves the lens parallel to
Note that in this case, the lens took the incident the axis. Figure 4.3Id shows the nodal ray. Figure
converging light and converged it even more, which is 4.31e shows all three of the predictable rays. The
what one might expect a converging lens to do. Once exiting rays indicate that the light leaving the lens is
the conjugate image point is located, all the other diverging. Figure 4.3If shows that the virtual image
incident rays can then be traced through the system. position is located by extending the exiting rays back-
Some of these other rays are shown in Figure 4.29f. ward until they intersect. The virtual image is erect
and smaller relative to the object.
Figure 4.32 shows a case of converging light inci-
dent on a diverging thin lens. The incident light was
converged by a preceding optical system, which is not
4.10 Predictable Rays/Diverging shown. The location of the virtual object is at the
Lenses/Off-Axis Object Points center of curvature of the incident wavefront. The
location is found by extending the incident converging
The secondary focal point, F 2 , is the axial image point rays forward until they intersect (Figure 4.32a).
that is conjugate to an axial object point at optical Out of all the incident rays in Figure 4.32a, three
infinity. In other words, F 2 is the on-axis image point are predictable. Figure 4.32b isolates the incident ray
that results when plane waves are incident on the lens. parallel to the axis. In accordance with Figure 4.30a,
For a thin diverging lens, F 2 is a virtual image point. this ray appears to be coming from F 2 when it exits the
Figure 4.30a shows the rays associated with F 2 for a lens. Figure 4.32c isolates the incident ray that is
thin diverging lens. Each incident ray parallel to the pointing toward Fl. In accordance with Figure 4.30b,
axis is bent by the lens and appears to be coming from this ray exits the lens parallel to the axis. Figure 4.32d
F 2 when it exits the lens. Figure 4.30a shows that for a shows the nodal ray. Figure 4.32e shows all three of
thin diverging lens any incident ray parallel to the axis the incident predictable rays with their corresponding
must appear to be coming from F 2 when it leaves the exiting rays. The exiting rays are converging to form a
lens. real image that is erect and larger relative to the
The primary focal point, F 1? is the on-axis object virtual object. Note in this case that the light leaving
point that results in plane waves leaving the lens. the lens is not as convergent as the light incident on
Clearly, to get plane waves leaving a diverging lens, the lens.

FIGURE 4.30. Rays associated with the pri-


mary and secondary focal points of a diverging
a) lens.
Thin Lenses and Ray Diagrams 53

FIGURE 4.31. a. Diverging rays incident on a


diverging lens. b. The predictable ray parallel to the
axis. c. The predictable ray pointing toward the
primary focal point, d. The nodal ray. e. Image
location by the three predictable rays. / . Other rays.

FIGURE 4.32. a. Converging rays incident such


that the virtual object is inside the primary focal
point, b. The predictable ray parallel to the axis. c.
The predictable ray pointing toward the primary
focal point, d. The nodal ray. e. Real image location
by the three predictable rays.
54 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

Figure 4.33a again considers converging light inci- Instructional Comment


dent on a diverging lens. As compared to the previous
example, the incident light is less convergent. The Again, these types of ray diagrams can be done on graph
virtual object is located by extending the incident rays paper, and that is sometimes necessary. However, I be-
forward until they intesect. Figure 4.33b isolates the lieve the greatest benefit is gained by learning to quickly
incident ray parallel to the axis. This ray appears to be draw a freehand sketch that is accurate enough to supply
coming from F 2 when it leaves the lens. Figure 4.33c the needed information. The beginner should avoid
isolates the incident ray that is pointing toward Fj and memorizing these ray diagrams. Instead, by remembering
the three predictable rays, one should be able to draw a
is parallel to the axis when it leaves. Figure 4.33d ray diagram and trust the results.
isolates the nodal ray.
Figure 4.33e shows all three of the predictable rays.
The exiting rays are diverging and the image is virtual.
The position of the virtual image is located by extend- 4.11 Common Features
ing the exiting rays backward until they intersect as
shown in Figure 4.33f. In this case, the virtual image is The predictable rays involve the nodal point and the
inverted and larger relative to the virtual object. Keep focal points. The nodal point is at the optical center of
in mind that the virtual image is associated only with a lens for both converging and diverging lenses. When
the light physically leaving the lens (i.e., on the right plane waves along the axis are incident on the front of
in Figure 4.33f), and that the virtual object is as- a lens, the resulting image point is the secondary focal
sociated only with the light physically incident on the point, F 2 , which is located at the center of curvature
lens (i.e., on the left in Figure 4.33f). (You might of the exiting wavefront. For light incident on the
want to consider a tinted lens and color code the rays front of a lens, the center of curvature of the exiting
for this situation.) wavefront is behind a converging lens and in front of a

->* + > +

>+ >> +

^ ^ ^ \ FIGURE 4.33. a. Converging rays incident

f L^'
s' F< virtual such that the virtual object is outside the pri-

^
1
^ ' object
v
mary focal point, b. The predictable ray inci-
dent parallel to the axis. c. The predictable ray
k pointing toward the primary focal point, d. The
nodal ray. e. The three predictable rays. /. Ray
extensions locating the virtual image.
Thin Lenses and Ray Diagrams 55

FIGURE 4.34. Common features of wavefronts and


rays associated with the secondary focal point.

diverging lens (Figures 4.34a and 4.34b, respectively). point toward Fx for a diverging lens (Figures 4.35c and
For both converging and diverging lenses, the parallel 4.35d, respectively). In both cases, the rays are easily
rays associated with the incident plane waves are drawn in from the wavefront diagrams.
always associated with F 2 when exiting the lens. The
exiting rays point toward F 2 for a converging lens and
point away from F 2 for a diverging lens (Figures 4.34c 4.12 Scaling of Ray Diagrams
and 4.34d, respectively). In both cases, the rays are
easily drawn in from the wavefront diagrams. The vertical scale on a ray diagram is frequently
When plane waves leave the back of a lens, the different than the horizontal scale. Figure 4.36 shows a
original object point is the primary focal point, Fj. To case where the vertical scale spacing is 1 cm per mark
get plane waves leaving a converging lens, the incident and the horizontal scale spacing is 10 cm per mark.
light waves must be diverging. To get plane waves Scale differences are used so that ray diagrams are
leaving a diverging lens, the incident light must be large enough to see. If the 10 cm per mark were used
converging. The location of the primary focal point is for both vertical and horizontal scales, the ray diagram
at the center of curvature of the incident wavefront. would be squashed along the horizontal axis and the
The center of curvature of the incident wavefront is in details would be hard to see. If the 1 cm per mark
front of a converging lens and behind a diverging lens scale were used, the ray diagram would be too large
(Figures 4.35a and 4.35b, respectively). For both con- for convenient use. The different scales enable the ray
verging and diverging lenses, the parallel rays as- diagram to be compact with the details still visible.
sociated with the exiting plane waves are always as- Note, with different scales the angles are distorted and
sociated with Fj when entering the lens. The incident can look large even though they are, in reality, small
rays point away from Fx for a converging lens and angles made by paraxial rays.

^ -V
y

Oei
<Tl
7

F^i
^C
1 r FIGURE 4.35. Common features of wavefronts and
rays associated with the primary focal point.
56 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

FIGURE 4.36. Horizontal and vertical


scaling differences.

Problems image. Indicate approximately the location of the


image. Is it real or virtual, erect or inverted,
larger or smaller?
1. An extended object is midway between a converg- 5. For a diverging lens and a real near object, locate
ing lens and its primary focal point. Draw a ray the image by drawing a ray diagram. Is the image
diagram to locate the image. Is the image real or real or virtual, larger or smaller, erect or in-
virtual, erect or inverted, larger or smaller? verted?
2. An extended object is midway between Fl and 2Fj 6. A diverging lens has a virtual primary focal point.
for a converging lens. Draw a ray diagram to Draw a ray diagram to locate the image for a
locate the image. Is the image real or virtual, erect virtual object located midway between the pri-
or inverted, larger or smaller? mary focal point and the lens. Is the image real or
3. An extended object is at 4FX for a converging virtual, larger or smaller, erect or inverted?
lens. Draw a ray diagram to locate the image. Is 7. A diverging lens has a virtual primary focal point.
the image real or virtual, erect or inverted, larger A virtual object is located twice as far from the
or smaller? lens as the primary focal point. Find the image by
4. A converging lens with a secondary focal length of drawing a ray diagram. Is the image real or virtu-
g, has a virtual extended object located a distance al, erect or inverted? Is the image larger, smaller,
g from the lens. Draw a ray diagram to locate the or the same size?
CHAPTER FIVE

Thin Lens
Equations

5.1 Thin Lens Vergence Equation Then the exiting vergence V is

The thin lens in air in Figure 5.1a has a diverging V = P + U,


wavefront incident on it and a converging wavefront V = + 6 . 0 0 D + (-9.00D),
leaving it. The degree of divergence or convergence of
or
these wavefronts at the lens is specified quantitatively
by their vergence. The action of the thin lens on V=-3.00D.
paraxial wavefronts can be described by a simple When plane waves are incident on the +6.00 D lens,
vergence equation: U equals zero and the exiting vergence V numerically
V = P + U, (5.1) equals the dioptric power P of the lens:
where U is the vergence of the wavefront incident on V = P + U,
the lens, V is the vergence of the wavefront exiting the V = + 6 . 0 0 D + 0,
lens, and P is called the dioptric power of the lens.
(Equation 5.1 is derived in Chapter 7.) The dioptric or
power P is a characteristic of the lens and is a measure V=+6.00D.
of the lens' converging or diverging power. The units
of the vergence U and V are diopters, so from Eq. 5.1 Note that the exiting vergence depends on both the
the units of P must also be in diopters. P is positive for dioptric power of the lens and the incident vergence.
converging lenses and negative for diverging lenses. The exiting vergence, therefore, equals the dioptric
If the vergence U of the wavefront incident on the power of the lens only when plane waves are incident
lens is -4.00 D and the vergence V of the wavefront on the lens.
exiting the lens is +2.00 D, then from Eq. 5.1 the
dioptric power P of the lens is
P=V-U,
5.2 Object and Image Distances
P = 2.00 D - (-4.00 D),
An object for a thin lens in air is labeled real or virtual
or depending on whether the incident light is diverging or
converging. The position assigned to the object point
P=+6.00D. is at the center of curvature of the incident wavefront
The dioptric power of a lens does not change when that hits the lens. An image for a lens is labeled real or
the incident vergence changes. Suppose the vergence virtual depending on whether the exiting light is con-
U incident on the +6.00 D lens is changed to -9.00 D. verging or diverging. The position assigned to the
57
58 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

->> +

image

object

L image
-25 cm*k- -50cm

FIGURE 5.1. a. Wavefronts converged by a lens. b. Ex-


b) tended real object and conjugate real image.

image point is at the center of curvature of the wave- vergence V of this wavefront (in diopters) equals the
front that is just leaving the lens. reciprocal of the image distance (in meters).
Both the object point and image point can be on
either side of a lens. For example, a real object point V=-. (5.3)
might be 15 cm in front of the lens while a virtual v v ;

object point might be 15 cm behind the lens. A sign When the distances are not expressed in meters,
convention is used to distinguish between these cases. then conversion factors can be used in the numerator,
The object distance u and image distance v are di- as discussed in Section 2.5. In Figure 5.1, u =
rected distances along the optical axis measured from -25.0 cm and from Eq. 5.2,
the lens to the object and from the lens to the image 100cm/m
TT A _ _
respectively. The positive direction is the direction
along the optical axis in which the light is traveling -25.0 cm
when it leaves the lens. while v = +50 f 0cm and from Eq. 5.3,
In Figure 5.1a, light leaves the lens traveling to the , 100 cm/m ^
right, which thus becomes the positive direction (indi- v =
^; = +2.OOD.
cated by the symbol, >+). The image distance v, 4-50.0 cm
measured from the lens to the image position, is in the In Figure 5.2, the light leaving the lens is again
same direction that the exiting light is traveling and is traveling to the right. The incident light is converging
therefore positive (i; = +50.0 cm). The object distance and the center of curvature of the incident wavefront
w, measured from the lens to the object position, is is 20.0 cm to the right of the lens. The light leaving the
opposite to the direction that the exiting light is lens is diverging and the center of curvature of the
traveling and is therefore negative (u = -25.0 cm). exiting wavefront is 10.0 cm to the left of the lens.
The object distance u is the radius of curvature of Here,
the wavefront incident on the lens and the vergence U u = + 20.0 cm,
of this wavefront (in diopters) equals the reciprocal of
U== * =+5.00D,
the object distance (in meters). u +20.0n cm
1 v= -10.0 cm,
U= (5.2)
and
The image distance v is the radius of curvature of
the wavefront that is just leaving the lens and the V = iv = _J^
-10.0 cm = _ 1 0 . 0 0 D .
Thin Lens Equations 59

^+

u= +20cm

** +

v= -10cm

-*-4-

virtual
object v JK

virtual
image^ 10cm- -20 cm-

FIGURE 5.2. a. Converging wavefronts incident on a di-


v= -10cm u= + 20cm verging lens. b. Diverging wavefronts leaving the lens. c. Exten-
ded virtual object and conjugate virtual image.

5.3 Dioptric Power: Focal Length V is equal to the dioptric power P of the lens, or
Relationships
V = P + U = P.

The secondary focal length, / 2 , is a directed distance From Eq. 5.3,


along the optical axis of a lens and is measured from
the lens to the secondary focal point, F 2 . For plane v-i.
waves incident on the lens, the image point occurs at V

the secondary focal point, or By combining the above three equations

v=f2-
When plane waves are incident on the lens, the inci-
dent vergence U equals zero and the exiting vergence
'-i
Equation 5.4 relates the secondary focal length (in
(5.4)
60 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

P=+4.00D V 4- Then, by combining the above equations,


i P=-
1
(5.5)
K
Equation 5.5 relates the primary focal length (in me-
F, ters) of the lens to the dioptric power (in diopters).
When the primary focal length is expressed in units
25cm- -25 cm- other than meters, the appropriate conversion factor
can be used in the numerator.
U= -25cm f 2 =+25cm Note, from Eqs. 5.4 and 5.5,
k = -L
FIGURE 5.3. Primary and secondary focal lengths for a which confirms that for a thin lens in air the focal
+4.00 D thin lens.
points are equidistant from and on opposite sides of
the lens.
The focal lengths for the +4.00 D lens in Figure 5.3
meters) of the lens to the dioptric power (in diopters).. are:
(Some authors use Eq. 5.4 as the defining equation for 100
dioptric power of a thin lens in air instead of the more f = - = = +25.0 cm,
+4.00 D
general vergence equation, 5.1.) When the secondary
focal length is expressed in units other than meters, 100
= -25.0 cm.
the appropriate conversion factor can be used in the ^1 P +4.00 D
numerator. In this case, the focal points are both real.
The primary focal length, fl9 is a directed distance The focal lengths for the -3.00 D lens in Figure 5.4
along the optical axis of a lens and is measured from are:
the lens to the primary focal point, F x . When plane r 1 100
waves are leaving the lens, the object is at the primary fl = p = -3.00
. n n nD = " 3 3 . 3 3 Cm,
focal point, or
/.-i- P
-100
-3.00 D
= +33.33 cm.

For plane waves leaving the lens, V= 0 and from Eq. In this case, the focal points are both virtual.
5.1,
v=o = p + u,
or 5.4 Lateral Magnification
P=-U.
The images of extended objects are typically larger or
From Eq. 5.2,
smaller than the object. The ratio of the image size to
the object size is called the lateral magnification (m).
U=
Let O be the object size and I be the image size.

P = -3.00D-
\

F2 Fl

^> OO <JO ~ , OO OO . ^
.

f2= -33.33 cm U = +33.33 cm


FIGURE 5.4. Primary and secondary focal lengths for a
/k -3.00 D thin lens.
Thin Lens Equations 61

Assume O is positive if the object point is above the Equation 5.7 shows that the lateral magnification is
optical axis and negative if the object point is below equal to the linear ratio of the image distance to the
the axis. Similarly, assume I is positive if the image object distance. For this reason lateral magnification is
point is above the axis and negative if the image point sometimes called linear magnification.
is below the axis. Then, Since the object and image distances are recipro-
cally related to the vergences U and V, we can com-
I bine Eqs. 5.7, 5.2, and 5.3 to obtain
(5.6)
U
A positive lateral magnification (m) indicates that the m= (5.8)
image is erect relative to the object and a negative m
indicates the image is inverted relative to the object. Equation 5.8 shows that a knowledge of U and V is
A lateral magnification m greater than 1 indicates the sufficient to compute the lateral magnification.
image is larger than the object and an m less than 1
indicates the image is smaller than the object. Assume
that the object size O is +4.0 cm and the image size I
is -2.0 cm. Then from Eq. 5.6, the lateral magnifica-
5.5 Examples
tion m is,
-2.0 cm It is a good problem solving technique to predict what
m = = -0.5. characteristics an answer should have before doing any
+4.0 cm
calculations. In working these examples, I suggest that
Figure 5.5 shows the nodal ray for a lens that has a a quick ray diagram sketch initially be made. This
real object and a real image. Since the nodal ray is a sketch provides the predictions for what the numerical
straight line, the angle w subtended by the object at answer should be. If the answers do not correlate with
the nodal point is equal in magnitude to the angle w' the predictions, that is a tip-off that something is
subtended by the image at the nodal point. Then, wrong. If this does occur, then double-check the ray
diagram (might have to be more accurate this time)
tan w' = and the numerical calculations.
and
O EXAMPLE 5.1
tan w = .
u A real object is located 100 cm in front of a
Since w == w', the above equations give +5.00 D lens. Where is the conjugate image? Is it
real or virtual, erect or inverted, larger or smaller?
I _ O The primary and secondary focal lengths for a
v u ' +5.00 D lens are, from Eqs. 5.4 and 5.5,
or 1 100cm/m ^ ^
r
I _ v / = p = T I F - + 2 0 0 0 c m
0~ u' 100
= -20.00 cm.
Therefore, from Eq. 5.6,
f.-l
From a ray diagram sketch (Figure 5.6), the predic-
m= (5.7)
tions are: the image is real, inverted, smaller, and

FIGURE 5.5. Geometry relating object and image size.


62 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

P=+5.00D
-** +

FIGURE 5.6. Ray diagram for a real


object 100 cm in front of a +5.00 D
lens.

located at about 25 cm. Now, let us calculate the EXAMPLE 5.2


numbers. A real object is placed 30 cm from a +5.00 D lens.
Is the conjugate image real or virtual, erect or
u = -100 cm, inverted, larger or smaller? What is the image
distance? (You might try this example yourself
- 100
before looking at the solution.)
The focal points for the +5.00 D lens are
20.0 cm away as found in Example 5.1. From a ray
- cm =
u = -100 -1.00D.
diagram sketch (Figure 5.7), the predictions are:
The negative U value agrees with the fact that the the image is real, inverted, larger, and about 60 cm
light incident on the lens is diverging. from the lens. The calculations follow.
V = P + U, u = - 3 0 cm,
V=+5.00 +(-1.00),
V=+4.00D.
u=I,
u
The positive V value indicates that the light leaving 100
U = = -3.33D.
the lens is converging, which agrees with the ray (-30)
diagram. The negative U value agrees with the fact that the
1 light incident on the lens is diverging.
V = 77,
V = P + U,
100 V = +5.00 + (-3.33),
= +25 cm.
+4.00 D
V=+1.67D.
The image distance of +25 cm agrees well with the The positive V value indicates that the light leaving
prediction. the lens is converging, which agrees with the ray
U diagram.
m = - = -0.25.
+4 1
=
The lateral magnification of -0.25 indicates that V'
the image is inverted and 0.25 times as large as the 100
+60.0 cm.
object. Both items agree with the ray diagram. + 1.67

FIGURE 5.7. Ray diagram for a real ob-


ject 30 cm in front of +5.00 D lens.
Thin Lens Equations 63

FIGURE 5.8. Wavefronts for Figure 5.7.


Vergence values can be calculated for any of
the wavefronts.

The image distance also agrees with the ray dia- point is 30 cm in front of the lens. Therefore, the
gram. wavefront 5 cm in front of the lens is 25 cm from
the object point and has a vergence of -4.00 D.
U -3.33
= -2.0.
V + 1.67 EXAMPLE 5.3
A real object is placed 10 cm in front of a +7.00 D
The lateral magnification indicates that the image is lens. Is the image real or virtual, larger or smaller,
inverted and twice as large as the object. Note that erect or inverted? What is the image distance?
the lateral magnification can also be calculated (Again, try this example yourself before looking at
from Eq. 5.7: my solution.)
v +60 cm The focal lengths for a +7.00 D lens are:
m = - = -^ = -2.0. 100
u - 3 0 cm 1
= +14.3 cm,
^ P +7.00
The vergence U incident on the lens is -3.33 D.
The vergence V leaving the lens is +1.67D. The 1. 100
= P = -14.3 cm.
wavefronts are shown in Figure 5.8. It is instructive +7.00
to calculate the vergence of the light at places other From a ray diagram sketch (Figure 5.9), the predic-
than the lens. For example, what is the vergence of tions are: the image is virtual, erect, larger, and the
the light at a point 40 cm behind the lens? image distance is about 30 cm. The calculations
All of the wavefronts leaving the lens are spheri- follow.
cal and have their centers of curvature at the image
point. The image point is 60 cm behind the lens, so u = - 1 0 cm,
the wavefront 40 cm behind the lens is 20 cm from 100
the image point or has a radius of curvature of U = -10.00 D.
(-10)
20 cm. Therefore, the vergence of the wavefront
40cm behind the lens is then +5.00D (i.e., 100/ The negative U value agrees with the fact that the
20 cm). light incident on the lens is diverging.
What is the vergence of the light at a point 5 cm V = P + U,
in front of the lens? All of the wavefronts incident
on the lens are diverging and have their centers of V = +7.00 + (-10.00),
curvature located at the object point. The object V=-3.00D.

FIGURE 5.9. Ray diagram for real object 10 cm in front


of a +7.00 D lens.
64 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

FIGURE 5.10. Wavefronts for Figure 5.9. C and B show


positions for vergence values in front of and behind the lens,
respectively.

The negative V value indicates that the light leav- at the real object that is 10 cm in front of the lens.
ing the lens is diverging, which agrees with the ray Since point C is 6 cm in front of the lens, then point
diagram. Then C is 4 cm from the object. Therefore, the wavefront
at C has a vergence of -25.00 D. Note that the
100
= -33.3 cm, vergence of the wavefront incident on the lens was
-3.00 -10.00 D and that the vergence 6 cm in front of the
lens is -25.00 D.
m = = z- = +3.33.

The lateral magnification indicates that the image is EXAMPLE 5.4


erect relative to the object and 3.33 times larger A virtual object is located 50 cm from a +7.00 D
than the object. Note that in this case the light lens. Is the conjugate image real or virtual, larger
leaving the converging lens is diverging (-3.00 D) or smaller, erect or inverted? What is the image
but not as divergent as the incident light (U = distance?
-10.00 D). A plus lens used as a magnifying lens The virtual object means that the incident light
works like this. is converging and the center of curvature of the
Let us consider the vergence of light at a point B incident converging wavefront is located 50 cm be-
that is 10 cm behind the lens. The diverging wave- hind the lens (Figure 5.11). The focal points are
front just leaving the lens has a radius of 33.3 cm located 14.3 cm from the +7.00 D lens (Example
(Figure 5.10). All the other diverging wavefronts 5.3). From a ray diagram sketch (Figure 5.12), the
behind the lens are further from the virtual image, predictions are: the image is real, erect, smaller,
so their radii will be greater than 33.3 cm. There- and located at about 10 cm. The calculations
fore, the radius of the wavefront at point B is follow.
43.33 cm and the vergence of the wavefront is: u = +50 cm.
100 ^ ., ^ Light leaves the lens going to the right. The posi-
V
* = ^4333 = - 2 3 1 D tive object distance agrees with this since the posi-
Note that the vergence of the wavefront leaving the tive direction is the direction in which the light is
lens was -3.00 D and that the vergence 10 cm traveling when it leaves the lens.
behind the lens is -2.31 D. 100
What is the vergence of light at a point C that is U=
6 cm in front of the lens? The center of curvature of (T5)=+200D
all the diverging wavefronts incident on the lens is Here is the best place to check for signs. Since the

P=+7.00D

. .virtual
U^object

FIGURE 5.11. Incident rays for a virtual object located 50cm


from a +7.00 D lens.
Thin Lens Equations 65

+ 7.00D

, virtual
r^-^object

FIGURE 5.12. Real image location for the Figure 5.11.

incident light is converging, U must be positive -4.00 D lens are:


otherwise something is wrong.
100
= - 2 5 . 0 cm,
V = P + U, -4.00
V = +7.00 + (+2.00), 100
= - = +25.0 cm.
V=+9.00D. -4.00
The positive V value indicates that the light leaving Remember that for a minus lens, the focal points
the lens is converging, which agrees with the ray are both virtual and F 2 is located in front of the
diagram. lens. From a ray diagram sketch (Figure 5.13), the
predictions are: the image is virtual, erect, smaller,
100 and located at 15 cm. The calculations follow.
+9.00 = +11.1 cm,
U _ +2 - 5 0 cm,
= +0.22.
V " +9 100
U = = -2.00D.
The lateral magnification indicates that the image is
(-50)
erect and only 0.22 times as large as the object. The negative U value agrees with the fact that the
This agrees with our ray diagram. In this example, light incident on the lens is diverging.
the incident light is already converging (U =
+2.00 D), and the lens converges it even more V = P + U,
(V=+9.00D). V = -4.00 +(-2.00),
V=-6.00D.
EXAMPLE 5.5
A real object is located 50 cm in front of a -4.00 D The negative V value indicates that the light leav-
lens. Is the conjugate image real or virtual, larger ing the lens is diverging, which agrees with the ray
or smaller, erect or inverted? What is the image diagram.
distance? 100
The primary and secondary focal lengths for the = =
^6 "16-67
U -2
m = = - = +0.33.
V o
-*- + The lateral magnification indicates that the image is
P=-4.00D Y
erect and 0.33 times smaller than the object. In this
case, the lens took the incident light ( U = - 2 . 0 0 D )
and diverged it even more ( V = - 6 . 0 0 D ) .
real.
object
EXAMPLE 5.6
A virtual object is located 8 cm from a 4.00D
lens. Where is the conjugate image? What is the
lateral magnification? Is the image real or virtual?
(Remember, you should try this first yourself.)
The focal points are virtual and 25 cm from the
lens (Example 5.5). From a ray diagram sketch
FIGURE 5.13. Ray diagram for a real object 50 cm in front of (Figure 5.14), the predictions are: the image is
a -4.00 D lens. real, erect, larger, and located at about 12 cm. The
66 Geometric, Physical, and Visual Optics

FIGURE 5.14. Ray diagram for a virtual object located


8 cm from a -4.00 D lens.

calculations follows. inverted, larger or smaller? What is the image


u = +8 cm, distance?
The primary and secondary focal lengths for the
-8.00 D lens are:
1 100
The positive U value agrees with the fact that the = -12.5 cm,
J2
PD -8.00
light incident on the lens is converging.
1 100
V = P + U, ^1 -8.00 = +12.5 cm.
V = - 4 . 0 0 + ( + 12.5), From the ray diagram sketch (Figure 5.15), the
V=+8.50D. predictions are: the image is virtual, inverted,
The positive V value indicates that the light leaving larger, and the image distance is about 30 cm. The
the lens is converging, which agrees with the ray calculations follow.
diagram. u = +20 cm,
100 100
v = +8.50 = +11.8cm, U = (+20) = +5.00D.
u
m =
+ 1 2 5 The positive U value agrees with the fact that the
V = T ^ 5 = +147
light incident on the lens is converging.
The lateral magnification indicates that the image is
erect and 1.47 times larger than the object. V = P + U,
V = -8.00 + (+5.00),
EXAMPLE 5.7
A virtual object is located 20 cm from a -8.00 D V=-3.00D.
lens. Is the conjugate image real or virtual, erect or The negative V value indicates that the light leav-

P=-8.00D >
/
-> +


<
j ^ > virtual ot

S ^y* /F,
^y^
y ^y^
/
virtual y ^y^f /
image y y^ /
y
y^s^
^y^
/
/
\ ^1 /

7J
^~
FIGURE 5.15. Ray diagram for a virtual object located
20 cm from a -8.00 D lens.
Thin Lens Equations 67

ing the lens is diverging, which agrees with the ray 5.6 Boundary Role of the Focal Points
diagram.
100
v= - n n = -33.3 cm, Besides the conjugate relationship of the focal points
-3.00 with optical infinity and the use of the focal points in
U = +5 drawing predictable rays, the focal points also serve as
m = V " - 3 = -1.67. boundaries in the imaging process. Consider a real
The lateral magnification indicates that the image is object located in front of a converging lens of dioptric
inverted and 1.67 times larger than the object. power P. When the object is between optical infinity
What is the vergence at a point D that is 5 cm in and the primary focal point F 1? then the negative
front of the lens and at a point E that is 5 cm vergence U of the incident diverging wavefront is not
behind the lens (Figure 5.16)? The light in front of enough to overcome the positive dioptric power P.
the lens is converging. Each incident wavefront has The vergence V of the wavefront leaving the lens is
its center of curvature at the virtual object position positive, the light leaving is converging, and the result-
20 cm behind the lens. So, the wavefront at point D ing real image is a finite distance behind the lens.
has a radius of curvature of 25 cm. Its vergence is When the real object is at F 1? then plane waves leave
the lens, V is zero, and the image is at optical infinity.
U
U = ^ - = +4.00D. When the real object is between Fx and the lens, the
(+25)
Note that this wavefront with a vergence of negative incident vergence U is great enough to over-
+4.00 D at a point 5 cm in front of the lens has a come the positive dioptric power P. The exiting ver-
vergence of +5.00 D when it hits the lens. Also gence V is negative, the light leaving is diverging, and
note that the dashed rays associated with the virtual the resulting virtual image is located a finite distance
image do not have anything to do with the incident in front of the lens. (I suggest that you make some
light. These dashed rays are in image space because quick ray diagrams to check the above assertions.)
they are associated only with the light leaving the In the case of a virtual object for the converging
lens. lens, the incident light is converging and U is positive.
The light behind the lens is diverging, and each Then, from V= P + U, V is always greater than P; and
wavefront has its center of curvature located at the from the reciprocal relations v = 1/V and/ 2 = 1/P, the
virtual image position 33.3 cm in front of the lens.
So, the radius of curvature of the wavefront at image distance v is less than the secondary focal length
point E is 38.3cm (i.e., 33.3cm+ 5cm). The ver- f2. As a result, the real image is trapped between the
gence is lens and the secondary focal point F 2 .
A real object in front of a diverging lens always
y
=(^3)=-2-61D results in diverging light leaving the lens. In the
E
equation V= P + U, P and U are both negative, so V
Note that the diverging wavefront leaving the lens is more negative than P. Again, from the reciprocal
has a vergence of -3.00 D and at a point 5 cm relations = 1 / V and f2 = 1 /P, the image distance v is
downstream it has a vergence of -2.61 D.
negative and smaller in magnitude than f2. Thus, the
virtual image is trapped between F 2 and the lens.
In the case of a virtual object for the diverging lens,
the converging incident light gives a positive value for
the incident vergence U. When the virtual object is
located between the lens and the (virtual) primary
focal point Fj, the positive vergence U is great enough
to overcome the negative dioptric power P. Con-
sequently, V is positive, the exiting light is converging,
and the resulting real image is located a finite distance
behind the lens. When the virtual object is at F l 5 then
plane waves leave the lens and the image is at optical
infinity. When the virtual object is located between Ft
and optical infinity, then the positive U is not great
enough to overcome the negative P. Thus, the exiting
vergence V is negative, the exiting light is diverging,
and the resulting virtual image is located a finite
distance in front of the lens. (Again, I suggest that you
FIGURE 5.16. Wavefronts for vergence calculations at posi- make some quick ray diagrams to check the above
tions in front of or behind the lens (D and E respectively). assertions.)
68 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

5.7 The Symmetry Points

In developing intuition about the optics of lenses, it is


helpful to consider the special case where the lateral
magnification equals - 1 . 0 . In this case, the image is
the same size as the object but is inverted relative to
the object. Let us start by finding the object distance
that results in m = - 1 . From Eq. 5.8:
U
m=
V
FIGURE 5.17. The symmetry points for a converging (plus)
-1 = u lens.
V
or
V=-U. are located at
u = 2f,= 2(-20.0 cm) = -40.0 cm,
From Eq. 5.1,
and
V = P + U.
v = 2f2 = 2(+20.0 cm) = +40.0 cm.
Then from above, We can use Eq. 5.7 to check the lateral magnifi-
- U = P + U, cation:
v +40
- 2 U = P, m = - = T7T = - I -
u -40
U = - As an alternate check, we can take the object
2'
distance of - 4 0 cm and compute the resulting
or image distance and lateral magnification.
J_ = _ 2 u = -40 cm,
U P 100
U= -2.50 D,
Since u = 1/U and fx = - 1 / P , then -40 " "
u = 2f1. v =P + U,
Thus, when the object distance is twice the primary v = +5.00 + (-2.50),
focal length, the resulting lateral magnification is equal v = +2.50 D
to - 1 . It is easily shown that the image distance in this 100
case is twice the secondary focal length, or v= +40 cm,
+2.50 "
v = 2f2. U
m=
V
The axial points at 2/ and 2/ 2 are conjugate points
-2.50
and are labeled 2FX and 2F 2 , respectively. These m= -1.
+2.50 "
conjugate points are called the symmetry points of the
lens. The symmetry planes contain the symmetry The ray diagram i s shown in Figure 5.17
points and are perpendicular to the optical axis of the
lens. EXAMPLE 5.9
Find the symmetry points for a -20.00 D lens. The
primary and secondary focal lengths are:
EXAMPLE 5.8
Find the symmetry points of a +5.00 D lens. The
/ 2 = =
primary and secondary focal lengths of a +5.00 D P ^2 = _ 5 0 c m
'
lens are: . 1 100 ._.
/ =_
2
= 1 = 100
+20.0 cm, ' p = "^2a = +50cm

P +5.00 Again,
1. 100 u = 2fx = 2 ( + 5 . 0 cm) = +10.0 cm,
= P +5.00
-20.0 cm.
and
From the above discussion, the symmetry points v = 2f2 = 2 ( - 5 . 0 cm) = -10.0 cm.
Thin Lens Equations 69

P=-20.00D

FIGURE 5.18. The symmetry points for a diverging (minus)


lens.

One check is: The image distance is - 2 . 5 cm and the lateral magnifi-
v -10 cation is +1.25. Now set the object at 1 cm in front of
the lens and repeat the calculations. The image dis-
An alternate check follows. tance becomes -1.111 cm and the lateral magnifica-
tion m becomes +1.111. The calculations can be
u = +10 cm, repeated as the object is moved closer and closer to
U= ^ = +10.00 D. the lens. The results are shown in Table 5.1.
Note from the table that the smaller the object
Note, the incident light is converging and the ob- distance becomes, the closer the image distance gets to
ject is virtual. the object distance and the closer the lateral magnifi-
V = P + U, cation gets to +1. In the limit of the object distance
going to zero, the image distance goes to zero and the
V= -20.00 + ( + 10.00), lateral magnification goes to + 1 .
V = -10.00 D. The physical meaning of the +1 limit is that a thin
The light leaving the lens is diverging and the lens has no optical effect when the object distance is
image is virtual. zero. One way to observe this is to lay a thin lens
100 directly on some letters in a book. The letters appear
m the same size with or without the lens over them.
-10 = -10 cm,
Another way to have an object at the lens is to use
U +10D a previous lens to converge light and form an image at
= -1.
V -10D the second lens. The image for the first lens is the
The ray diagram is shown in Figure 5.18. object for the second lens, and the second lens object
distance u2 is zero. Figure 5.19 is a ray diagram for
this case.
5.8 Unit Lateral Magnification Figure 5.19a shows two rays representing the inci-
dent converging light. As usual, the ray parallel to the
What happens to the lateral magnification as an object axis passes through F 2 when it leaves the lens. The
is moved closer and closer to a lens? Let's consider a other ray, passing through F 1? leaves the lens parallel
specific case with a +10.00 D lens. First, set the object to the axis. The two outgoing rays are diverging away
at 2 cm in front of the lens. from the same point on the lens toward which the
u = 2 cm,
100
U = =-50.00 D, TABLE 5.1
Lateral Magnification as Object Distance Goes to Zero
V = P + U,
V = + 1 0 + (-50), u (cm) v (cm) m

V = -40.00 D, -2.000 -2.500 + 1.250


-1.000 -1.111 + 1.111
100 -0.500 -0.526 + 1.053
i; = = -2.5 cm,
-40 -0.250 -0.256 + 1.026
-0.125 -0.127 + 1.013
U -50
m= = +1.25. -0.0625 -0.0629 + 1.0063
-40
70 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

/ *~ I

y/Fi F2X
FIGURE 5.19. a. Converging rays form-
ing an image at a thin lens. b. Single
Y
notched ray is bent down at the lens, and
double notched ray comes out parallel to
a) b) the axis.

incoming rays converged. The object distance is zero, In Figure 5.21, an object is moved counterclock-
the image distance is zero, and the lateral magnifica- wise around the circle starting from optical infinity,
tion is +1. passing through the lens, and ending back at optical
infinity. The points marked on the circle include the
primary ( F J and secondary (F 2 ) focal points as well
as the symmetry points 2FX and 2F 2 . The A on the
5.9 Object Movement/Image Movement outside of the circle marks the starting position for the
real object at optical infinity. Its real conjugate image
Let us consider what happens to the image as an point is at F 2 and is marked on the inside of the circle
object for a converging lens is moved smoothly by A. As the object is moved counterclock-
through space. Figure 5.20 helps to visualize the situa- wise from optical infinity to 2FX, its image moves
tion. The light incident on the lens is traveling to the counterclockwise from F 2 to 2F 2 . The object position
right. The object positions are represented as points at 2Fj is now marked on the outside by B, and its
on a distorted circle. The points on the left half of the image position at 2F2 is now marked on the inside by
circle represent real object points, while the points on B'. As the object is moved from 2Fj to Fl9 its image
the right half of the circle represent virtual object moves from 2F2 to optical infinity. At F x , the object
points. position is represented on the outside by C, and its
The circle depicts the fact that there are two ways image position at optical infinity is represented on the
to reach optical infinity. A real object can be moved inside by C . As the real object continues its move-
left from the lens until it reaches optical infinity, or a ment, this time from Fj to the lens, its image also
virtual object can be moved right from the lens until it continues its movement, starting from optical infinity
reaches optical infinity. As a real object is moved left, (becoming virtual at this stage) and traveling all the
the incident light is initially diverging but loses nega- way from optical infinity until it finally catches up with
tive vergence until all the waves incident on the lens the object at the lens. The conjugate object and image
effectively become plane waves. As a virtual object is positions at the lens are marked D and D', respective-
moved right, the incident light is initially converging ly. Next, as the object becomes virtual and moves
but loses positive vergence until all the waves incident from the lens to optical infinity (object position D to
on the lens again effectively become plane waves. A), its conjugate image becomes real once again,

-oo-

2F, Fi 2F2

FIGURE 5.20. Distorted circle to help visualize


object movement/image movement relations.
Thin Lens Equations 71

A
-QO-

D'
k

B C A' B'
-
2F, Fi F2 2F2

>f FIGURE 5.21. ', ', C, and D' are the respec-
tive image positions conjugate to the object posi-
tions A, B, C, and D.

moving from the lens to F 2 (image position D' to A'). second lens. The final image position can be found by
Both the object and its conjugate image have com- successively applying V= P + U to each lens.
pleted a full trip around the circle. A special equation can be derived for the total
A similar circle can be constructed for a minus lens lateral magnification mt in the two-lens system. Let Ol
(see the problems). and l1 be the object and conjugate image size for the
first lens, and let 0 2 and I 2 be the object and conju-
gate image size for the second lens. The total lateral
magnification mt is defined as the ratio of the final
5.10 Erect and Inverted Relationships: image size I2 to the original object size 0 1 ? or
Single Lenses x
2
m =
For a single thin lens, a real image is always inverted or
The above equation can be multiplied and divided by
relative to a conjugate real object. One can easily
prove this statement from the lateral magnification 0 2 . After algebraically rearranging, the result is
equation, m = U/V. For a real object, the incident I2 02
light is diverging and U is negative. For a real image, m = x
the exiting light is converging and V is positive. A ' ; cv
negative U value divided by a positive V value gives a However, since the image for lens one is the object for
negative m value, which indicates inversion. lens two, Ij = 0 2 . Therefore,
For a single thin lens, a virtual image is always
erect relative to a conjugate real object. Here, U is JL
m , = O,
again negative, but now V is also negative since the
exiting light is diverging. A negative U value divided The lateral magnifications ^ and m2 for lenses one
by a negative V value results in a positive m value, and two are, respectively,
which indicates the image is erect relative to the
object. m, =
Similarly, one can show that for a single thin lens a
real image is always erect relative to a conjugate _ I,
x
2
virtual object, and a virtual image is always inverted m? =
relative to a conjugate virtual object.
o,
By combining the above three equations, one finds
that
mt = m 2 m 1 . (5.9)
5.11 Two-Lens Systems The total lateral magnification is the product of the
lateral magnifications for each individual lens. This
Consider a lens of dioptric power Px placed at distance statement is easily extended to multiple lens systems
d in front of a second lens of dioptric power P 2 . The containing more than two lenses. In particular, for a
light that leaves the first lens is incident on the second system of n thin lenses,
lens, so the image for the first lens is the object for the m
t = m
n m
n- m 2 m! (5.10)
72 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

-4.00D
+ 7.50D

FIGURE 5.22. Rays and wavefronts in a two-lens sys-


tem. There are downstream vergence changes between the
24 cm two lenses.

