Butterworths
Boston London Singapore Sydney Toronto Wellington
Copyright 1988 by Michael P. Keating.
All rights reserved.
Keating, Michael P.
Geometric, physical and visual optics.
1. Optics 2. Optics , Physiological
I. Title
535'.0246177 QC355.2
ISBN 0409901067
Butterworth Publishers
80 Montvale Avenue
Stoneham, MA 02180
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
This basic textbook, written primarily for optometry intuition and conceptual understanding, so that the
students, contains an integrated approach to geomet numbers mean something to the reader. Chapters 2
ric, physical, and introductory visual optics. This book through 4 emphasize concepts that are sometimes lost
is nontraditional in the integration, sequencing, and in the rush to get to the equations and calculations of
conceptual development of the material. The nontra Chapters 5 and beyond. I have included many worked
ditional aspects include an early emphasis on image examples, but I strongly encourage students to first
formation, the use of the vergencedioptric power work out their own solutions before checking mine.
approach from the beginning, the relation of vergence Due to the needs of optometry students, the physical
to the geometric properties of wavefronts, and the optics chapters are more qualitative than the geomet
interchangeability of the wavefront representation ric optics chapters.
with the ray representation. This approach has worked There are optical effects everywhere we look, and I
extremely well for me and for my students over a have tried to incorporate them into this book so that
15year period. In particular, the integration of visual the world becomes optically alive to the reader. This
optics makes the optometry students feel that basic is, perhaps surprisingly, true of physical optics as well
optics is highly relevant to their profession. I wrote as geometric optics. Visual optics in particular is illus
this book so that others can share in the benefits. trated by the many characters that appear in the book.
The mathematical level of the book assumes a In many cases, subsequent chapters in the book
knowledge of algebra and trigonometry. While some build on previous chapters. For example, Chapter 7 is
introductory knowledge of calculus is helpful, it is not a long chapter, but in fact most of the concepts have
necessary for the level of this text. Since the advent of already been developed in the previous chapters, and
calculators and microcomputers, basic matrix algebra Chapter 7 goes fairly easily despite its length. Chapter
is being increasingly incorporated into high school and 3 is very short, but the concepts are fundamental and
undergraduate algebra courses. After paraxial image often not dealt with very extensively in optics texts.
formation by spherical systems is covered (Chapters 1 There is no doubt that parts of optics are conceptu
through 11), I do take advantage of matrices in some ally difficult because many of the concepts require
chapters (particularly 12, 16, and a little in 18). Ap formal operational reasoning (as opposed to concrete
pendix A covers the needed matrix algebra. operational). That is part of the fun and challenge of
For optometry students, the sections on astigmatism teaching it well.
are a very important part of this book. Chapter 15 While this book was written primarily for optome
gives an integrated treatment of the onaxis aspects, try students, I believe that it offers benefits for other
while Chapter 16 treats the more difficult offaxis students interested in the vergence approach to optics
aspects. and vision. This might include physics undergraduate
There is an emphasis in the book on developing students as well as perceptual psychology students.
xiii
Acknowledgments
To begin, I want to thank Dean Jack Bennett of the addition, I want to thank Associate Dean Jerald
Ferris College of Optometry for his enthusiastic sup Strickland of the University of Houston College of
port of this book. Next, I want to thank my Ferris Optometry for his role in making the visiting pro
colleagues, Dr. C. Allyn Uniacke, for his very willing fessorship possible.
help, advice, and critiques; Drs. Vince King and I also want to thank Dr. Norman Wallis, executive
Gerald Lowther for their encouragement and advice; director of the National Board of Examiners in Op
Barbara Swanson and Doug Nadeau from the Ferris tometry, for his encouragement of this project, and
graphics department for their work on the figures; and Dr. James Carroll of the Pennsylvania College of
a number of my students, Marie Walters, Mike McNa Optometry for his role in initially getting me involved
mara, Carol McMannan, Sue Ward, Dean Luplow, with optometry.