EXAMPLE 5.10 For lens 2:


A +7.50 D lens is placed 10 cm in front of a
u2 = 24 cm - 10 cm = +14 cm,
-4.00 D lens. A real object is placed 30 cm in front
of the +7.50 D lens. Find the final image position
and the total lateral magnification, and state U 2 = ^ = +7.14D.
whether the final image is real or virtual.
For lens 1: The converging wavefront leaving the first lens has
a vergence of +4.17 D. From the figure, the con-
ux = - 3 0 cm, verging wavefronts gain curvature as they cross the
gap between the two lenses so that the vergence of
the converging wavefront incident on the second
, = ^ = -333, lens is +7.14 D.
^ ^ + ^, V2 = P2 + U 2 ,
Vj = +7.50 + (-3.33) = +4.17 D, V 2 = - 4 . 0 0 + 7.14=+3.14 D,

100 100
= +24.0 cm, = +31.8 cm,
+4.17 +3.14
U9 +7.14
Ux = -3.33 m9 = V = +2.27.
mt = V = -0.80. 2 +3.14
x +4.17
All the axial wavefronts are schematically repre-
Figure 5.22 schematically shows the diverging sented in Figure 5.23.
light incident on lens 1 and the converging light The total lateral magnification is
leaving it. The light incident on the second lens is
converging so the object for the second lens is mt = m ^ ! = (+2.27)(-0.80) = -1.82.
virtual. Note from Figure 5.22 that the image for The final image is real, inverted, and 1.82 times
lens 1 is located a distance of 14cm (i.e., 24 c m - larger than the original object.
10 cm) past lens 2. An off-axis ray diagram can be used to confirm

FIGURE 5.23. Rays and wavefronts leaving the sec-


ond lens of the previous figure.
Thin Lens Equations 73

FIGURE 5.24. a. The image of thefirstlens is


the object for the second lens. b. Image location
for the second lens. c. Actual ray paths without
extensions.

the above results. The secondary focal lengths for EXAMPLE 5.11
the two lenses are, respectively, A +12.00 D lens is located 5 cm in front of a
+8.00 D lens. An object is located 5 cm in front of
100 the +12.00 D lens. Where is the final image? Is it
() = ^ = +7.50 = +13.33 cm,
real or virtual? What is the total lateral magnifi-
100 cation?
= - 2 5 . 0 cm.
-4.00
ux = -5 cm,
The first part of the ray diagram is shown in Figure
5.24a. Once the image Ii is located, all the rays for 100
the first lens can be drawn. In particular, we want = 5 = -20.00 D,
to pick those rays that will also turn out to be the
predictable rays for the second lens. Figure 5.24b ^ , + ^
shows the completion of the ray diagram. Figure
5.24c shows just the actual ray paths. V1 = 12.00 + (-20.00) = -8.00 D,
74 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

P^+12.000 P2=+8.00D

5cm 5cm

12.5^ FIGURE 5.25. Axial rays showing that the virtual


image for the first lens is the real object for the second
u2 lens.

100 100
= -12.5 cm, = +43.7 cm,
+2.29
Uj _ -20.00 U, -5.71
m, = -8.00
= +2.50. m7 = -2.49.
V2 +2.29
Figure 5.25 schematically shows the diverging The total lateral magnification is
light incident on lens 1 and the diverging light
leaving it. The light incident on the second lens is mt = m 2 m i = (-2.49X+2.50) = -6.22.
diverging so the object for the second lens is real. The final image is real, inverted relative to the
From Figure 5.25, it is easy to see that the total object, and 6.22 times larger than the original
distance from the virtual image to lens 2 is 17.5 cm. object (Figure 5.26).
Then,
, = -(12.5 + 5) cm = -17.5 cm,
100 5.12 Two Thin Lenses in Contact
U, = -5.71D.
-17.5
Note that the vergence of the diverging wavefront An important aspect of separated two-lens systems is
leaving the first lens is -8.00 D. The diverging the vergence change of the light as it propagates from
wavefronts lose curvature as they cross the gap lens 1 to lens 2. Therefore, the vergence of the light
between the two lenses so that the vergence of the incident on lens 2 is, in general, not equal to the
light incident on the second lens is -5.71 D.
vergence of the light leaving lens 1.
:P2+U2, Let us now consider the case in which two lenses
V2 = +8.00 + (-5.71) = +2.29 D, are placed in contact with each other. The separation

FIGURE 5.26. Extended ray diagram


for Figure 5.25.
Thin Lens Equations 75

is zero, and the light leaving lens 1 is immediately 100


incident on lens 2. Consequently, for the two thin 2 = +11.8cm.
+8.50 D
lenses in contact with each other, the vergence of the The lateral magnification is
light incident on lens 2 is always equal to the vergence
of the light leaving lens 1, or Uj _ -2.50 D
m = 7 T = +8.50 D = -0.29.
u 2 =v,.
In this case, we can simplify the two-lens problem EXAMPLE 5.13
What single lens acts like a +3.00 D thin lens and a
considerably. For lens 1, -8.00 D thin lens held together?
V ^ P . + U,, From Eq. 5.12,
and for lens 2 P = (+3.00 D) + (-8.00 D) = -5.00 D.
V2 = P2 + U 2 . A -5.00 D thin lens acts exactly like the combi-
nation.
Vj can be substituted into the above equation for U 2
to give EXAMPLE 5.14
A thin lens with a secondary focal length of
V2 = P2 + V,. +50.00 cm is held in contact with a second thin
The substitution for W1 then results in lens. The secondary focal length of the combination
is +16.67 cm. What is the secondary focal length of
^ , + ^ + ,, the unknown lens?
or You might need to be careful here. Equation
2 = (2 + ,) + , . 5.12 says that the dioptric powers are additive. This
does not mean that the secondary focal lengths are
The above equation relates the incident vergence \Jl additive.
to the exiting vergence V2. Furthermore, the above The dioptric power of lens 1 is
equation shows that the relationship is of the form 100
Pi = = +2.00D.
V2 = Pt + U!, (5.11) +50.0
where The dioptric power of the combination is
P ^ P . + Pj. (5.12)
P
' = ^7 = +600D
Equation 5.11 shows that the two thin lenses in con-
tact with each other simply act like one thin lens with Then from Eq. 5.12, the dioptric power of the
a dioptric power of P t . Equation 5.12 states that unknown (second) lens is
dioptric powers are additive for thin lenses in contact P =P -P
with each other. P2 = (+6.00 D) - (+2.00 D) = +4.00 D.
The secondary focal length of the originally un-
EXAMPLE 5.12 known lens is
A +4.00 D thin lens is placed in contact with a
+7.00 D thin lens. A real object is located 40.0 cm f2 = 100/(+4.00D) = +25.0 cm.
in front of the combination. Where is the final The secondary focal lengths of the two thin lenses
image? Is it real or virtual? What is the lateral are, respectively, +50 cm and +25 cm, while the
magnification? secondary focal point of the combination is
From Eq. 5.12, the two thin lenses in contact act + 16.67 cm. Clearly the focal lengths are not ad-
like a single thin lens with a power of ditive.
Pt = (+4.00 D) + (+7.00 D) = +11.00 D.
Note the fact that dioptric powers are additive for
Then
thin lenses in contact results from the fact that there is
ux = -40.0 cm, no vergence change between the two lenses. For two
and separated thin lenses, there will generally be a ver-
gence change between the two lenses; then the diop-
tric powers are not additive.
From Eq. 5.11, The additivity of the dioptric powers is easily exten-
V2 = +11.00 D + (-2.50 D) = +8.50 D. ded to include n thin lenses in contact with each other,
or
The light leaving the combination is converging and
the image is real. The image distance is = + - + + 2 + (5.13)
76 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

FIGURE 5.27. Projector lens ray


t diagram showing that the image size
depends on the geometric relationship
between two different bundles.

5.13 Bundles, Beams, and Lateral is a property of at least two bundles (Section 5.13).
Magnification Consequently, use of the plane wave approximation
can significantly affect image size calculations.
A movie (or slide) projector forms a large image on a The lateral magnification equation, m = U/V,
distant screen. Figure 5.27 represents the image for- shows that if U is very close to zero, then m is very
mation by a single thin lens projector. The light beam small. From Eq. 5.6, the image size I in terms of m is
leaving such a projector is a diverging beam. (This
I = mO,
beam is frequently visible in movie theaters due to
light scattering off dust particles in the air.) The where O is the object size. A very small m can be
diverging beam is composed of individual converging offset by a large object size O, so that I is not
bundles. The fact that the real image is formed is due necessarily a small value. However, the plane wave
to these individual converging bundles. The fact that approximation (U = zero) leads to m = zero and, con-
the image size is larger than the lens size is due to the sequently, I = zero, which is clearly wrong for large
diverging beam. enough objects. Either the small U value must be kept
The image size is determined not by an individual and not set equal to zero, or an alternate method is
bundle, but rather by the geometric relationship be- needed to calculate image sizes for distant objects.
tween at least two different bundles. (Note that an Let us consider an alternate method. Figure 5.28
axial bundle could also be drawn in Figure 5.27.) The represents a real object located far away from a thin
lateral magnification, defined as the image size divided converging lens. Two bundles are shown: one from the
by the object size, thus, depends on the relationship top of the object and one from the axial object point.
between at least two different bundles, i.e., it is not The object is far enough away so that the plane
considered a property of one, individual, solitary bun- wave approximation can be used and each bundle by
dle. This two-bundle dependence has important impli- itself can be represented by parallel rays. The rays
cations in the next section and in the optics of from the axial point are parallel to the axis since one
spherocylindrical lenses. of the rays coincides with the axis. The rays from the
off-axis point are parallel with each other but not with
the axis. Note that there are two predictable rays in
the off-axis bundle: one through the nodal point of the
lens (the optical center), and the other through the
5.14 Image Sizes for Distant Objects primary focal point Fj. The extended image is formed
in the secondary focal plane of the lens.
When an object is far away from a thin lens, the Figure 5.29 shows only the nodal ray from the
vergence U of the wavefront incident on the lens is off-axis point. The nodal ray forms a straight line
very close to zero. In this case, we frequently use the between the conjugate object and image points. The
plane wave approximation and set the vergence U angle w is the angle that the object subtends at the
equal to zero. Use of the plane wave approximation nodal point of the lens, and the angle w' is the angle
does not significantly affect the calculation of the that the image subtends at the nodal point. Since the
image distance since the image distance is a property nodal ray is a straight line between the conjugate
of a single bundle. The lateral magnification, however, object and image points then the angles w and w', are
Thin Lens Equations 77

FIGURE 5.28. Rays showing two different


incident bundles from a distant object. The
image is inverted and at the secondary focal
point.

equal. From the figure, result is again 8.7 mm. In fact, the percent difference
between the small angle method and the tangent
tanw' = |I|// 2 , method is less than 0.01% in this case.
or Can a large object ever be imaged with zero size?
|l|=/2tanw, (5.14) A typical star is larger than the planet Earth, but so
far away that its subtended angle at the planet Earth is
where w has been substituted for w'. very, very small. Consequently, the subtended angle w
Equation 5.14 is the alternate equation for the is effectively zero, and from Eq. 5.15 the image size I
image size when the object is distant. It avoids the is then zero. As a result, when a person looks at a star
lateral magnification difficulties with the ultrasmall on a clear night, the person's retinal image of the star
lateral magnification values. is effectively a point image. (If you are driving, be
sure to park before checking the stars.) You might
EXAMPLE 5.15 also note some radial streaks of light around the point
A full moon subtends an angle of 0.5 degrees at the image of the star. These radial streaks are due to
earth's surface. A real image of the full moon is diffraction from the structure of the crystalline lens
formed by a +1.00 D thin lens. What is the size of sutures. The twinkling of the stars is due to atmos-
the image? pheric turbulence. If you get a ride on the space
The secondary focal length of a +1.00D lens is shuttle, you can observe the stars without having to
+ 100 cm. From Eq. 5.14, look through the atmosphere.
|I| = ( + 100cm)tan(0.5);
|I| = ( + 100cm)(0.0087)
= 0.87 cm = 8.7 mm.
Often even a large distant object, such as the 5.15 Reversibility and Finding the Object
moon, subtends a small angle at the lens. When this
occurs, the small angle approximation for the tangent Many of the previous examples in this chapter deal
can be used so that Eq. 5.14 results in with finding the image once the object is given. Sup-
pose instead that the image is given and we are asked
|I|=/ 2 w (5.15) to find the object. One approach is to use the thin lens
where w is expressed in radians. When the small angle vergence equation, solve for the incident vergence U,
approximation is used for the full moon example, the and then find the object distance u.

FIGURE 5.29. Nodal ray to determine


the image size for a distant object.
78 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

Another approach is to use the principle of re- Vrev = P + U rev ,


versibility. Section 3.8 discussed the fact that two
V rev =+9.00 D +(-5.00 D),
conjugate points, A and B, are conjugate no matter
which way the light is passing through the system. or
When A is the object point, then B is the image point.
When the light direction is reversed, then B becomes Vrev = +4.00D.
the object point and A becomes the image point. If Then,
the image point B is known and the conjugate object
100 _ 100
point A is needed, then the direction of the light can
V +4'
be reversed, B considered as the object point, and A
found as the conjugate image. The following example or
uses the reversibility method.
u = +25 cm.
EXAMPLE 5.16 Note that for the reversed case in Figure 5.30b the
A +9.00 D thin lens in air has a real image located positive direction is to the left, so the real image at
20 cm behind it. Where is the conjugate object and +25 cm is to the left of the lens. Consequently, for
is it real or virtual? light traveling in the original direction (to the
Figure 5.30a shows an on-axis sketch of the right), the object is real and located 25 cm to the
given situation and Figure 5.30b shows the reversed left of the lens (Figure 5.30a).
situation. Remember that the dioptric power P
remains +9.00 D no matter which way the light
travels through the lens. From the above discussion, there are at least two
For the reversed situation, the positive direction approaches that one can use in finding the object once
is to the left and a real object is located 20 cm from the image is known. For visual optics purposes, there
the lens. Then are some conceptual advantages to using the re-
= -20 cm. versibility method as given in Example 5.16. In par-
So, ticular, the reversibility method facilitates the under-
100 cm/m standing of the optics of retinoscopy and ophthal-
Urev
(-20 cm) = -5.00D, moscopy.

original

1 ^ + 9.00D
-r ^C i ^
reversed

Vrev = ? Urev = - 2 0 cm

N FIGURE 5.30. Principal of reversibility, a. Original light


b) t traveling right, b. Reversed light traveling left.
Thin Lens Equations 79

Problems 21. A real object is located 40 cm in front of a


+6.50 D thin lens. The +6.50 D thin lens is lo-
For problems 1 through 10, find the image, specify cated 20 cm in front of a -10.00 D thin lens. What
whether it is real or virtual, and give the lateral is the vergence of light that exits the -10.00 D
magnification. Draw an extended ray diagram to con- lens? What is the total lateral magnification?
firm your calculations. Also, calculate the vergence of 22. A real object is located 34.0 cm in front of a lens
the wavefront 5 cm in front of the lens and the ver- of unknown power. A +7.00 D thin lens is located
gence of the wavefront 5 cm behind the lens. 10.0 cm behind the first lens. The second lens has
a real image located 29.0 cm from it. What is the
1. +6.00 D lens, real object 50 cm from the lens. dioptric power of the first lens?
2. +6.00 D lens, real object 25 cm from the lens. 23. A real object is located 13 cm in front of a lens of
3. +6.00 D lens, real object 10 cm from the lens. dioptric power P. A real image is located on a
4. +6.00 D lens, virtual object 10 cm from the lens. screen placed a distance x behind the lens. A
-7.00 D lens is placed between the object and the
5. +6.00 D lens, virtual object 30 cm from the lens. lens at a distance of 5 cm from the lens. Relative
6. -7.00 D lens, real object 40 cm from the lens. to the minus lens, where must the object be
7. -7.00 D lens, real object 10 cm from the lens. placed in order to again have an image on the
8. -7.00 D lens, virtual object 10 cm from the lens. screen? Remember that neither P nor x changes.
9. -7.00 D lens, virtual object 20 cm from the lens. 24. A thin lens of dioptric power P has a distant
object and a real image located on a screen that is
10. -7.00 D lens, virtual object 50 cm from the lens. at distance x behind the lens. A +5.00 D thin lens
11. What is the secondary focal length of a +14.00 D is then placed against the lens of power P. What
lens? Of a -8.00 D lens? thin lens located 14.0 cm in front of the +5.00 D
12. The primary focal length of a lens is -15.0 cm. lens will again result in a clear image on the
What is the dioptric power of the lens? screen? Remember that neither P nor x changes.
13. A 20 mm tall real object is located 28.0 cm from a 25. What single lens is equivalent to a +9.00 D thin
+5.50 D thin lens. What is the image size? lens combined with a -6.00 D thin lens?
14. Give the object distance that results in a lateral 26. For a distant tree, a thin lens held 19.0 cm in front
magnification of -1.0 for a +6.50 D lens. For a of a wall results in an inverted image on the wall.
-4.50 D lens. When a second thin lens of unknown power is
combined with the first, the real image is on the
15. Give the object distance that results in a lateral
wall only when the combination is held 69.0 cm
magnification of +1.0 for a +2.50 D lens. For a
from the wall. What is the dioptric power of the
-8.00 D lens.
second lens?
16. A +5.50 D lens has a real image located 35 cm
27. A distant building subtends an angle of 90 minutes
from the lens. Is the conjugate object real or
at a +2.00 D thin lens. What is the size of the
virtual? What is the object distance?
image (in mm)?
17. A +5.00 D lens has a real image located 12 cm
28. A camera has a single thin lens, and a person
from the lens. Is the conjugate object real or
stands 3.6 m from the camera lens. The person is
virtual? What is the object distance?
250 cm tall and her image is 35.2 mm tall. What is
18. A -7.50 D lens has a virtual image located 9 cm the dioptric power of the camera lens? What is the
from the lens. Is the conjugate object real or secondary focal length of the lens?
virtual? What is the object distance?
29. Section 5.9 contains a distorted circle representa-
19. A +8.20 D lens forms a real image that is inverted tion of the object movement/image movement
and 4 times the size of the object. What is the relation for a plus thin lens. Construct the object
image distance? What is the object distance? movement/image movement circle for a minus
20. A real object is 20 cm from a thin lens. The thin lens.
conjugate image is erect and 3 times larger than
the object. What is the lens power?
CHAPTER SIX

Thin Lens Eye


Models

6.1 Emmtropes The image distance is 16.67 mm and the screen should
be placed that distance behind the +60.00 D lens in
The simplest optical model of the eye is a thin lens and order to simulate Amy's eye (Figure 6.1a).
screen model. The thin lens represents the cornea and A distant object is conjugate to the secondary focal
the crystalline lens while the screen represents the point of a lens. An alternate solution for the emme-
retina. Air is assumed to be between the lens and the tropic lens-screen distance is to recognize that the
screen. A typical dioptric power for the lens represent- secondary focal point of the unaccommodated emme-
ing the unaccommodated human eye is +60.00 D. tropic eye coincides with the retina. Thus, the lens-
An emmtrope is a person who can clearly see a screen distance is just equal to the secondary focal
distant object without accommodating. The light that length of the lens. From Eq. 5.4, the secondary focal
reaches the eye from the distant object consists of length is
plane waves. The unaccommodated emmetropic eye
converges the plane waves and forms a clear image on f= i
the retina. In the thin lens and screen model of the 32 p>
unaccommodated emmetropic eye, the screen, which or
represents the retina, is placed at the image point 1000mm/m_ , 1 f i f i 7 m m
conjugate to optical infinity. /2
(+60 D) -+1667mm
Consider Amy who is an emmtrope and has an
unaccommodated eye with +60.00 D power. What Brian is an emmtrope whose eye is simulated with
should the lens-screen separation be in a model a lens-screen separation of 18.00 mm. What is the
simulating Amy's eye? One method for answering this power of the lens in the model for Brian's unaccom-
question is to find the image position for incoming modated eye? In this example, the image distance for
plane waves. From Eq. 5.1, a distant object is 18.00 mm which is thus the sec-
ondary focal length for the eye. Therefore,
V = P + U,
V = + 6 0 D + 0,
V=+60D,
>-k-
1000 mm/m
and (18 mm) '
P = +55.56 D.
_ 1000 mm/m
V Brian's unaccommodated eye has a dioptric power less
~ (+60 D) ' than the typical value of +60.00 D but is still emme-
i; = +16.67 mm. tropic because the eye is longer than the 16.67 mm
81
82 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

+ 60.00D
*

FIGURE 6.1. a. Plane waves from a


distant object incident on a thin lens and
screen model of an emmetropic eye. b.
The reversed situation when the retina is
a) Y b) the object, plane waves emerge from the
16.67 mm emmetropic eye.

lens-screen separation corresponding to the +60.00 D the divergence of the incident light increases and the
emmetropic eye. image moves back towards the retina. Eventually, the
We usually think in terms of light entering the eye. image is formed on the retina and the near object
However, consider the situation when an examiner appears clear to the unaccommodated myope. In this
uses an ophthalmoscope or a retinoscope to examine case the near object is located at the far point of the
the eye. The light is initially directed into the eye to myope's eye. It is a characteristic of a myopic eye that
illuminate the retina (just as you turn on the room its far point is a real point located a finite distance in
lights to illuminate a wall). The retina then acts as a front of the eye.
secondary source with the diffusely reflected light Cindy is a myope whose unaccommodated eye is
diverging away from it and emerging from the eye. simulated by a +58.00 D lens and a 20 mm lens-screen
Figure 6.1a shows plane waves from a distant ob- distance. One way to check that the model is simulat-
ject point entering an unaccommodated emmetropic ing a myopic eye is to determine if the light from a
eye model. The image point is on the retina. Accord- distant object point is imaged in front of the retina.
ing to the principle of reversibility, light diverging For incident plane waves, the image is at the
from a point on the retina retraces the same path back secondary focal plane. Then,
out of the eye. (In Figure 6.1a, simply reverse the
arrow direction on each ray.) Therefore, the light f2 = P '
emerging from the unaccommodated emmetropic eye
consists of plane waves with the image point at optical 1000
infinity (Figure 6.1b).
f2 =
+58'
The far point of an eye is the point conjugate to the / 2 =+17.24 mm.
axial retinal point for the unaccommodated eye. For
the unaccommodated eye, an object point at the far The lens-screen distance is 20 mm. Consequently, the
point results in an image point on the retina (light is clear image is formed in front of the screen represent-
incident on the eye), and an object point on the retina ing the retina (Figure 6.2a). While this calculation
results in an image point at the far point (light is shows that Cindy's eye is myopic, it does not de-
emerging from the eye). The far point is also known termine the amount of myopia.
by its Latin name, punctum remotum. One way to determine the amount of myopia is to
The far point of an emmtrope is at optical infinity. take the retina as the object and consider the light that
In the following sections, two types of ametropes, emerges from the eye, as occurs in ophthalmoscopy
myopes and hyperopes, are discussed. The far point and retinoscopy. In the reversed case, the object
for ametropes is not at optical infinity. distance u for the retina is - 2 0 mm (Figure 6.2b).
Then,
u = - 2 0 mm,
1000
6.2 Myopes U= = -50.00 D.
(-20)
Myopes are nearsighted. When a myope views a dis- Since
tant object, the eye converges the light to form a clear V = P + U,
image in front of the retina (i.e., in the vitreous
humor) resulting in a blurred image on the retina. V = + 5 8 + (-50),
When the object is brought closer to the myopic eye, V=+8.00D,
Thin Lens Eye Models 83

P=+58.00D

FIGURE 6.2. a. Rays from a distant point


incident on a myopic eye. b. When the retina
20.0 mm is the object, the waves emerging from a
myopic eye are converging.

and object is at the far point of the eye, Pc be the dioptric


power of the contact lens, U c the vergence of the light
100 = +12.5 cm.
v= -=- incident on the contact lens, and Vc the vergence of
the light exiting the contact lens. From Eq. 5.1,
The light emerging from Cindy's eye has a converg-
PC=VC-UC.
ence of +8.00 D. Note that plane waves emerge from
an emmetropic eye. Cindy's myopic eye needs 8.00 D Then, since
less converging power in order to be emmetropic. The U c = 0,
8.00 D is a measure of Cindy's refractive error. Pc=V c ,
The converging light coming out of Cindy's eye
forms a real image at 12.5 cm in front of the eye Since the light leaving the contact lens is immediately
(Figure 6.2b). The real image point at 12.5 cm is incident on the cornea, there is no vergence change
conjugate to the retina and, consequently, is the far and
point of Cindy's eye. By reversibility, an object placed V = U fp
at the far point results in a clear image on the retina.
(In Figure 6.2b, the position of the rays would be From the above two equations,
unchanged, but the arrows on the rays would be Pc = U fp . (6.1)
reversed and point to the right.) For an object point at
12.5 cm in front of the eye, the light incident on the In the case of the myope Cindy, Eq. 6.1 gives the
eye would have a divergence of -8.00 D. This -8.00 D contact lens power. Remember that Eq. 6.1
-8.00 D, in effect, offsets or neutralizes the 8.00 D of is general and applies to hyperopes as well as to
excess converging power in the eye, resulting in a clear myopes.
image on the retina. Dan is a myope whose unaccommodated eye has a
A contact lens correction is a correcting lens that power of +62.00 D. The far point of Dan's eye is
sits on the cornea. In the thin lens and screen model, located 50 cm in front of the eye. In the thin lens and
the contact correction is simulated by a thin lens screen model, what is the lens-screen distance? What
placed against the front of the thin lens representing contact lens correction does Dan require?
the eye. What contact lens would correct Cindy for When an object is placed at Dan's far point, a clear
distant vision? image will be formed on the retina. In this case,
To get a clear image on the retina of her un- wfp = - 5 0 cm,
accommodated eye, Cindy must have a vergence of
-8.00 D incident on the cornea. Plane waves come and
from a distant object, so the contact lens must be a , = ^ 2.00D.
lens that produces a vergence of -8.00 D from the ** (-50)
incident plane waves. From the thin lens vergence Since
equation, the contact lens must have a power of V = P + U fp ,
-8.00 D.
In the above example, the dioptric power of a then
distance vision contact lens was equal to the vergence V=+62 + (-2)=+60.00D,
of the light incident on the cornea when the object was
at the far point of the eye. This is true in general, and and
is shown algebraically as follows. Let Ufp be the 1000
v = 7T- = +16.67 mm.
vergence of the light incident on the cornea when the ou
84 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

2D 8D

12.5cm-

FIGURE 6.3. Far point location for a 2 D


50.0 cm and an 8 D myope.

The lens-screen separation for Dan's eye is 16.67 mm. The concept of the far point, and hence U fp , is
This happens to be the same lens-screen separation of particularly useful. Once the far point is known, then
a typical emmtrope. Dan's +62.00 D power is 2.00 D the correcting lens for the eye can be determined even
more than the typical emmtrope, and the Ufp of if the internal dimensions of the eye are not known.
-2.00 D simply neutralizes the +2.00 D error.
Dan's distance vision contact correction must take
incoming plane waves and convert them into light of
-2.00 D vergence. Hence, Dan's contact lens power 6.3 Hyperopes
Pc is -2.00 D, which is the same result that Eq. 6.1
gives. An unaccommodated hyperopic eye is too short to
The amount of myopia is directly quantified by the clearly image a distant object on the retina (Figure
absolute value of U fp , which was 8.00 D and 2.00 D, 6.4a). When an unaccommodated hyperope looks at a
respectively, for Cindy and Dan. An alternative con- distant object, the eye converges the light, but the
ceptual quantification of the amount of myopia is in converging light runs into the retina before the image
terms of the far point location. The closer the far point is formed. Hence, the retinal image is blurred. To get
is to optical infinity, the less the degree of myopia and a clear image on the retina of an unaccommodated
the closer the eye is to being emmetropic. The closer hyperope, the light incident on the eye must be con-
the far point is to the eye, the greater the degree of verging. This means that the far point of a hyperope's
myopia. Dan, the 2.00 D myope, had a far point 50 cm eye is virtual and located a finite distance behind the
in front of the eye, while Cindy, the 8.00 D myope, eye (Figure 6.4b).
had a far point 12.5 cm in front of the eye. Note that Fay has an unaccommodated eye that is simulated
in all cases the far point for a myope is a real point as by a +60.00 D thin lens and a screen located 16 mm
opposed to a virtual point (Figure 6.3). behind the lens. Since the typical +60.00 D eye has a

FIGURE 6.4. a. Rays from a distant point


incident on an unaccommodated hyperopic
eye. b. Converging incident light (virtual far
point) is needed to get an image on the hy-
perope's retina, c. When the retina is the
object, diverging light leaves the hyperopic eye
resulting in a virtual image at the far point.
Thin Lens Eye Models 85

length of 16.67 mm, Fay's eye is clearly too short and lens-screen distance of 16.67 mm. Where is George's
is therefore hyperopic. What is the degree of hy- far point? What distance vision contact lens correction
peropia and where is the far point for Fay's eye? does George require?
Again, as in retinoscopy, we will consider the light A typical emmetropic model eye has a dioptric
emerging from the eye when the retina serves as the power of +60.00 D and a lens-screen distance of
object (Figure 6.4c). Then 16.67 mm. George's lens-screen distance is 16.67 mm,
u = 16 mm, but George only has +54.00 D of power. Hence,
George is lacking +6.00 D of converging power. In
and other words, George has 6.00 D of hyperopia.
1000
U = (-16) 62.50 D. Alternatively, we can determine the amount of
hyperopia by taking the retina as the object and
Since considering the light emerging from the eye. Thus,
V = P + U,
u = 16.67 mm,
V = 60 + (-62.50), and
V=-2.50D,
and
100 Since
v = , ^ = -40.0 cm.
(-2.50) V = P + U,
The light emerging from Fay's eye is diverging and has V = + 5 4 + (-60),
a vergence of -2.50 D. The image point is virtual, V=-6D,
located 40 cm behind the +60.00 D lens, and is the far
point for Fay's eye. then
Plane waves emerge from an emmetropic eye. Fay 100
v = (-6) = 16.67 cm.
has diverging light of -2.50 D emerging from her eye.
Fay's eye is lacking 2.50 D of converging power. This The light leaving George's eye is diverging and has a
2.50 D is the degree of hyperopia. vergence of -6.00 D. Plane waves emerge from an
Since Fay's eye is lacking +2.50 D, light entering emmetropic eye, so the -6.00 D vergence confirms
her eye must be converging and have a vergence of that George is lacking 6.00D of power (i.e., George
+2.50 D in order to produce a clear retinal image. In has 6.00 D of hyperopia). The image conjugate to the
other words, to obtain a clear retinal image, the object retina is virtual and located 16.67 cm behind the
for the eye must be virtual and located 40 cm behind +54.00 D lens. This is the far point for George's eye.
the eye at the far point. Then wfp = +40cm and To get a clear retinal image, the light incident on
Ufp = +2.50D. (In Figure 6.4c, the rays would be George's eye must have a vergence Ufp equal to
unchanged except that the arrows would be reversed +6.00 D. Consequently, the contact lens correction
and point to the right.) necessary for George to clearly see a distant object
A contact lens correction that enables Fay to see a without accommodating is +6.00 D.
distant object without accommodating must take inci- Fay was a 2.50 D hyperope and had a virtual far
dent plane waves and produce exiting light of vergence point located 40 cm behind her eye, while George was
+2.50 D. A +2.50 D contact lens does this. We can a 6.00 D hyperope and had a virtual far point located
also find the power of the contact lens from Eq. 6.1: 16.67 cm behind his eye. Note that the closer the far
Pc = Ufp = +2.50D. point is to optical infinity, the lesser the degree of
hyperopia and the closer the eye is to being emme-
George is a hyperope whose unaccommodated eye tropic. The closer the far point is to the eye, the
is simulated by a +54.00 D thin lens and a typical greater the degree of hyperopia (Figure 6.5).

6D 2.5D

16.67 cm

40.0 cm FIGURE 6.5. Far point location for a 2.5 D


and a 6.0 D hyperope.
86 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

6.4 Spectacle Lens Corrections leaving the lens and traveling to the cornea must be
spherical and centered on the far point. The wavefront
While contact lens corrections sit on the cornea, spec- leaving the spectacle lens is 13 mm or 1.3 cm closer to
tacle lens corrections are mounted in a frame and sit a the far point than the wavefront incident on the
certain distance in front of the cornea. The distance cornea. Therefore, the radius of curvature of the
from the back of the spectacle lens to the cornea is wavefront leaving the spectacle lens is 10 cm minus
called the vertex distance. Because of the vertex dis- 1.3 cm, or 8.7 cm (Figure 6.6b). The radius is negative
tance, the dioptric power of a spectacle correction can since the wavefront is diverging, and the vergence
differ from the dioptric power of the contact lens leaving the spectacle lens is
correction. The reason for this difference is that the
wavefronts that leave the back of the spectacle lens 100
V= =-11.50 D.
gain or lose curvature as they cross the gap to the (-8.7 cm)
cornea. Since plane waves are incident on the spectacle lens
Helen has a far point that is real and located 10 cm for distance vision (U = 0), the dioptric power of the
in front of her cornea. What contact lens correction lens is:
and what spectacle lens correction does Helen need
V = P + U,
for distance vision? Assume a vertex distance of
13 mm. P=V-U,
First of all, since Helen's far point is in front of her
eye, Helen is a myope and needs diverging light P=-11.50-0,
incident on her cornea. Secondly, Helen's far point is
or
relatively close to her eye, so Helen is a fairly high
myope. When an object is placed at Helen's far point, P = - 1 1 . 5 0 D.
wfp = 10.0 cm, Helen's distance vision spectacle correction worn at
a vertex distance of 13 mm is -11.50 D, while Helen's
and contact lens correction is -10.00 D. Note that the
U f p = -10.00 D. spectacle correction and contact correction were de-
termined by knowing the far point location of Helen's
Helen needs a vergence of -10.00 D incident on her eye and without knowing the dioptric power or length
cornea. From Eq. 6.1, Helen's distance vision contact of the eye.
lens correction is then -10.00 D. Ian wears a +5.00 D distance vision contact lens
The distance vision spectacle lens correction must correction. What distance vision spectacle lens correc-
take incoming plane waves and diverge them in such a tion worn at a vertex distance of 15 mm does Ian
manner that the vergence of the light reaching the need?
cornea is -10.00 D (Figure 6.6a). Since the diverging Ian is hyperopic, and from Eq. 6.1,
wavefronts lose curvature as they travel across the gap
from the spectacle lens to the cornea, the vergence Ufp = Pc = +5.00D,
leaving the spectacle lens must be more minus than resulting in
-10.00 D.
For the proper correction, the wavefront incident 100
= +20.0 cm.
on the cornea must be spherical and centered on the
far point of the eye that is 10 cm in front of the Ian's far point is virtual and located 20 cm behind the
cornea. In fact, all of the wavefronts in the bundle cornea.

fp

~~v
8.7 cm
8
1.3 cm
FIGURE 6.6. a. Plane waves incident
on a spectacle correction for a myopic
eye. The vergence of the wavefront inci-
dent on the cornea must be -10.00 D.
b) y b. Geometry to get vergence of the
10.0 cm wavefront leaving the spectacle lens.
Thin Lens Eye Models 87

uice e
1.5 cm
20 cm

FIGURE 6.7. a. Plane waves incident on a


spectacle correction for a hyperopic eye. The
vergence of the wavefront incident on the cor-
nea must be +5.00 D. b. Geometry to get
v vergence of the wavefront leaving the spectacle
21.5 cm
a) b) lens.

The spectacle lens correction must be a converging 100


lens. However, the converging wavefronts leaving the = - 1 6 . 0 cm.
(-6.25)
back of the spectacle lens gain curvature as they cross The point 16 cm in front of the spectacle lens is the far
the gap between the lens and the cornea. Therefore,
point of Jeremy's eye. Each of the wavefronts crossing
the vergence leaving the spectacle lens must be less
the gap is spherical and centered on the far point. The
positive than the incident vergence of +5.00 D that is
cornea is 1.2 cm further away, so the wavefront inci-
required on the cornea (Figure 6.7a).
dent on the cornea has a radius of magnitude 17.2 cm.
All the converging wavefronts in the bundle be- The radius is negative, and the vergence of the wave-
tween the spectacle lens and the cornea are centered front incident on the cornea is
on the far point. The radius of curvature of the
wavefront incident on the cornea is 20 cm. The radius 100
U
rp = = -5.81D.
of curvature of the wavefront leaving the spectacle (-17.2)
lens is 1.5 cm longer, or 21.5 cm (Figure 6.7b). The Alternatively, one could just use the magnitude of the
vergence of the wavefront leaving the lens is then radius and calculate the absolute value of U fp , or
100 100
V= = +4.65D. |u fp | = = 5.81D.
+21.5 17.2
Since the incident waves from a distant object are Then since we know the light is diverging, we simply
plane waves, the dioptric power of the spectacle lens assign the minus sign to U fp , or
must then be +4.65 D. (Note that as expected the Ufp = - 5 . 8 1 D .
+4.65 D is positive and less than +5.00 D.)
It is important to keep in mind whether the wave- An aphakic eye has no crystalline lens and is thus
fronts traveling across the gap between a spectacle lacking plus power. The far point of an aphake is
lens and the cornea are gaining or losing curvature. similar to that of a high hyperope: virtual and a finite
Simple sketches like Figures 6.6a and 6.7a quickly distance behind the eye. Consider Karen, an aphake,
supply this information. who needs a distance vision spectacle lens correction
The amount of vergence change across the gap of +14.25 D at a vertex distance of 15 mm. Karen
depends on the power of the lens involved. High chooses a frame that gives a vertex distance of 12 mm.
powered lenses, either plus or minus, produce large What lens power does Karen need for the new frame?
vergence changes, while low powered lenses produce For incident plane waves, light of vergence
small vergence changes. Changes smaller than 0.25 D + 14.25 D would leave the spectacle lens, which is
are usually considered clinically insignificant. Changes 15 mm from the cornea. Since the wavefronts gain
of 0.25 D or greater are considered clinically sig- curvature as they move toward the cornea, the ver-
nificant. gence at a distance of 12 mm from the cornea will be
Jeremy has a distance vision spectacle correction of greater than +14.25 D (Figure 6.8a).
-6.25 D. The vertex distance is 12 mm. What is The center of curvature of the wavefront leaving
Jeremy's distance vision contact lens power? the spectacle lens is at the far point of Karen's eye.
In Jeremy's case, the diverging wavefronts leaving The radius of curvature, which is also the image
the spectacle lens become flatter as they travel to the distance for the lens, is
cornea (Figure 6.6a). Therefore, the contact lens 100
power will be less minus than -6.25 D. v = ( + 14.25) = +7.02 cm.
The center of curvature of the wavefront leaving
the spectacle lens is The vergence at 12mm from the cornea (i.e., 3 mm
88 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

O fp

FIGURE 6.8. a. Downstream vergence


changes involved in a vertex distance change for
v an aphakic correction, b. Geometry to calculate
b) 0.3 cm 6.72 cm resulting differences in spectacle correction
v power.
7.02 cm

behind the spectacle lens, Figure 6.8b) is Again, this statement assumes that plane waves are
100 incident on the lens, so this also is simply another way
V = (7.02-0.3)' of stating that diverging wavefronts lose curvature as
they travel from the spectacle lens to the eye.
100 The gain in plus effectivity or loss in minus effec-
v = (6.72) ' tivity statements may not accurately describe what
happens when diverging or converging light is incident
V = +14.88 D.
on a spectacle lens because there the vergence incident
For distance vision, a spectacle lens placed 12 mm on the lens may be changing in the opposite manner as
from Karen's eye must take incoming plane waves and the effectivity changes.
change them into converging waves with a vergence of What is actually changing in the effectivity cases is
H-14.88 D. From P = V - U, the power of the spectacle the vergence of the wavefronts as they travel from one
lens is then +14.88 D. Note that the +14.88 D lens at position to the other. Therefore, the name vergence
a vertex distance of 12 mm is a change of +0.63 D effectivity is more appropriate than lens effectivity.
from the +14.25 D lens at a vertex distance of 15 mm, However, the lens effectivity terminology is useful for
and this amount is clinically significant. those who are not familiar with vergence.

6.5 Lens Effectivity Terminology 6.6 Ocular Accommodation

In the previous sections we saw that the power of a In dealing with distance vision corrections, we con-
distance spectacle correction can differ from that of a sider only unaccommodated eyes. Let us now take
contact correction because of the change in vergence accommodation into account.
of the wavefronts as they move from the spectacle The crystalline lens in the eye adds converging
plane to the eye. Historically, this phenomenon has power when the eye accommodates. In our thin lens
been described under the name of lens effectivity. and screen model, we can simulate this change by
Instead of directly mentioning the change in vergence, adding power to the thin lens. In the model, let Pu be
people would refer to the effect of the spectacle lens at the power of the unaccommodated eye, and Pa be the
the cornea. power of the accommodated eye. The amount of
Consider a vertex distance of 12 mm. Then, the ocular accommodation A 0 is the difference in the two
effect of a +10.00 D spectacle lens at the eye is values, or
+ 11.36 D. This statement means that for plane waves
incident on the +10.00 D lens, the vergence of the A0 = P a - P u . (6.2)
light leaving the lens is +10.00 D, but the vergence of Let ve be the distance between the thin lens and the
the light at the eye is +11.36 D. screen. Since the eye does not change length when it
Plus lenses are said to gain plus effectivity as they accommodates, ve is a constant. In order to have a
move away from the eye. This statement assumes that clear retinal image, the vergence Ve of the light leav-
plane waves are incident on the lens, so this is simply ing the thin lens representing the eye must equal the
another way of stating that converging wavefronts gain reciprocal of ve, or
curvature as they travel from the spectacle lens to the
eye. (6.3)
Minus lenses are said to lose minus effectivity, or to
gain plus effectivity, as they move away from the eye. When the object is at the far point of the eye and
Thin Lens Eye Models 89

the eye is unaccommodated, then the retinal image is A0 = U f p - U x ,


clear and
A 0 = - 2 . 5 0 D - ( - 4 . 0 0 D),
ve = P + ufp (6.4) Ao=+1.50D.
When the object is moved inside the far point to a When uncorrected, Larry has an ocular accommoda-
point x, i.e., closer to the eye, then the eye accommo- tive demand of +1.50D when viewing the book at
dates to maintain a clear retinal image, and 25 cm.
V e = P a + Ux, (6.5) Suppose Larry holds the book only 10 cm in front
of his cornea. How much accommodation is needed
where Ux is the vergence incident on the cornea when then? In this case,
the object is at point x. Figure 6.9 shows the case for a
myope. 100
U = = -10.00 D.
Equation 6.5 can be subtracted from Eq. 6.4 to (-10)
give From Eq. 6.7,
o = Pu + u f p - p a - u x , A0 = U f p - U x ,
or
Pu = U f p - U x . (6.6) and

Then, from Eqs. 6.2 and 6.6, A o = - 2 . 5 0 D - (-10.00 D),


Ao=+7.50D.
A0 = U f p - U x . (6.7)
Larry's ocular accommodative demand for the object
Equation 6.7 states that the amount A 0 of ocular at 10 cm is +7.50 D.
accommodation needed to maintain a clear retinal Suppose Larry looks at an object 1 m from his eye.
image must just offset (or neutralize) the increase in In this case, the image inside Larry's eye would be
vergence incident on the eye when the object is moved formed in front of his retina resulting in a blurred
in from the far point to the point x. In real eyes, the retinal image. If Larry accommodates, the image is
amount of accommodation that actually occurs (the pulled even further in front of the retina, thus increas-
accommodative response) may not match the accom- ing the amount of retinal blur. We say that the object
modation needed. To distinguish the two, the amount appears blurred because it is outside Larry's far point.
of accommodation needed is called the ocular accom- Suppose we blindly went ahead and calculated the
modative demand. Equation 6.7 is the fundamental ocular accommodative demand anyway. For an object
working equation for computing the ocular accom- at 1 m,
modative demand.
Larry is an uncorrected myope with a far point U =-1.00D.
40 cm in front of his eye. So, Then,
100 A0 = U f p - U x ,
Ufp
(-40) = -2.50D.
A0=-2.50-(-1.00),
Suppose Larry looks at a book 25 cm in front of his Ao=-1.50D.
eye. How much accommodation is needed for Larry to
have a clear retinal image? The negative value indicates a need for less plus power
When the book is 25 cm in front of Larry's eye, the (in this case, 1.50 D less plus). Since we assumed that
vergence incident on Larry's eye when he looks at the an unaccommodated eye has the least plus power and
book is that accommodation adds plus power, then a negative
value for A 0 indicates that the object is outside the far
U point. (There is physiological evidence for a positive
=F!)=-4-OOD resting level of accommodation, but that does not
From Eq. 6.7, the ocular accommodative demand is, change the basic considerations here.)

fp

FIGURE 6.9. a. Wavefronts from the far


point incident on a myope's eye. b. Wavefronts
b) from a point x inside the far point.
90 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

6.7 Near Point and Range of Clear Now consider Marcie who wears a -5.00 D dis-
Vision: Myope tance vision contact correction and has a 3.00 D am-
plitude of accommodation. What is Marcie's uncorrec-
As a person moves an object closer and closer to his ted range of clear vision?
eye, more and more accommodation is used. Eventu- From Eq. 6.1,
ally, the maximum amount is reached. The maximum Ufp = - 5 . 0 0 D ,
amount of accommodation is called the amplitude of
accommodation (A m ). and
The near point of an eye is the point conjugate to
u{p= -20.0 cm.
the axial retinal point of the maximally accommodated
eye. The near point is also known by its Latin name of From Eq. 6.7,
punctum proximum. The near point can be found as a A0 = U f p - U x ,
special case of Eq. 6.7 by setting A 0 equal to the
amplitude of accommodation A m . The points that or
successively become conjugate to the retina as a per-
Ux = U f p - A 0
son increases his or her accommodation constitute the
person's range of clear vision. Ux=-5.00-3.00,
Suppose Larry, the myope in the preceeding sec- U =-8.00D.
tion, has an amplitude of accommodation of 9.00 D.
Where is Larry's near point? Finally,
We can solve Eq. 6.7 for U x : 100
M
np - "x - (_ 8 oo) '
A 0 = Ufp Uv
unp= -12.5 cm.
Therefore,
Ux = U f p - A 0 . Marcie's uncorrected range of clear vision extends
from her far point at 20 cm to her near point at
Larry's far point was 40 cm, and 12.5 cm.
Ufp = -2.50D. The amplitude of accommodation gradually di-
minishes with age. At the age of 8 years, the am-
When A is set equal to the 9.00 D amplitude of plitude of accommodation is approximately 14.00 D,
accommodation, the point x is the near point. at 20 years it has fallen to 11.00 D, at 30 years it is
Ux = - 2 . 5 0 - 9 . 0 0 , approximately 9.00 D, and at the age of 50 years it is
less than 2.00 D. Because of the decline of the am-
or plitude of accommodation with age, a person's near
U =-11.50 D. point steadily recedes from the eye and approaches
the far point.
Then
" v =

u. 6.8 Range of Clear Vision: Emmtrope


100
Accommodation is particularly easy to calculate for
" v =
(-11.50)'
M
np="x = -8.70cm. the emmtrope. The general equation is again Eq. 6.7:
A 0 = Ufp LL
Larry's range of clear vision extends from his far point
at 40 cm to his near point at 8.7 cm (Figure 6.10). However, for an emmtrope, Ufp is zero.

range of clear vision

FIGURE 6.10. Range of clear vision for a myope.


Thin Lens Eye Models 91

Norman is an emmtrope who looks at a poster adds plus converging power, it can be used to over-
50 cm from his eye. What is Norman's ocular accom- come some or all of the hyperopia. Since the un-
modative demand? corrected hyperope uses accommodation to see distant
Here, objects, he or she may not have enough left for near
objects. Furthermore, the ciliary muscle, like any
Uv = J ^ = -2.00D, muscle in the body, is subject to fatigue under condi-
(-50) tions of exertion for long periods of time. Therefore,
and from Eq. 6.7, while a high hyperope may be able to see a distant
Ao = 0 - ( - 2 . 0 0 ) . object clearly by accommodating, he may not be able
to sustain the accommodation.
or An uncorrected hyperope has a virtual far point.
A=+2.00D. As the hyperope accommodates, the virtual point
conjugate to the retina moves away from the eye and
If Norman moves the poster in to a point 25 cm in toward optical infinity. If a hyperope has enough
front of his eye, then accommodation, an object at optical infinity can be
100 imaged clearly on the retina. Whatever accommoda-
U = = -4.00D. tion is left can then be used to see real objects that are
(-25)
closer than optical infinity.
and Consider Paul, a hyperope who needs a +8.00 D
A o = 0 - (-4.00) = +4.00D. contact lens. From Eq. 6.1,
Ufp = Pc = +8.00D,
For an object 20 cm in front of his eye, Norman has an
ocular accommodative demand of +5.00 D, and for an and
object 10 cm in front of his eye he has an ocular 100
accommodative demand of +10.00 D. ufnfp = (+8.00) = +12.5 cm.
Octavia is an emmtrope with an amplitude of
accommodation of 7.00 D. What is Octavia's range of Paul's far point is virtual and located 12.5 cm behind
clear vision? his cornea.
To find Octavia's near point, use Eq. 6.7, set A 0 When Paul accommodates +3.00 D, what point is
equal to the amplitude of accommodation, and solve conjugate to his retina? From Eq. 6.7,
for U. A0 = U f p - U x ,
Ux = U f p - A 0 .
or
But Ufp is zero, therefore, 3 = 8-Ux,
Ux = 0 - (7.00) = - 7 . 0 0 D ,
and
or Uv = 8 - 3 = + 5 . 0 0 D .
100
= -14.3 cm. Then
(-7.00)
Octavia's near point is 14.3 cm in front of her eye. 100
+20.0 cm.
Since Octavia is an emmtrope, her far point is at (+5.00)
optical infinity. Octavia's range of clear vision extends When Paul accommodates 3.00 D, the point conjugate
from optical infinity to 14.3 cm in front of her eye. to his retina remains virtual but moves from 12.5 cm to
As Octavia ages, her near point will move out away 20.0 cm. An uncorrected 5.00 D hyperope has a far
from her eye toward her far point at optical infinity. point at 20.0 cm, so in a sense, by using 3.00 D of
Eventually, she will have difficulty seeing near objects, accommodation Paul can now function as a 5.00 D
a signal that presbyopia has arrived. hyperope instead of an 8.00 D hyperope (Figure 6.11).
What is Paul's ocular accommodative demand to
see an object at optical infinity? From Eq. 6.7,

6.9 Range of Clear Vision: Hyperope A0 = U f p - U x .


For the object at optical infinity
A hyperope does not have enough converging power
in the unaccommodated eye. Since accommodation u x = o,
92 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

fp
toOCZX- - to O O
12.5 cm| FIGURE 6.11. Point x is conjugate to
the retina for an 8.00 D hyperope who is
20.0 cm accommodating 3.00 D.

and since 6.10 Range of Clear Vision: Summary


Ufp=+8.00D,
The circular representation can be used to represent
then the range of clear vision for the myope and emm-
trope as well as for the hyperope. Figure 6.13 shows
A 0 = + 8 - 0 = + 8 . 0 0 D.
four cases. In each case, the eye is looking left. The
When uncorrected, Paul needs to accommodate points on the left half of the circle represent optically
+8.00 D to clearly see an object at optical infinity. In real points, while the points on the right half of the
effect, Paul neutralizes the 8.00 D of hyperopia by circle represent virtual points. The far point of a
accommodating 8.00 D. myope is a real point located a finite distance in front
What is Paul's ocular accommodative demand to of the eye, while the far point of a hyperope is a
read a book held 25 cm in front of his eye? Now virtual point located a finite distance behind the eye.
The far point of an emmtrope is at optical infinity.
n = ^ 4 . 0 0 D . The first case is that of a myope. The far point is
(-25)
real and a finite distance in front of the eye. The near
From Eq. 6.7, point is also real and closer to the eye than the far
A0 = U f p - U x , point. Distance objects are not included in the range
of clear vision.
A0=+8-(-4),
The second case is that of an emmtrope. The far
or point is at optical infinity, and the near point is real
and closer to the eye than the far point.
A =+12.00 D.
The third case is that of a hyperope with enough
Paul's ocular accommodative demand to read the accommodation to overcome the hyperopia and see
book 25 cm in front of his eye is +12.00 D. some near objects. The far point is virtual and a finite
Note that Paul needed 8.00 D to see an object at distance behind the eye, while the near point is real
optical infinity. In order to get from optical infinity to and a finite distance in front of the eye. The range of
a book that is 25 cm in front of his eye, Paul requires clear vision includes optical infinity.
an additional 4.00 D of accommodation. The 8.00 D The fourth case is that of a hyperope who does not
plus 4.00 D provides the total ocular accommodative have enough accommodation to overcome the hy-
demand of 12.00 D that Paul needs to read the book. peropia. The far point is virtual and located a finite
Figure 6.12 provides a circular representation of Paul's distance behind the eye, and the near point is also
accommodation. virtual and located a finite distance behind the eye.

* X * CDO X *-
< 1 <

-x*-
FIGURE 6.12. Range of clear vision as an
25.0 cm 12.5 cm 8.00 D hyperope accommodates 12.00 D.
Thin Lens Eye Models 93

-CCD

FIGURE 6.13. Ranges of clear vision.


a. Myope, b. Emmtrope, c. Low hy-
perope. d. High hyperope.

The near point is closer to optical infinity than the far trope puts on a -8.00 D contact lens and looks at a
point. No real object points are imaged on the retina. distant object, the object will appear blurred (and
In each of the cases, the range of clear vision maybe not even visible). However, if the emmtrope
extends counterclockwise from the far point to the accommodates 8.00 D, the distant object will appear
near point. The region inside, or counterclockwise clear. In other words, in the thin lens eye model the
from, the near point is the region where objects are 8.00 D of accommodation neutralizes the -8.00 D
not clearly imaged on the retina because the person contact lens.
does not have enough accommodation available. The Suppose the emmtrope looks through a -8.00 D
region outside, or clockwise from, the far point is the spectacle lens at the distant object. Again the emm-
region where objects are not clearly imaged because trope can accommodate to neutralize the spectacle
the unaccommodated eye already has too much con- lens and see the distant object clearly. In this case, we
verging power, and the clear image is formed in front tend to say the -8.00 D spectacle lens causes 8.00 D
of the retina, i.e., in the vitreous humor. of accommodation, but, in fact, the actual ocular
Suppose each of the eyes represented in Figure accommodative demand is not 8.00 D. For the distant
6.13 has a 4.00 D amplitude of accommodation and object, the vergence of the light leaving the spectacle
the respective refractive states are: 3.00 D myopia, lens is 8.00D, but 14 mm downstream the vergence
emmetropia, 3.00 D hyperopia, and 6.00 D hyperopia. incident on the eye is 7.19D. The vergence Ufp is
The respective far points are then: real and 33.3 cm in zero for the emmtrope, so the emmetrope's ocular
front of the eye; at optical infinity; virtual and 33.3 cm accommodative demand is +7.19 D.
behind the eye; and virtual and 16.67 cm behind the In the above case, we label the 8.00 D as the
eye. You should now be able to show that the respec- spectacle accommodative demand. The spectacle ac-
tive near points are: real and 14.3 cm in front of the commodative demand is related (but not equal) to the
eye; real and 25.0 cm in front of the eye; real and ocular accommodative demand. Clinically, it is expedi-
100.0 cm in front of the eye; and virtual and 50.0 cm ent to think in terms of the spectacle accommodative
behind the eye. Note the near point variation even demand even though it can differ from the ocular
through each has a 4.00 D amplitude of accommo- accommodative demand.
dation. Another example of spectacle accommodative de-
mand is that of a spectacle corrected ametrope looking
through the spectacle lenses at a near object. Assume
6.11 Spectacle Accommodative Demand that the spectacle corrected ametrope can see a distant
object clearly without accommodating. For the distant
Consider an unaccommodated emmtrope with a object, the vergence incident on the spectacle lens is
10.00 D amplitude of accommodation. When this emm- zero. When the object is 25 cm from the spectacle
94 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

lens, the vergence incident on the spectacle lens is Ps

-4.0 D. To see this object clearly, the person has to


A

accommodate enough to neutralize the 4.00 D change.


The 4.00 D is the spectacle accommodative demand.
?
We can find the actual amount of accommodation
needed by the eye (the ocular accommodative de-
mand) by calculating Ufp and Ux (the vergence inci- *
u^J
a)
dent on the eye) and using Eq. 6.7. This is shown in
the next section.
We can formalize the above argument by defining
the spectacle accommodative demand A s as the differ-
ence in the vergences incident on the spectacle lens.
For the distance object (no accommodation) the inci-
dent vergence is zero. For the near object, the ver-
gence incident on the spectacle lens is U s . The specta-
cle accommodative demand is the difference between
the two vergences incident on the spectacle lens, or
FIGURE 6.14. a. A spectacle-corrected hyperope viewing a
A = 0-U. distant object, b. The spectacle-corrected hyperope viewing a
near object.
Then
A =-U.. (6.8)

EXAMPLE 6.1 Because of the vergence changes across the gap be-
Bobby Brickbat is wearing a distance vision specta- tween the lens and the eye, the ocular accommodative
cle correction. What is the spectacle accommoda- demand and the spectacle accommodative demand
tive demand when Bobby holds his bat 20 cm from may differ.
his spectacle lens and examines it for a suspected
crack? EXAMPLE 6.2a
Hilda is hyperope with a +12.00 D spectacle cor-
For the bat at 20 cm (the proximal object), rection at a 14 mm vertex distance. What is Hilda's
US = -5.00D, spectacle and ocular accommodative demands when
and looking at a tapestry located 25 cm in front of her
As = - ( - 5 . 0 0 D) =+5.00 D. spectacle lens?
For the tapestry (the proximal object), the ver-
Note that the power of the spectacle lens does not gence incident on the spectacle lens is
matter for the spectacle accommodative demand.
However, the spectacle lens power does matter for US = -4.00D.
the ocular accommodative demand. From Eq. 6.8, Hilda's spectacle accommodative
demand is
As = -(-4.00D) = +4.00D.
6.12 Ocular Accommodation Through For the tapestry, the light leaving the spectacle
Spectacles lens has a vergence
Figure 6.14 shows a spectacle corrected hyperope
looking first at a distant object (Figure 6.14a), and Vs = +12.00 D + (-4.00 D) = +8.00 D.
then at a near object (Figure 6.14b). For the distant For a +8.00 D vergence, the vergence Ux at a
object, plane waves are incident on the spectacle lens, distance 14 mm downstream is +9.01 D. When
and the vergence leaving the spectacle lens is equal to plane waves are incident on the +12.00 D lens, the
the power Ps of the spectacle lens. Converging light vergence leaving is +12.00 D, and the vergence Ufp
leaves the spectacle lens, and the vergence Ufp inci- 14 mm downstream is +14.42 D. From Eq. 6.7, the
dent on the cornea is greater than Ps. For the near ocular accommodative demand is
(proximal) object, the vergence Vs leaving the specta- A0 = U f p - U x ,
cle lens is less than P s , and again a vergence change A 0 =+14.42 D - ( + 9 . 0 1 D),
occurs across the gap between the lens and the eye. A 0 =+5.41D.
The vergence incident on the eye is U x . From Eq. 6.7,
the ocular accommodative demand is So while Hilda's spectacle accommodative demand
is +4.00 D, her ocular accommodative demand is
A = U Uv +5.41 D.
Thin Lens Eye Models 95

EXAMPLE 6.2b While the previous examples clearly show the ef-
Myra is myope with a -12.00 D spectacle correc- fect, they do not provide an intuitive feeling for the
tion at a 14 mm vertex distance. What is Myra's result. The following argument provides some intui-
spectacle and ocular accommodative demands tion even though the argument is flawed. The image
when looking at the tapestry located 25 cm in front formed by the spectacle lens is the object for the eye.
of her spectacle lens? For the distant object, the spectacle lens image is at
As in Example 6.1a, the spectacle accommoda-
tive demand is the eye's far point. Figure 6.15a shows the spectacle
lens images for the hyperope. The hyperope's far
A S =+4.00D. point is virtual. As one starts to move the object for
For the tapestry, the light leaving the spectacle lens the spectacle lens in from optical infinity, the spectacle
has a vergence lens' image moves from the far point out towards
V S = PS + U S , optical infinity.
Vs = -12.00 D + (-4.00 D) = -16.00 D. Figure 6.15b shows the corresponding case for the
myope. Here the eye's far point is real. As one starts
For a -16.00 D vergence, the vergence Ux at a
to move the object for the spectacle lens in from
distance 14 mm downstream is -13.07 D.
When plane waves are incident on the -12.00 D optical infinity, the spectacle lens's image moves from
lens, the vergence leaving is 12.00 D, and the the far point in towards the lens. When Figure 6.15a
vergence Ufp 14 mm downstream is -10.27 D. and Figure 6.15b are compared, we see that the
From Eq. 6.7, the ocular accommodative demand myope's eye has only a small distance change to
is accommodate for, whereas as the hyperope's eye has a
A0 = U f p - U x , much larger distance change to accommodate for.
The above argument is flawed because it does not
A 0 = -10.27 D - (-13.07 D),
show the effect of the spectacle lens's vertex distance
A o =+2.80D. on the ocular accommodative demand. We can use an
So while Myra's spectacle accommodative demand algebraic argument to build some legitimate intuition
is +4.00 D, her ocular accommodative demand is about the vertex distance dependence. First, we need
only +2.80 D. to consider an algebraic equation for downstream
vergence.
Note that the spectacle accommodative demand
was the same for Hilda and Myra. However, the
ocular accommodative demands are very different.
Hilda, the hyperope, has an ocular accommodative 6.13 The Downstream Vergence Equation
demand that is higher than the spectacle accommoda-
tive demand; while Myra, the myope, has an ocular We have been numerically solving downstream ver-
accommodative demand that is lower than the specta- gence problems since Chapter 2. Here we use the
cle accommodative demand. This difference is due to same technique to derive an algebraic equation for the
the vergence effectivity changes between the spectacle downstream vergence problem.
lens and the eye. In effect, for an object at the same Figure 6.16a shows converging wavefronts in the
distance, spectacle corrected hyperopes have to ac- same bundle. The wavefront at position 2 is a distance
commodate more than spectacle corrected myopes. d downstream from position 1. The wavefront at

spectacle lens
real images
a)

M
spectacle lens
virtual images FIGURE 6.15. Spectacle lens image move-
A ment as object is moved in from optical
b) infinity, a. Hyperope. b. Myope.
96 Geometric, Physical, and Visual Optics

FIGURE 6.16. Downstream vergence


geometry, a. Converging wavefronts. b.
Diverging wavefronts.

position 1 has a radius of curvature ql and the wave- EXAMPLE 6.3


front at position 2 has a radius of curvature of q2. For converging wavefronts (Figure 6.16a), when
From the figure, it is clear that the vergence at position 1 is +4.00 D, what is the
vergence at position 2 that is a distance of 15 cm
q2 = ql- d.
downstream?
The vergence of the wavefront at position 2 is given by Note that you should also be able to work this
particular problem numerically in your head by
using the techniques of Chapter 2. From Eq. 6.9,

where q2 is in meters. Then V = +4.00 D


2
~ [l-(0.15m)(4.00D)]'
v = i
2
(9,-d)' _ +4.00 D
2
provided ql and d are in meters. The numerator and " [1 - 0.60] '
the denominator of the above equation can each be +4.00 D
divided by qx with the result that V2 = = +10.00 D.
0.40
y = "ft
2
(l-d/9l) EXAMPLE 6.4
For diverging wavefronts (Figure 6.16b), when the
Since the vergence at position 1 is given by
vergence at position 1 is -20.00 D, what is the
vergence at position 2 which is a distance of 45 cm
downstream?
Again from Chapter 2, you should be able to
the expression for V2 becomes work this problem numerically in your head with-
V out using Eq. 6.9. From Eq. 6.9,
= m meters
^2 i -HV ' ^ - (6-9) -20.00 D
V9 =
[l-(0.45m)(-20.00D)]'
Equation 6.9 relates the vergence at position 1 to
the vergence at position 2 that is a distance d down- -20.00 D
stream. For this reason, I like to call Eq. 6.9 the V9 =
[1 - (-9.00)] '
downstream vergence equation. However, one can also
say that Eq. 6.9 gives the effect at a distance d -20.00 D
2
downstream of the vergence at position 1. Therefore, [l-(-9.00)]'
it can also be referred to as a vergence effectivity
-20.00 D
equation. V,= = -2.00D.
+ 10.00
Equation 6.9 is a general equation, and can be
derived from diverging wavefronts as well as from We can also solve Eq. 6.9 for V, in terms of V 2 ,
converging wavefronts (Figure 6.16b). Note the diop- in which case the result is the upstream vergence
ter is the reciprocal of a meter, and the distance d in equation:
Eq. 6.9 must be in meters so that the product dV, is
dimensionless. V,= d in meters. (6.10)
1 + dV,
Thin Lens Eye Models 97

6.14 Algebraic Approach: Accommodation approximation, Eq. 6.13, in Eq. 6.11 to obtain
Through Spectacle Lenses
A 0 ~ P s ( l + d P s ) - V s ( l + dV s ),
Figure 6.14 shows the situation for the ocular accom- or
modative demand through spectacle lenses. For ver- A 0 ~ P s - V s + d(Pf-Vf).
gence incident on the eye, the fundamental equation is
Now
Ac = U f p - U x .
P s - V f = (P s -V s )(P s + V s ),
When the person is looking at the distant object, plane
waves are incident on the spectacle lens, and, con-
sequently, the vergence of the light leaving the specta- and
cle lens is equal to the dioptric power of the lens. - U S = P S -V S .
Then from the downstream vergence Eq. 6.9, the
vergence Ufp incident on the eye is We can combine the above four equations to obtain
A 0 ~ - U s + d(-U s )(P s + V s ),
U
Uf = A 0 ~ - U , [ l + d(P, + V,)],
P 1-dP
When the person looks at the near (proximal) object and
the vergence incident on the spectacle lens is U s and A 0 ~ - U , [ l + d ( 2 P , + U,)].
the vergence leaving the spectacle lens is Vs. Then the
vergence Ux incident on the eye is Let us additionally assume that the object is just
starting to move in from optical infinity so that U s is
v small relative to 2PS. Then
U =
1 - dV/ A0~-Us[l+2dPs] (6.14)
When the expressions for Ufp and U x are substituted
From Eq. 6.8, the spectacle accommodative demand
into the accommodation equation, the result is
A s is equal to - U s , so
A = (6.11) A0~A,[l+2dP,]. (6.15)
1 - dR 1 - dVc
Equation 6.15 is an approximation to Eq. 6.11.
Equation 6.11 gives the ocular accommodative de-
According to Eq. 6.15, the difference between the
mand in terms of the dioptric power of the spectacle
ocular accommodative demand and the spectacle ac-
lens, the vergence Vs of the light leaving the spectacle
commodative demand is due to the 2dPs term. How-
lens, and the vertex distance d. It is clear from Eq.
ever, this term has opposite effects for myopes and
6.11 that the vertex distance has an effect, but it is not
hyperopes. For hyperopes, the spectacle lens power Ps
clear what the pattern of that effect is. We can make
is positive and the term adds so that A 0 is greater than
the pattern emerge by considering some approxima-
A s . For myopes, Ps is negative and the term subtracts
tions to Eq. 6.11. so that A 0 is less than A s .
Consider an equation of the form
Ginny is a myope who wears a 5.00D spectacle
y=h- < 612 > lens at a vertex distance of 12 mm. From Eq. 6.15,
when Ginny looks at an object 100 cm in front of her
When x is small relative to 1, the equation can be spectacle lens, the ocular accommodative demand is
approximated by
A 0 ~ - ( - 1 . 0 D)[l + 2(0.012 m)(-5.00 D)],
y ~ l + x. (6.13)
A0~+1.00D[l-0.12],
For example,
A 0 ~ +1.00 D[0.88] = +0.88 D.
1 The exact ocular accommodative demand for Ginny is
J = 1.11,
(1-0.10) also +0.88 D, so the approximation is very good.
while the approximation gives Gerry is a hyperope who wears a +5.00 D spectacle
lens at a vertex distance of 12 mm. From Eq. 6.15,
y ~ l + 0.10 = 1.10. when Gerry looks at an object 100 cm in front of his
The approximation gets better for smaller x values and spectacle lens he needs to accommodate
worse for larger x values. A 0 ~ - ( - 1 . 0 0 D)[l + 2(0.012 m)(+5.00 D)],
The vergence effectivity terms in Eq. 6.11 have the
form of Eq. 6.14 with x equal to dPs or dVs. When A 0 ~ +1.00 D[l +0.12],
these terms are small relative to 1, we can use the A o ~+1.00D[1.12] = +1.12D.
98 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

The exact ocular accommodative demand for Gerry is where the vergences Ufp and Ux are incident on the
also +1.12 D so the approximation is very good. cornea. From Eq. 6.1,
In the above cases, the d term added 0.12 D of
u f p = pc.
accommodation for the hyperope (Gerry) and sub-
tracted 0.12 D of accommodation for the myope The light leaving the contact lens is immediately inci-
(Ginny). The vertex distance and the resulting ver- dent on the eye with no vergence change. Therefore,
gence effectivity increases the ocular accommodative ux=vc.
demand for a hyperope and decreases the ocular
accommodative demand for a myope. By combining the above three equations, we get
For Gerry and Ginny the approximation gives the
A = P C -V C .
same result (to two digits) as the exact procedures.
However, the approximation starts to break down for Since
Hilda and Myra in Examples 6.2a and 6.2b. Both
- U C = P C -V C ,
Hilda and Myra had a +4.00 D spectacle accommoda-
tive demand. For Hilda, the hyperope, the approxima- the equation for the ocular accommodative demand
tion gives +4.67 D, which is greater than +4.00 D, simplifies to
while the exact ocular accommodative demand is
A0 = - U c . (6.16)
+5.41 D. For Myra, the myope, the approximation
gives +3.33 D, which is less than +4.00 D, while the For the contact corrected ametropes, the vergence
exact ocular accommodative demand is +2.80 D. of the light incident on the contact lens is equal to the
vergence of the light incident on the cornea of an
emmtrope who is standing at the same distance from
the object. Thus, in the thin lens and screen model, all
contact corrected ametropes have the same ocular
6.15 Accommodation Through Contact accommodative demand as an emmtrope.
Lenses For example, a myope wearing a -4.00 D contact
lens and viewing an object 50 cm in front of the lens
The differences in accommodative demand in the has a U c of -2.00 D, and from Eq. 6.16 an ocular
spectacle corrected cases were due to the different accommodative demand of +2.00 D. Similarly, a hy-
vergence changes that occurred between the spectacle perope wearing a contact correction of +4.00 D and
lens and the eye. However, contact lens corrections sit viewing an object 50 cm in front of the lens has an
on the eye; therefore, no vergence changes occur ocular accommodative demand of +2.00 D. An
between the contact lens and the eye. emmtrope viewing the same object 50 cm in front of
We can consider a contact lens as a spectacle lens his or her eye also has an ocular accommodative
with a zero vertex distance. In this case, Eq. 6.15 demand of +2.00 D.
becomes exact, and shows that For Myra and Hilda in the previous section, the
A 0 = AS. contact corrections are -10.27 D and +14.43 D, re-
spectively. The ocular accommodative demand for the
So, for a contact corrected ametrope, the ocular ac- contact corrected girls to see the tapestry 25 cm from
commodative demand equals the spectacle accom- the spectacle plane, or 26.4 cm from the eye is found
modative demand (spectacle at zero vertex distance). as follows:
In turn, Eq. 6.9 gives
A0 = - U c , (6.16)
where the subscript s (for spectacle) has been changed and
to c (for contact).
We can also derive Eq. 6.16 from first principles. A 0 = - U C = +3.79D.
Let Pc be the power of the contact lens, U c be the The accommodative demand of 3.79 D is the same as
vergence incident on the contact lens, and Vc be the that of an emmtrope viewing the tapestry held
vergence of the light exiting the contact lens. Then 26.4 cm in front of the cornea.
VC = PC + UC. Myra, the myope, needs 2.80 D of accommodation
to see the tapestry when spectacle corrected and
From Eq. 6.7, the ocular accommodative demand is 3.79 D when contact corrected. Hilda, the hyperope,
given by requires 5.42 D of accommodation to see the tapestry
A0 = U f p - U x ) when spectacle corrected but only 3.79 D when con-
Thin Lens Eye Models 99

E

o
.>
<D

c3 vertex distance 14 mm
E object 20 cm in

II front of spectacle plane

8.00D4

7.00D-4-

e
*pv
X*f>{
6.00D 1

contact corrected or emmtrope


4.67D

4.00D

nyope
3.00D

-h +
-+- FIGURE 6.17. Ocular accom-
2D 4D 6D 8D 10D 12D 14D 16D modative demand vs spectacle and
spectacle lens powers contact lens powers.

tact corrected. In general, when a hyperope changes is only a small difference in ocular accommodative
from a contact correction to a spectacle correction, demand for the various individuals. However, the
more ocular accommodation is needed. When a difference steadily increases as the correcting lens
myope changes from a contact correction to a specta- power increases.
cle correction, less ocular accommodation is required.
Keep in mind that any difference has to be 0.25 D or
greater to be clinically significant and that low hy- 6.16 Corrected Near Points
peropes and myopes may not show any clinically
significant differences. The point conjugate to the retina for the correcting
The graph in Figure 6.17 shows the ocular accom- lens and maximally accommodated eye is the correc-
modative demand as a function of correcting lens ted near point. For contact corrected individuals, the
powers. The vertex distance of the spectacle correc- corrected near point is very easy to find. In fact, it is
tions is 14 mm. For low correcting lens powers, there equivalent to finding the near point of an emmtrope.
100 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

Myra, the myope in Section 6.12, has a -10.27 D Myra Hilda


contact lens correction and an amplitude of accommo-
dation of +6.00 D. What is Myra's contact corrected "x -6.15 cm + 11.86 cm
near point?
-(6.15-1.4) cm (11.86+ 1.4) cm
Use Eq. 6.16, and set A 0 equal to the amplitude: *>s

+6.00D=-UC "s -4.75 cm + 13.26 cm

or vs -21.05 D +7.54 D
UC=-6.00D. us VT - P V S -P S
s * s

When maximally accommodated, Myra can handle an us (-21.05 +12.00) D (+7.54-12.00)0


incident vergence of -6.00 D. Myra's corrected near
point is then real and 16.67cm (i.e., 100/6D) in front us -9.05 D -4.46 D
of her contact lens. -11.05 cm -22.43 cm
Hilda, the hyperope in Section 6.12, also had an "s

amplitude of accommodaton of +6.00 D. Thus, Hil-


da's contact corrected near point is also 16.67 cm in
front of the contact lens plane.
The spectacle corrected near point is not as easy to The magnitude of the corrected near points meas-
find. For a given object, spectacle corrected hyperopes ured from the spectacle plane for Myra, the myope,
have to accommodate more than spectacle corrected and Hilda, the hyperope, are 11.05 cm and 22.43 cm,
myopes. Therefore, if they have the same amplitude respectively. So indeed, the spectacle corrected hy-
of accommodation, the spectacle corrected hyperope perope has a near point that is farther away than that
will have a corrected near point that is farther from of the myope (and of an emmtrope). This is apparent
the eye than the near point of the spectacle corrected clinically in that spectacle corrected hyperopes tend to
myope. start showing presbyopic symptoms at a younger age
Again consider Myra and Hilda of Section 6.12. than spectacle corrected myopes.
Hilda's spectacle correction at a vertex distance of
14 mm is +12.00 D, while Myra's spectacle correction
at 14 mm is -12.00 D. When the object is at the
corrected near point, the vergence incident on the
spectacle lens is U s , the vergence leaving the spectacle 6.17 Improper Corrections
lens is Vs, and the vergence incident on the eye is Ux
(Figure 6.14b). The ocular accommodative demand Suppose that a lens in front of an eye is not the
equation is optically proper correcting lens. Then the "corrected
far point" is not at optical infinity and the person will
A0 = U f p - U x .
not function like an emmtrope.
In each case, we know the amplitude and the Ufp Quinn is a myope who needs a -6.00 D distance
values. We can then solve for U x , vision contact lens but instead is given a 8.00D
contact lens. Quinn is over-minused by 2.00 D. With
Ux = U f p - A o ;
the 8.00D contact lens on his eye, Quinn is func-
and work backwards to successively find Vs, then U s , tioning like a 2.00 D hyperope. Quinn can overcome
and then the object distance us from the spectacle lens the 2.00 D of excess minus by using 2.00 D of ocular
to the corrected near point. The numbers for Myra accommodation. If Quinn does not accommodate,
and Hilda are as follows: then the corrected far point, i.e., the point conjugate
to the retina for the 8.00D lens-eye system, is
virtual and 50 cm from the lens. In other words, an
Myra Hilda incident vergence of +2.00 D is required to neutralize
the 2.00 D of over-minus.
U fp -10.27 D +14.43 D
Rita is a hyperope who needs a +5.50 D spectacle
Amp 6.00 D 6.00 D lens but is given a +3.50 D spectacle lens. Rita is
under-plussed by 2.00 D, which is equivalent to being
Ux U fp - Amp U fp - Amp over-minused by 2.00 D. Rita then functions like a
Ux -10.27 D - 6 . 0 0 D +14.43 D - 6.00 D
2.00 D spectacle hyperope and can compensate for the
2.00 D shortage with 2.00 D of spectacle accommoda-
Ux -16.27 D +8.43 D tion. When Rita is not accommodating, the point
Thin Lens Eye Models 101

conjugate to her retina for her +3.50 D lens-eye sys- 6.18 Range of Clear Vision Through
tem is virtual and located 50 cm from the spectacle Various Lenses
lens. In other words, a vergence of +2.00 D incident
on the +3.50 D spectacle lens compensates for the Suppose an ametrope, Randy, looking through a
2.00 D shortage. +4.00 D lens in the spectacle plane can clearly see real
Sam is a hyperope who requires a +3.00 D contact objects ranging from 100 cm to 20 cm in front of the
lens but is given a +4.00 D contact lens. Sam is lens. What is Randy's range of clear vision when the
over-plussed by 1.00 D. For incident plane waves, the +4.00 D lens is replaced by a +6.00 D lens?
clear image formed by the +4.00 D lens-eye system One way to proceed is to figure the bounds needed
will be in front of Sam's retina (in the vitreous for the vergence leaving the spectacle plane. For the
humor), and accommodation pulls it even further in object at 100 cm in front of the +4.00 D lens, the
front of the retina. With the +4.00 D contact lens on vergence leaving the lens is +3.00 D. For the object at
his eye, Sam will function like a 1.00 D myope. The 20 cm in front of the +4.00 D lens, the vergence
corrected far point for the +4.00 D lens-eye system is leaving the lens is -1.00D. Randy can handle ver-
real and 100 cm in front of the +4.00 D lens. In other gences leaving the spectacle plane ranging from
words, an incident vergence of 1.00D neutralizes +3.00 D down to -1.00 D.
the 1.00 D of excess plus. For the +6.00 D lens, the range of incident ver-
Tina is a myope who needs a 8.50D spectacle gences are:
lens but instead is given a 7.00 D spectacle lens. Tina
is under-minused by 1.50 D, i.e., 7.00 D of her myopia U=V-P,
has been corrected leaving 1.50 D uncorrected. When U = +3.00 D - (+6.00 D) = -3.00 D,
Tina views a distant object through the -7.00 D spec-
tacle lenses, the clear image formed by the 7.00D and
spectacles and her eye will be located in front of her U = -1.00 D - (+6.00 D) = -7.00 D.
retina. Accommodation will pull the image even fur-
ther in front of her retina. With the -7.00 D specta- So the range of incident vergences is from -3.00 D to
cles, Tina is functioning like a 1.50 D spectacle myope. -7.00 D, or Randy's range of clear vision through the
Her corrected far point is real and 66.67 cm in front of +6.00 D lens is 33.3 cm in to 14.3 cm.
her spectacles. In other words, an object placed Incidentally, for distance vision Randy needs a
66.67 cm in front of her spectacles results in a ver- +3.00 D lens. Randy's amplitude of accommodation
gence incident on her spectacles of -1.50 D, which in terms of the spectacle accommodative demand is
compensates for the - 1 . 5 0 D shortage. + 3 . 0 0 D - ( - 1 . 0 0 D ) = +4.00D. Through the +3.00
Any person who is over-plussed or under-minused D lens, Randy's range of clear vision is from optical
functions like a myope. When these people view a infinity in to 25 cm.
distant object without accommodating, their eye forms A bifocal lens is a lens with a distance vision area
the clear image in the vitreous humor and the retinal of one power and a near vision area of a higher plus
image is blurred. When they accommodate, the clear (or less minus) power. The difference between the
image is pulled even further away from the retina and near vision power and the distance vision power is
the blur of the retinal image increases. These people called the add. An unsophisticated bifocal can be
are sometimes said to be fogged because their distance achieved by simply gluing a small plus lens to the
vision is blurred and accommodation blurs it even distance vision lens (Figure 6.18).
more.
Any person who is under-plussed or over-minused
functions like a hyperope. Accommodation can be
used to compensate for the under-plussed or over-
minused amount.
Ursula is wearing a +3.50 D spectacle lens. While
wearing these spectacles, she has a corrected far point
that is real and 40 cm in front of her spectacle plane.
What is Ursula's proper correction?
The corrected real far point 40 cm in front of the
spectacle plane indicates that Ursula needs an addi-
tional -2.50 D in her spectacle correction. Her proper
spectacle correction is:
add
+3.50 D + (-2.50 D) = +1.00 D. FIGURE 6.18. A bifocal lens.
102 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

We could consider the +4.00 D lens of the above The letters on a 20/20 visual acuity line subtend an
example as the near vision region of a +3.00 D dis- angle of 5' with the fine detail subtending an angle of
tance vision lens with a +1.00D add. Similarly, the . The retinal image size of such a letter is,
+6.00 D lens can be considered as a +3.00 D distance
vision lens with a +3.00 D add for near vision. Note ^ = t a n ,
that increasing the add makes the range of clear vision 16.67 mm
closer and smaller. This is an important feature in the |I| = 16.67 mm tan(5').
clinical selection of an add.
Since there are 60' per degree, then 5' equates to
0.083. Therefore,
|I| = 16.67 mm tan(0.083),
6.19 Retinal Image Sizes
|I| = 0.0241 mm,
Retinal images are small and inverted relative to the
real world object. Consider a 2-m tall basketball or
player standing 10 m from a typical emmtrope. In the
|I|=24.1 Mm,
thin lens and screen model, the typical lens-screen
distance was 16.67 mm. From the nodal ray, where \ stands for micrometer. (1 = 10~ m.
That's small!)
tan6 = An alternate method for dealing with the tangents
of small angles is to use the small angle approximation

and in which the tangent is replaced by the angle itself
expressed in radians. For the above case 5' equals
|i| 0.083. Let us convert the angle to radians:
tan6 =
16.67 mm '
9 = 0.083/(57.3/radian),
Therefore,
= 1.45 10"3 radians.
|i| |o|
16.67 mm 10 m ' Then
2m |I| = 16.67 mm tan ,
1III
1 = 16.67 mm i r . ,
10 m
| I | ~ 16.67 mm ,
|l| = 3.33 mm.
| I ] ~ (16.67 mm)(1.45xl0" 3 ),
The retinal image of the 2-m tall basketball player is
3.33 mm in size. |I| ~ 24.1 x 10"3 mm = 24.1 .