Kerry Kondal, and Chris Theodoroff, who have I particularly need to thank my wife Mary Jean,
proofed and critiqued various chapters. and my children Mikala, Kristen, and Kevin for their
The goal of writing this book originated as a result support and understanding during the many extra
of a sabbatical year I spent as a visiting professor at hours that it took to write this book.
the University of Houston. Thus, I need to thank both While others have critiqued various sections of this
Ferris State University and the University of Houston work, I clearly am the person solely responsible for
for their financial support during the sabbatical. In any mistakes.
XV
CHAPTER ONE
Optics, Light,
and Vision
1.1 The Search for Solutions Patterns Science is the search for patterns, and pat
terns are not just pictures, but predictions. Thus, the
"That's one small step for man. One giant leap for ability to discern patterns, to organize and reorganize
mankind." So stated Neil Armstrong, Jr., as he the fruits of vision and evidence, is indispensable.
stepped down onto the moon's surface. The problem
was how to send men to the moon and bring them Context To see an object within its framework means
back alive. The solution required commitment and to see it in context. All problem solving requires
financial resources, as well as scientific and technical trained powers of observation and an attitude of mind
knowledge. ready for the unexpected and eager of examine every
How was the knowledge acquired? How do we clue that chance presents.
proceed in developing new knowledge and solving new
scientific problems? In The Search for Solutions, Modeling Problem solving requires that models be
Horace Judson lists nine problem solving techniques used at every stage from definition to solution. As
of the scientific method. These are: investigation, simple representations of complex forms, processes,
evidence, trial and error, patterns, context, modeling, and functions, they reduce risk, cost, and complexity
prediction, adaptation, and theory. Judson's capsul to manageable size.
ized summaries of these techniques are: Prediction One of our oldest endeavors is to learn to
avoid the destructive aspects of the environment, to
Investigation Each of us discovers our world by in capitalize on the positive factors, and to plan ahead.
vestigationtasting, watching, smelling, listeningso Prediction is the search for laws on which to base such
that eventually we turn bits and pieces of experience forecasts.
into generalizations and categories.
Adaptation Frequently, problems change as they are
Evidence We need information to solve problems. being solved. As a consequence, solutions have to
For the scientist, gathering evidence is just the first adapt to complex new realities. Feedback is the sys
step. Each clue then must be tested and retested, tematic adaptive response to situations in which the
verified and interpreted. problem and solution are in constant changing rela
tionship.
Trial and error Trial and error is as basic as learning
itself, and errors are essential to the process. Problem Theory The universal human need to tell stories, and
solvers must organize and direct a plan of attack, to explain events, forms the foundation of theory
order priorities, determine the essential elements to making. Theories enable both the scientist and the
combine, and then decide how a desired result is to be layperson to see significance in seemingly random
obtained. events and objects.
1
2 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
These techniques are just as essential to optics as Some aspects of quantum theory are presented in later
they are to the space program. The optics that this chapters.
book addresses is a simplified model of the complex Historically, optics has been divided into two sub
optical world. As stated by Judson, the modeling step areas: geometric optics and physical optics. Geometric
reduces complexity to a manageable size. optics deals with the imageforming properties of len
There have been many scientific advances that, like ses, mirrors, and prisms, and as such, is very import
the lunar landing, were the result of the wellestab ant to visual optics. Physical optics deals with the
lished developmental plan, but the most revolutionary physical character and behavior of light and its interac
advances frequently occur unexpectedly. In those par tion with matter. Physical optics can be further sub
ticular cases, the people involved in looking for the divided into such areas as wave optics, quantum op
general patterns and context discover fundamental and tics, and Fourier optics.
important scientific phenomena for which they were
not specifically looking. Patterns, context, adaptation,
and prediction are all important in this process. This
book is based on experimental investigations, evi 1.3 An Overview of the Human Visual Process
dence, and trial and errors of many people. Hopefully,
the reader will also have the opportunity to recreate Modern man is well aware of the optical images
and experience firsthand some of these experimental formed by slide and motion picture projectors as well
investigations. as with camera television images. In developed coun
tries, even elementary school children are aware that
the human eye forms an optical image on the retina.