FIGURE 6.19. a. Image size for a contact-


corrected myope, b. Deviation of ray by the
spectacle correction, c. Superposition to com-
pare spectacle and contact-corrected retinal
image sizes.
Thin Lens Eye Models 103

far point FIGURE 6.20. Spectacle vs contact lens image


plane sizes in a myope's far point plane.

6.20 Retinal Image Sizes: Spectacle vs parallel in object space because they come from the
Contact Lenses same distant object point. For the myope, the path of
the ray traveling through the spectacle lens shows that
Retinal image sizes of corrected ametropes differ de- the spectacle corrected retinal image is smaller than
pending on whether a contact correction or a spectacle the contact corrected retinal image. Many myopes
correction is used. Figure 6.19a shows the nodal ray prefer contact lenses to spectacle lenses because of the
for a contact corrected myope viewing a distant off- larger retinal image size they get with the contact
axis object point. The nodal ray specifies the retinal lenses.
image size I c . When the myope is corrected with a Another way to reach the same conclusion is to
spectacle lens, the same incident ray is bent up by the consider the image size of the two different correcting
spectacle lens and is no longer the nodal ray of the eye lenses. The image of these correcting lenses is the
(Figure 6.19b). Figure 6.19c shows a ray (solid lines), object for the eye, and this image is formed in the far
which after being bent by the spectacle lens becomes point plane of the eye. The image size in the far point
the nodal ray for the eye and specifies the retinal plane is easily determined by considering the nodal ray
image size I s . For comparison purposes, the nodal ray for the correcting lens. Figure 6.20 shows a superposi-
(dashed line) for the contact lens is superimposed on tion of the spectacle lens case (solid lines) and the
Figure 6.19c. The two rays, solid and dashed, are contact lens case (dashed lines). The two incident

^ ^ - ^ t
4 h
Y
a)

FIGURE 6.21. a. Image size for a contact


corrected hyperope. b. Deviation of ray by
the spectacle lens. c. Superposition to com-
pare spectacle and contact corrected retinal
image sizes.
104 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

FIGURE 6.22. Spectacle vs contact correc-


far point ted image sizes in a hyperope's far point
plane plane.

nodal rays are parallel to each other because they this section. Note that we are talking about the retinal
come from the same distant object point. Clearly, the image size of the same ametrope when corrected by
contact lens image in the far point plane is larger than spectacle lenses vs contact lenses. We are not compar-
the spectacle lens image in the far point plane. Since ing different ametropes. A more quantitative treat-
the correcting lens images are both formed in the far ment is given in Chapter 14.
point plane and both serve as the object for the eye,
then the contact corrected retinal image will be larger
than the spectacle corrected retinal image. For high
myopes who switch back and forth between contacts Problems
and spectacles, this effect is clearly noticeable.
Similar diagrams for a hyperope are shown in For each of the next four problems, represent the
Figure 6.21a-c. Figure 6.21a shows the nodal ray for unaccommodated eye by a -1-60.00 D thin lens and a
the contact corrected eye. Figure 6.21b shows that this screen (retina) located a distance x behind the lens.
ray is not the nodal ray for the eye when a spectacle The amplitude of accommodation is listed as A. For
correction is worn. Figure 6.21c shows the nodal ray the uncorrected eye, find the far point and near point,
(solid) for the eye when a spectacle lens is worn sketch the range of clear vision, classify the refractive
together with a superposition of the nodal ray (dash- error (myopia, hyperopia, emmetropia), and give the
ed) for the contact corrected eye. The hyperope's distance vision correction at the cornea and the dis-
retinal image is larger when spectacle corrected. This tance vision correction at a spectacle plane located
is exactly opposite to that of the myope. 15 mm from the cornea.
Figure 6.22 shows the correcting lens image sizes in
the hyperope's far point plane. The dashed ray is the 1. Sally Jones, age 30, x = 19.9 mm, A = 7.00 D.
nodal ray for the contact lens, while the solid ray is the 2. Richard Nixit, age 55, x = 13.9 mm, A = 1.25D.
nodal ray for the spectacle lens. Note that in the far 3. Roger Stub, age 25, x = 16.0 mm, A = 8.50 D.
point plane the spectacle lens image is larger than the 4. Thelma Elf, age 43, x = 17.2 mm, A = 2.50 D.
contact lens image. Consequently, since these images 5. Molly Finnigan is a 4.50 D ocular myope with a
serve as the object for the eye, then the spectacle 6.00 D amplitude of accommodation. When un-
corrected retinal image for the hyperope will be larger corrected, can Molly clearly see the fine print in a
than the contact corrected retinal image. book held 40 cm from her cornea? If not, why
Table 6.1 summarizes the qualitative findings of not? If so, what is the ocular accommodative
demand?
6. Mike Finnigan is a 3.50 D ocular hyperope with a
5.00 D amplitude of accommodation. When un-
TABLE 6.1. corrected, can Mike clearly see the fine print in a
Retinal Image Size Comparison: Same Ametrope book held 40 cm from his cornea? If not, why not?
If so, what is the ocular accommodative demand?
Contact Spectacle 7. Jim Finnigan is a 1.50 D ocular myope with a
Corrected Corrected
2.00 D amplitude of accommodation. When un-
corrected, can Jim clearly see the fine print in a
Myope Larger Smaller
Hyperope Smaller Larger book held 40 cm from his cornea? If not, why not?
If so, what is the ocular accommodative demand?
Thin Lens Eye Models 105

8. Katie Finnigan is a 2.00 D ocular hyperope with a objects at a distance of 37 cm to 75 cm from the
5.50 D amplitude of accommodation. When un- lens. When the +5.00 D lens is replaced by a
corrected, can Katie clearly see the fine print in a +4.00 D lens (same vertex distance), what is
book held 40 cm from her cornea. If not, why not? Wilhelmina's range of clear vision? What is
If so, what is the ocular accommodative demand? Wilhelmina's distance vision correction (same ver-
9. Rose Opal has a +13.50 D distance vision specta- tex distance)? What is Wilhelmina's range of clear
cle correction at a 12 mm vertex distance. Rose vision through her spectacle correction?
looks through her spectacles at a statue located 12. Elroy Frost puts on a - 1 . 5 0 D spectacle lens at a
19 cm in front of the spectacles. What is the 13 mm vertex distance. With the -1.50 D lens,
spectacle accommodative demand? What is Rose's Elroy can clearly see real objects from 26 cm to
ocular accommodative demand? 50 cm from the lens. What is Elroy's range of clear
10. Zeke Feldstein has a -9.50 D distance vision vision through a +1.00D spectacle lens (same
spectacle correction at a 13 mm vertex distance. vertex distance)? What is Elroy's distance vision
Zeke looks through his spectacles at a small auto- spectacle correction? What is his range of clear
motive part that he holds 14 cm in front of his vision through his correction?
spectacles. What is the spectacle accommodative 13. Jill Harkins is an emmtrope with an unaccommo-
demand? What is Zeke's ocular accommodative dated eye represented by a +64.00 D thin lens and
demand? screen (retina). What retinal image size (in mi-
11. Wilhelmina Roads puts on a +5.00 D spectacle crons) does Jill have when viewing a distant object
lens that has an 11 mm vertex distance. With the that subtends an angle of 16'?
+5.00 D lens, Wilhelmina can clearly see real
CHAPTER SEVEN

Single Spherical
Refracting
Interfaces

7.1 Convex/Concave Terminology surfaces. The lens itself is thus a converging lens. As
viewed from the outside, which is where a human
observer would be, each surface is convex. This lens is
Consider the spherical glass (n = 1.50) surface shown conventionally called a biconvex lens.
in Figure 7.1. In the middle, the glass bulges out into However, a discrepancy in terminology has de-
the air. In Section 3.1, we saw qualitatively that such a veloped in the description of each surface. Consider
surface converges plane waves no matter which way Figure 7.4b, which shows light incident from the left
the waves propagate through the surface. Consequent- on the biconvex lens. Initially the light in air ap-
ly, a spherical glass surface with the glass in the middle proaches the left surface of the lens, and this surface
bulging into the air is always a converging surface. viewed from the left is convex. Then the light enters
The surface is actually an interface between two the glass and approaches the right surface of the lens.
different optical media, air and glass. Some other But the right surface of the lens, as viewed from inside
examples of optical interfaces are water and glass, the glass, is curved inward like the inside of a bowl.
plastic and water, oil and glass, air and the cornea of Consequently, some authors call the right surface
the eye, the aqueous humor and the front surface of concave, but according to such terminology, the bicon-
the crystalline lens, the back surface of the crystalline vex lens, in which biconvex literally implies two con-
lens and the vitreous humor. In general, when the vex sides, has a convex left side and a concave right
interface is spherical and the middle of the higher side.
index media bulges out into the lower index media, In order to avoid the above illogical terminology,
then the interface is converging no matter which way let us label a surface or interface as being convex or
the light propagates through the interface. Figure 7.2 concave from the perspective of the lower index
shows examples of converging interfaces. Conversely, medium, regardless of which way the light is traveling.
when the middle of a lower index media bulges into a Thus, let us call the right surface of the lens in Figure
higher index media, then a spherical interface diverges 7.4b convex. With this convention, a biconvex lens has
incident light no matter which way the waves prop- a convex left side and a convex right side, as one
agate through the interface. Figure 7.3 shows some might expect.
diverging spherical interfaces. With the assignment of convex and concave being
Historically, people have sought to identify surfaces made from the perspective of the lower index
by their geometric characteristics rather than their medium, then a convex refracting interface always
optical characteristics. The word convex is defined as turns out to be a converging interface (Figures 7.1 and
being curved outward like the exterior of a sphere. 7.2), and a concave refracting interface always turns
The word concave is defined as being curved inward out to be a diverging interface (Figure 7.3). (When
like the interior of a bowl or the interior of a cave. referring to other books, be sure to check what ter-
Figure 7.4a shows a glass lens with two converging minology they are using.)
107
)8 Geometric, Physical, and Visual Optics

7.2 Sagittas and the Sagittal Approximation


The next two sections deal with the derivation of the
air f glass
vergence equation for a single spherical refracting
interface. If you wish to study the equation and re-
lated examples before going through the derivation,
then skip to Section 7.4.
FIGURE 7.1. A spherical interface. The sagittal approximation is frequently used in

air / plastic water f plastic glass ( oil


= 1.00)1 (n = 144) 1.33)l
(n = 1.33)1 (n = 1.44)
1.44) (n = 1.52)1
1.52)1 (n = 1.70)

glass air glass plastic ] water


(n = 1.50) f (n
(n == 1.00)
1.00) (n = 1.50) (n = 1.44)/(n = 1.33)

FIGURE 7.2. Converging interfaces, all con-


vex to the lower index medium.

glass plastic water diamond I glass


= 1.50) (n = 1.44)1
1.44)l (n = 1.50) (n = 2.40)\
2.40) (n = 1.50)

glass glass
(n = 1.50) /(n = 1.50)

FIGURE 7.3. Diverging interfaces, all con-


cave to the lower index medium.

o -o
geometric optics to quantitatively treat the relation-
ship between the curvature of a spherical surface and
the dioptric power of that surface, as well as the
relationship between the curvature of a wavefront and
the vergence of that wavefront. Before treating the
sagittal approximation, an exact relationship for the
sagitta of a spherical surface is defined and discussed.
Figure 7.5a shows a cross-section of a long horizon-
tal glass rod with a spherical front surface. The center
of curvature of the surface is labeled C. The horizontal
a) b) line through C is normal (i.e., perpendicular to) the
FIGURE 7.4. Biconvex lens. spherical surface at point A. In Figure 7.5b, a line
Single Spherical Refracting Interfaces 109

FIGURE 7.5. Spherical interface and sagitta.

called a chord is perpendicular to the normal line. The The half chord length h is 0.9 cm. Then
chord intersects the surface of the sphere at points B s = 10 cm - V(10cm) 2 -(0.9cm) 2 ,
and D, and intersects the normal at point E. The line
s = 10 cm - V(100-0.81) cm,
segment AE, which is normal to the surface, is called
the sagitta. The point A is called the vertex or pole of s = 10 cm - 9.96 cm,
the sphere. s = 0.04 cm,
Let r equal the radius of curvature of the sphere, s = 0.40 mm.
and s equal the length of the sagitta. In Figure 7.5c, r
equals both the length AC and the length BC. Let h As illustrated in the above example, h2 is frequent-
equal half the chord length, which is the length BE. ly much smaller than r2. As a result, Eq. 7.3 can be
Let g equal the length EC. Then from the Pythag- accurately approximated by a simpler equation. First,
orean theorem applied to the triangle BEC, rewrite Eq. 7.3 as
r 2 = g 2 + h 2, s = r - rVl - (h 2 /r 2 ). (7.4)
or From calculus, the square root can be approximated
(7.1) by a Taylor series expansion:
From Figure 7.5c, h4
AC = AE + EC, (7.5)
or 2 2
When h is much smaller than r , only the first two
r = s + g, terms of the expression are significant, or
and
s= r-g. (7.2)
By substituting Eq. 7.1 into Eq. 7.2, we obtain The square root is equivalent to an exponential of 1/2,
s = r-Vr2-h2. (7.3) which is the source of the 2 in the denominator of the
second term.
Equation 7.3 is an exact relationship between the When we substitute the above equation into Eq.
sagittal length s, the half chord length h, and the 7.4, we obtain
radius of curvature of the spherical interface or wave-
front.
- r - r ( l - ^ ) ,
EXAMPLE 7.1
A spherical convex glass surface, as in Figure 7.5, or
has a radius of curvature of 10.00 cm. What is the
sagittal length for a chord length of 1.80 cm? s= r-r+2?.
110 Geometric, Physical, and Visual Optics

Finally, while
h^ h2 = (0.9 cm)2 = 0.81 cm2.
provided h2 <^ r2. (7.6)
2r' When s2 is much less than h2, s2 can be neglected in
Equation 7.6 is called the sagittal approximation. It the numerator of Eq. 7.8, and then
provides a very simple relationship between s, h, and
r. Furthermore, since the curvature R of a sphere is r =
equal to the reciprocal of the radius r, it follows from 2^'
or
the sagittal approximation that
s = 2r'
s = y R, provided h2 < 1/R2. (7.7) which is the sagittal approximation.
Equation 7.7 shows that the sagittal length is directly As shown in the next section, the sagittal approxi-
related to the curvature R of the sphere for those sit- mation is immensely useful. However, we need to use
uations is which the approximation is accurate. the exact relationship, Eq. 7.3, when h2 is not small
relative to r2, in which case, s2 is not small relative to
EXAMPLE 7.2 h2.
Use the sagittal approximation to calculate s for the
surface used in Example 7.1. There, the radius r
was 10 cm and the half chord length h was 0.9 cm.
From Eq. 7.6, 7.3 Derivation of the Vergence Equation
2 2
(0.9 cm) 0.81cm Figure 7.6 shows a long glass rod with a convex
s = -^^-r = -^ = 0.04 cm,
2(10 cm) 20 cm spherical surface. The spherical surface is optically a
or single spherical refracting interface (SSRI) between
s = 0.4 mm, air and glass.
The medium that the light is initially in has a
which is the same value obtained with the exact refractive index n^ The medium that the light is in
equation. when leaving the interface has a refractive index n 2 .
The incident wavefront (in medium n t ) is diverging,
For those who are not familiar with the Taylor
while the exiting wavefront (in medium n 2 ) is converg-
series expansion, there is a more intuitive way to ob-
ing. The incident wavefront is just touching the inter-
tain the sagittal approximation. First, take the exact sag-
face at point B, which is the vertex of the interface.
ittal equation, Eq. 7.3, and solve for r. The steps are:
The exiting wavefront has moved to point C on the
normal to the interface.
s = r-Vr2-h2,
The time t for the wavefront to move from B to C,
s-r^-VT^h2". in terms of the directed distance BC and the velocity
w2 of the wavefront in the second medium, is
Square both sides to obtain
(s-r)2 = r2-h2. BC
t=
w. '
Then
During this time, the part of the incident wavefront at
s2 - 2rs + r = r - h2, point E has moved from E to H. In the paraxial
s2 - 2rs = -h 2 , approximation, the path of the wavefront in going
from E to H is well approximated by the horizontal
2rs = s2 + h2,
line defined by the points E, F, G, and H. In other
and finally words, any vertical movement is negligible relative to
the horizontal movement. In moving from E to H, the
s2 + h2 wavefront enters the second medium at G. The time t
(7.8)
2s. that it takes for the wavefront to get from E to F to G
Equation 7.8 is still an exact relationship between s, h, to H, in terms of the directed distances EF, FG, and
and r. However, when h2 is much less than r2, then s2 GH, and the velocities w, and w2 of the wavefront in
is also much less than h2. In the example previously the first and second mediums, respectively, is
given, EF FG GH
=
s2 = (0.04 cm)2 = 0.0016 cm2, w, w, w^
Single Spherical Refracting Interfaces 111

FIGURE 7.6. Wavefronts passing through the spheri-


cal interface.

Since the two previous equations are for the same or


period of time, they can be set equal to each other
n 2 CD = (n2 - n J B C + njBA. (7.11)
resulting in
The distances CD, BC, and BA are the respective
EF FG GH
- C7.9) sagittas of the exiting wavefront, the single spherical
W, W, Wo
refracting interface, and the incident wavefront. Un-
The respective velocities Wj and w2 of the light in the der par axial conditions, the sagittal approximation is
first and second media are related to the speed of light accurate. Then
c in a vacuum, and the respective indices of refraction
nl and n2 by the equations
-.
w, = - where r is the radius of curvature of the interface and
h is the half-chord length,
w7 = A h2
BA=
2-u>
When the velocity relationships are substituted into
where u is the radius of curvature of the incident
Eq. 7.9 and the common factor c is cancelled on both
wavefront (u is then, by definition, the object dis-
sides of the equation, the result is
tance), and
^ E F + n ^ G + n 2 GH = n 2 BC. (7.10) i 2

In general, the index of refraction n times a distance CD =


2v9
along a wavefront direction (or ray) is called the
where v is the radius of curvature of the exiting
optical path length. Equation 7.10 is an example of a
wavefront (v is then, by definition, the image
general principle that states: When a wavefront prop-
distance).
agates from one place to another, the optical path
lengths for different parts of the wavefront are equal. By substituting the sagitta relationships into Eq.
Note that it is the optical path lengths that are equal, 7.11 and cancelling the common factor h 2 /2 on both
as opposed to the actual path lengths. sides, we obtain
From Figure 7.6, the following distance equalities 2 _ ( n
2~ n
i) + i
hold:
EF = AB, But n2/v is the vergence V of the exiting wavefront,
FG = BC, and nju is the vergence U of the incident wavefront;
i.e.,
GH = CD.
n
Furthermore, the directed distance AB is opposite in
v= ' V
sign to the directed distance BA, or u=Hi.
AB = - B A . u
So
By using the preceding distance equalities in Eq. 7.10,
+ U. (7.13)
we obtain v=
- i ^ B A + n x BC + n 2 CD = n 2 BC, Equation 7.13 is a vergence equation for the single
112 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

spherical refracting interface. Evidently, the dioptric written as


power P is given by
P = (n2-ni)R. (7.20)
P = ^ i , (7.14) Equation 7.20 says that the dioptric power of the
interface increases when the curvature of the interface
in which case, Eq. 7.13 can be written as increases (i.e., the surface gets steeper), and decreases
V = P + U. (7.15) when the curvature of the interface decreases (i.e., the
surface gets flatter). The equation also says that the
dioptric power of the interface increases when the
difference in the refractive indices increases, and de-
7.4 Dioptric Power creases when the difference in the refractive indices
decreases.
The derivation in the preceding section shows that the The dioptric power P is expressed in diopters with
vergence equation 1 D being dimensionally equal to the reciprocal of 1 m.
In Eq. 7.19, either r must be expressed in meters, or a
V = P + U, (7.16) conversion factor must be used. Just as with ver-
describes the paraxial imaging by a single spherical gences, the conversion factor can be explicitly written
refracting interface. The (generalized) vergence U of in the numerator.
the incident wavefront is given by
EXAMPLE 7.3a
V = nl/u, (7.17) A spherical convex interface between water of
where is the index of the medium that the light is index 1.33 and glass of index 1.53 has a radius of
initially in and u is the radius of curvature of the curvature of 10 cm (Figure 7.7). What is the diop-
incident wavefront. The radius of curvature u of the tric power of the interface when light is incident
from the water side?
incident wavefront is, by definition, the object dis- Before calculating, you should be able to tell
tance for the interface. The (generalized) vergence V whether the interface is converging or diverging.
of the wavefront exiting the interface is given by Here the interface is converging so P must be
V=n 2 /i;, (7.18) positive.
The parameters for the calculations are:
where n2 is the index of the medium that the light is in n, = 1.33, n2 = 1.53, and r=+10.00 cm.
after it passes through the interface and v is the radius Then from Eq. 7.19,
of curvature of the wavefront leaving the interface.
n7 - n,L
The radius of curvature v of the wavefront leaving the P=- ,
interface is, by definition, the image distance. The sign
convention is the same as for thin lenses. In fact, the (1.53- 1.33)100 cm/m
only difference between the basic SSRI equations and + 10 cm
the thin lens in air equations is the appearance of the +20 cm/m
refractive indices. P= = +2.00D.
+ 10 cm
The derivation of Eq. 7.16 also provided the rela-
tionship between the dioptric power P of the spherical EXAMPLE 7.3b
interface, the radius of curvature r, and the indices of What is the dioptric power of the above interface
when light is incident from the glass side?
refraction nl and n 2 : We already know that the interface is a converg-
ing interface for light going either way. Therefore,
P = n? - n, (7.19) P must be positive for light going either way.
The same sign convention is used for u, v, and r. The
directed distance r is positive if going from the inter-
face to the center of curvature is in the same direction
that the light is traveling when it leaves the interface.
The directed distance r is negative if going from the
interface to the center of curvature is opposite to the water
direction that the light is traveling when it leaves the
interface.
Since the radius r is reciprocally related to the
curvature R of the interface, then Eq. (7.19) can be FIGURE 7.7. Convex interface.
Single Spherical Refracting Interfaces 113

For the reversed direction,


nl = 1.53, n 2 = 1.33, and r=-10cm. 11, = 1.00 1.336
Then
,-,
P=

( 1 . 3 3 - 1.53)100 cm/m
P= cornea
- 1 0 cm
- 2 0 cm/m FIGURE 7.9. Cornea modelled as an SSRI.
P= = +2.00D.
- 1 0 cm
Note that the dioptric power of the interface is
+2.00 D no matter which way the light is propagat- D_ (1.00-1.50)100 cm/m
ing through the interface. The sign of the radius of +5 cm
curvature r does change since it depends on the -50 cm/m
sign convention for directed distances. However, P= = -10.00 D.
+5 cm
the sign of the difference in indices also changes
with the result that the sign of the dioptric power P Again note that the dioptric power of the interface
is invariant with respect to the direction that the is -10.00 D, irrespective of which way the light
light is propagating. travels through the interface.

EXAMPLE 7A EXAMPLE 7.5


A spherical concave interface between air (n = As shown in Figure 7.9, the cornea and aqueous
1.00) and glass (n = 1.50) has a radius of curvature humor of the eye can be approximated as an SSRI
of magnitude 5 cm. What is the dioptric power of between air and the ocular contents (n = 1.336). A
the interface when light is incident from the air typical radius of curvature of the cornea is 7.5 mm.
side? What is the dioptric power of the cornea?
Note that before calculating, since the interface The cornea is convex, so P must be positive. For
is concave, it is diverging and the dioptric power light going into the eye,
should be negative. From Figure 7.8, nl = 1.00, n 2 = 1.336, and r=+7.5mm.
= 1.00, 2 = 1.50, and r = - 5 cm. Then
Then, P=
P = n9 - n , (1.336-1.000)1000 mm/m
(1.50-1.00)100 cm/m +7.5 mm
P= 336 mm/m
-5 cm P= =+44.80 D.
50 cm/m +7.5 mm
P= = -10.00 D. A typical cornea has a dioptric power of almost
- 5 cm
+45 D, while a typical human eye has a dioptric
What is the dioptric power of the above inter- power of +60 D. Clearly, the cornea is the
face when the light is incident from the glass side? strongest converging element of the eye.
The interface is still divergent, so P must be
negative. Here n1 = 1.50, n 2 = 1.00, and r = +5 cm.
Since
P= 7.5 Focal Points

The secondary focal point (F 2 ) is the axial image point


that results when plane waves are incident on the
interface. Alternatively, the secondary focal point is
the image point conjugate to optical infinity. The
paraxial rays associated with the secondary focal point
are shown in Figure 7.10a.
Frequently, we use a larger scale vertically so that
we can easily see the rays (Section 4.12). The larger
vertical scale stretches out the spherical surface so that
FIGURE 7.8. Concave interface. it appears flat on the ray diagram (Figure 7.10b). This
114 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

1 / n2

a)

ni / n2

5^^--^^^

FIGURE 7.10. Paraxial rays. a. Actual, b.


Scaled.

is equivalent to saying that the paraxial rays are The secondary focal length f2 is the image distance
refracted at or near the vertex point of the interface. when the object is at optical infinity, or alternatively it
As an aid in remembering which way the spherical is the directed distance from the interface to the
surface is actually curving, dashed curves at the top secondary focal point F 2 . To find the secondary focal
and bottom of the vertical line represent the interface. length, we use
The center of curvature C provides the same informa-
V = P + U,
tion, but not as quickly.
The secondary focal point is a real image point for and set U equal to zero (incident plane waves). Then
a converging SSRI and a virtual image point for a
diverging SSRI (Figure 7.11). Once the location of the V=R
secondary focal point is known, the incident parallel Since
rays become predictable, and can be used in a ray
diagram. V

ni n2

>
> ~ ~~.;
C ^ F 2

y
\^s '

i
b) ni > n2

FIGURE 7.11. Predictable rays as-


d) n2 > n, sociated with the secondary focal point.
Single Spherical Refracting Interfaces 115

and for this case


?=-^ (7.22)
f2 = v, fi "
one can combine the above three equations to obtain Equations 7.21 and 7.22 are similar to Eqs. 5.4 and
5.5 for the focal lengths of a thin lens in air except that
(7.21) now the indices of the different media appear. The
primary and secondary focal points are not equidistant
The primary focal point ( F J is the axial object from the interface since nx and n2 are not equal. By
point that results in plane waves leaving the interface. equating 7.21 and 7.22, we obtain
Alternatively, the primary focal point is the object
point conjugate to optical infinity. The primary focal (7.23)
point is a real object point for a converging interface n2
and a virtual object point for a diverging interface or
(Figure 7.12).
The rays that originate at the primary focal point (7.24)
fj n/
all leave the interface parallel to the axis. Once the
Equation 7.24 shows that in magnitude, the ratio of
location of is known, any incident ray associated
the focal lengths equals the ratio of the indices of
with Fj becomes predictable, and can be used in a ray
diagram. refraction. The larger the difference in the indices of
refraction, the larger the difference in the focal
The primary focal length fr is the object distance lengths. It also follows that the longer focal length is
for which the conjugate image point is at optical always associated with the higher index medium and
infinity, or alternatively it is the directed distance from vice versa.
the interface to F x .
The secondary focal length is the image distance for
To find the primary focal length, use
incident plane waves. As such, the secondary focal
V = P + U, length is really the radius of curvature of the wave-
front that leaves the interface when plane waves are
and set V equal to zero (exiting plane waves). Then incident. The exiting wavefront is physically in the
P=-U. medium of index n 2 , and the secondary focal length is
Since then associated with n2 as is indicated mathematically
in Eq. 7.21. This is true even when the secondary focal

and for this case


"- point is virtual, in which case the exiting wavefront is
diverging (Figures 7.11c and 7.lid).
Similarly, the primary focal point is the object
fi = U, point conjugate to optical infinity. As such, the pri-
mary focal length is really the radius of curvature of
one can combine the above three equations to obtain the incident wavefront that results in plane waves

ni
f "2^

r^^
Fl
X^J c
>v

a) Ik n2 >
n2 < n ,

^ n2

~0-^F, --cir^F,
^
/ -
*
FIGURE 7.12. Predictable rays as-
n 2 < : n-, d) n2 > n! sociated with the primary focal point.
116 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

leaving the interface. The incident wavefront is phys- 7.13c in which C and F! are on the same side. From
ically in the medium of index n 1} and the primary focal Eq. 7.25,
length is then associated with n l 5 as is evident mathe- f2 = r - f 1 ,
matically in Eq. 7.22. This is true even when the
primary focal point is virtual, in which case the inci- or in absolute values
dent wavefront is converging (Figures 7.12c and
7.12d). IfJHr-fJHCFj,
Besides Eqs. 7.23 and 7.24, another relationship where CT\ is the distance from C to Fl. Consequently,
exists between the focal lengths. By adding Eqs. 7.21 for the cases where C and F1 are on the same side, the
and 7.22 together, we obtain distance f2 is equal to the distance CT\.
f + f = ^_i
L
2 ~ M D D ' EXAMPLE 7.6
In Example 7.3, there was a +2.00 D SSRI be-
or tween water (n = 1.33) and glass (n = 1.53). What
= 2- are the focal lengths for the +2.00 D interface?
L
2 ^ Ll p For light incident from the water side,
But from Eq. 7.19, nj = 1.33 and n2 = 1.53.
n, - n , From Eq. 7.21,
P ' n2 _ (1.53)100 cm/m
so L
2 -
P +2.00 D '
f2 + f ! = r. (7.25)
or
Equation 7.25 says that the radius of curvature of 153 cm/m
the interface is equal to the sum of the primary and 2 ~~ ^ n n n = + 7 6 5 cm.
secondary focal lengths of the interface. This relation- The secondary focal point is 76.5 cm behind the
ship is a useful self-consistency check when doing interface (Figure 7.14).
SSRI calculations. It is also useful in setting up "quick From Eq. 7.22,
and dirty" ray diagrams.
In Figure 7.13a, F 2 and C are both on the right side f =-iii
of the interface. From Eq. 7.25,
or
f,=r-f2; 133 cm/m
f, = - -66.5 cm.
or in absolute values +2.00 D
The primary focal point is 66.5 cm in front of the
|f,l = |r- f2l = |cF 2 |, interface.
Let us use Eq. 7.25 as a self-consistency check.
where CF 2 is the distance from the center of curvature From Example 7.3, the radius of curvature of this
C to F 2 . Consequently, when making a quick ray interface is +10 cm. From Eq. 7.25,
diagram for this case, one can select the horizontal
scale, plot C and F 2 , and then simply insert on the r = f!+f 2 ,
opposite side at a distance equal to CF 2 . r = -66.5 cm + 76.5 cm = +10.0 cm,
A similar relationship exists for Figures 7.13b and which checks.

FIGURE 7.13. Center of curvature and


focal points.
Single Spherical Refracting Interfaces 117

-*- +

FIGURE 7.14. A +2.00 D SSRI.

EXAMPLE 7.7 2.40). Thus, the incident light is in the diamond,


In Example 7.4, a -10.00 D SSRI between air and and
glass (n = 1.50) had a radius of curvature of - 5 cm
for light incident from the air side. What are the =2.40, while n2 = 1.40.
focal lengths? Here, nl = 1.00 and n2 = 1.50. From Then either Eq. 7.21 or Eq. 7.22 can be used to
Eq. 7.21, calculate P. From Eq. 7.22,
(1.50)100 cm/m _ n 1 = -(2.40)100cm/m
hf =5*
p = -10.00 D f, ~ +40.00 cm
150 cm/m
f2 = = -15.0 cm. ^ -240 cm/m , ^
-10.00 D
+40.00 cm
The secondary focal point is virtual and 15 cm in
front of the interface (Figure 7.15). From Eq. 7.22, You should check that Eq. 7.21 gives the same
value for P.
-(1.00)100 cm/m
fl
P -10.00 D
or
-100 cm/m 7.6 The Nodal Point
f1 = = +10.0 cm.
-10.00 D
The primary focal point is virtual and located 10 cm Consider a point source located at the center of
behind the interface. curvature of an SSRI (Figure 7.16). The wavefronts
The self-consistency check is: leaving the point source are spherical and centered on
r = f 1 +f 2 , the point source. Since the point source is located at
r = (10.0 cm) + (-15.0 cm) = -5.0 cm, the center of curvature of the interface, the wavefront
reaching the interface has the same curvature as the
which checks. interface, and all parts of the wavefront enter the
second medium at the same time. Consequently, the
EXAMPLE 7.8
A single spherical refracting interface between plas- whole wavefront changes speed at the same instant,
tic (n = 1.40) and diamond (n = 2.40) has a primary and no curvature change occurs as the wavefront
focal length of +40.00 cm and a secondary focal passes through the interface. The wavefronts leaving
length of -23.33 cm. What is the dioptric power of the interface are spherical and still centered on the
the interface? center of curvature of the interface.
The secondary focal length is negative so the Because there is no wavefront curvature change,
interface is a diverging interface and P must be the rays associated with the wavefronts are straight
negative. lines that pass through the interface without bending
Since the longer focal length is associated with (Figure 7.16b). This is consistent with Snell's Law,
the higher index medium, the primary focal length
(+40.00 cm) is associated with the diamond (n = sinGj = n2 sin6 r ,

-** +
\ Fi

W\ FIGURE 7.15. An SSRI with a 15 cm secondary


-15 cm- -+10cm
focal length.
118 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

n2

) )

a) FIGURE 7.16. Point source at the center of


curvature, a. Wavefronts. b. Wavefronts and
rays.

FIGURE 7.17. Nodal rays. a. b. Actual, c. d. Scaled.

since a ray from the center of curvature is normal to image. The image size is I and the object size is O. As
the interface so that the incident angle 4 is equal to before, the sizes are considered positive for objects or
zero, and thus the angle of refraction 9r is also zero. images above the axis and negative for objects and
The rays that pass straight through an interface are images below the axis. The lateral magnification m is
the nodal rays, and hence the nodal point of an SSRI defined as the ratio of the image size I to the object
is at the center of curvature of the interface (Figure size O, or
7.17). For a thin lens in air, the nodal point is at the m = I/0. (7.26)
lens itself. But for the SSRI, the nodal point is not at
the interface, but rather at the center of curvature of The image subtends the angle w' at the nodal point C,
the interface. and from Figure 7.18
The displacement of the nodal point away from the -I
interface is a result of the asymmetry of the SSRI. A tan w = .
v- r
thin lens in air is symmetric in the sense that the same
media is on both sides of the lens. An SSRI has a The object subtends the angle w at the nodal point C
different medium on each side, and thus is asym- and from Figure 7.18
metric. O
In general, any ray associated with the nodal point tan w = +
(either passing through it or pointing toward or away
Note that M is a negative quantity in Figure 7.18, so
from it) is a predictable ray, and passes straight
that u is a positive quantity.
through the interface without bending. The paraxial
Since the nodal ray is a straight line, the angles w
ray diagrams with the expanded vertical scale are
and w' are equal and from the above two equations
shown in Figures 7.17c and 7.17d.
-I O
v- r -w + r '

7.7 Lateral Magnification


m = (7.27)
Figure 7.18 shows a real object, its conjugate real x u
image, and the nodal ray connecting the object and Equation 7.27 can be used to calculate the lateral
Single Spherical Refracting Interfaces 119

FIGURE 7.18. Nodal ray and image size.

magnification; however, an easier expression can be for a thin lens in air by the presence of the indices of
derived as follows. refraction.
The basic vergence Eq. 7.16 is For an SSRI,
V = P + U, and U = ^ .
v u
which can be written as
n0 Mn, n, When the vergence equations are substituted into Eq.
7.29, the result is
V X + U
U
A common denominator can be found: m= (7.30)
n2rw _ n2vu nxvu \
vru VTU vru vru Equation 7.30 is a straightforward relationship be-
tween the lateral magnification and the vergences U
The common denominator can be eliminated to give and V. Furthermore, Eq. 7.30 is identical in form to
n2rw = n2vu nxvu + n^v, Eq. 5.8 for thin lenses in air. This identity occurs
because the vergences U and V implicitly contain the
or indices or refraction. Equation 7.30 makes lateral
n2rw - n2vu = r\xvu + n^y. magnification calculations extremely easy.
Then
n2u(r - v) = nji;(r - w),
7.8 Imaging Examples
or
rv (7.28) EXAMPLE 7.9
n9w T u' A goldfish in water (n = 1.33) is 40 cm from a
Equations 7.27 and 7.28 can be combined to give +5.00 D water-high index glass (n = 1.83) interface
(Figure 7.19). First, use a ray diagram to find the
nji;
(7.29) image, and determine whether it is virtual or real,
m = n0u ' erect or inverted, larger or smaller. Then answer
the same questions by calculation.
Equation 7.29 is an equation for the lateral magnifica- In order to draw the ray diagram, we first need
tion m in terms of the image distance v, the object to find the focal points and the radius of curvature
distance w, and the indices of refraction nl and n 2 . of the interface. Here n1 = 1.33, n2 = 1.83, u =
Equation 7.29 differs from the corresponding Eq. 5.7 -40 cm.

glass (n=i.83)

to>
water

v FIGURE 7.19. Goldfish example.


40 cm
120 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

From Eq. 7.19, The image distance of +109 cm agrees with the ray
diagram. The lateral magnification is
U -3.32 D
m = - - = -1.98.
(1.83-1.33)100 cm/m + 1.68 D
+5.00 D The image is inverted and 1.98 times larger than
the object, and that agrees with the ray diagram.
50 cm/m For instructional purposes, let us also use Eq.
= +10.0 cm.
+5.00 D 7.29 to calculate m:
From Eq. 7.21, riji;
_ n 2 _ (1.83)100 cm/m m = n.w '
2
~T~ +5.00 D (1.33)( + 109cm)
183 cm/m m = (1.83)(-40cm) = -1.98.
U = +5.00 D = +36.6 cm.
Note that the indices are needed in the above
From Eq. 7.22, equation, and that we cannot obtain m by merely
n - 1 3 3 cm/m _, , taking the image distance over the object distance.
f11 = = ^ ^ = -26.6 cm.
P +5.00 D
EXAMPLE 7.10
Equation (7.25) can be used as a self-consistency
The goldfish in the previous example swims in to a
check: distance of 14 cm in front of the interface. Now
r = f,+f 2 , where is the conjugate image? Is it real or virtual,
r = (-26.6 cm) + (+36.6 cm) = +10.0 cm. erect or inverted, larger or smaller?
The focal points and nodal points are un-
Figure 7.20 shows F n F 2 , C, and the predictable
changed. The primary focal length is -26.6 cm, so
rays. the fish is inside F j . Therefore, we would expect a
From the ray diagram, the image is real, inver- virtual image that is erect and larger. A quick ray
ted, larger, and approximately 100 cm from the diagram (Figure 7.21) confirms these expectations.
interface. Note that the nodal ray goes through C The calculations are:
and not through the pole of the interface. The _ n^ _ (1.33)100 cm/m
calculations are:
u - 1 4 cm '
V = P + U,
u = 1 3 3 c m A n = _ 9 5 0 D
_ ni _ (1.33)100 cm/m
- 1 4 cm
u - 4 0 cm
Then
133 cm/m
U = -3.32D. V = P + U,
-40 cm
Then V = +5.00 D + (-9.50 D),
V = +5.00 D + (-3.32 D), V=-4.50D.
V=+1.68D. The light leaving the interface is in glass, and is
The light in the glass leaving the interface is con- diverging.
verging, which agrees with the ray diagram. The image distance is
n2 183 cm/m
y= = = 40 67cm
"=V' v ^n5ir - - '
183 cm/m which agrees with the ray diagram. Note that the
= +109 cm. image position is at the center of curvature of the
+ 1.68 D

FIGURE 7.20. Ray diagram for Figure


7.19.
Single Spherical Refracting Interfaces 121

FIGURE 7.21. Goldfish inside the


primary focal point.

wavefronts leaving the interface and these wave- 40.67 cm+ 5 cm). The magnitude of the vergence
fronts are physically in the glass. at B is
The lateral magnification is . , (1.83)(100cm/m)
U _ -9.50 D 1 BI
45.67 cm
V " -4.50 D = +2.11.
m = 77 =

So the image is erect and 2.11 times as large as the |VB| = H = 4 . 0 1 D .


object, which also agrees with the ray diagram. Since the light is diverging at B, the vergence is
negative and
EXAMPLE 7.11
For the previous example compute the vergence of VB = -4.01 D.
the light at 5 cm in front of the interface (point A Thus, the light lost about a half diopter of minus
in Figure 7.22), and at 5 cm behind the interface vergence in traveling from the interface to B.
(point B in Figure 7.22).
The light incident on the interface had a ver- EXAMPLE 7.12
gence of -9.50 D. At 5 cm in front of the interface, A concave interface between air and plastic (n =
the light is in water and is diverging. The wavefront 1.44) has a butterfly imbedded in the plastic at a
there is curved more than the wavefront hitting the distance of 10.0 cm from the interface. The conju-
interface so that we expect the vergence to be more gate image is virtual and located a distance of
minus than -9.50 D. Position A is 5 cm closer to -6.02 cm from the interface. What is the dioptric
the object so the radius of curvature of a wavefront power of the interface? Also compute the lateral
at A is 9 cm (i.e., 14 cm - 5 cm). The magnitude of magnification and draw a ray diagram.
the vergence is The interface is concave from the perspective of
the lower index medium. Figure 7.23 shows a
(1.33)100 cm/m sketch of the given information. The light incident
|u A | = 9 cm on the interface is in the plastic and is diverging.
Here n, = 1.44, n9 = 1.00, and u = -10 cm. Then
133 cm/m
|u A | = 14.78 D. U=
9 cm
u
Since the wavefront is diverging, 144 cm/m
U= = -14.4D.
U A =-14.78 D. -10 cm
The light leaving the interface has a vergence of The light leaving the interface is in air and is
-4.50 D. At 5 cm behind the interface, the light is diverging away from the virtual image position. In
in the glass and is diverging. The center of curva- other words, a wavefront leaving the interface is in
ture of the diverging wavefront at B is at the image air and is centered on the virtual image. Here
position that is 45.67cm away from B (i.e., v = -6.02 cm.

^ +

FIGURE 7.22. Wavefronts for vergence


values.
122 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

The focal lengths are:


100 cm/m
f,= = -45.5 cm,
-2.2 D
nt -144 cm/m
f = =
' " 7 -2.2 D =+655cm-
The self-consistency check is
r = f 1 +f 2 ,
FIGURE 7.23. Butterfly example. r = +65.5 cm + (-45.5 cm) = +20.0 cm.
Figure 7.24 shows two of the three predictable rays.
You should draw in the predictable ray associated
Then with F j .
n9
EXAMPLE 7.13
100c^m=_
v = 1 6 6 D For the situation in the preceding example, calcu-
-6.02 cm late the vergence of the light at a position 4 cm in
front of the interface (A in Figure 7.24), and at a
From the vergence equation,
position 5 cm behind the interface (B in Figure
P=V-U, 7.24).
P = - 1 6 . 6 D - ( - 1 4 . 4 D), The wavefront that is physically at A is diverg-
ing, in the plastic, and centered on the object. The
P=-2.2D.
object is 10 cm from the interface, so position A is
The lateral magnification is 6 cm from the object, and the radius of curvature of
the diverging wavefront is then 6 cm in magnitude.
U
m= The magnitude of the vergence is
V
-14.4 D (1.44)(100cm/m)

m = - 1 6 . 6 D = +0.87. I^AI 6 cm
Alternatively, 144
|u A | = = 24.00 D,
,;
m= , or
n2w U A = - 2 4 . 0 0 D.
(1.44)(-6.02cm)
m
-(1.00)(-10.0cm)-+087 The vergence of the wavefront incident on the
interface was - 1 4 . 4 D , which is consistent with the
We need to find the center of curvature and the fact that the diverging wavefronts lose curvature as
focal points of the interface in order to draw the they propagate from A to the interface.
ray diagram. The radius of curvature is At B, the wavefront is diverging, in air, and is
n,-n, centered on the virtual image. The image is 6.02 cm
from the interface. The radius of curvature of the
wavefront at B has a magnitude of 11.02cm (i.e.,
(1.00-1.44)100 cm/m 6.02 cm + 5 cm). The magnitude of the vergence at
-2.2 D B is
-44 cm/m (1.00)100 cm/m
-2.2 D
+20.0 cm. |v B | = 11.02 cm
= 9.07D,

^+

FIGURE 7.24. Ray diagram for Figure


7.23.
Single Spherical Refracting Interfaces 123

or since the wavefront is diverging For instructional purposes, calculate the ver-
VB = -9.07D. gence of the wavefront at C, the center of curva-
ture of the interface. The wavefront at C is con-
The wavefront leaving the interface has a vergence verging, in air, and centered on the real image that
of -16.6D, and 5 cm downstream (at B) its ver- is 18.5 cm away from C (i.e., 38.5 cm - 20.0 cm).
gence is -9.07 D. The vergence at C is:
EXAMPLE 7.14 100
Converging light in plastic is incident on the same + 18.5 = +5.40D.
plastic-air interface discussed in the previous two Note that the wavefront leaving the interface has a
examples. The resulting virtual object is located vergence of +2.60 D, and its vergence has in-
30.0 cm from the interface. Find the conjugate creased to +5.40 D at C.
image, and specify whether it is real or virtual,
larger or smaller, erect or inverted.
From Example 7.12, r = +20 cm, f2 = 45.5 cm,
fj = +65.5 cm, and P = -2.2 D. 7.9 The Symmetry Points
Figure 7.25 shows two predictable rays. The
exiting rays show that the image is real, erect, and
larger. You should draw in the predictable ray For thin lenses in air, the plane 2F2 was conjugate to
associated with F 2 . the plane 2F 2 , and the lateral magnification was - 1 .
The calculations are: Let us now consider what conjugate plane gives a
u = +30 cm, lateral magnification of - 1 for an SSRI. Since
n, m - - - - l ,
U=,
u
144 U=-V.
U= +4.80 D.
+30 Then
Note that the incident converging wavefront is in V = P + U,
the plastic. Then
V = P + U, becomes
V = - 2 . 2 D + (+4.80D), V=P-V,
V=+2.60D.
or
The light leaving the interface is in air and converg- 2V=P,
ing in agreement with the ray diagram. The image
distance is: and
n0
v-i-
=
V'
100
v = +2.60 D = +38.5 cm. Then the expression for V and P in Eqs. 7.18 and 7.21
can be inserted to obtain
The lateral magnification is: n
n2 2
U +4.80 D
=

m = = +2.60 D = +1.85.
i; 2f2'

So the image is erect and 1.85 times larger than the or


object. v = 2f7

plastic - +
f
/

'~s6
L t r :

F2 Sc cL^) F 7
^
S^ object
FIGURE 7.25. Incident converging light in
the plastic.
124 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

The image plane is again at 2F 2 . r = f 1+ f 2 ,


Similarly, it is easy to show that r = +18.75 cm + (-30.0 cm) = -11.25 cm.
u = ~2fl, Figure 7.26 gives the ray diagram. You could also
so that the object plane is again at 2F t . draw in the nodal ray. For instructional purposes,
let us also consider the vergences U and V.
Therefore, just as for a thin lens in air, 2F t is
conjugate to 2F2 and the lateral magnification is - 1 . u = n 1 = _J50_
= +4.0D,
The axial points 2Fj and 2F2 are called the symmetry u +37.5 cm
points, and the planes containing the symmetry points 240
are called the symmetry planes. Since the primary and = -4.0D,
V -60.0 cm
secondary focal points of an SSRI are not equidistant and then
from the interface, the symmetry points are also not
equidistant. When the interface is a converging inter- U +4.0 D
m =
face, the symmetry points are both real, and when the V=^4^D=" 1 0

interface is a diverging interface the symmetry points
are both virtual.
7.10 Unit Magnification
EXAMPLE 7.15 For thin lenses in air, an object distance of zero
Find the symmetry points for a -8.00 D single resulted in an image distance of zero and a lateral
spherical refracting interface between glass (n =
1.50) and diamond (n = 2.4) with the light incident magnification of +1. Let us check if this also holds for
from the glass side. Here nl = 1.50, and n2 = 2.40. an SSRI.
Then From
240 V = P + U,
U= =-30.0 cm,
-8.00 n,== P + ^
and V
u
-150 Then
11
P = +18.75 cm.
-8.00 n2 wP + nj
For the symmetry points: V u
u = 2f1= 2( + 18.75 cm) = +37.5 cm, or
v = 2f2 = 2(-30.0 cm) = -60.0 cm. V u
n, + ^
The lateral magnification is:
n^ As the object is moved closer and closer to the
m= , interface, u gets closer and closer to zero, and the wP
n2w term in the denominator becomes negligible compared
(1.50)(-60.0cm) _ to nj. So in the limit of u going to zero.
(2.40)(+37.5cm) i; u
The radius of curvature of the interface is

-*+
glass (n = 1.50) diamond (n == 2.40)

/1
virtual object
^ - - ' F C
/
2
virtual image

s >
FIGURE 7.26. Symmetry points for a diverging
interface.
Single Spherical Refracting Interfaces 125

Since image distance goes to zero and the lateral magnifica-


n^ tion goes to + 1 . This means that when an object is
m= nu' placed directly in contact with the SSRI, the interface
0
essentially has no imaging effect.
we can combine the above two equations to obtain
m = +1.
Therefore, for an SSRI, an object distance of zero
7.11 The Nodal Plane
gives an image distance of zero and a lateral magnifi-
cation of -Hi.
In addition to a zero object distance, there is another
case in which the object and image are both the same
EXAMPLE 7.16
Consider a +6.00 D convex air-glass (n = 1.50) in- distance away from the SSRI. This case involves the
terface. Find the image distance and lateral magni- nodal point that is at the center of curvature C of the
fication for a piece of paper in air at distance of SSRI. Figure 7.27 shows an object in the nodal plane
1 cm, 0.1 cm, and 0.01 cm. Does the lateral magni- of a converging SSRI. Note that the focal points in
fication go to +1 as u goes to zero? Here n1 = 1.00 Figure 7.27 are placed so as to satisfy Eq. 7.25. The
and n2 = 1.50. The calculations for 1 cm are: two predictable rays show that the image is virtual,
u = - 1 cm, located in the same plane as the object, and larger
than the object.
u-*-^IOOD, The ray diagram can be confirmed analytically as
u -1 follows:
V = P + U, V = P + U,
V=+6.00D + (-100D) = -94.0D,
n2^ n2-ni i
n2 r
150 = -1.60 cm, v u
-94.0 Let u = r. Then
-100D
m = = -94 D = +1.06.
n
2 = 2~ni + 1
v r r '
The results for the other object distances are com-
puted similarly, and shown in Table 7.1. or

v r
TABLE 7.1 and
Lateral Magnification as Object Distance Goes to Zero
v = r.
u (cm) v (cm) The lateral magnification is
nji;
-1.00 -1.60 + 1.06 m n2w '
-0.10 -0.15 + 1.006
-0.01 -0.015 + 1.0006 n
i r

m = n7r (7.31)

The SSRI shown in Figure 7.27 is converging, and the


From the numerical results presented in Table 7.1, higher index medium must be on the left. Therefore,
it is clear that as the object distance goes to zero, the for this case, nt must be greater than n 2 . Consequent-

cjlass

image < .
^ -- [object\
Fi c FT-

FIGURE 7.27. Object in the center of curva-


ture plane.
126 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

ly, m is greater than + 1 , and the image must be erect j\ student's eye
and larger than the object, which agrees with the ray
diagram.

EXAMPLE 7.17 glass paperweight


A glass (n = 1.50) hemisphere of radius 5 cm is
used as a paper weight. A 2-mm tall letter is
centered under the hemisphere (Figure 7.28). The letter
light diverging away from the letter is in the glass
so the letter effectively acts like an object in the FIGURE 7.28. Paperweight example.
glass (i.e., refer back to the zero object distance
discussion). Since the letter is centered, it is at the
center of curvature of the interface. Where is the The image size is
conjugate image? What is its size? Here ni = 1.50 I = mO,
and n 2 = 1.00 Then I = ( + 1.50)(2mm) = 3mm.
u = r = - 5 cm, An observer looking at the letter through the
and the ray diagram in Figure 7.27 describes the paperweight would see a virtual image at the same
situation. The dioptric power is given by position as the letter but 1.5 times larger than the
letter.
P= The adjective apparent is used to describe vari-
ous aspects of the image formed by an optical
(1.00-1.50)100 cm/m system placed between the object and an observer's
P=
- 5 cm eye. The apparent position of the letter is 5 cm
from the interface, and its apparent size is 3 mm.
P=^ = +10.0D. Note that the word apparent refers to the charac-
teristics of the interface's image (virtual in this
The incident vergence is given by case), and not necessarily to the visually perceived
image of the observer.
150
U = -30.0 D.
-5 In the preceding discussion, the image is larger
Then than the object by the ratio of the indices of refrac-
V = P + U, tion. In general, an image at the center of curvature of
V = +10.0 D + (-30.0 D) = -20.0 D. the interface can be either larger or smaller than its
conjugate image by the ratio of the indices of refrac-
The light leaving the interface is in air and diverg- tion. Figure 7.29 shows a ray diagram for a converging
ing. The image is virtual, and the image distance is interface with a virtual object and a smaller real image
100 at the center of curvature.
v = V -20.0 D '
i; = 5 cm,
which is equal to r.
7.12 Strange Cases
The lateral magnification is
Chapters 4, 5, and 6 developed optics intuition by
U = -30.0 D considering thin lenses in air. Much of this intuition
+ 1.50.
V " -20.0 D has carried over to the discussion of SSRIs. In particu-

glass
^XsT* real
virtual

TF^J * object
F
<^* C '^\.

FIGURE 7.29. Virtual object at the center of cur-


vature.
Single Spherical Refracting Interfaces 127

FIGURE 7.30. Real object inside the center of curva-


ture for a converging interface.

lar, the role of the focal points Fl and F 2 is the same,


the symmetry points are again at 2F1 and 2F 2 , and an P=
object distance of zero gives an image distance of zero , _ ( 1 . 0 0 0 - 1.336)1000 mm/m
with a lateral magnification of + 1 .
- 7 . 5 mm
However, there is no thin lens in air analog for an
object at the center of curvature of an SSRI. In that -336.0
P= = +44.8D,
sense, an object at the center of curvature of an SSRI -7.5
constitutes a strange case. Actually, all SSRI cases for and
which an object or an image falls between the inter- TJ_i _ (1.336)1000mm/m
face and the center of curvature are strange in that u - 3 . 6 mm
they have no thin lens in air analog, and thus our thin 1336.0
lens in air intuition breaks down. U= -371.1 D.
-3.6
Consider the ray diagram in Figure 7.30. The inter-
From
face is converging. The object is inside Fl and inside
C. Our thin lens in air intuition would tell us to expect V = P + U,
the image to be virtual, larger, and further from the V = + 4 4 . 8 D + ( - 3 7 1 . 1 D),
interface than the object. In the ray diagram, how- V = -326.3 D.
ever, the two predictable rays show that while the
The light leaving the cornea is in air and the image
image is indeed virtual and larger, it is closer instead is virtual. The image distance is
of being further away.
_ 2 _ 1000 mm/m
V
EXAMPLE 7.18 ~ V ~ -326.3 D '
Consider a simplified model of the anterior cham- v = -3.06 mm.
ber of the eye (Figure 7.31). Assume that the
So the virtual image is at 3.06 mm which is closer to
cornea and the anterior chamber both have an
the cornea than the iris is.
index of 1.336, and that the cornea is spherical with
The lateral magnification is
a radius of curvature of 7.5 mm. The iris of the eye
sits in the aqueous humor about 3.6 mm from the U -371.1 D
cornea. When you look at the iris you do not see m = - = -326.3 D = +1.14,
the iris itself, but rather an image of the iris formed
so the virtual image is larger than the iris.
by the cornea. Find the image position and the
Thus, the apparent iris that you see is both
lateral magnification.
closer and larger than the actual iris. You might
The light leaving the iris is initially in the aque- keep this in mind the next time you are gazing into
ous humor. Therefore, n1 = 1.336, n 2 = 1.000, and someone's beautiful eyes.
r = - 7 . 5 mm. Then

EXAMPLE 7.19
An object in air is located 12.5 cm from a -2.00 D
air-glass (n=1.50) interface. Find the conjugate
image and specify whether it is real or virtual, erect
or inverted, larger or smaller, and closer or further
from the interface. Here n1 = 1.00 and n 2 = 1.50.
The focal lengths and the radius of curvature
can be determined from the usual equations. The
results are as follows r = -25.0 cm, fj = +50.0 cm,
FIGURE 7.31. Iris as object for the cornea. and f, = -75.0 cm.
128 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

air ^S glass

image _ ^ j r "" """*"


^2 y^^ object-^ Fi

FIGURE 7.32. Real object inside


the center of curvature for a diverg-
ing interface.

Figure 7.32 shows two of the predictable rays. 7.13 Object Space/Image Space
(You should supply the third predictable ray.) Ac-
cording to our thin lens in air intuition, an object in The concepts of object space and image space were
front of a minus system would result in a virtual introduced in Section 3.9. The set of all points, rays,
image that is erect, smaller, and closer. The ray or ray extensions associated with the light incident on
diagram shows that this is a strange case because an SSRI constitutes the object space for the interface.
the virtual image is erect, smaller, and further from
the interface than the object is. The calculations All object space entities are associated with the index
are as follows: nl. The set of all points, rays, or ray extensions
associated with the light leaving the interface consti-
u = -12.5 cm, tutes image space. All image space entities are as-
U=-8.00D, sociated with the index n 2 .
V = P + U = -2.00 D + (-8.00 D), Remember that object space and image space are
mathematical sets. An object space point might be in
V= -10.00 D, front of the interface (as for a real object) or behind
n0 150 the interface (as for a virtual object). Similarly, an
= -15 cm, image space point might be behind the interface (as
V -10
U -8.00D for a real image) or in front of the interface (as for a
m virtual image).
" V " -10.00 D - + 8
Consider a glass-air interface (Figure 7.33). A real
image in air immediately indicates that the light leav-
EXAMPLE 7.20
An ophthalmic crown glass (n = 1.523) lens has a ing the interface is in air and is converging. Similarly,
front surface power of +14.00 D, a back surface a virtual image in air indicates that the light leaving
power of -3.00 D, and a central thickness of 8 mm. the interface is in air and diverging. Pay special atten-
What is the apparent thickness of this lens as tion to the fact that the virtual image in Figure 7.33b
viewed from the front? has no association with the incident light that is phys-
The question is essentially asking for the image ically in the glass. Based on the information given so
position of the back surface of the lens as seen far, we do not know whether the incident light is
through the front. The object distance is converging or diverging. Remember that the virtual
u = - 8 mm, image point is the center of curvature of the exiting
and diverging wavefront that is physically in the air.
Figure 7.34 shows a water-plastic interface. A real
11! = 1.523 while n 2 = 1.000. object in water indicates immediately that the light
Then incident on the interface is in the water and is diverg-
u=n1=1523mm/m=1904 ing. Similarly, a virtual object in water indicates that
u - 8 mm the light incident on the interface is in the water and is
V = P + U, converging. Pay special attention to the fact that the
virtual object in Figure 7.34b has no association with
V = +14.00 D + (-190.4 D) = -176.4 D, the exiting light that is physically in the plastic. Based
1000 on the information given so far, we do not know
= v = - -190.4 = -5.7 mm. whether the exiting light is converging or diverging.
The image of the back surface is virtual and located Remember that the virtual object point in Figure
5.7 mm from the front surface. Thus, the apparent 7.34b is simply the center of curvature of the incident
thickness, as seen from the front, is 5.7 mm. converging wavefront that is physically in the water.
Single Spherical Refracting Interfaces 129

real image- FIGURE 7.33. a. Real image in air.


a) b. Virtual image in air.

water water plastic

virtual object
real object

FIGURE 7.34. a. Real object in


water, b. Virtual object in water.

Imagine an interface between glass and plastic with front of an SSRI, but now the nodal point is at the
a virtual object in plastic. What does this mean in center of curvature of the interface and not at the
terms of the incident light? The virtual object indicates interface itself.
that the incident light is converging. In plastic indi- Figure 7.35a shows a converging interface and the
cates that the incident light is physically in the plastic. nodal ray for a distant object that subtends an angle w
So converging light in the plastic is incident on the at the nodal point. The image is in the secondary focal
interface. The virtual object location is at the center of plane, which is a distance of f2 minus r from the nodal
curvature of the incident converging wavefront. You point. The angle w' that the image subtends at the
should draw a sketch similar to Figure 7.34b for this nodal point is equal to w. From the triangle involving
situation. the C, the optical axis, and the image:
Imagine an interface between beer and glass with a |l| = ( f 2 - r ) t a n w . (7.32)
virtual image in the beer. What does this mean in
terms of the exiting light? The virtual image indicates Note that Eq. 7.32 has a different form than the
that the exiting light is diverging. In beer indicates that analogous Eq. 5.11 for a thin lens in air.
the exiting light is physically in the beer. So diverging
light in the beer is leaving the interface. The virtual EXAMPLE 7.21
image location is at the center of curvature of the A distant object in air is in front of a long glass
diverging wavefront that is leaving the interface. You (n=1.50) rod with a +1.00 D front surface. The
should draw a sketch similar to Figure 7.33b for this object subtends an angle of 2 at the interface.
situation. Where is the conjugate image? What is its size?
As suggested in Section 3.9, it sometimes helps to
color code the incident light and everything associated f2 = y = ^ y = +150cm,
with it (i.e., everything in object space), and use a
different color for the exiting light and everything n9 n, 50
= +50 cm,
2
associated with it (i.e., everything in image space). P +1
I = 100 cm tan w = (100 cm)(0.0349) = 3.49 cm.
It is interesting to note that
7.14 Imaging a Distant Object
The calculation of the image size for a distant object in so that Eq. 7.32 can be written
front of a thin lens in air was discussed in Section 5.13. |l| = |fi|tanw. (7.33)
There, the angle subtended at the nodal point of the
thin lens in air was used to calculate the image size. Figure 7.35b shows the geometry involved. The paral-
The same technique can be used for a distant object in lel ray in image space shows that the distance AB is
130 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

\ n1 ' n2

n2
f 2 -r
W| ^ ^ F2
F
'iSsS. A C\.
I

"V" B FIGURE 7.35. Image size for a dis-


f2 tant object, a. Nodal ray. b. Ray as-
a) b)
sociated with the primary focal point.

equal to the image size I, and then the above equation eliminated and an equation derived that relates the old
follows directly from the triangle ABFj. dioptric power to the new dioptric power.
In the original situation, we first found the radius of
curvature from
(n2~ni)old

7.15 Changing Media Without P


Changing Curvature
Then we used r to get the new dioptric power from
It is instructive to consider the dioptric power changes (n2-ni)ne
P =
that occur for an SSRI when a media change occurs x
new
without a change in curvature. We can then combine the above two equations to
obtain
(n2~ni)new
EXAMPLE 7.22 P = (7.34)
Suppose we have a +2.00 D SSRI between water (n2_ni)oK
(n = 1.33) and glass (n = 1.53), and the water is Equation 7.34 says that to get the new dioptric power,
drained off. What is the dioptric power of the one can take the old dioptric power, divide out the old
resulting air-glass interface? difference in indices (which we do not want anymore),
Let us assume that the light is initially incident and multiply in the new difference in indices. When
in the water, although this assumption is not crucial
since the dioptric power is invariant relative to the the new difference in indices is greater than the old
direction that the light is traveling. Here n1 = 1.33 difference in indices, the new dioptric power will be
and n2 = 1.53. greater in magnitude than the old dioptric power.
From Eq. 7.19 When the new difference in indices is less than the old
difference in indices, then the new dioptric power will
be less in magnitude than the old dioptric power.
(1.53-1.33)100 cm/m EXAMPLE 7.23
r= +2.00 D Let us reconsider the case in Example 7.22. There,
20 a +2.00 D water (n = 1.33)-glass (n = 1.53) inter-
r = = +10 cm. face had the water drained off. Since the index
For the air-glass interface, difference increases, the new dioptric power is
greater than the old dioptric power.
n^ - n , The old indices are:
P=
n2 = 1.53 and nx = 1.33.
(1.53-1.00)100 cm/m The new indices are:
P=
10 cm
n2 = 1.53 and 1^ = 1.00.
53
P= +5.30 D. Then from Eq. 7.34
10
The dioptric power of the air-glass interface is (1.53- 2 00
+5.30 D, which is considerably higher than the ^Ni--S^ ^
+2.00 D of the water-glass interface. Since the 0.53
curvature is unchanged, the increase is due to the (+2.00 D),
change in the index difference. 0.20
Pnew = | ( + 2 . 0 0 D ) ,
Actually, in the case of changing media while the
curvature is unchanged, the radius can be algebraically Pnew = (2.65)(+2.00D)=+5.30D.
Single Spherical Refracting Interfaces 131

The +5.3 D is the same result as that obtained in


the previous example, and the increase in dioptric
power agrees with our expectations. Note that with
a little practice, the next to the last step (the one
containing 53/20) can be written down im-
mediately.

EXAMPLE 7.24
Consider a -13.00 D air-plastic (n = 1.44) inter-
face. The room is suddenly flooded with water
(n = 1.33). What is the dioptric power of the result-
ing water-plastic interface? FIGURE 7.36. Lens clock.
Stop! Before calculating, do you expect a diop-
tric power that is larger or smaller in magnitude?
The difference in indices decreases, so the diop-
tric power should decrease in magnitude. For the
calculations, let us assume that the light is initially
in air, although the assumption is not crucial. lated directly from the lens clock reading and the
The old indices are: differences in indices.
^ = 1.00 and n2 = 1.44. The calculation is based on the fact that the lens
clock is actually measuring a sagitta, and the sagitta is
The new indices are: directly related to the curvature. When two SSRIs
nl = 1.33 and n2 = 1.44. have the same curvature, the lens clock reading is the
Then from Eq. 7.34 same on both surfaces. In effect, when going from one
surface to the other, the media is being changed
_ (1.44-1.33) without changing the curvature. Hence, Eq. 7.34 can
(-13.00 D),
(1.44-1.00) be used with the old dioptric power as the lens clock
11 reading, and the new dioptric power as the true
Pe= 44 (-13.00 D), dioptric power of the surface, i.e.,
Pnew = -3.25D.
p _ \n2 ~ n i ) t r u e p , <-\
The -3.25 D agrees with the expectations of a
r r
true (r\ n \ clock * \I.JJ)
Vn2
1 J clock
dioptric power smaller in magnitude.
The true dioptric power is larger in magnitude than
the lens clock reading when the true index difference
is larger than the assumed index difference, and vice
versa.
7.16 Lens Clock Readings

A lens clock (also known as a lens measure) is a EXAMPLE 7.25


three-legged device that actually measures the sagitta A lens clock calibrated for an index of 1.53 reads
-4.50 D on a spherical interface with a 1.71 index.
of a spherical surface (Figure 7.36). However, the What is the true dioptric power to the nearest
sagitta is directly related to the curvature, and for a quarter diopter?
given set of indices the curvature is directly related to Stop! Before calculating, do you expect the true
the dioptric power. Therefore, the lens clock can be dioptric power to be larger or smaller in magnitude
calibrated directly in terms of the dioptric power of an than the lens clock reading? From Eq. 7.35
assumed index of refraction. _ (1.71-1.00)
The tools for making glass spectacle lenses are true (-4.50 D),
(1.53-1.00)
usually calibrated for a 1.53 index of refraction. Typi-
cally, lens clocks are also calibrated for the 1.53 index, Ptrue = ^ ( - 4 . 5 0 D ) ,
although a few are calibrated for a 1.49 index of
refraction. A lens clock, calibrated for index 1.53, Ptrue = -6.03 D ~ -6.00 D.
reads the true dioptric power on an air-glass SSRI As expected, the true dioptric power is larger in
provided 1.53 is the index of the glass. magnitude that the lens clock reading since the 71
When the lens clock is used on an SSRI with an was multiplied in and the 53 was divided out. Note
index different from the calibrated index, then it gives that with a little practice, the line containing 71/53
an incorrect reading. The true power may be calcu- can be written down immediately.
132 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

EXAMPLE 7.26 a. a real object in air 50 cm from the interface.


A lens clock, calibrated for a 1.53 index, reads b. a real object in air 10 cm from the interface.
+ 14.00 D on a hard resin plastic (n = 1.49) spheri- c. a virtual object in air 20 cm from the interface.
cal surface. To the nearest quarter diopter, what is d. a virtual object in air 50 cm from the interface.
the true dioptric power of the interface? Before e. a real object in glass 25 cm from the interface.
calculating, do you expect the true dioptric power
to be larger or smaller? f. a virtual object in glass 10 cm from the in-
The difference in indices is smaller than the terface.
difference assumed for the lens clock, so the true g. a virtual object in glass 45 cm from the in-
dioptric power is also smaller. From Eq. 7.35 terface.
3. An air bubble is 5 cm from the center of a glass
(n = 1.61) sphere of radius 12 cm. Where does the
bubble appear to be to an observer, (a) when
looking in at the side nearest the bubble? (b)
Ptrue= 53 ( +14.00 D), when looking in at the side farthest from the
p
true = +12.94 D ~ +13.00 D. bubble?
4. Given a plastic (n = 1.49) sphere of radius 10 cm,
When properly used, lens clocks supply the needed calculate where parallel incident rays come to a
information very quickly. However, lens clocks are focus after passing through the sphere.
not smart. The people who use the lens clocks must 5. Given a paper weight of glass, index 1.60, radius
supply the intelligence. One can put a lens clock on a 15 cm convex, 18 cm thick; a printed letter is
rock, and it might read +4.00 D. This does not mean under the paper weight, flush against its flat face.
the rock has dioptric power. The index assumptions The letter is 6 mm high. Locate the position and
size of the conjugate image.
and the fact that a lens clock is actually measuring a
sagitta need to be kept in mind. 6. A thick lens is made of glass, index 1.50. The
front surface has a radius 25 cm convex. The back
surface has a radius 50 cm concave. The lens is
8.5 cm thick. Considering the lens as two single
spherical refracting surfaces find the primary and
secondary focal points of the lens.
Problems 7. A real object in water (n = 1.33) is located 25 cm
from a water-glass (n = 1.63) SSRI. The conjugate
1. Given a convex air-glass (n = 1.56) SSRI with a image is real and located in the glass 60.82 cm
14-cm radius of curvature, calculate conjugate from the interface. What is the lateral magnifica-
image positions and magnifications for the follow- tion? What is the dioptric power of the interface?
ing object points. Include a ray diagram for each 8. A 10-cm long glass (n= 1.53) rod has a +6.00 D
part. Also, calculate the vergence of the light 5 cm spherical front surface and a -2.00 D spherical
in front of the interface, and 5 cm behind the back surface. For plane waves incident on the
interface. front, what is the vergence of the wavefront leav-
a. a real object in air 1 m from the interface. ing the back surface?
b. a real object in air 50 cm from the interface. 9. Represent an aphakic eye with a +44.00 D cor-
c. a real object in air 35 cm from the interface. nea. If the cornea to retina length is 22.27 mm and
d. a real object in air 20 cm from the interface. the ocular index is 1.336, what is the aphake's
e. a virtual object in air 14 cm from the interface. spectacle correction at a 10 mm vertex distance?
f. a virtual object in air 40 cm from the interface. 10. Represent an eye by a +63.00 SSRI between air
g. a real object in glass 150 cm from the interface. and the ocular media (n = 1.336). If the length of
h. a real object in glass 40 cm from the interface. the eye is 19.0 mm, what contact correction (if
i. a real object in glass 15 cm from the interface. any) is needed?
j . a virtual object in glass 48 cm from the in- 11. A long plastic rod (n = 1.44) has a +3.80 D
terface. spherical front surface. What is the image size in
2. Given a concave air-glass (n = 1.52) SSRI with a the plastic for a distant object that subtends an
13-cm radius of curvature, calculate conjugate angle of 3?
image positions and magnifications for the follow- 12. Represent an emmetropic eye by a +56.00 D
ing object points. Include a ray diagram for each SSRI between air and the ocular media (n =
part, and calculate the vergence of the light 5 cm 1.336). What is the retinal image size (in microns)
in front of and 5 cm behind the interface. for a distant letter that subtends an angle of 5'?
Single Spherical Refracting Interfaces 133

13. The anterior surface of the crystalline lens is an 14. An air-glass (n = 1.53) interface has a power of
SSRI between the aqueous humor (n = 1.336) and -10.00 D. If the room is filled with water (n =
the crystalline lens cortex (n = 1.386). If the radius 1.33), what is the power of the water-glass inter-
of curvature is 10.0 mm, what is the dioptric face? If the room is filled with oil (n = 1.73), what
power of this surface in the eye? If the crystalline is the power of the oil-glass interface?
lens is removed from the eye, and the anterior 15. A lens clock calibrated for n = 1.53 reads +6.00 D
surface remains spherical with the same radius, on a spherical highlite (n = 1.71) glass surface.
what is the dioptric power of the air-crystalline What is the true dioptric power of the interface?
lens interface?
CHAPTER EIGHT

Plane Refracting
Interfaces and
Reduced Systems

8.1 Plane Interfaces as a Special Case direction of travel of the incident plane waves by
of Spherical Interfaces Snell's Law (Figure 8.1c and 8.Id),
nx sinOj = n2 sin9 r . (8.1)
Consider a series of single spherical refracting inter-
faces (SSRIs) where each successive interface is flatter When paraxial angles are involved, the small angle
than the preceding one. The SSRI equations in Chap- approximation to Snell's law is valid, i.e.,
ter 7 hold for each of these interfaces. The limiting
| = 2 (8.2)
case of this series is a flat or plane interface, and
hence, in the limit, the SSRI equations also hold for When n2 is greater than n1? the rays bend toward the
the flat interface. normal (Figure 8.Id). For example, the ray bends
As shown in Eq. 7.20, the dioptric power P of an towards the normal when light in air is incident on a
SSRI is directly proportional to the curvature R of the plane air-water interface. When nx is greater than n 2 ,
interface. As spherical interfaces are made flatter, the rays bend away from the normal (Figure 8.2). For
their curvature decreases and their dioptric power gets example, the ray bends away from the normal when
closer to zero. A flat or plane interface has zero light in glass is incident on a plane glass-air interface.
curvature and zero dioptric power. Note that the
radius r is reciprocally related to the curvature R, and
hence r goes to infinity for a plane interface.
Consider plane waves in a medium of index nt 8.2 Diverging and Converging Wavefronts
incident on a plane refracting interface between media
nl and n 2 . When the plane waves are incident normal- When diverging or converging wavefronts are incident
ly, all parts of the wavefront reach the interface at the on a plane interface, part of the wavefront reaches the
same time and all parts change speed at the same interface first, and this part changes speed before the
time. The wavefronts leaving the interface are still remaining parts. The result is that diverging or con-
plane waves and still normal to the interface (Figure verging wavefronts change their curvature as they pass
8.1a). through plane interfaces. Figure 8.3a shows the wave-
When the plane waves are incident on a plane fronts for a case in which nl is greater than n 2 . Figure
interface at an angle to the normal, they are neither 8.3b shows the rays associated with the wavefronts.
converged nor diverged so that the waves leaving the Since nt is greater than n 2 , each ray in Figure 8.3
interface are still plane waves, as expected for a zero bends away from the normal. The object point at A is
dioptric power interface. However, the direction of real, and the image point at B is virtual and closer
travel of the plane waves is deviated (Figure 8.1b). As than the object to the interface. The image location
discussed in Section 1.12, the direction of travel of the can be determined from the vergence Eqs. 7.16-7.18.
plane waves leaving the interface is related to the Since P is zero,
135
136 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

-** +
n2

a)

FIGURE 8.1. Plane waves incident on a flat inter-


face. a. Incident normal, b. Incident at an angle to
the normal, c. Wavefronts and rays. d. One ray.