Typically, modern man is less aware that his perceived
image can differ significantly from his retinal image.
1.2 The Scope of Optics and Its Subfields This difference is due to the physiology and perceptual
psychology of the human visual system. The study of
The main body of optics deals with light and its vision is formally called physiological optics. It is
behavior. As such, optics is a branch of physics. The interdisciplinary in that it includes the physiology and
impact of optics on modern man is enormous. Mi perceptual psychology of the visual system as well as
croscopes opened the ultrasmall world of bacteria, visual optics.
histology, and biological cells. Telescopes opened the Figure 1.1 shows a flow chart of the human visual
ultralarge world of planets, stars, and galaxies, and process. The process begins with a primary light
enabled humans to study distant terrestrial objects source that serves as the initial generator of the light.
including enemy armies and wild animals. Cameras Some examples are the sun, fire, tungsten filament
opened an incredible world of information capture and light bulbs, flourescent lights, light emitting diodes
provided an aesthetic medium that produces beautiful (LEDs), and lasers. The light from the primary source
results in the hands of an artistic photographer. Inter illuminates an object. On a molecular scale, the object
ferometers contribute to the ultraprecision world of absorbs the incident light and then reradiates some of
modern manufacturing. Spectacle and contact lenses it. The reradiated light diverges away from the object
enable many of us to overcome the visual handicap of and is incident on the eye. The object that absorbs and
optical defects in our eyes. reradiates is called a secondary source of light. Some
As time passed, the borders of optics pushed out to examples include sailboats illuminated by sunlight,
include nonvisible parts of the electromagnetic spec actors and actresses illuminated by floodlights, a ra
trum, especially the infrared and ultraviolet regions. coon illuminated by a flashlight, as well as most of the
Optics combined with electronics to produce televi other objects that we see. The cornea and the crystal
sion, photocopiers, and night vision scopes. Lasers, line lens of each eye converge the incident light to
fiber optics, thin films, spatial filtering, computerized form a small inverted image of the object on the retina
image analysis and enhancement, and robot vision are of each eye. Light is the carrier of information from
areas of current activity and development. the secondary source to the retina of the eye.
Theories involving the nature of light, its speed, The retina is composed of ten layers. The rod and
and its interaction with matter have another impres cone layer absorbs light, and the energy gained is used
sive legacy. These theories were intimately involved to generate neural signals. The neural signals are
with two of the greatest conceptual revolutions of processed in some of the intermediate layers of the
modern man: Einstein's special theory of relativity and retina so that the signals leaving the retina as a whole
the quantum theory of matter. Relativity is a fascinat are different from the signals that left the layer of rods
ing topic, but it lies outside the scope of this book. and cones. The neural signals then proceed via the
Optics, Light, and Vision 3
Primary
light
source
neural signal
Lateral Geniculate
Bodies
Primary
Visual
Cortex
Perceived
Image FIGURE 1.1. Flow chart for the human
visual process.
optic nerve fibers to the lateral geniculate bodies of than monocular visual performance. In particular,
the thalamus. There the fibers synapse, and the signals binocular depth perception is better than monocular
are processed further and sent to the primary visual depth perception.
cortex, which is adjacent to the back of the skull. The
primary visual cortex has a mass of interconnections to
and from other parts of the brain, and the resulting
electrophysiological activity somehow results in the 1.4 Perceptual Aspects of the Visual Process
visually perceived image. The whole neural process is
amazing in that the neural signals that travel the visual Normal individuals perceive one threedimensional
pathway are basically the same types of signals that image. The distal stimulus for this image is the illumi
travel the other neural pathways, such as the auditory nated world. The proximal stimuli are the twodimen
pathway; yet, one results in a perceived image and the sional retinal images of the right and left eyes. Our
other results in perceived sound. normal visual experience is coordinated with our
Figure 1.2 shows a schematic representation of the motor experience. Not only do we see the coffee cup
human visual system as viewed from above. The com on the left side of the desk top, we can also reach out
ponents represented are the two eyes with their re and pick it up. This coordination typically leads to a
spective optic nerves, the optic chiasm, the lateral seeing is believing philosophy.
geniculate bodies, and the primary visual cortex. On the other hand, vision has many illusionary
Humans can function quite well monocularly. How aspects to it. Two examples are given to illustrate
ever, in general, binocular visual performance is better some of the illusionary aspects of vision. The first
example is a binocular example in that it depends on
information from both eyes. The second example oc
curs when viewing with only one eye, so it is a
monocular example.