V = P + U, Equation 8.3 relates the object and image distance for


the plane interface. It is also possible to derive Eq. 8.3
results in directly from the small angle version of Snell's law
v=u, without using the SSRI equations.
where
EXAMPLE 8.1
A small fish is swimming in water (n = 1.33) 100 cm
and below the (plane) surface. To an observer in air,
what is the apparent depth of the fish?
An observer in air looking at the fish underwa-
u ter sees the virtual image of the fish. In Figure 8.3,
For a plane interface, it follows that A represents the position of the fish and B repre-
v _ u sents the position of the virtual image. The appar-
(8.3) ent depth of the fish is just the location of the
n, n, ' virtual image. The fact that the rays bend away
from the normal indicate that the virtual image of
the fish is closer than 100 cm. In this case, nl =
1.33, n2 = 1.00, and u = -100 cm. Then

f ^ ^ * ^ l normal N n,
u
and
133
U= = -1.33D.
FIGURE 8.2. Ray incident in the higher index medium. -100

ni |/n 2

FIGURE 8.3. a. Diverging wave-


fronts incident on a flat interface, b.
Wavefronts and rays. c. Rays only.
Plane Refracting Interfaces and Reduced Systems 137

From EXAMPLE 8.3


What is the apparent thickness of a 9-cm thick flat
V=U, glass (n = 1.5) slab?
V=-1.33D; An observer in air looking through the slab does
not see the actual backside of the slab but instead
and from sees the virtual image of the backside. By drawing
a figure, such as Figure 8.3c, it is easy to predict
V= that the apparent thickness will be less than the
actual thickness.
100 The object distance u is - 9 cm and from Eq.
= -75 cm.
-1.33 D 8.3,
Alternatively, we can use Eq. 8.3 directly. - 9 cm
u 1.50 '
or
-100 cm v = - 6 cm.
v
1.33 The apparent thickness is 6 cm as compared to the
i; = - 7 5 cm.
actual thickness of 9 cm. (Note the same principle
applies to aquariums, which is why they look nar-
The apparent depth of the fish is 75 cm below the rower than they actually are.)
water's surface.
The (reduced) vergence of a wavefront is equal to
EXAMPLE 8.2 the index of the medium that the wavefront is in times
A mayfly is flying 50 cm above a pond. A hungry the curvature of the wavefront. Even though the
trout swimming in the water below the pond's curvature of a converging or diverging wavefront
surface sees the mayfly. To the trout, what is the changes at a plane interface, the (reduced) vergence of
apparent height of the mayfly? the wavefront does not change. This means that the
Figure 8.4 shows the situation for the trout. The curvature change is exactly offset by the index change.
light leaving the mayfly is initially in air (nx = 1.00),
and then enters the water (n2 = 1.33). In this case,
n2 is greater than nl9 and the rays bend toward the
normal. The trout sees a virtual image of the
mayfly, and the virtual image is farther than the 8.3 Lateral Magnification
mayfly from the surface. From Eq. 8.3,
-50 cm The lateral magnification of an SSRI is equal to U/V.
1.00 : Since the vergences U and V are equal for a plane
33
interface, the lateral magnification is + 1 . This is easily
or confirmed by using rays incident along the normal.
v = -66.5 cm. Figure 8.5 shows such a case for the fish underwa-
The apparent height of the mayfly is 66.5 cm above ter. The two rays incident normally are the vertical
the surface. lines from the front and back of the fish. The respec-

f>
FIGURE 8.4. The virtual image of the mayfly serves as the FIGURE 8.5. The virtual image is the same size as the object
object for the trout's eye. (the fish), so the lateral magnification is + 1 .
138 Geometric, Physical, and Visual Optics

v = - 1 5 cm.
The object distance for the emmetrope's eye is
ux = - ( 1 5 + 5) cm = - 2 0 cm.
For the emmtrope, U fp is zero and the accom-
d
> modative demand is
A0 = U f p - U x ,
or
100
A =- = +5D.
- 2 0 cm
The image distance for the emmetrope's eye is
FIGURE 8.6. Comparison for the observer viewing a fish that 16.67 mm, and the lateral magnification is
is an actual distance, d, away. When the water is drained, the
observer views the actual fish at the distance d. When the water is + 16.67mm /,
m = =
present, the observer views the virtual image at a distance less 9nn
2UU mm -0834
than d. The retinal image size I is
I = mO,
I = (-0.0834)(30 mm) = -2.50 mm.
tive virtual image points also lie along these two
vertical lines, so the virtual image of the fish is the
EXAMPLE 8.4b
same size as the fish itself.
The ice in Example 8.4a melts, and the emmtrope
Whenever any object is brought closer to an obser- can now hold the arrowhead in air 25 cm from his
ver, the observer's retinal image of the object gets eye and look directly at it. Calculate the accom-
larger even though the object's size is unchanged. This modative demand and the retinal image size of the
same principle holds when viewing virtual images. emmtrope, and compare it with the results in
Figure 8.6 shows an observer looking at the sub- Example 8.4a. Now
merged fish and then looking at the fish in air. The - 2 5 cm, and U x = - 4 D.
actual distance between the fish and the observer's eye
is the same in each case. The observer looking at the From
submerged fish does not see the actual fish, but rather A0 = U f p - U x ,
sees the virtual image of the fish at the apparent A = +4D.
depth. Since the apparent depth is less than the actual The accommodative demand is less when the em-
depth, the observer's retinal image of the submerged mtrope is viewing the arrowhead in air as com-
fish is larger than when he or she looks at the fish in pared to viewing it in ice.
air. The lateral magnification of the plane interface is The image distance remains at 16.67 mm, so
+ 1, and so, it does not cause the increase. Instead, the
v + 16.67 mm
shortened object distance for the observer when view- = -0.0667,
m= - -250.0 mm
ing the virtual image causes the increase.
and the retinalu image size is
EXAMPLE 8.4a I = mO,
An arrowhead, 3 cm in size, is imbedded 20 cm I = (-0.0667)(30 mm) = -2.00 mm.
deep in a block of ice (n = 1.33) with flat sides. An
emmtrope stands with his eye 5 cm from the block The emmetrope's retinal image size when the ar-
of ice (i.e., 25cm from the arrowhead). Use the rowhead is imbedded in the ice is 25% larger than
typical +60.00 D thin lens and screen model for the when the ice is melted.
emmetrope's eye to calculate the accommodative
demand and the retinal image size that the emmet-
rope has when observing the arrowhead.
Since nl is greater than n 2 , Figure 8.3 applies to 8.4 Ray Tracing Through a Flat Slab
the situation. The emmetropic observer sees the in Equi-index Media
virtual image of the arrowhead. The virtual image
of the arrowhead is still 3 cm in size but is at an Figure 8.7 shows a ray passing through a flat slab of
apparent depth given by Eq. 8.3. index n 2 . The indices of the media in front of and
-20 cm behind the slab are and n 3 , respectively. Assume
1.33 ' that nx equals n 3 .
Plane Refracting Interfaces and Reduced Systems 139

FIGURE 8.7. Ray through a flat slab.

/about} /abouti (about) *


The angles of incidence and refraction at the first
surface are Wj and wj, respectively. The angles of FIGURE 8.8. Flat slab in front of a lens.
incidence and refraction at the rear surface are w2 and
w2, respectively. From Snell's law,
nl sinwj = n 2 sin wj, ing rays are parallel to the incident rays but displaced
in such a manner that the virtual image for the back
n2 sin w2 = n 3 sin w2.
surface of the slab is closer than the actual point
The two normals (at the front and back surfaces of the source to the lens.
slab) are parallel. From geometry, the alternate inter- Assume that the distances d1? d2, and d3 are all
ior angles to parallel lines are equal, and so wj and w2 positive. The object distance for the lens can be found
are equal. Then from the above two equations, by stepping through the slab. From Eq. 8.3, the image
n3 . . distance for the first surface is
sin w, = sin w,,
n2 n
2 "i = ~di

or
n3 sin w2 = n! sinwj. or
But since n3 equals n1? it follows that *>i = - n g d i .
In this case, v1 is negative, and
sin w2 = sin Wj,
or u2 = vl d2.
Equation 8.3 applied to the second surface is
The equality of w2 and v/x means that the outgoing ray
in n3 is parallel to the incident ray in nl. 1 V
The fact that the outgoing ray is parallel to the or
incident ray makes it easy to quickly draw qualitative
ray sketches for flat slabs in equi-index media. How- v2 = -di .
ever, when is not equal to n 3 , the outgoing ray is n
g
not parallel to the incident ray. The object distance for the lens is
u3 = v2-d3,
or
8.5 Flat Slabs
3=-[d1 + ^ + 4
Figure 8.8 shows a point source in air at a distance dj (8.4)
from the front surface of a glass slab. The slab itself
has a thickness d2 and an index n g . A thin lens in air is In Eq. 8.4, dj and d3 are actual distances in air,
located a distance d3 behind the back surface of the while d2 is a thickness of glass and is divided by the
slab. The object for the lens is the image formed by index n g . Evidently, the thickness d2 in glass of index
the back surface of the slab. ng is equivalent to an air thickness of d 2 /n g .
Each of the diverging rays leaving the point source By the same reasoning, it is easy to show that any
bends toward the normal on entering the slab and thickness d of a material of index n is equivalent to an
away from the normal on leaving the slab. The outgo- air thickness of d/n. Let us temporarily label the
140 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

equivalent air thickness as d, or oil (Figure 8.9). What distance must the camera be
focused for?
(8.5) The object for the camera is the virtual image
n that the top oil surface forms. From the equivalent
Then we can write Eq. 8.4 as air system, the object distance for the camera lens
is
i*3 = - [ d 1 + d 2 + d 3 ]. (8.6)
7 16 5 1
M
EXAMPLE 8.5 ^ = -Ll44 + r33 + r72 + 1 J C m '
A 4-mm tall object in air is located 17 cm from the ".ens = -[^.86 + 12.03 + 2.91 + 10] cm,
front surface of a 33-cm thick glass (n = 1.50) slab.
A thin lens in air is located 8 cm behind the glass "ien. = -29.80 cm.
slab. What is the object distance for the lens? What Note that the 7 cm of plastic is equivalent to
is the size of the (apparent) object for the lens? 4.86 cm of air, the 16 cm of water is equivalent to
The object for the lens is the virtual image 12.03 cm of air, and the 5 cm of oil is equivalent to
formed by the back surface of the slab, and Figure 2.91 cm of air. Note also that the apparent depth of
8.8 shows the situation. the butterfly is 19.80 cm from the top oil surface,
Equation 8.6 gives the object distance for the and finally the virtual image of the butterfly at the
lens: apparent depth is the same size as the imbedded
butterfly.
33 cm
3 = - [ l 7 cm + + 8 cm
] Whenever the refractive index n is greater than 1,
u3 = -[17 + 22 + 8] cm = -47 cm. the equivalent air distance d is less than the actual
Note that the 33 cm of glass of index 1.5 is equival- distance d. For this reason, the equivalent air distance
ent to 22 cm worth of air. is usually called the reduced distance. In the preceding
The lateral magnification for each plane surface example, the reduced distance for the 7 cm of plastic
is +1, so the size of the object for the lens is still was 4.86 cm, the reduced distance for the 16 cm of
4 mm. water was 12.03 cm, and the reduced distance for the
5 cm of oil was 2.91 cm. In this context, reduced is a
Equation 8.6 is easily extended to systems with synonym for equivalent air.
multiple plane interfaces. Figure 8.9a shows three flat
slabs in front of a thin lens in air. The object distance EXAMPLE 8.7
for the lens can be found by stepping through the A 3-cm thick oil layer (n = 1.72) floats on top of
plane interfaces, a somewhat slow process, or by 26.6 cm of water (n = 1.33), which in turn is on a
setting up the equivalent air distances as shown in 27-cm thick flat glass slab (n = 1.50). A camera is
Figure 8.9b and writing directly that held so that its lens is 4 cm above the oil's top
surface. A beetle is clearly imaged in the camera
. = - [ d , + d2 + d3 + d 4 ]. (8.7) when it is focused for an object distance of 21.5 cm.
Where is the actual beetle?
EXAMPLE 8.6 One method of solving this problem is to step
A butterfly is imbedded 7 cm deep in a plastic back through the surfaces, again a slow process. An
(n = 1.44) slab. The plastic is covered by 16 cm of alternate method is to use the equivalent air (or
water (n = 1.33), and a 5 cm layer of oil (n = 1.72) reduced) system to determine the apparent location
is floating on the water. A camera is held in the air of the beetle relative to the apparent boundaries of
so that its lens is 10 cm above the top surface of the the different media.

I1
I
air air | air
I
I
I
I
**'v - ^ , * * v
d2 d3 d4 T di d4 FIGURE 8.9. a, A series of plane interfaces in
di front of a lens. b. The equivalent air (or reduced)
a) b) system.
Plane Refracting Interfaces and Reduced Systems 141

4 ,
4cm {
U
water

53 cm
i-7cm czr"_izr.L 21
20cm \ J virtual image
. ^ of beetle
18 cm .

FIGURE 8.10. Reduced (equivalent air) system for beetle ex- FIGURE 8.11. Converging light incident on a flat interface.
ample.

face has a virtual object (shown at A in Figure


Figure 8.10 shows the reduced system. The re-
8.11). Since the rays are initially in the lower index
duced thicknesses are:
medium, they bend towards the normal. The result
3 cm is that the image, shown at B, is real and farther
d
oil = = 1.7 cm,
1.72 than the (virtual) object from the interface. For this
26.6 cm situation,
= 20.0 cm,
1.33 ^ = 1.00 and n 2 = 1.33.
27 cm P is zero for the plane interface, so
a
glass
= 18.0 cm.
1.50 V=U=+4.00D.
The positions corresponding to the media boun- Now
daries are marked by the dashed lines in the figure.
The object distance for the camera is 21.5 cm. In
the reduced (or equivalent air) system, the beetle is V
at distance x below the marker corresponding to 133
the oil-water interface, and = +33.25 cm,
+4D
x = 21.5 cm - 4 cm - 1.7 cm = 15.8 cm. which confirms that the image is real and farther
The 15.8 cm is the reduced (or equivalent air) from the interface than the virtual object. The
distance corresponding to an actual distance in image would be visible on a screen placed in the
water. We can then find the actual water distance water 33.25 cm from the interface.
by unreducing, or Alternatively, Eq. 8.3 can be used. Here
100
water water water' = +25 cm.
+4D
d W ater = (1.33)(15.8 cm) = 21.0 cm.
The actual beetle is located in the water 21 cm Then
below the oil-water interface.
u
n?
gives
v +25 cm
8.6 Converging Light and Reduced Systems
L33 1.00 '
The techniques for plane interfaces work for converg-
ing light as well as for diverging light. The problems v = (1.33)(+25 cm) = +33.25 cm.
may be solved either by stepping through the inter- The lateral magnification for the interface is still
faces or by using a reduced system. +1, so the real image is the same size as the virtual
object.
EXAMPLE 8.8
Converging light in air is incident on an air-water EXAMPLE 8.9
(n=1.33) interface. When the vergence of the An 8-mm spider is suspended on a web 40 cm in
incident wavefront is +4.00 D, where is the image front of a +8.50 D lens. The lens has 4 cm of air
for the interface located? behind it followed by a 12-cm thick glass (n = 1.5)
Before calculating, you should draw a ray sketch slab, a 13.3-cm thickness of water, and a 25-cm
to see what characteristics you expect the answer to thick plastic (n = 1.44) slab. Where is the physically
have. The incident light is converging, so the inter- real image of the spider? What is the image size?
142 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

16.67 cm 8.7 Single Spherical Refracting Interfaces


and Reduced Systems
An equivalent air (reduced) system can also be set up
for a single spherical refracting interface (SSRI). In
the reduced system, a thin lens in air supplies the
convergence or divergence that the SSRI supplies in
the actual system. As shown below, all corresponding
4 cm 8 cm 10 cm 17.4 cm vergences in the reduced and the actual systems are
equal, and, consequently, the dioptric power of the
FIGURE 8.12. Reduced system for spider example. thin lens in the reduced system must be equal to the
dioptric power of the actual SSRI.
Consider an object in a medium of refractive index
Figure 8.12 shows the reduced system. The re- nl at a distance u in front of an SSRI of dioptric power
duced distances are: P. The image is in a medium of index n 2 at a distance i;
12 cm away from the interface. Figure 8.13 shows an exam-
glass
~ 1.50 = 8 cm, ple of such a system. In the actual SSRI system, the
13.3 cm vergence equations are:
d water 1.33 10 cm,
u a = ^,
25 cm U
= 17.4 cm.
4
plastic 1.44 and
For the lens.
a
V
u = - 4 0 cm,
The dioptric power of the SSRI is P a and
= -2.5D,
- 4 0 cm Va = P a + U a .
V = P + U,
The distance u in the medium of index n x between
V = +8.50 D + (-2.50 D) = +6.00 D,
the interface and the object is equivalent to an air
100 distance of where
v = +6.00 D + 16.67 cm,
u
u = .
and Hi
U -2.50 D
m= = = -0.42. The distance i; in the medium of index n 2 is equivalent
V +6.00 D
to an air distance v where
In the actual system, the lens' image is optically
i;
real but not physically real. In the reduced system, v = .
the image is 16.67 cm from the lens. From Figure
8.12, the image is located in the region correspond- In an equivalent air (or reduced) system correspond-
ing to the water at a distance of x past the marker ing to the SSRI, the incident vergence is given by
corresponding to the glass-water boundary, and
x = 16.67 - 4 - 8 = 4.67 cm. u.-i.u
r
The 4.67 cm is the equivalent air or reduced dis-
tance corresponding to the actual distance in the and the exiting vergence is given by
water. Therefore, in the actual system, the phys-
ically real image is in the water at a distance of v.-4.r
V
(1.33)(4.67cm) = 6.21cm,
from the glass-water interface. The image would be
visible on a screen placed in the water at this
position. n2
The lateral magnification for each plane inter-
face is + 1 , so the total lateral magnification is +1
times the lateral magnification m of the lens. The
image size is u
I = mO = (-0.42)(8 mm) = - 3 . 3 3 mm. FIGURE 8.13. Actual system.
Plane Refracting Interfaces and Reduced Systems 143

The dioptric power of the thin lens in the reduced The reduced object distance is
system is Pr and
-66.5 cm
Vr = Pr + U r . u = 1.33 =-50.0 cm,

By substituting the equation for the reduced distance and the reduced image distance is
into the above equation for U r , we see that +37.5 cm
v = 1.50 = +25.0 cm.
Ur=
(^S) = "^ = U a ' Thus, the reduced system consists of a +6.00 D
thin lens in air. The (real) object is located 50 cm in
where Ua is the vergence in the actual system. By front of the lens and the (real) image is located
substituting the expression for the reduced distance v, 25 cm behind the lens.
we find that In the reduced system:
10
r a
u= -50.0 cm
= -2.00D.
(v/n2) v '
and
where Va is the exiting vergence in the actual system. 100
Since the corresponding vergences are equal, the sub- V= = +4.00D.
scripts can be dropped: +25.00 cm
From U and V, it is clear that the dioptric power of
u = ua = ur, the thin lens in the reduced system must be
+6.00 D.
and In the actual system:
v=v =v. U= M
133
=-2.00D,
It then follows that the dioptric power of the thin lens -66.5 cm
in the reduced system must be equal to the dioptric 150
power of the actual SSRI, or V= = +4.00D.
+37.5 cm
P = P M. = PX .. The respective vergences are equal, and in both
M. a r
systems the lateral magnification is U/V or -0.5.
The lateral magnificaton of an SSRI is equal to the
vergence ratio U/V. Since the respective vergences are EXAMPLE 8.11
the same in the actual system and in the reduced A real object in plastic (n = 1.44) is located 18 cm
system, the lateral magnification is the same in the two in front of a +3.00 D plastic-water (n = 1.33) inter-
systems. Thus, given the same object size, the image face. The conjugate image is virtual and located
size I is the same in the actual and in the reduced -26.6 cm from the interface. Set up the reduced
system. system, and verify that the vergences are equal.
Figure 8.14a shows the actual system and Figure
EXAMPLE 8.10 8.14b shows the reduced system. The thin lens in
A real object in water (n = 1.33) is 66.5 cm in front the reduced system has a power of +3.00 D. The
of a -1-6.00 D water-glass (n = 1.50) interface. The reduced object distance is given by
conjugate image is real and located in the glass
u= -18 cm = -12.5 cm.
u
37.5 cm from the interface (Figure 8.13). Set up the
equivalent air system and verify that the vergences n, 1.44
and the lateral magnification are equal in the two Now look at Figure 8.14a again. What index should
systems. we use to reduce the image distance? The correct

-> + + 3.00D
+ 3.00D
A n = 1.44 \ n = 1.33 air ' air

12.5 cm

- 2 0 . 0 cm y i FIGURE 8.14. a. Actual system, b. Re-
b) duced system.
144 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

answer is the index of water. Remember that a and


virtual image point is simply the center of curvature V = P + U,
of a diverging wavefront that leaves the interface.
The exiting diverging wavefront is physically in the gives
water. Actually, the equation for the reduced V = - 2 . 8 0 D + (-2.50 D) = -5.30 D.
image distance indicates the index automatically,
and hopefully it now makes sense. The reduced image distance is
100
i; 26.6 cm = - 1 8 . 9 cm.
v= -20.0 cm. -5.30 D
n2 1.33
The light leaving the actual interface is diverging
The vergences in the reduced system are: and in the glass. Therefore, the actual image dis-
100 tance is found by unreducing.
U = -8.00 D,
-12.5 cm v = n2v = (1.50)(-18.9 cm) = -28.3 cm.
and Again, pay special attention to the fact that the
100 image space index is n 2 (or 1.50 in this case)
v = -20.0 cm
-5.00 D. regardless of whether the image is real or virtual.
In the actual system, the exiting wavefront is phys-
In the actual system: ically in the glass. Virtual simply means the wave-
144 front is diverging instead of converging.
u = -18.0 cm
-8.00 D, The lateral magnification is
133
v = -26.6 cm
-5.00 D. m = ^ = +0.47.

The vergences in the two systems are indeed equal.

EXAMPLE 8.12 8.8 Systems with Multiple Spherical Surfaces


A real object is in air 68 cm from a +7.00 D
air-glass (n = 1.50) interface. Suddenly, the room Reduced systems greatly simplify the calculations of a
floods with oil (n = 1.70). Now the object is in oil system of multiple plane interfaces. Reduced systems
68 cm from an oil-glass interface. Set up the re- can also be used for systems of multiple spherical
duced system, and use it to find the image and the surfaces. In the reduced system, the multiple spherical
lateral magnification. interface system is equivalent to a series of thin lenses
Be careful when setting the dioptric power for in air. The reduced system can aid one's intuitive
the interface in the reduced system. The power of
understanding of the optics. In fact, several different
the lens is equal to the power of the interface in the
actual system. The actual interface is now an oil- actual systems can have the same reduced system, and
glass interface. From Eq. 7.34, the new dioptric the reduced system analysis can provide information
power is about each of the different actual systems.
In the actual system, the refractive indices are used
_(n2-n1)new at each step, and a common mistake is to use the
new old
(,-^, ' wrong index. A main advantage of reducing a multiple
spherical system is that the refractive indices are used
(1.50-1.70)
P ( + 7 0 0 D ) only at the beginning and at the end, and there is less
~ (1.50-1.00) ' of a chance of making a mistake. Another advantage
occurs when the final image space is air because then
Pnew = ^ f j (+7.00 D) = -2.80 D. the reduced system provides the actual answer.
In the next series of examples, both the actual
Note that with the flood of high index oil, the system calculations and the reduced system calcula-
interface changes from converging to diverging. tions are done. You should compare the two systems.
The dioptric power of the thin lens in the reduced
system is -2.80 D.
EXAMPLE 8.13a
The reduced object distance is
As shown in Figure 8.15a, a real object is in water
u - 6 8 cm 44.33 cm from a +8.00 D water-glass interface. The
= - 4 0 cm. glass is 12 cm thick and has a -2.00 D back inter-
n, 1.70
face with water. The refractive indices of the water
Then and glass are 1.33 and 1.50, respectively. Where is
the final image? What is the total lateral magnifi-
U = - ^ = -2.50D,
- 4 0 cm cation?
Plane Refracting Interfaces and Reduced Systems 145

+ 8.00D -2.00D
+ 8.00D 2O0D
water /^glass f water

y
44.33 cm 12 cm
a) b) 33.33 cm 8 cm FIGURE 8.15. a. Actual, b. Reduced.

The calculations for the actual system are: See Figure 8.15b. Then
10
ux = -44.33 cm,
u,=
-33.33 cm
- 3 . 0 0 D,
133
Ux = = -3.00D, ^, + ,,
-44.33 cm
^, + ,, V1 = +8.00 D + (-3.00 D) = +5.00 D,
V1 = +8.00 D + (-3.00 D) = +5.00 D. 100
= +20 cm.
+5.00 D
l >1 =

The light leaving the interface is in the glass, and


The reduced object distance for the -2.00 D inter-
150 face is then
u, = = +30.00 cm.
+5.00 D 2 = +20 cm - 8 cm = 12 cm,
The object distance for the -2.00 D interface is
100
then U,= - = +8.33D,
+ 12 cm
u2 = +30.00 cm - 12 cm = +18 cm.
V2 = P2 + U 2 ,
The light incident on the interface is still in the
glass so V2 = -2.00 D + 8.33 D = +6.33 D,
100
U 22 = *g = +8.33D, 2 = +15.8 cm.
+18 cm +6.33 D

V2 = P2 + U 2 , In the actual system, the light leaving the -2.00 D


interface is in water, and so the actual image
V2 = -2.00 D + 8.33 D = +6.33 D. distance is
The light leaving the interface is in water so v2 = 1.33i72,
133 v2 = (1.33)( + 15.8 cm) = +21.0 cm,
^ = T633D=+21cm which agrees with the results in Example 8.13a.
Since the vergences in the reduced system are
The final image is real and located 21 cm behind
identical to the corresponding vergences in the
the glass-water interface.
actual system, the computations for the total lateral
The total lateral magnification is
magnification are exactly the same as in Example
m
tot = m 1 m 2 , 8.13a.
EXAMPLE 8.14a
mtot
" vx v 2 ' Figure 8.16a shows a system consisting of a
+5.00 D oil-plastic interface followed by a -9.00 D
m tot = (-0.60X + 1.32) = - 0 . 7 9 . plastic-water interface. The plastic is 28.8 cm thick,
and the refractive indices of the oil, plastic, and
EXAMPLE 8.13b water are 1.70, 1.44, and 1.33, respectively. A real
Use the reduced system and rework Example object is in the oil 85 cm in front of the +5.00 D
8.13a. The reduced system consists of a +8.00 D interface. Where is the final image? What is the
thin lens in air separated by a distance d from a total lateral magnification?
-2.00 D thin lens in air. The distance d is given by The calculations for the actual system are:

- 12 cm ux = - 8 5 cm,
d= =8cm
T5- = -2.00D,
U
The reduced object distance for the first lens is ' - 8 5 cm
-44.33 cm
= -33.33 cm.
^, + ,,
" l =
1.33 V, = +5.00 D + (-2.00 D) = +3.00 D.
146 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

-9.00D + 5.00D -9.00D

water
t Y
plastic
air air air

y y i A
85 cm 28.8 cm
b) 50 cm 20 cm FIGURE 8.16. a. Actual, b. Reduced.

The light leaving the interface is in the plastic, and Vj = +5.00 D + (-2.00 D) = +3.00 D,
144 100
+48.00 cm. v1 = +33.33 cm,
+3.00 D +3.00 D
The object distance for the -9.00 D interface is 2 = +33.33 cm - 20.0 cm = +13.33 cm,
then
100
u2 = +48.00 cm - 28.8 cm = +19.20 cm. U2 = +7.50D,
+13.33 cm
The light incident on the interface is still in the
plastic so V2 = P2 + U 2 ,
144 V2 = -9.00 D + 7.50 D = -1.50 D,
U9 = +7.50 D,
+ 19.20 cm
100
V2 = P 2 + U 2 , = -66.67 cm.
-1.50D
V2 = -9.00 D + 7.50 D = -1.50 D.
The final image is virtual and located 66.67 cm to
The light leaving the interface is in the water so the left of the -9.00 D lens. In the actual system,
133 the light leaving the -9.00 D interface is in the
= -88.67 cm. water. So the actual image distance is
-1.50D
The final image is virtual and located 3.67 cm to 2 = 1.332,
the left of the plastic-water interface.
The total lateral magnification is 2 = (1.33)(-66.67 cm) = -86.67 cm.
Note that the vergences at each step in Examples
8.14a and 8.14b are identical. Therefore, the total
U, U , lateral magnification is the same in both the re-
mtrtt = duced and in the actual system. Consequently, the
(-0.67)(-5.00) = +3.33. image size I is the same in both the reduced and in
mt, the actual system.
The final image is erect and 3.33 times larger than
the object.
The above examples show the equivalency of the
actual system and the reduced system. However, in
EXAMPLE 8.14b general, the numerical roundoff errors are different in
Solve Example 8.14a by using the reduced system. the actual system vs the reduced system. So when
Figure 8.16b shows the reduced system. The diop-
comparing the two systems, one needs to keep in mind
tric powers in the reduced system are the same as
those in the actual system, namely, +5.00 D and the number of significant figures.
-9.00 D. The lenses are separated by the reduced
distance d where
EXAMPLE 8.15
28.8 cm
d= = 20.0 cm. A real object is in water 133 cm from -3.00 D
1.44 water-plastic interface. The refractive indices of the
water and plastic are 1.33 and 1.44, respectively.
The calculations for the reduced system are: The plastic is 14.4 cm thick and followed by a
- 8 5 cm 4.02-cm thick slab of ice (n = 1.34). The ice is
-50 cm, followed by 13.5 cm of glass (n = 1.50). The back
1.70
surface of the glass is a +10.00 D glass-air inter-
100 face. The plastic-ice and ice-glass interfaces are
U -2.00 D,
- 5 0 cm plane interfaces (Figure 8.17a). Where is the final
^,+,, image? What is the lateral magnification?
Plane Refracting Interfaces and Reduced Systems 147

-3.00D +10.00D
-3.00D 1
waterNplastid

133 cm 14.44 cm 13.5 cm


100 cm
a) 4.02 cm b)

water ^Nplasticl ice

F,

11.7cm 12.2 cm
FIGURE 8.17. a. Actual, b. Reduced, c. Focal
points in actual system.

Since the system has some plane interfaces, it is In the actual system, the final medium is air (n =
easier to work this problem with the reduced sys- 1.00), so it is trivial to find the actual distance.
tem. The reduced system consists of a -3.00 D thin u2 = 1.00 i72,
lens in air at a distance of d in front of a +10.00 D
thin lens in air (Figure 8.17b). The reduced dis- i;2 = (1.00)( + 12.7cm) = +12.7cm.
tance d is given by The lateral magnification is the same in both the
reduced and the actual system. From the reduced
- 14.4cm 4.02cm 13.5cm .. _ system,
d= + +
-T4^ -T3r ^^-=22-0cm
m
tot m j m 2 ,
The reduced object distance for the - 3 . 0 0 D lens is
u, u2
=
v, v2 >
m
- 1 3 3 cm tot
= -100 cm.
1.33 - I D -2.13 D
m
tot = - 4 D '+7.87 D '
Then
mtot = (+0.25)(-0.27) = -0.068.
100
u, - cm = - 1 . 0 0 D ,
= -100
^, + ,,
8.9 Front and Back Vertex Powers
W, = -3.00 D + (-1.00 D) = -4.00 D,
Consider a centered multiple refracting interface sys-
100
= - 2 5 cm, tem with an image space index of n{ (the refractive
-4.00 D
index of the medium behind the system), and an
u2 = - ( 2 5 cm + 22 cm) = - 4 7 cm, object space index of n 0 (the refractive index of the
medium in front of the system) (Figure 8.18a). Three
100 dioptric values are used to characterize the paraxial
U,= = -2.13D,
- 4 7 cm imaging properties of such refractive systems. These
values are the equivalent dioptric power, the back
V2 = P2 + U 2 , vertex dioptric power, and the front vertex or neut-
V2 = +10.00 D + (-2.13 D) = +7.87 D, ralizing dioptric power.
In the basic vergence equation, V = P + U, the
100 dioptric power P is operative for any incident vergence
i>, + 12.7 cm. U. Of the three dioptric values for refractive systems,
+7.87 D
148 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

* + the optical axis, the final image point is called the


secondary focal point F 2 of the system. The back focal
system
length fb is the distance from the back vertex of the
many different system to F 2 , and as such is just the radius of curva-
indices
ture of the wavefront leaving the back of the system.
Figure 8.18b shows a converging wavefront leaving the
back resulting in a real F 2 . Figure 18.8c shows a
a)
diverging wavefront leaving the back resulting in a
>+ virtual F 2 . Since Pv is equal to the vergence Vb, which
in turn equals the image space index divided by the
plane
waves (real F2) radius of curvature of the wavefront, it follows that
incident
P = (8.8)
V
Let Uj be the vergence of the light incident on the
front of the system. When plane waves leave the back
plane of the system (Vb = 0), we say the system neutralizes
waves (virtual F2) the vergence U 1? or that the system has a neutralizing
incident dioptric power Pn of Ul5 i.e., for Vb = 0, Pn = - U , .
For example, when light of vergence 3.00 D is
incident on a system with a neutralizing power of
+3.00 D, then plane waves leave the back of the
system. Pn is also called the front vertex power.
When plane waves leave a system along the optical
plane waves axis, the initial object point is the primary focal point
emerging x of the system. The front focal length ff, is the
distance from the front vertex of the system to F 1? and
thus, is the radius of curvature of the incident wave-
front. Thus,

P = -- (8.9)

plane waves Figure 8.18d shows a system with a positive Pn. For
emerging emerging plane waves, the incident light is diverging
and F 1 is real. Figure 8.18e shows a system with a
negative P n . For emerging plane waves, the incident
light is converging and Fj is virtual.
Consider a system with a back vertex power of
FIGURE 8.18. a. Paraxial representation of multi-interface +7.00 D. When plane waves are incident on the sys-
system, b. Positive back vertex power, c. Negative back vertex tem, the vergence of the converging light leaving the
power, d. Positive (or plus) neutralizing power, e. Negative (or back vertex is +7.00 D. Now reverse the light. When
minus) neutralizing power. the light is reversed, diverging light of vergence
-7.00 D is incident on the back surface of the system,
and according to the principle of reversibility, plane
only the equivalent dioptric power is operative for any waves leave the front vertex (Figure 8.19a). For the
incident vergence. The front and back vertex powers reversed situation, the system has a neutralizing diop-
are operative only for situations involving plane tric power of +7.00D, i.e., it neutralizes light of
waves, and thus are not real dioptric powers in the vergence -7.00 D. In general, when the light through
V= P + U sense. Here only the back vertex and neut- a system is reversed, the original back vertex power
ralizing powers are discussed. The equivalent dioptric becomes the new neutralizing power.
power is discussed in Chapter 11. Similarly, consider light of vergence -5.00 D inci-
The back vertex power of a system is the vergence dent on a system with a neutralizing power of
Vb of the light leaving the back of the system when +5.00 D. Then plane waves leave the back of the
plane waves are incident on the front (Ul = 0), i.e., system. Now reverse the light so that the plane waves
for U, = 0 , P v =V b . For plane waves incident along are incident on the back of the system. From the
Plane Refracting Interfaces and Reduced Systems 149

original Then
Ux=0,
Vj = +10.00 D,
^ = +10.00 cm,
2 = +10.00 cm - 22.00 cm = -12.00 cm,
reversed U2=-8.33D,
a)
V2 = -3.00 D + (-8.33 D) = -11.33 D.
original So in the reversed system,
(Pv)rev= - 1 1 . 3 3 D ,
or in the original system
Pn = -11.33 D.

b) reversed EXAMPLE 8.17


Find Fx and F 2 for the system in the previous two
FIGURE 8.19. Principal of reversibility and vertex powers. examples.
In the actual system, the image space index ni is
1.00 and the object space index n 0 is 1.33.
From Eq. 8.8,
principle of reversibility, the light emerging from the 100
= +12.2 cm.
front vertex of the system now has a vergence of
IK
+8.19D
+5.00 D (Figure 8.19b). Thus, in the reversed situa-
F 2 is real and located +12.2 cm behind the back
tion, the original neutralizing power of +5.00 D plays vertex of the system.
the role of back vertex power. In general, when the From Eq. 8.9,
light through a system is reversed, the original neut-
133
ralizing power becomes the new back vertex power. ff'=- = +11.7 cm.
-11.33D

EXAMPLE 8.16
F 1 is virtual and located 11.7 cm behind the front
Find the neutralizing and back vertex powers of the vertex of the system (Figure 8.17c).
system in Example 8.15 (shown in Figure 8.17a).
Since the vergences are the same in the actual Note that the back vertex power provides informa-
and in the reduced system, we can use the reduced tion only when plane waves are incident on a system,
system. The reduced system consists of a -3.00 D and the neutralizing power provides information only
thin lens 22 cm in front of a +10.00 D thin lens when plane waves are leaving a system. For the system
(Figure 8.17b). To find the back vertex power, in Example 8.15, the back vertex power is +8.19 D,
consider plane waves incident on the system front, and the neutralizing or front vertex power is
which is the -3.00 D lens, then 11.33 D. Clearly, the two vertex powers can be very
different, but this is not always the case.
Consider a thin lens of dioptric power P. When
V^-3-OOD, plane waves are incident on the lens:
vl = 33.33 cm,
V = P + U = P,
2 = -(33.33 cm + 22.00 cm) = -55.33 cm,
so the back vertex power of the thin lens is equal to P.
U2=-1.81D, When plane waves leave the lens:
V2 = +10.00 D + (-1.81 D) = +8.19 D. V = 0 = P + U,
So or
P=+8.19D. P=-U,
The easiest way to find the neutralizing power is to so the neutralizing power of the thin lens is equal to P.
reverse the light and let plane waves be incident on Thus, for a thin lens of power P, the back vertex
the back lens. For the reversed system, relabel the
power and the neutralizing power are both equal to P.
lens as
As shown in Chapter 11, the equivalent dioptric power
Pj = +10.00 D and P2 = -3.00 D. also equals P.
150 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

8.10 Vertex Neutralization 8.10 gives the same result. Note that the informa-
tion given does not specify the neutralizing power
Assume that optical systems A and B are in contact of A. Also, the back vertex power of B is not
with each other, with A in front of B. Assume that useful here since plane waves are not incident on
whenever plane waves are incident on A, plane waves B.
leave B. Then we say that the systems have neutral-
EXAMPLE 8.19
ized each other. What condition is needed for this to
A system has a neutralizing power of -3.75 D and
happen? a back vertex power of -6.25 D. What thin lens
Since plane waves are incident on A, the vergence placed against the back of the system will neutralize
leaving it is equal to its back vertex power (P V ) A . it?
Since the systems are in contact, this vergence is When plane waves are incident on the front of
incident on B without change. For plane waves to the system, the vergence of the light leaving the
leave B, the vergence incident on it must equal back is -6.25 D. Therefore, a +6.25 D thin lens is
" ( P J B where (P n ) B is the neutralizing power of needed to give plane waves leaving.
system B. Therefore, the condition is that the back What thin lens placed against the front of the
vertex power of system A is equal in magnitude but system will neutralize it?
opposite in sign to the neutralizing power of system B, To get plane waves leaving the back of the
system, the vergence of the light incident on the
or front must be +3.75 D. The thin lens in front of the
(PV)A = - ( P ) E (8.10) system must take incident plane waves and convert
them to the needed vergence. A +3.75 D thin lens
EXAMPLE 8.18
will do the job.
System B has a neutralizing power of +4.00 D and
a back vertex power of +7.00 D. System B is
placed in contact with the back of system A. What
parameters must A have to neutralize B? 8.11 Reduced Angles
To get plane waves out of B, the vergence
incident on it must equal -4.00 D. Therefore, the Figure 8.20a shows a paraxial ray incident on a spheri-
vergence leaving A must be -4.00 D, and A must cal surface. The object space index is n. The axial
have a back vertex power of -4.00 D. Equation point is a distance d from the surface. The ray makes

actual refractive index n > 1 | air

"M
a)
I =n0

i
equivalent air (reduced) air air

y
^
-I -T

b)

1f
FIGURE 8.20. a. Actual ray angle, b. Reduced ray angle.
Plane Refracting Interfaces and Reduced Systems 151

an angle with the axis and hits the surface at a the water (n = 1.33) outside the window. What is
distance y above the axis. Therefore, the ocular accommodative demand when the fish
y is 21 cm from the outside of the submarine's win-
tan ~ = ^ . dow and when the lens representing the hy-
perope's eye is 15 cm from the inside of the
Figure 8.20b shows the same ray in a reduced system. window?
Now the axial point is a (reduced) distance d from the
5. A lens in air has exiting light of vergence
surface, where
+3.50 D. Seven centimeters behind the lens is a
flat air-glass (n = 1.53) interface. The glass is
a-4. 11cm thick followed by a flat glass-water (n =
n 1.33) interface. The water is 9 cm thick followed
Since image sizes are the same in an actual system and by a flat water-plastic (n = 1.44) interface. The
in a reduced system, it follows that the lateral distance plastic is 5 cm thick followed by a flat plastic-air
y is the same in the two systems. The (reduced) angle interface. Where and in what medium is the phys-
that the ray makes with the axis is given by ically real image formed?
~ tan = =.
y 6. Find the reduced (equivalent air) system for a
d 7-cm thick glass (n = 1.61) lens with a +7.00 D
We can then substitute for the reduced distance to front surface and a -3.00 D back surface. Specify
obtain the plastic (n=1.44) lens (surface powers and
y central thickness) that has the same reduced
A - y
- -ny system.
d d/n d 7. A system consists of an ophthalmic crown (n =
or 1.523) glass component in front of a barium crown
= . (8.11) (n = 1.617) glass component. The ophthalmic
crown glass is 4 cm thick and has a +10.00 D front
Equation 8.11 relates the reduced angle to the angle surface. The barium crown component is 3 cm
in the actual system. Remember that reduced is a thick and has a -4.00 D back surface. The inter-
synonym for equivalent air. While a reduced distance d face between the two glass types is flat. Find the
is smaller than the actual distance d, the reduced angle reduced system, the back vertex power, and the
is the larger than the actual angle . neutralizing power.
8. A +2.00 D thin lens is located 6 cm in front of a
-6.00 D thin lens, which in turn is 3 cm in front of
a +7.00 D thin lens. What is the back vertex
Problems power? What is the neutralizing power?
9. A +8.00 D thin lens is located 15 cm in front of a
1. A butterfly is 18.5 cm above the surface on a pond -10.00 D thin lens. Find the back vertex power
(n = 1.33). What is the apparent height of the and the neutralizing power of the system.
butterfly as seen by a fish under water in the 10. A three lens system has a +3.00 D neutralizing
pond? If the fish is 250 cm below the pond's power, and a +7.00 D back vertex power. Rela-
surface, what is the apparent depth of the fish as tive to the front surface of the system, where can
seen by the butterfly? an object be placed in order for plane waves to
2. While tubing down the Muskegon River (n = leave the back of the system?
1.33), a student notices a rock that appears to be 11. A system has a distant object, a +4.00 D neut-
80 cm vertically below the surface. What is the ralizing power, and a +6.50 D back vertex power.
actual depth of the rock? What thin lens placed against the front of the
3. A real object is located 12.5 cm in front of a 15-cm system results in plane waves leaving the back of
thick glass (n = 1.50) slab. A lens is located 7 cm the system?
from the back surface of the slab. What is the 12. A system has a distant object, a 5.00D neut-
vergence of the wavefront incident on the lens? ralizing power, and a +8.00 D back vertex power.
What is the equivalent air thickness (reduced What thin lens placed against the back of the
thickness) of the slab? system results in plane waves leaving the thin
4. A submarine has a 12-cm thick plastic (n = 1.58) lens?
window with flat sides. A 3.25 D uncorrected hy- 13. What is the neutralizing power of a +4.50 thin
perope in the submarine views a tropical fish in glass (n = 1.53) lens?
152 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

14. A system has a distant object, a +5.00 D back d. neutralizing power 17.00 D, back vertex pow-
vertex power, and a +12.00 D neutralizing power. er anything.
Which of the following systems placed against the e. back vertex power -5.00 D, neutralizing power
back of the first system will result in plane waves anything.
leaving the back of the second system. f. back vertex power -12.00 D, neutralizing pow-
a. neutralizing power -5.00 D, back vertex power er anything.
anything. g. back vertex power -7.00 D, neutralizing pow-
b. neutralizing power -12.00 D, back vertex pow- er anything.
er anything. h. back vertex power -17.00 D, neutralizing pow-
c. neutralizing power -7.00 D, back vertex pow- er anything.
er anything.
CHAPTER NINE

Lenses Revisited

9.1 Lens Shapes


A lens consists of two refractive surfaces separated by
a certain thickness. The words convex and concave are
frequently used to classify lenses as well as to classify
the individual surfaces. A convex lens is a converging a) b) c) d)
lens, and a concave lens is a diverging lens. FIGURE 9.2. Diverging lenses, a. Biconcave, b. Equiconcave.
Converging lenses in air tend to be thicker in the c. Planoconcave, d. Meniscus-concave.
middle than at the edge. A converging lens with two
converging surfaces is called a biconvex lens (Figure
9.1a). When the two converging surfaces have the 9.2a). When the two diverging surfaces have the same
same curvature, the lens is called equiconvex (Figure curvature, the lens is called equiconcave (Figure
9.1b). When a converging lens has one plane surface 9.2b). When a diverging lens has one plane surface
and one converging surface, the lens is called plano- and one diverging surface, the lens is called planocon-
convex (Figure 9.1c). When a converging lens has a cave (Figure 9.2c). When a diverging lens has a con-
converging surface and a diverging surface, the lens is verging surface and a diverging surface, the lens is
called meniscus-convex (Figure 9.Id). (The word called meniscus-concave (Figure 9.2d).
meniscus comes from the Greek word meniskos, which While the shape of a thin lens is not important, the
means moon. A meniscus convex lens is crescent- shape of a thick lens is. Ophthalmic lenses used to
shaped like a new moon.) correct the eye typically have a meniscus shape with
Diverging lenses in air tend to be thinner in the the convex surface away from the eye and the concave
middle than at the edge. A diverging lens with two surface toward the eye (Figures 9.Id and 9.2d).
diverging surfaces is called a biconcave lens (Figure

9.2 Thin Lens Power


In general, the optics of a lens depends on the dioptric
powers of the front and back surface of the lens, and
on the reduced thickness of the lens. Figure 9.3 shows
light incident on the convex surface of a meniscus-
a) ~ b) ^ c) d) convex lens. Pj and P2 are the dioptric powers of the
FIGURE 9.1. Converging lenses, a. Biconvex, b. Equiconvex. front and back surfaces, respectively. The surface
c. Planoconvex, d. Meniscus-convex. powers are related to the refractive indices and radii of

153
154 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

EXAMPLE 9.1
A thin glass (n = 1.60) biconvex lens has surface
radii of magnitude 12 cm and 20 cm, respectively
ni ln2 n3 (Figure 9.1a). What is the dioptric power of the
lens?
Unless specified otherwise, we assume the lens
is in air. Since the lens is biconvex, the surface
powers are both positive. From Eq. 9.1,
FIGURE 9.3. Lens surface powers. (1.60-1.00)(100cm/m)
1_
+12 cm
curvature by or
Pl =
p.=
l
and p2 =
n,-n, (9.1) ^ = + 5 0 0 D
l
Similarly,
where xx and r 2 are the respective radii of curvature of
the surfaces, n 2 is the refractive index of the lens P2 = ^ = +3.00D.
material, and where nx and n 3 are the respective
refractive indices for the mediums in front of and From Eq. 9.3,
behind the lens. Pt = ( + 5.00 D) + (+3.00 D) = +8.00 D.
Let Uj and Vj be the respective incident and
exiting vergence of the light at the first surface. Let U 2
EXAMPLE 9.2
and V2 be the respective incident and exiting vergence
A thin plastic (n = 1.50) meniscus-convex lens has a
of the light at the second surface. The vergence equa- convex side with a radius of curvature 5 cm and a
tions at each surface are: concave side with a radius of curvature of 25 cm
(Figure 9.Id). What is the dioptric power of the
^ , + ,, lens?
and For the convex side:
V2 = P2 + U 2 .
P, = y = +10.00 D.
When the central thickness of the lens is small enough,
no significant vergence changes occur as the light For the concave side:

travels across the lens, and
U2=V,.
; = ! = -2000
Then
Then
V2 = P 2 + V Pt = ( + 10.00 D) + (-2.00 D) = +8.00 D.

or The lenses in the above two examples are made out of


V2=P2 + P , + U different materials and have different shapes, but both
are +8.00 D thin lenses.
which can be written as
V2 = P t + U (9.2) EXAMPLE 9.3
A -4.50 D thin meniscus-concave lens has a con-
with
vex surface of radius 25 cm and a concave surface
Pt = P2 + P,. (9.3) of radius 10 cm (Figure 9.2d). What is the refrac-
tive index of the lens material?
Equation 9.2 directly relates any vergence Ux inci- From Eqs. 9.1 and 9.3
dent on the lens to the vergence V2 leaving it. Pt is the
( n 2 - 1 ) 1 0 0 cm/m (1 - n 2 )100cm/m
dioptric power of the thin lens. According to Eq. 9.3, t _ +
Pt is the sum of the surface powers Px and P 2 . The 25 cm 10 cm '
refractive index and the surface curvature information Pt = [ ( n 2 - l ) 4 ] + [ ( l - n 2 ) 1 0 ] ,
is hidden in Pt and does not explicitly occur in Eq. 9.2. Pt = ( n 2 - l ) ( - 6 ) ,
Since addition is commutative, we can interchange
Pj and P2 in Eq. 9.3. Thus, within the accuracy of the
paraxial approximation, the shape of a thin lens is not
important. Remember that the front and back vertex
power of a thin lens are both equal to P t . n, = 1.75.
Lenses Revisited 155

9.3 Thick Lenses: Front and Back V ^ P j + 1 ^ =+12.00 D,


Vertex Powers
100
^ = TlzD = + 8 ' 3 3 c m '
When a lens is thick enough there is a significant
vergence change across the interior of the lens, so the 2 = +8.33
100cm - 1.31 cm = 7.02 cm,
vergence U 2 incident on the back surface of the lens is 2
+7.02 cm
not equal to the vergence V t leaving the front surface, = +14.25 D.
i.e., Note the light waves gain +2.25 D of vergence
while crossing the interior of the lens, i.e., 14.25 -
12.00. Then
As a result, Eqs. 9.2 and 9.3 do not hold for thick V2 = P2 + U 2 = -4.00 D + ( + 14.25 D),
lenses.
PV = V2 =+10.25 D.
When plane waves are incident on the front of a
lens, the vergence of the light leaving the back surface The answer agrees with our expectations and is
is called the back vertex power Pv (Section 8.9). In greater than the thin lens value by the +2.25 D of
vergence gained by the converging light as it cros-
other words, when \Jl = 0 , Pv = V 2 . sed the interior of the lens.
The back vertex power is a characteristic of a lens.
The back vertex power is the parameter specified in a EXAMPLE 9.4b
prescription for a distance vision ophthalmic correc- What is the neutralizing power of the lens in Exam-
tion. ple 9.4a?
When a thick lens neutralizes incident vergence of The easiest way to find the neutralizing power is
Uj (i.e., gives plane waves leaving), the lens' neut- to use the reduced system, reverse the light, and
ralizing dioptric power P n is equal to minus U l 5 i.e., consider plane waves incident on the back of the
when V2 = 0, P n = \J1. The neutralizing power is a lens. Before calculating be sure to make your own
characteristic of the lens, and in general is not equal to estimates for what the answer should be.
the back vertex power. The neutralizing power is also In the reversed system, the calculations are:
called the front vertex power. Remember that both the ?, = -4.00 D and P2 = +12.00 D,
front and back vertex powers are not real dioptric u f = o,
powers in the V = P + U sense, because both are V ^ P ! + U 1 = -4.00D.
operative only in their respective plane wave situa-
Then
tions.
100
v, = -4.00 D = - 2 5 . 0 cm,
EXAMPLE 9.4a
What is the back vertex power of a glass (n = u2 = -(25.0 cm + 1.31 cm) = -26.31 cm,
1.523) lens with a central thickness of 2 cm and
with front and back surface powers of +12.00 D 100
U,= = -3.80D,
and -4.00 D, respectively? -26.31 cm
First what would we expect the answer to be if V2 = P2 + U 2 = +12.00 D + (-3.80 D ) ,
the lens were thin? We would expect the answer to
be the thin lens power that is the sum of the surface V2=+8.20D.
powers or +8.00 D in this case. However, for the So in the forward system, when light of vergence
back vertex power, plane waves are incident on the -8.20 D is incident on the front surface, plane
+12.00 D surface and converging light crosses the waves leave the back surface. The neutralizing
interior of the lens. The converging light gains dioptric power of the lens is then +8.20 D.
vergence across the interior, so we expect that the The lens in this example has a back vertex
back vertex power will be greater than +8.00 D. power of +10.25 D and a neutralizing (or front
This example can be worked either with the vertex) power of +8.20 D. The difference of the
reduced system or with the actual system. Let us values from each other and from the thin lens value
use the reduced system since that minimizes the use of +8.00 D comes from the different vergence
of the refractive index. The reduced central thick- changes across the interior of the lens.
ness d is
2 cm EXAMPLE 9.5
d = 1.31cm. A high index glass (n = 1.70) lens has a central
1.523
thickness of 4 cm, a front surface power of
The reduced system then consists of a +12.00 D +6.00 D, and a back surface power of -15.00 D.
thin lens in air 1.31cm in front of a - 4 . 0 0 D thin What are the front and back vertex powers of the
lens. The calculations are: lens?
U,=0, What are your expectations? The thin lens re-
156 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

suits would be -9.00 D. For the back vertex Consider a meniscus-convex polymethylmethacry-
power, the converging light across the interior adds late (PMMA) contact lens correction with a central
plus vergence to the -9.00 D (or reduces the thickness of 0.36 mm, a front surface radius of
minus). For the neutralizing power, (in the re- 6.30 mm, and a back surface radius of 7.80 mm. The
versed system) the diverging light loses minus ver- refractive index of P M M A is 1.49. The front and back
gence across the interior. surface powers are +77.78 D and - 6 2 . 8 2 D , respec-
Again let us use the reduced system
tively. The sum of the surface powers is +14.96 D.
4 cm The back vertex power is +16.45 D , and the neutraliz-
P T Q =2.35 cm. ing power is +15.90 D. The contact lens has a small
For the back vertex power: central thickness, but the surface powers are high.
^ = +6.00 0 and P2 = -15.00 D. Therefore, a clinically significant vergence change oc-
curs across the interior of the lens, and this contact
For lens must be treated as a thick lens. Clearly, the
Uj=0, ^ = +6.00 0 , surface powers as well as the central thickness must be
taken into account in deciding whether or not a lens
100
l>i = = +16.67 cm, can be treated as thin.
+6.00 D
2= + 1 6 . 6 7 c m - 2 . 3 5 c m = +14.31 cm,
100
U,= = +6.98D,
+ 14.31 cm 9.4 Thin Lenses in Different Media
V2 = P2 + U 2 = -15.00 D + 6.98 D,
P V =V 2 = - 8 . 0 2 D , Typically, lenses are used in air and so the thin lens
power Pt is the power of the lens in air. Suppose the
which agrees with our expectations that the result medium in front of or behind the lens is changed.
would be less minus than the thin lens value of What happens to the dioptric power? To answer this
-9.00 D. question, we need to know the refractive index n 2 of
For the reversed system:
the lens material.
P, = -15.00 D and P2 = +6.00D, Let n1 be the refractive index of the medium in
1^ = 0 gives V! = - 1 5 . 0 0 D , front of the lens (the object space index), n 2 be the
and then refractive index of the lens material, and n 3 be the
- 100 m refractive index of the medium behind the lens (the
l =
^i^D="6-67cm' image space index). When the object space index nl is
changed, the lens' front interface power F{ changes
2 = -(6.67 cm + 2.35 cm) = -9.02 cm,
according to
100
U2 = -11.09 D, (n2 n
-9.02 cm /D\ _ i)new / p x
(9.4)
VMJnew in n \ Vrl/old
V2 = P2 + U 2 = +6.00 D + (-11.09 D). U
\ 2 n
lJold

Since this is the reversed system When the image space index n 3 is changed, the lens'
Pn=V2 = -5.09D, back interface power P2 changes according to
which also agress with our expectations that the /p \ ( n 3 n2)new / p v
result would be less minus than the thin lens value V r 2^new /_ _ _ \ V r 2;old>
(n3 - n2)olc
of -9.00 D.
This lens has a back vertex power of -8.02 D or
and a front vertex (or neutralizing) power of /D\ _ (n2 n
3)new / p x
-5.09 D. Again, the difference is due to the differ- V r 2^new ( n - nr> \)
in
2
V^r 2o /lodl d
3 old
( 9
5 )

ent vergence changes across the interior of the lens.


In general, the new thin lens dioptric power can be
Consider a polycarbonate (n = 1.58) spectacle cor- calculated by adding the new interface powers to-
rection with a central thickness of 3 mm, a +4.00 D gether.
front surface, and a - 2 . 0 0 D back surface. The back A simplification occurs when the object and image
vertex power is +2.03 D, and the neutralizing power is space indices remain equal during the change. Then,
+2.01 D. The sum of the surface powers is +2.00 D. since nl is equal to n 3 , Eqs. 9.4 and 9.5 can be added
Variations much smaller than 0.25 D are negligible in to give
ophthalmic correcting lenses, so the polycarbonate p _ (n2 n
i)new p
(9.6)
lens can be treated as a thin lens. new
(n2-n,)old r
'
Lenses Revisited 157

where Pnew is the new thin lens power and Pold is the TT 1000 mm/m ^
old thin lens power, i.e., U
' = -15.72 mm = ~^>
*new
VM/new ' V*2>Jnew5 Vl = P, + Uj = +19.00 D + (-63.61 D)
"old =
( * l ) o I d "*" ( " 2 ) o l d = -44.61 D,
Note that in Eq. 9.6 the interface powers have _ 1000 mm/m
dropped out and only the thin lens powers remain. " 1 = -44.61 D = - 2 2 - 4 2 m m >
2 = -(22.42 mm + 2.70) = -25.12 mm,
EXAMPLE 9.6 1000
A +13.00 D thin ophthalmic crown lens is dropped U2 = = -39.81 D,
into water (n = 1.333). What is the power of the 25.12
lens while under water? V2 = P2 + U 2 = +47.00 D + (-39.81 D),
The refractive index of ophthalmic crown is
1.523. Then from Eq. 9.6, V2=+7.19D,
_ _ (1.523-1.333) 100
( + 13.00 D), v? = = +13.91 cm.
(1.523-1.000) +7.19 D
190 The light coming out of the eye is converging and has
Pnew= 523 ( +13.00 D)=+4.72 D. a vergence of magnitude 7.19 D. This eye is a 7.19 D
ocular myope. The far point is real and located a
distance of 13.91 cm in front of the eye.
EXAMPLE 9.7 What (thick) spectacle lenses worn at a vertex
Assume the crystalline lens of the human eye is
thin and has a refractive index of 1.400. The power distance of 12 mm corrects this eye for distance vision?
of the lens in the eye is about +19D. What is the For this model, assume the vertex distance is from the
power of the crystalline lens in air? back vertex of the lens to the cornea.
In the eye, the crystalline lens is bounded on the To get a clear image on the retina, the vergence
front by the aqueous humor, and on the back by incident on the cornea must be -7.19 D. The far point
the vitreous humor, both of which have a refractive is 13.91 cm minus 1.2 cm or 12.71 cm from the specta-
index of 1.336. From Eq. 9.6, cle plane. The vergence Vb leaving the back of the
= (1.400-1.000)
spectacle lens must be
new
(1.400-1.336) ^Lyu> ^11^ 100
Actually, the crystalline lens should be treated as a
Vb
12.71 cm = -7.87D.
thick lens. At this vertex distance, any spectacle lens with a back
vertex power of -7.87 D corrects the eye for distance
vision.
9.5 Another Eye Model

Previously, we dealt with thin lens in air and single 9.6 Exploding a Single Spherical
spherical refracting interface eye models. Now con- Refracting Interface
sider a slightly more sophisticated eye model. The
cornea is represented as a +47.00 D SSRI between air Figure 9.4a shows a system with water (n = 1.33) in
and the aqueous humor (n = 1.336), while the crystal- front, air (n = 1.00) in the middle, and glass (n = 1.53)
line lens is represented as a +19.00 D thin lens with behind. Both the concave water-air interface and the
the aqueous humor in front of it and the vitreous convex air-glass interface have a radius of curvature of
humor (n = 1.336) behind it. The distance from the 4 cm. From
cornea to the crystalline lens is 3.6 mm, and the p_ n
2-"i
distance from the crystalline lens to the retina is r '
21 mm. What is the ocular refractive status of this eye? the dioptric powers of the two interfaces are, respec-
The easiest way to answer this question is to reduce tively,
the system and reverse the light. The reduced system -33
consists of a +47.00D lens located 2.70mm (i.e., Pi = +4 = -8.25D,
3.6/1.336) in front of a +19.00 D lens, which in turn is and
located 15.72mm (i.e., 21/1.336) in front of the re- +53
p2 = = +13.25 D
tina. Then in the reversed system: +4
158 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

water glass water

FIGURE 9.4. a. Two interfaces each with a


4 cm radius of curvature, b. Single interface with
b) 4 cm radius of curvature.

Let Uj be the vergence of the light in water incident that, for analysis purposes, we can conceptually split
on the first interface and Vt be the vergence of the the water and glass apart, and consider a thin air layer
light in air leaving the first interface. Let U 2 be the in between them.
vergence of the light in air incident on the second The above argument can be repeated for an SSRI
interface and V2 be the vergence of the light in glass between media of refractive index n0 and n-. Thus, the
leaving the second interface. The vergence equations interface can be split in two with a thin air gap in
at the two interfaces are between. (Conceptually, you might think of one
molecular layer of air.) The curvature of each inter-
vr = p, + u,, face remains the same as the original interface. A
and system with each interface split in this manner is
V 2 = P2 + U 2 . sometimes called an exploded system. Exploded sys-
tems are useful in the analysis of contact lens correc-
In general, there is a vergence change across the air tions.
gap so that U 2 is not equal to \ x .
Suppose the air gap is so thin that no significant EXAMPLE 9.8
vergence change occurs across it. Then Find the exploded system for a -2.00 D spherical
v, = u2, refracting interface between plastic (n = 1.44) and
high index glass (n = 1.74).
and similar to the thin lens situation, the above three Figures 9.5a and 9.5b show the actual and the
equations can be combined to give exploded system, respectively. One way to proceed
is to find the radius of curvature r, and then
V2 = P, + U calculate the powers in the exploded system. How-
where ever, since the curvature is unchanged, we can also
use the Pnew-Pold equations.
PS = PI + P 2 The old interface is between plastic and the high
Then index glass. In the exploded system, the first new
interface is between plastic and air, so
Ps = +13.25 D + (-8.25 D) = +5.00 D.
Consider a single spherical water-glass interface P, = P... = 1.74-1.44
^ ^ ( - ^ D ) ,
with a radius of curvature of 4 cm (Figure 9.4b). The -44
dioptric power of the water-glass interface is Pi +30
(-2.00 D) =+2.93 D.
(1.53-1.33)100 _ 20 In the exploded system, the second new interface is
P= = +5.00D. between air and high index glass. So,
+4 cm +4
Essentially, the +5.00 D water-glass interface acts = P...= i ^ ? ? ( - 2 . 0 0 D ) ,
paraxially just like the system consisting of the 1.74-1.44
-8.25 D water-air interface separated by a thin air gap +74
from the +13.25 D air-glass interface. This means (-2.00 D) =-4.93 D.
+30

plastic glass

FIGURE 9.5. a. Plastic-glass spherical inter-


a) face. b. Exploded system.
Lenses Revisited 159

The exploded system consists of a +2.93 D plastic- surface of the contact lens is a diverging surface in
air interface separated by a thin air layer from a air. In the exploded system, the contact lens has a
-4.93 D air-glass interface. As a check, the sum back surface power of
should equal the original dioptric power.
(1.00-1.49)1000 mm/m
-4.93 D +2.93 D = - 2 . 0 0 D. +7.15 mm '
-490
P= = - 6 8 . 5 4 D.
+7.15
9.7 Hard Contact Lens Corrections The rest of the problem is easy. For plane waves
incident on the front of the contact lens, we want
light of vergence -7.19 D coming out the back (in
A knowledge of the eye's far point enables us to
the exploded system). If we reverse the light, we
calculate the vergence U f p of light in air incident on then have light of vergence +7.19 D incident on
the cornea that results in a clear retinal image. A the back surface of the contact lens and
spectacle lens correction sits in the air in front of the
eye and has a back vertex power that gives the proper
U fp value. However, a contact lens correction sits on V, = -68.54 D + 7.19 D = -61.35 D,
the cornea and wipes out the air-corneal interface. 1000
Nevertheless, we can use the exploded system concept
> = -61.35 D = _ 1 6 - 3 0 m m
and consider a thin layer of air (perhaps one molecu-
lar layer thick) between the contact lens and the The reduced central thickness of the contact lens is
cornea. This enables us to continue to use the U fp - 0.20 mm
d= , =0.13 mm.
information in the same manner as it is used for 1.49
spectacle lenses. Then
2 = -(16.30 + 0.13) mm = -16.43 mm,
EXAMPLE 9.9
The eye considered in Section 9.5 was a 7.19 D 1000
U2 = -60.86 D.
ocular myope, so U fp equals -7.19 D. The cornea -16.43 mm
was a +47.00 D spherical refracting interface be- Note that the vergence changed by 0.49 D (a clini-
tween air and the aqueous humor (n = 1.336). Con- cally significant amount) across the interior of the
sider a PMMA (n = 1.49) hard contact lens that has contact lens.
the same back surface radius of curvature as the Light of vergence -60.86 D is incident on the
cornea and a central thickness of 0.2 mm (Figure front surface of the contact lens, and plane waves
9.6). What must the front surface power of the must leave. Therefore, the front surface power
contact lens be? must be +60.86 D. The radius of curvature of the
The radius of curvature of the cornea is: front surface of the contact lens is
n7 - n , (1.49-1.00)1000
r= r= +60.86 D
(1.336-1.000)1000 mm/m 490
= +8.05 mm.
+47.00 D +60.86 D
336
r = +47.00 D = +7.15 mm. EXAMPLE 9.10
A +9.25 D ocular hyperope has a cornea with a
Thus, the back surface of the contact lens has a radius of curvature of 7.8 mm. A PMMA (n = 1.49)
radius of curvature of +7.15 mm. Clearly, the back contact lens has the same back surface radius of
curvature as the cornea and a central thickness of
0.4 mm. What is the front surface radius of the
distance vision contact correction?
First, explode the system. The back surface
(diverging) power in the exploded system is
(1.00-1.49)1000
P=
+7.8 mm
-490
P= = - 6 2 . 8 2 D.
+7.8
The light emerging from the back surface in the
exploded system should have a vergence of
FIGURE 9.6. Contact lens correction. +9.25 D. Now reverse the light. Then
160 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

^, + ,, tears must now be taken into account in determining


the correction. In an exploded system, the tears act
V, = -62.82 D + (-9.25 D) = -72.07 D, like a converging lens (Figure 9.7b). When a hard
1000 contact lens has a back surface that is flatter than the
cornea, the tears act like a minus lens in the exploded
The reduced central thickness of the contact lens is system (Figure 9.7c and 9.7d). For a contact lens fit
0.40 mm ^ with the same curvature as the cornea, the tears act
d = rrr = 0.27 mm. like a thin piano lens (which is why we did not
1.49
consider the tears in Section 9.7).
Then
= -(13.88 + 0.27) mm = -14.15 mm, EXAMPLE 9.11
1000 The patient in Example 9.10 was a 9.25 D ocular
U2 = = -70.67 D. hyperope and had a cornea with a radius of curva-
-14.15 mm ture of 7.8 mm. A PMMA (n = 1.49) contact lens is
Note that the vergence changed by 1.40 D across fit with a central thickness of 0.4 mm, and a back
the interior of the contact lens, which is a clinically surface radius of 7.4 mm (Figure 9.8a). First, what
significant amount. must the back vertex power of the contact lens be?
Light of vergence -70.67 D is incident on the Second, what is the front surface power and radius?
front surface of the contact lens, and plane waves Since the back surface of the contact lens does
must leave. Therefore, the front surface power not have the same curvature as the cornea, we need
must be +70.67 D. The radius of curvature of the to take the tear layer into account. Assume the
front surface of the contact lens is then tears have a refractive index of 1.333. From Figure
(1.49-1.00)1000 9.8b, the tears act like a converging lens in the
exploded system. The tear's front surface radius of
+70.67 D curvature is 7.4 mm and the back surface radius is
490 7.8 mm. The surface powers of the tear lens in the
r = +70.67 D = +6.93 mm. exploded system are
_ (1.333-1.000)1000
A
~ +7.4 mm
333
9.8 The Tear Lens P
A=T7^ = + 4 5 0 0 D'
Figure 9.7a shows a hard contact lens that has a back (1.000-1.333)1000
PB =
surface steeper (curved more) than the cornea. This fit +7.8
creates a gap between the back of the contact lens and -333
the cornea, and the gap fills up with tear fluid. The PB = -42.69 D.
+7.8

FIGURE 9.7. a. Tears (black) for minus contact


lens that is fit steep, b. Exploded system, c. Tears
(black) for a plus contact lens fit flat. d. Exploded
system.
Lenses Revisited 161

FIGURE 9.8. a. Tears (black) for a plus contact


lens fit steep, b. Exploded system.

The thin lens power of the tears is must be +71.74 D. The radius of curvature of the
Pt = +45.00 D + (-42.69 D) = +2.31 D. front surface of the contact lens is then
(1.49-1.00)1000
In the exploded system, the light leaving the tears r=
must have a vergence of +9.25 D. The tears have a +71.74 D
thin lens power of +2.31 D. So from the thin lens 490
vergence equation, the light incident on the tears = +6.83 mm.
+71.74 D
must have a vergence of +6.94D (i.e., 9.25
2.31). Thus, the needed back vertex power of the EXAMPLE 9.12
contact lens is +6.94 D. Suppose the same 9.25 D ocular hyperope is fit with
The effect of the tear layer is to change the a contact lens that has a back surface radius of
needed back vertex power of the contact lens in air. 8 mm. Now the back surface is flatter than the
The patient is a 9.25 D ocular hyperope, but the cornea (radius 7.8 mm), so in the exploded system,
tear lens corrects 2.31 D of the hyperopia. So the the tear lens acts like a diverging lens. What must
back vertex power of the contact lens in air needs the back vertex power of the contact lens be?
only to be +6.94 D. In the exploded system, the front surface power
Given the back vertex power of +6.94 D, what of the tear lens is
is the front surface power of the contact lens? (1.333-1.000)1000
The back surface (diverging) power in the ex- =
+8.0 mm
ploded system is
333
(1.00-1.49)1000 PA = +8.0 = + 4 1 . 6 3 D.
P=
+7.4 mm
The back surface power is the same as the previous
-490 example, or -42.69 D. The thin lens power of the
P= -66.22 D.
+7.4 tears is
The light emerging from the back surface in the Pt = +41.63 D + (-42.69 D) = -1.07 D.
exploded system should have a vergence of
+6.94 D. Now reverse the light. Then In the exploded system, the light leaving the tears
must have a vergence of +9.25 D. The tears have a
^^+^, thin lens power of -1.07 D. So from the thin lens
% = -66.22 D + (-6.94 D) = -73.16 D, vergence equation, the light incident on the tears
must have a vergence of +10.32D (i.e., 9.25 +
_ 1000 1.07). Thus, the back vertex power of the contact
Vl = 13.67 mm.
~ -73.16 D lens must now be +10.32 D.
The reduced central thickness of the contact lens is The effect of the tear layer is to change the
0.40 mm needed back vertex power of the contact lens in air.
d = ,_ = 0.27 mm. The patient is a 9.25 D ocular hyperope, but the
1.49
tear lens adds another 1.07 D of divergence. So the
Then needed back vertex power of the contact lens in air
is +10.32 D.
u = -(13.67 + 0.27) mm = -13.94 mm,
_1000_
2 = - 7 1 . 7 4 D.
-13.94 mm
Note that the vergence changed by 1.42 D, a clini-
cally significant amount, across the interior of the
9.9 Newton's Equation
contact lens.
Light of vergence -71.74 D is incident on the The single spherical refracting interface is the fun-
front surface of the contact lens, and plane waves damental building block for the paraxial analysis of
must leave. Therefore, the front surface power spherical refracting systems. The (reduced) vergence
162 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

->- +

FIGURE 9.9. Ray giving x' dependence.

equation for a spherical system was heavily used by is labeled x. The ray leaves the surface a distance h
Allvar Gullstrand (1862-1930). The corresponding from the axis, but since this ray is parallel to the axis,
image distance-object distance equation was first intro- h is equal to the image size I. Since the ray angles w
duced by Carl Gauss (1777-1855). There is an alter- and w' at the primary focal point are equal, it follows
nate formulation of the optics of an SSRI that is due from the tangents that
to Issac Newton (1642-1727). The alternate analysis is
I _ -O
as follows.
fi * '
Figure 9.9 shows a paraxial ray parallel to the or
optical axis incident on a spherical interface. At the
1
interface, the ray is bent down and passes through the
m = (9.8)
secondary focal point and then on to the image posi- =" X '
tion. The directed distance from the secondary focal We can set Eqs. 9.7 and 9.8 equal to each other and
point to the image is called the secondary extra-focal obtain
length and is labeled x'. The incident ray hits the
surface at a distance h from the axis, but since the f2 '
incident ray is parallel to the axis, h equals the object or
size O. Since the angles labeled w and w' are equal, it
is easily shown from the tangents of the angles that '=^2. (9.9)

-I O Equation 9.9 is called Newton's equation.


f '
EXAMPLE 9.13
or A real object in air is 45 cm in front of an air-glass
(n = 1.50) interface. The primary focal length of
m = - = (9.7) the system is -20 cm, and the secondary focal
f," length is +30 cm (Figure 9.11). Use Newton's
Figure 9.10 shows a similar drawing for the object equation to find the image, and then find the lateral
space ray that passes through the primary focal point. magnification m.
The directed distance from the primary focal point to The object is 25 cm in front of F1? so the
the object is called the primary extra-focal length and extra-focal distance x is -25 cm. Then,
(-25 cm)x' = (-20 cm)( + 30 cm),
x' = +24 cm.
-* +
- +

t F.

1
FIGURE 9.11. Newton's parametersreal object and real
FIGURE 9.10. Ray giving x dependence. image.
Lenses Revisited 163

The image is 24 cm past F 2 . (An image at that * +


position must be real.)
From Eq. 9.8,
__f.__Zgcm__o.80.
x - 2 5 cm
t F2
. Fi

You should check the above results with the V = x'


P + U equations.
V
y
\
x J
FIGURE 9.13. Newton's parameters for a diverging interface
EXAMPLE 9.14 with a real object and a virtual image.
The real object in the previous example is moved in
to 15 cm in front of the interface. Figure 9.12 shows
the situation for light traveling to the right. Use
Newton's equation to find the image, and then find EXAMPLE 9.15
the lateral magnification. A real object in air is located 18 cm in front of a
The object is now 5 cm past F 1 5 so the extra- diverging thin lens with a secondary focal length of
focal distance x is +5 cm. Then - 1 2 cm. Use Newton's equation to find the image,
(+5cm)x' = (-20cm)(+30cm), and then find the lateral magnification.
Figure 9.13 shows the diagram for light traveling
x' = - 1 2 0 cm. to the right. The object is 30 cm to the left of F , , so
The image is 120 cm to the left of F 2 , or 90 cm to x is - 3 0 cm. From Eq. 9.11,
the left of the interface. (An image at that position
must be virtual.) (-30cm)x' = - ( - 1 2 c m ) 2 ,
From Eq. 9.8, 144
x = + -r~- = +4.8 cm.
f, - 2 0 cm
m= - - = - = +4.0.
x +5 cm The image is located 4.8 cm to the right of F 2 , or
Again, you should check the above results with the 7.2 cm to the left of the lens. (An image at this
V = P + U equations. location must be virtual.)
x' +4.8 cm
The primary focal length can be eliminated from m=- - = - = +.40.
f2 - 1 2 cm
Newton's equation. From Eq. 7.23,
Newton's equation can also be written in terms of
(reduced) vergences. For an SSRI, the vergence X of
the incident light at F! is given by
We can substitute the above result into Eq. 9.9 to
obtain =, (9.12)

xx' = - ^ (f 2 ) 2 . (9.10) while the vergence X' of the outgoing light at F 2 is


given by
Newton's equation can also be derived for a thin
X'=2?. (9.13)
lens in air. There, ni and n 2 are equal, and Newton's
equation simplifies to Then from Eqs. 9.9, 7.21, and 7.22,
xx' = - ( f 2 ) 2 . (9.11)
XX' = - P 2 . (9.14)

EXAMPLE 9.16
Rework Example 9.13 using Eq. 9.14. In Example
* - -- 9.13, n, = 1.00 and n 2 = 1.50. The secondary focal
/ length of the interface is +30 cm, and the dioptric
power of the interface is
,. P = ^ _ 150_ = +5.00D.
X F2 f2 +30 cm
Y
> From Example 9.13, x is - 2 5 cm. The object is
'
^ then 25 cm in front of F j , and X is

FIGURE 9.12. Newton's parametersreal object and virtual = (i.oo)ioo c m / m = _4Q0D


image. - 2 5 cm
164 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

From Eq. 9.14, 5.0 cm. Find the back vertex power and the neut-
2 ralizing power of the lens.
-P2 -(+5.00 D)
5. A thick plastic (n = 1.49) lens has a +5.00 D front
X' =
X -4.00 D surface and a -12.00 D back surface. The central
-25.00 thickness is 6.0 cm. Find the back vertex power
X' = = +6.25D.
-4.00 and the neutralizing power.
The light at F2 is converging, and a real image is 6. A thick lens has a +4.00 D back surface power
rom F22 where
located a distance x' from and a +7.00 D back vertex power. Find the back
(1.50)100 cm/m focal length for the lens.
n, 7. A thick lens has a +5.00 D front surface power
X' +6.25 D
and a -3.00 D neutralizing power. What vergence
150 = +24 cm. must the incident wavefront have in order to get
+6.25 plane waves leaving the back of the lens? Find the
primary focal point of the lens.
EXAMPLE 9.17
Rework Example 9.14 using Eq. 9.14. In Example 8. A thick lens has a +8.00 D neutralizing power and
9.14 the interface is the same as in Examples 9.13 a +10.00 D back vertex power. What thin lens
and 9.16. From Example 9.16, = 1.00, n2 = 1.50, held against the back of the thick lens will neutral-
and P=+5.00D. ize it? (Plane waves out for plane waves in.)
From Example 9.14, x is +5 cm. The object is 9. Dr Pepper is a 7.00 D ocular myope with a spheri-
then 5 cm past F\. The light at Fx must be converg- cal cornea of radius of curvature 8.20 mm. Doc is
ing toward the object position and X is fit with a contact lens that has a back surface
(1.00)100 cm/m radius of 8.20 mm. What is the front surface
X = =+20.00 D. power and radius if the contact lens central thick-
+5 cm
ness is 0.30 mm and it has a 1.49 index?
From Eq. 9.14,
10. Maribell Maple is a 4.50 D ocular myope.
- P 2 = -(+5.00 D)2 Maribell's cornea has a 7.00 mm radius of curva-
X'
X ~ +20.00 D ture. Maribell is fit with a contact lens (n = 1.49)
-25.00 of back surface radius 7.20 mm. What back vertex
power must the contact lens have in air? (Assume
The light at F2 is diverging, and a virtual image is 1.333 is the refractive index of Maribell's tears.)
located a distance x' from F2 where 11. Baron Smith is a 3.50 D ocular hyperope. The
baron's cornea has a 7.60 mm radius of curvature
, _ n2 _ (1.50)100 cm/m and the baron is fit with a contact lens (n = 1.49)
X' -1.25 D of back surface radius of 7.90 mm. What back
150 vertex power must the contact lens have in air?
x = =-120 cm. (Assume 1.333 is the refractive index of the
-1.25
baron's tears.)
12. Sugar Brains is a 4.25 D ocular hyperope. Sugar's
cornea has a 7.50 mm radius of curvature. Sugar is
Problems fit with a contact lens (n = 1.49) with a back
surface radius of 7.35 mm. What back vertex
1. A thin meniscus-convex polycarbonate (n = 1.58) power must the contact lens have in air? (Assume
lens has surfaces with radii of curvature of 9.0 cm 1.333 is the refractive index of Sugar's tears.)
and 6.0 cm, respectively. What is the dioptric 13. Represent the cornea of an eye by a +45.00 D
power of the lens? SSRI between air and the ocular media (n =
2. A thin meniscus-concave highlite (n=1.71) lens 1.336). Represent the crystalline lens as a
has surfaces with 12.0 cm and 8.0 cm, respective +20.00 D thin lens between the aqueous and vit-
radii of curvature. What is the dioptric power of reous humor (n = 1.336 each). The distance from
the lens? the cornea to the crystalline lens is 4.0 mm, and
3. A thin biconvex ophthalmic crown (n = 1.523) the distance from the cornea to the retina is
lens has radii of curvature of 16 cm and 25 cm, 20.0 mm. Where is the far point for this eye? Is it
respectively. What is the dioptric power of the real or virtual? What correction is needed at the
lens? cornea?
4. A thick ophthalmic crown (n = 1.523) lens has a 14. A +14.00 D thin glass (n = 1.523) trial lens is
front surface power of +12.00 D and a back sur- placed underwater (n = 1.33). What is the power
face power of -4.00 D. The central thickness is of the lens while underwater?
Lenses Revisited 165

15. An SSRI between water (n = 1.33) and glass (n = 17. A spherical concave ophthalmic crown (n = 1.523)
1.73) has a real object in water and a real image in surface is held against a convex spherical barium
glass at a distance of 20.0 cm from the secondary crown (n = 1.617) surface. The dioptric power of
focal point. If the image is two times larger than the barium crown-ophthalmic crown interface is
the object, what is the dioptric power of the +2.00 D. If the surfaces are slightly separated so
interface? that a thin air gap exists between them, what is
16. An SSRI between glass (n = 1.61) and air has a the dioptric power of the air-ophthalmic crown
real object in glass at a distance of 13 cm from the interface, and what is the dioptric power of the
primary focal point and a real image in air at a air-barium crown interface? What is the sum of
distance of 35 cm from the secondary focal point. these two powers?
What is the dioptric power of the interface?
CHAPTER TEN

Reflection

10.1 Mirrors and Other Reflecting Interfaces ence, whereas for lenses (refraction) the word convex
is associated with convergence. A concave metallic
Chapters 4 through 9 treated image formation by re- surface converges light, so that a converging mirror is
fraction. Images are also formed by reflection. The also referred to as a concave mirror (Figure 10.2b).
reflection may be from metallic surfaces that reflect Thus, for reflection the word concave is associated
most of the incident light, or the reflection may be with convergence, whereas for lenses (refraction) the
from dielectric surfaces, such as glass, which reflect word concave is associated with divergence.
only a small percentage of the incident light. An air-glass single spherical refracting interface
The law of reflection states that (SSRI) convex with respect to the lower index
(10.1) medium converges the transmitted light no matter
fl = A, which way the light travels through the interface. The
where { and 0S are the angles of incidence and reflec- same interface can either diverge or converge the
tion, respectively (Figure 10.1). The media involved reflected light depending on which way the incident
influence the percentage of light reflected, but the light is traveling. The interface diverges the reflected
geometry of Eq. 10.1 is independent of the media. light incident from the air side, but converges the
This chapter covers paraxial image formation by reflected light incident from the glass side (Figures
spherical or plane mirrors. A convex metallic surface 10.2c and 10.2d). Thus, we need to take the direction
diverges light, so that a diverging mirror is also re- of propagation into account in deciding whether a
ferred to as a convex mirror (Figure 10.2a). Thus, for particular interface acts like a converging or a diverg-
reflection the word convex is associated with diverg- ing mirror.
When light in a transparent medium of refractive
index nl is incident on a transparent medium of
refractive index n 2 , the percentage of light R % that is
spherical surface
paraxially reflected is given by Fresnel's law:

Re 100%. (10.2)

The refractive indices n1 and n2 can be exchanged in


Eq. 10.2 without changing the value of R % . This
means that the percentage of light reflected at an
interface is the same no matter which medium the
light is initially in.
Fresnel's law for paraxial light reflected from an
FIGURE 10.1. Ray reflection at a spherical surface. interface between two transparent media can be de-

167
168 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

a)

FIGURE 10.2. a. Divergence by reflection from a


convex silvered mirror, b. Convergence by reflec-
tion from a concave silvered mirror, c. Divergence
by reflection of light incident in air. d. Convergence
d) by reflection of light incident in glass.

rived from Maxwell's classical electromagnetic equa- From Fresnel's law, the percentage of light re-
tions. As such, R % is a fundamental electromagnetic flected at an interface between two transparent media
property of the materials involved. This chapter treats depends on the difference in refractive indices. The
only the paraxial situation, but you should be aware higher the difference, the larger the percent reflection,
that the percent reflection increases outside the paraxi- and vice versa. The percentage reflected at an air-
al region. water (n = 1.33) interface is 2.0%, while the percen-
tage reflected at an air-diamond (n = 2.4) interface is
EXAMPLE 10.1 17.0%. For CR-39 (n = 1.498), a hard resin plastic
Light in air is paraxially incident on an air-ophthal- used for spectacle lens corrections, the percent reflec-
mic crown glass (n = 1.523) interface. What percen- tion in air is 4.0%. For highlite glass (n = 1.71), a high
tage of the incident light is reflected? index glass used for spectacle corrections, the percent
From Eq. 10.2, reflected in air is 6.9%.
1.523-1.000 A 2 % , 3 % , or 4 % reflection is a small percentage,
R<2 100%, but the luminance of the reflected light can be large if
1.523 + 1.000
the luminance of the incident light is high. As an
R. analogy, consider the fact that 4 % of a billion dollars
is 40 million dollars. It is only 4 % , but it is still a lot of
R % = (0.207) 2 100%, money.
R % = (0.043)100% = 4.3%; A lens has two interfaces, and some light is re-
flected at each interface. A first approximation to the
4.3% of the incident light is reflected at the air- total percent reflected is just twice that reflected at
glass interface. Therefore, 95.7% of the incident
light is transmitted through the interface and re- each interface. A more accurate calculation takes into
fracted. The percent reflected is independent of account the fact that not all the incident light gets to
which medium the light is initially in. So if the light the second interface, and a still more accurate calcula-
is reversed and is incident on the air-glass interface tion would take into account multiple reflections back
from the glass side, then again 4.3% of the incident and forth across the interior of the lens.
light is reflected.
EXAMPLE 10.3
EXAMPLE 10.2 Taking into account only single reflections, what
Light is paraxially incident on a water (n = percent of the incident light is transmitted by an
1.33)-plastic (n = 1.49) interface. What percent of ophthalmic crown (n = 1.523) lens in air?
the incident light is reflected? From Example 10.1, 4.3% is reflected at each
surface. Therefore, 95.7% of the incident light is
=/1.49 - 1.33x2
2
transmitted through each surface (Figure 10.3). As
%
\ 1.49+ 1.33:) 100%, a first guess, since the lens has two surfaces, we
R % = (0.057) 2 100% = 0.3%. would expect the lens to lose 8.6% due to reflection
(i.e., 2 times 4.3%). For a more accurate calcula-
Only 0.3% of the incident light is reflected at the tion, let I 0 , I 1? and I 2 be the intensity of the light,
water-glass interface, so 99.7% is transmitted. respectively, incident on the first surface, trans-
Reflection 169

Consider parallel light incident from the right on a


spherical concave mirror. The mirror converges the
light, and a real image point is formed at the sec-
ondary focal point F 2 (Figure 10.4a). The reflected
light is traveling to the left, which is then the positive
direction. Similar to lenses and refracting interfaces,
FIGURE 10.3. Reflection losses for a ray passing through a the directed distances (focal lengths, radii of curva-
lens. ture, image and object distances) are distances from
the reflecting interface or mirror to the position in-
volved.
mitted through the first surface and incident on the Figure 10.4b isolates some incident paraxial rays.
second surface, and transmitted through the second In the paraxial diagram, the spherical mirror appears
surface (Figure 10.3). The transmittance factor at flat because the vertical scale is expanded. The ray
the first surface is 0.957, or that travels along the optical axis (through the center
Ij= 0.95710. of curvature C) is incident normally on the mirror and
The transmittance factor at the second surface is has a zero angle of incidence. From Eq. 10.1 the angle
again 0.957, or of reflection is also zero, and the reflected ray travels
in the opposite direction along the optical axis.
I2 = 0.957 I i ;
The off-axis ray hits the mirror at point E, a
so that vertical distance h from the axis, and makes the angle
I2 = (0.957)(0.957)I0, { with the normal (which passes through C). The
reflected ray makes angle fts with the normal, and
or passes through F 2 . Vertical lines have been drawn
I2 = 0.91610. though C and F 2 , and these lines intersect the off-axis
Thus, the transmittance factor for both surfaces is ray at the points A and B, respectively.
0.916, or 91.6% of the light incident on the lens is For paraxial rays, the small angle approximations
transmitted through it. The other 8.4% is lost by are valid. Then from the triangle AEC,
reflection. The 8.4% differs only slightly from the
first guess of 8.6%. For interfaces with a higher
percent reflection the first guess is not as close to ft ~ tan ft = (10.3)
the answer, whereas for interfaces with a lower
percent reflection the first guess is better. where r is the radius of curvature of the mirror. From
the triangle BEF 2 ,

(ft, +ft,)-1311(4 + 0,) = (10.4)


10.2 Focal Points
V
where f2 is the secondary focal length of the mirror.
We have been using a sign convention in which the From Eq. 10.1, and fts are equal, so Eq. 10.5
positive direction is the direction that the light is becomes
traveling when it leaves the system. For refraction
systems the outgoing direction is the same as the 2,= r . (10.5)
l
2
incident direction, but for single reflection systems the
outgoing direction is opposite to the incident direc- Then from Eqs. 10.3 and 10.5,
tion. Let us continue to take the positive direction as
(10.6)
the direction that the outgoing light is traveling.

+ *-
N

+ -*- A B E

h

1 ^ ^ 1 /
C F2
a) b) ) FIGURE 10.4. a. Actual rays associated with the (sec-
ondary) focal point, b. Scaled ray.
170 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

Equation 10.6 shows that the secondary focal length is


one half the radius of curvature, or F 2 is halfway
between the center of curvature C and the mirror.
Equation 10.6 follows directly from the law of reflec-
tion, and is independent of the medium in front of the
mirror. Even if the medium in front of the mirror is
changed, f2 remains the same. Equation 10.6 also
holds for diverging mirrors, in which case F 2 is virtual.
FIGURE 10.5. Paraxial rays associated with the (secondary)
EXAMPLE 10.4a focal point of a diverging (convex) mirror.
A concave mirror in air has a radius of curvature of
20 cm. Where is the image conjugate to a distant
object? The convex mirror is a diverging mirror. In
The concave mirror is a converging mirror. The Figure 10.5, the reflected light is traveling left, so
image conjugate to a distant object is at the sec- the positive direction is to the left. Then
ondary focal plane (by definition). From Eq. 10.6, r = - 1 0 0 cm,
the secondary focal plane is 10 cm in front of the
mirror. In Figure 10.4, the positive direction is to and from Eq. 10.6,
the left, so f2 = "-50 cm.
r = + 2 0 c m , and f2 = +10cm.
For incoming plane waves, a virtual image would
The image would be visible on a small screen held be formed 50 cm behind the mirror. An observer
10 cm in front of the mirror. looking at the mirror would see the virtual image.

EXAMPLE 10.4b Let us apply the principle of reversibility to the


Unfortunately, the converging mirror in Example case where plane waves are incident on the mirror
10.4a was on the Titanic. As the ship sank, and the (Figure 10.4a). Then the rays leaving the point mark-
room flooded with water (n = 1.33). What hap- ed F 2 would reflect off the lens and leave parallel to
pened to the secondary focal point of the mirror?
each other. This means that the point marked F 2 is
The law of reflection, Eq. 10.1, is independent
of the media involved. Because of this, Eq. 10.6 is also the primary focal point of the mirror. Refract-
also independent of the media involved. As the ing interfaces and lenses always had their primary and
room filled with water, the radius of curvature r secondary focal points on opposite sides, but for a
remained +20 cm, the secondary focal length f2 mirror the primary and secondary focal points coincide
remained +10 cm, and F 2 remained in the same at the same point. For this reason, the subscripts on
location relative to the mirror. the focal points for a mirror are usually dropped:
F = F2 = F 1 ;
EXAMPLE 10.5
A convex mirror has a radius of curvature of and
100 cm. What is the secondary focal length of the (10.7)
mirror (Figure 10.5)? f = f2 = f, = 2

>
FIGURE 10.6. Predictable rays. a. b. Con-
verging (concave) mirror, c. d. Diverging (con-
d) vex) mirror.
Reflection 171

EXAMPLE 10.6 change needed is to reverse the direction of the arrow.


Where must an object be placed in order for a Since this reflected ray is not bent up or down at the
converging mirror of radius 20 cm to form an image reflection, it is considered the nodal ray, and the nodal
at optical infinity? point for the mirror is the center of curvature C.
The object must be placed at the primary focal (Remember that the nodal point for an SSRI was also
point, which like the secondary focal point, is at its center of curvature.)
located halfway between the mirror and the radius
of curvature. Here Consider a converging (concave) mirror with a real
object located outside C. The focal point is located
r=+20cm, and f = f1 = +10cm. halfway between C and the mirror. The incident ray
You should compare this answer to that in Example traveling parallel to the axis reflects at the mirror and
10.4a. then travels through F (Figure 10.8a). The incident ray
that passes through F reflects at the mirror and comes
Once the focal point is known, then any ray inci- out parallel to the axis. The two reflected rays are
dent parallel to the axis is predictable, and passes out converging and indicate that a small, inverted real
through F for converging mirrors (Figure 10.6a), or image is formed between C and F. The third predict-
appears to be coming from F for diverging mirrors able ray is drawn from the object through C to the
(Figure 10.6c). Any incident ray incident either com- mirror (Figure 10.8b). This ray also passes through the
ing from F for converging mirrors or pointing toward conjugate point because when it reflects at the mirror
F for diverging mirrors is predictable, and leaves the it comes straight back along itself. An observer look-
mirror parallel to the axis (Figure 10.6b and 10.6d). ing in the mirror would see the small, inverted image.
In fact, because the object is a person, the person sees
his or her own reflected image as inverted and smaller.
10.3 Ray Diagrams and the Nodal Ray The real object is now placed between C and F.
Again, the incident parallel ray reflects and passes
The third predictable ray is the nodal ray, and it is through F, and the incident ray through F reflects and
associated with the center of curvature C of the mir- comes out parallel (Figure 10.9a). The two reflected
ror. Any ray through C for a converging mirror or rays indicate that the outgoing light is converging and
pointing toward C for a diverging mirror is normal to a large, inverted real image is formed outside of C.
the mirror's surface, and has an incident angle of zero. The nodal ray, drawn through C to the mirror and
From Eq. 10.1, the reflected angle is also zero, and then back along itself, also passes through the conju-
the reflected ray travels back along the path of the gate image point (Figure 10.9b).
incident ray (Figure 10.7). On a ray diagram, the only Next, the real object is moved inside of F. The

FIGURE 10.7. Object point at a mir-


ror's center of curvature, a. Converging
mirroractual, b. Converging mirror
scaled, c. Diverging mirroractual, d.
c) d) Diverging mirrorscaled.
172 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

*-

C "^F^O

a)
J
FIGURE 10.8. a. Two predictable rays
for object outside C. b. Nodal ray.

FIGURE 10.9. a. Two predictable rays for ob-


S ject between C and F. b. Nodal ray.

virtual
image virtual
image

FIGURE 10.10. a. Two predictable rays


for object inside F. b. Nodal ray.

incident parallel ray again reflects and passes through (Figure 10.10b). When the reflected ray is extended
F, and the incident ray that appears to be coming from backwards, it also passes through the virtual image
F reflects and goes out parallel to the axis (Figure point. The virtual image point is just the center of
10.10a). The two outgoing rays indicate that the re- curvature of the diverging wavefront that is physically
flected light is diverging and the image is virtual. The leaving the mirror, so the image space medium is the
virtual image is located by extending the outgoing rays medium in front of the mirror even though the virtual
backwards until they intersect. The virtual image is image location is behind the mirror.
erect and larger than the object. When the object is a Now, consider an object in the center of curvature
person, that person will see his/her own erect and plane, and remember that F is exactly halfway be-
larger image in the mirror. This is the principle of tween C and the mirror. The ray incident parallel to
cosmetic and shaving mirrors. The nodal ray is drawn the axis reflects and passes through F, while the ray
from the object to the mirror so that it appears to be incident through F reflects and comes out parallel to
coming from C, and it reflects directly back along itself the axis. The two outgoing rays intersect at the center
Reflection 173

the ray diagram is essentially the reverse of Figure


10.12. The incident ray parallel to the axis reflects and
object goes out through F (Figure 10.13a). The incident ray
that appears to be coming from C reflects and goes
back out through C. The two outgoing rays are paral-
lel to each other, so the conjugate image is at optical
infinity. In this case it is not possible to draw an
image incident ray through F.
Actually, a fourth ray is easy to draw for each of
the mirror cases. The fourth ray is a ray from the
object drawn to the place where the optical axis
FIGURE 10.11. Object in the center of curvature plane.
intersects the mirror (i.e., the vertex or pole of the
mirror). The outgoing ray is drawn by making the
reflected angle 0S equal to the incident angle { (Figure
of the curvature plane, and an inverted real image is 10.13b). Even on a quick freehand sketch, one can
formed there (Figure 10.11). The inverted real image draw this ray fairly accurately.
is the same size as the object (m = - 1 ) . Note C is at Finally, consider a virtual object. In this case,
2F, and is the symmetry point for the mirror. It is not converging light is incident on the converging mirror
possible to draw the nodal ray for this case. so the reflected light is even more convergent. The
Next, consider an object at optical infinity. The incident rays all point towards the virtual object point
off-axis incident rays are parallel to each other, but (Figure 10.14a). The ray parallel to the axis reflects
not to the axis (Figure 10.12). Two of the rays are and goes through F (Figure 10.14b). The incident ray
predictable: the one through F, which comes out that passes through F reflects and comes out parallel
parallel to the axis; and the one through C, which to the axis. The two reflected rays show that the
comes directly back along itself. The two reflected rays outgoing light is converging, and a smaller, erect, real
intersect in the (secondary) focal plane forming a image is formed between F and the mirror. The third
small, inverted image there. Note from Figure 10.12 predictable ray is incident through C, and the reflected
that the size I of the image can be found from the ray passes through the image point and then back
subtended angle w and the incident ray through F through C (Figure 10.14c).
(i.e., |I|=ftanw). Now consider a diverging (convex) mirror. The
When the real object is placed in the focal plane, focal point F is a virtual point, and is still halfway
between the center of curvature C and the mirror. The
predictable rays associated with F are shown in Fig-
ures 10.6c and 10.6d. The nodal ray is shown in Figure
10.7d.
Figure 10.15a shows a real object in front of the
diverging mirror. The incident ray parallel to the axis
reflects at the mirror, and the outgoing ray appears to
be coming from F. The incident ray that points toward
F reflects at the mirror, and the outgoing ray is
parallel to the axis. The two outgoing rays are diverg-
FIGURE 10.12. Predictable rays for extended object at optical ing, and their extensions backwards intersect at the
infinity. virtual image location. The virtual image is smaller

FIGURE 10.13. a. Two predictable rays for extended


object in the focal plane, b. Another predictable ray.
174 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

and erect. The nodal ray is drawn from the object extension backwards passes through the virtual image
towards C, and its extension also passes through the point (Figure 10.16c).
virtual image point (Figure 10.15b). (This type of In Figure 10.17a, the virtual image is between F
mirror gives a large field of view, and is used as a and the mirror. Again, all the incident rays point
truck and car side mirror or as a security mirror in toward the object. The incident ray parallel to the axis
stores.) reflects, and the outgoing ray appears to be coming
Figure 10.16a shows a virtual object located farther from F. The incident ray pointing toward F reflects,
away than C. The incident rays all point toward the and the outgoing ray is parallel to the axis (Figure
virtual object point. The incident ray parallel to the 10.17b). The two outgoing rays indicate that the re-
axis reflects at the mirror, and the outgoing ray ap- flected light is converging, and a larger, erect real
pears to be coming from F (Figure 10.16b). The image is formed. You should check that the nodal ray
incident ray that points toward C reflects, and the also passes through the image point.
outgoing ray goes straight back along the path of the Now consider a virtual object in the focal plane.
incident ray. The two outgoing rays are diverging, and All the incident rays point toward the virtual object.
their extensions give a virtual image that is smaller and The nodal ray points toward C, and the outgoing ray
inverted relative to the virtual object. The third pre- goes straight back along the path of the incident ray
dictable ray points towards F, as well as towards the (Figure 10.18a). The incident ray parallel to the axis
object. The outgoing ray is parallel to the axis, and its reflects, and the outgoing ray appears to be coming

FIGURE 10.14. a. Converging light inci-


dent on a converging mirror, b. Two pre-
dictable rays. c. The nodal ray.

FIGURE 10.15. a. Two predictable rays for a


real object in front of a diverging mirror, b. The
nodal ray.
Reflection 175

virtual virtual
object r
x object
v
/ 1
pN /c
i
/ virtual
image
/
/
b) y f

FIGURE 10.16. a. Incident converging


light giving virtual object outside C. b. Two
predictable rays. c. Third predictable ray.

FIGURE 10.17. a. Incident converging


light giving a virtual object inside F. b.
Image location.
176 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

FIGURE 10.18. a. Incident converging


virtual light giving a virtual object in the focal
object plane, b. Predictable rays.

from F. The two outgoing rays are parallel to each


other, indicating that the reflected light consists of v = nv2 ' (10.10)
plane waves. In this case, it is not possible to draw an n2-
incident ray pointing toward the off-axis object point P= 1
(10.11)
r
and also toward F. However, the fourth predictable n2
ray, the one incident at the vertex of the mirror, can P= (10.12)
be drawn, and the outgoing ray is parallel to the other
and
outgoing rays (Figure 10.18b).
Finally, Figure 10.19 shows parallel light incident P= (10.13)
on the diverging mirror. The ray pointing toward C fi'
reflects and goes back out along the incident path. The The lateral magnification equations are
incident ray pointing toward F reflects, and the outgo-
ing ray is parallel to the axis. The two outgoing rays U
m= V (10.14)
are diverging, and their backward extensions locate
the virtual image, which is in the secondary focal or
plane. nji;
m = n w" (10.15)
7

These equations can be modified to describe image


formation by reflection by making specific selections
for the indices nj and n 2 . Assume that the refractive
index in front of the reflecting surface is n. In the


reflection process, the light is always in this medium,
but the reflected light and the incident light travel in
opposite directions. Therefore, let
F C
virtual n2 = +n, and ! = - n , (10.16)
image
where the minus sign describes the change in direction
FIGURE 10.19. Ray diagram for incident parallel rays from a that occurs at the reflection. (Other choices are pos-
distant off-axis object. sible, but no matter what choice is made a minus sign
needs to be introduced to describe the reflection.)
Equation 10.8 remains the same, while Eq. 10.11
becomes
10.4 Vergence Equations +n-(-n)
P=
The vergence equations for reflection from a spherical
surface can be obtained from the sagittal approxima- 2n
P= (10.17)
tion, from the law of reflection, or as a special modifi-
cation of the single spherical refracting interface equa- Equation 10.17 describes the converging or diverging
tions. The latter method is used here. The vergence power of a spherical interface as a result of reflection.
equations for a SSRI are: The power P in Eq. 10.17 is referred to as the
(10.8) reflecting power or as the catoptric power. (The word
V = P + U,
catoptric comes from katoptrikos, the Greek word for
mirror.) The catoptric power acts exactly like dioptric
where
power in that it is measured in diopters, and in that it
(10.9) is positive for converging power and negative for
U= diverging power.
Reflection 177

When Eqs. 10.12, 10.16, and 10.17 are combined, When a real object is 50 cm in front of any system, the
the result is incident light is diverging and the incident vergence U is
2n __ +n -2.00D. i.e.,
r f ' 100 cm/m
luh 50 cm
= 2.00D,
or
r and since the light is diverging,
f2 =
2' U=-2.00D.
which is just Eq. 10.6. Note that while Eq. 10.17 for P Then, from Eq. 10.8,
depends on n, the relationship between the focal
length and the radius of curvature of the mirror is V= P + U = +10.00 D + (-2.00 D),
independent of n, and the focal point for reflection is V=+8.00D.
always halfway between the center of curvature and The outgoing light is converging, and the image is real
the mirror. We can also derive Eq. 10.6 by combining and located 12.5 cm in front of the mirror (i.e., 100/8 D).
the primary focal length Eq. 10.13 with Eqs. 10.16 and From Eq. 10.14, the lateral magnification is
10.17. U -2D
m =
V = T8D=-25'
so the image is inverted and considerably smaller than the
object (in agreement with the ray diagram).
10.5 Imaging Examples in Air
The above example shows that if you think in terms of
EXAMPLE 10.7
vergences, you really do not need to worry about the
A real object is 50 cm in front of a concave mirror with a signs of the object distance u and the image distance
radius of curvature of 20 cm. Where is the conjugate
image? Is it real or virtual, erect or inverted, larger or i;.
smaller? For completeness, let us consider the object dis-
Assume the object is in air unless otherwise specified. tance. The positive direction is to the left, so
A concave mirror is a converging mirror, and P must be u = +50 cm,
positive. In Figure 10.20, the outgoing light travels left,
so r is positive. From Eq. 10.15, which feels wrong based on our refraction intuition.
2(1.00)(100cm/m) However, Eqs. 10.9 and 10.16 still give
P=
+20 cm (1.00)100 cm/m
200 u u +50 cm
+20 = +10.00 D. or
Alternatively, we could use Eq. 10.6 to find f, -100
U= = -2.00D.
_ r +20 cm +50
f= = 2 = + 1 0 c m > Our intuition in terms of the vergences is unchanged.
and then use Eq. 10.12 to find P: Diverging light still has a minus vergence, and con-
100cm/m verging light a positive vergence. Therefore, you
P= : =+10.00 D. should check the vergences instead of the object and
+ 10 cm image distances to see whether your answers make
Draw a quick ray diagram, and make your guesses at the sense sign-wise.
answers. Your ray diagram should resemble Figure 10.8. The image distance is
v = +12.5 cm,
which means that in Figure 10.8 the image is 12.5 cm
glass
to the left of the mirror.

EXAMPLE 10.8
A real object is 16.66 cm in front of the same
mirror used in Example 10.7. Where is the conju-
20 cm
gate image? Is it real or virtual, erect or inverted,
larger or smaller?
FIGURE 10.20. Outgoing direction for light in air reflecting off Be sure to draw your own quick ray diagram
a spherical air-glass interface. and guess the answers before calculating. Figure
178 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

10.9 is the ray diagram that roughly fits this situ- From your quick ray diagram, what are your
ation. guesses? Figure 10.14 is the corresponding dia-
The light incident on the mirror is still diverging, gram.
and the incident vergence U is - 6 . 0 0 D . i.e., The incident light is converging and the mag-
nitude of the incident vergence is 5 D (i.e., 100/
100 20). Then
U = 6.00D,
16.67 I
U = +5.00D,
and since the light is diverging,
V = P + U = +10.00 D + 5.00 D,
U = -6.00D.
and
Then
V = +15.00 D.
y = p + u = +10.00 D + (-6.00 D),
The outgoing light is converging, so the image is
V=+4.00D.
real and located 6.67cm (i.e., 100/15) in front of
The light leaving the mirror is converging so the the mirror. The lateral magnification is
image is real and the image 25 cm in front of the
U + 5 D
mirror (i.e., 100/4D). The lateral magification is ^n r i
U -6
m = v = _ = -1.5, so the image is erect and smaller than the object.
For completeness, the object distance is nega-
so the image is inverted and larger than the object. tive in this case, or
Again, the sign of U is chosen because the incident
light is diverging, as opposed to using the sign of -20 cm.
the object distance u. For completeness, Then from
+ 16.67 cm,
and u
n, n -100
U = = = + 16.67 = - 6 . 0 0 D . = (-i.ooKioo cm/m) = z ioo +500D
u u - 2 0 cm -20
The image distance v is +25 cm.

EXAMPLE 10.9 EXAMPLE 10.11


The real object is placed 5 cm in front of the same A real object is 40 cm in front of a convex mirror
mirror. Where is the conjugate image? Is it real or with a radius of curvature of 25 cm. Where is the
virtual, erect or inverted, larger or smaller? conjugate image? Is it real or virtual, erect or
From your quick ray diagram, what are your inverted, larger or smaller?
guesses? Figure 10.10 is the corresponding dia- Be sure to draw a quick ray diagram, and make
gram. your estimate for the answer. The ray diagram in
The magnitude of the incident vergence is 20 D Figure 10.15 roughly matches this situation.
(i.e., 100/5). Since the incident light is diverging, A convex mirror is a diverging mirror so P must
the vergence is be negative. In Figure 10.15, the outgoing light
travels left, so r is negative. From Eq. 10.15,
U = -20.00 D
Then 2(1.00)(100cm/m)
P=
V = P + U = +10.00 D + (-20.00 D), - 2 5 cm
200
V = - 1 0 . 0 0 D. P= = -8.00D.
-25
The outgoing light is diverging, so the image is
virtual and located 10cm (i.e., 100/10D) behind Alternatively, we could use Eq. 10.6 to find f,
the mirror. The lateral magnification is r _ - 2 5 cm
f= = -12.5 cm,
U -20 D 2 ~
m =
V=^D=+2 and then use Eq. 10.12 to find P,
The image is erect and twice as large as the object. 100cm/m o
(This is the cosmetic or shaving mirror example.) P=pr^ = -8.00D.
-12.5 cm
EXAMPLE 10.10 When a real object is 40 cm in front of any system,
Consider the same mirror with a virtual object the incident light is diverging and the incident
located 20 cm behind the mirror. Where is the vergence U is - 2 . 5 0 D , i.e.,
conjugate image? Is it real or virtual, erect or 100 cm/m
inverted, larger or smaller? |U|: = 2.50D,
40 cm
Reflection 179

and since the light is diverging U + 5 D


m = =
U=-2.50D. V =3D=~166
Then The image is inverted and larger than the object.
For completeness, the object distance is nega-
V = P + U = -8.00 D + (-2.50 D), tive in this case, or
and u = - 2 0 cm.
V=-10.5D. Then from
The outgoing light is diverging, and the image is Hi
virtual and located 9.52cm behind the mirror (i.e., u
100/10.5 D). From Eq. 10.14, the lateral magnifica- ( _ 1 .00)(100cnl/m) - 100
tion is u\J -
- 2 0 cm -20
= +5.00D.
U _ -2.50 D The image distance is
= +0.24,
V " -10.5 D
v -33.33
- cm1.
so the image is erect and considerably smaller than
the object (in agreement with the ray diagram).
EXAMPLE 10.13
Again, the above example shows that if you
think in terms of vergences, you really do not need A real object in air is 50 cm to the left of a -2.50 D
to worry about the signs of the object distance u single spherical refracting interface between air and
and the image distance v. glass (n = 1.50); 4% of the incident light reflects at
For completeness, let us consider the object the interface. Where is the reflected image? Is it
distance. The positive direction is to the left, so real or virtual, erect or inverted, larger or smaller?
From the refraction information, the radius of
u = +40 cm, curvature r of the interface is
which feels wrong based on our refraction intuition. (1.50-1.00)100
However, Eqs. 10.9 and 10.16 still give -2.50 D
-n -(1.1O0)l()0cm/m 50
u=u u +50 cm -2.50 D
-20 cm.

or While the interface diverges the refracted light, it


converges the reflected light so the catoptric (re-
u = -100
+40
= .-2.50 D.
flecting) power of the interface must be positive.
For the reflected light, the outgoing direction is
Remember that you should check the vergences opposite to that of the refracted light (Figure
instead of the object and image distances to de- 10.20), and the sign of r needs to be changed:
termine whether your answers make sense sign-
wise. r = +20 cm.
The image distance is The catoptric power of the interface is then
v = -9.52 cm. 2n 2(1.00)100 _ _
P= = - ^ r = +10.00 D.
r +20 cm
EXAMPLE 10.12 The remainder of the problem is identical to Exam-
Consider the same diverging mirror with a virtual ple 10.6, and the reflected image is real and located
object located 20 cm behind the mirror. Where is 12.5 cm to the left of the interface. The lateral
the conjugate image? Is it real or virtual, erect or magnification is - 0 . 2 5 . Note that the reflected light
inverted, larger or smaller? never enters the glass and the refractive index of
From your quick ray diagram, what are your the glass is not used in the reflection calculation.
guesses?
The incident light is converging and the mag-
nitude of the incident vergence is 5.00D (i.e.,
100/20). Then 10.6 Imaging Examples for n ^ 1
U=+5.00D,
EXAMPLE 10.14
V = P + U = - 8 . 0 0 D + (+5.00 D), Consider the preceding example (10.12) again. The
and real object is 50 cm in front of the air-glass inter-
face, which has a radius of curvature of magnitude
V=-3.00D. 20 cm. Suddenly, a flood fills the room with water
The outgoing light is diverging, so the image is (n = 1.333). Now where is the reflected image?
virtual and located 33.33cm (i.e., 100/3) behind What is the lateral magnification? There are at least
the mirror. The lateral magnification is three ways to solve the problem.
180 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics

Method 1 Method 3
Since the law of reflection and the interface's center The third method is to reduce the system. There is
of curvature do not depend on the index, the ray no advantage to reducing the system for a single
diagram is unchanged by the water, and one can mirror, but in mixed lens-mirror systems there is an
solve the problem as if air was still present. This is advantage. The dioptric or catoptric power in the
exactly the solution of the previous example. The reduced system has to be the same as in the actual
image is still real and formed 12.5 cm in front of the system, so from method 2, the reflecting power is
mirror. The lateral magnification is still -0.25. + 13.33 D. The reduced object distance is 50/1.333
or 37.51 cm. A real object in air 37.51 cm from a
Method 2 surface gives an incident vergence on the surface of
The solution can also be worked out in the actual -2.67 D. Then
system. Here, for the reflected light V = P + U = +13.33 D + (-2.67 D),
n = 1.333, and r=+20cm. V = +10.66 D.
Then Note that the vergences in the reduced system are
2n = 266.6 the same as those in the actual system (except for
P= = +13.33 D. possible numerical round-off differences). Then
r +20
The light incident on the mirror is diverging, and 100
= +9.38 cm.
the incident vergence U is negative. Then + 10.66 D
u = +50 cm, The image space index is water, so the actual image
nt -n distance is
U = ^ = , i; = (1.333)(9.38 cm) = +12.5 cm.
u u
133 The lateral magnification is still given by U/V, and
u = +50 = - 2 . 6 6 D , equals - 0 . 2 5 . Again, these answers are the same as
those in methods 1 and 2.
V = P + U = +13.33 D + (-2.66 D),
and EXAMPLE 10.15
V = +10.67 D. A thick polycarbonate lens (n = 1.58) has a front
The light leaving the mirror is converging so the surface dioptric power of +10.00 D, a back surface
image is real and in front of the mirror, and dioptric power of -3.00 D, and a central thickness
of 3.16cm (Figure 10.21a). You stand 50 cm from
n
+n
2 the front surface of the lens, and can see your own
V ' reflected images from the front and back surfaces
+ 133 of the lens. Describe the location and size of these
= +12.5 cm. images.
+ 10.67 D
The lateral magnification is
For the Image Formed by Reflection from the
U -2.66 D Front Surface
m = -0.25.
V +10.67 D From the refraction information, the radius of the
These answers agree with those of method 1. front surface is

3.00D
50 cm 3.16cm

a)

+ 10.00D -3.00D
50 cm

FIGURE 10.21. a. Geometry for an observer to view his or her


2 cm own reflected images off the front and back surfaces of the lens. b.
b) Reduced system.
Reflection 181

(1.58-1.00)100 cm/m = +12.50 cm,


r= +10.00 D 2 = +12.50 cm - 2.00 cm = +10.50 cm,
+58
r = ^ 1 0 = +5.8 cm. 100
U, = +9.52D.
+ 10.50 cm
The front surface of the lens is convex and acts like
a diverging mirror. Therefore, the catoptric power
is negative. With the sign convention for the re- So far, the sign convention for the light that
flected light, traveled through the +10.00 D lens has been used.
The converging light gained vergence (from
r = - 5 . 8 cm, +8.00 D to +9.52 D) as it traveled from the lens to
and the mirror. Then
2n 200 V2 = -16.34 D + 9.52 D = - 6 . 8 2 D.
P= -34.48 D.
r - 5 . 8 cm Now use the plus direction for the reflected light,
Then and
U=-2.00D, 100
Vl = -14.66 cm,
-6.82 D
V = P + U = -34.48 D + (-2.00 D),
w3 = - ( 1 4 . 6 6 + 2) cm = -16.66 cm,
V = -36.48 D,
100
U3 = = -6.00D.
= -2.74 cm, -16.66 cm
-36.48 D