The first example is the holeinthehand illusion.
People with normal binocular vision may perceive this
illusion as follows. Take a sheet of paper and roll it
into a small tube. Hold the tube close to your right eye
and look through it at a distant object. Place your left
hand, palm inward, against the left outer edge of the
tube at a point near the far end of the tube. Your left
eye is looking at the palm of your hand while your
right eye is looking through the tube at the distant
object. The perceived threedimensional image is that
of looking through a hole in your hand at the distant
object. Here the visual system has taken two separate
FIGURE 1.2. Schematic representation of the human visual retinal images and processed them into one three
system (top view). dimensional perceived image.
4 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
The second example is the moon illusion. Unlike The cornea is followed by a chamber filled with a
the first example, the moon illusion can be observed transparent watery liquid called the aqueous humor.
monocularly as well as binocularly. When a full moon Near the rear of the aqueous humor chamber is the
first rises above the horizon, it is frequently perceived iris. The iris is opaque but has an opening at its center
as being much larger than when it is higher in the sky. called the pupil. The iris contains involuntary muscles,
This illusion occurs despite the fact that the retinal which enable it to constrict or dilate, thus changing the
image size of the moon is the same regardless of its size of the pupil.
elevation in the sky. The difference in the perceived Behind the iris and the aqueous humor lies the
size is due to the difference in the visual information crystalline lens. The crystalline lens is a transparent
or cues between the two different situations. The highprotein material that is surrounded by fibers con
horizon apparently provides the visual cues that fool necting it to the ciliary muscle. Contraction of the
the perceptual system. ciliary muscle results in changes in the focusing power
These illusions, as well as many others, are dis of the eye. This process, referred to as accommoda
cussed in a number of perceptual psychology books. tion, enables the eye to view near objects as well as
This book discusses visual optics and characteristics of distant objects. As the crystalline lens ages, it becomes
the retinal image. You should keep in mind that the less flexible, and consequently a person's ability to
retinal images are the stimuli for the perceived image accommodate is slowly lost with time.
and not the perceived image itself. The crystalline lens is followed by a dark chamber,
which is filled with a transparent gelatinous substance
called the vitreous humor. The retina is the rear
boundary of this chamber.
The rods and cones in the retina absorb some of
1.5 The Eye the incident light and convert the energy into a neural
signal. The rods and cones are not distributed uni
Insofar as image formation is concerned, the human formly. The region of the retina most sensitive to
eye can be compared to a camera. A camera has a detail is the foveal area, which has many closely
dark interior chamber so that the desired image is not packed cones and only a few rods. Away from the
washed out by stray light. A camera also has a vari fovea the cones become progressively less dense and
able aperture to let in more or less light and an the number of rods increases. The peripheral region of
adjustable focus in order to image objects at different the retina, dominated by the rods, is best at light and
distances. The human eye has each of these three motion detection, while the foveal area, dominated by
features. cones, is best at form detection, color detection, and
Figure 1.3 is a simplified diagram of the eye. The resolution of fine detail. There are no rods or cones at
cornea is the curved transparent front surface of the the place where the optic nerve leaves the retina, so
eye and constitues the major converging element of this area is blind.
the eye. The tear film on the front of the cornea fills in
the irregularities in the corneal surface and is thus
important to the optical quality of the cornea.
1.6 Electromagnetic Radiation
shorter wavelengths that do not contain 530 nm and At the other extreme are weak absorbers. Weak
that by themselves do not generate a green response. absorbers are usually transparent, but even a weak
In addition, light containing 530 nm together with absorber can become opaque if the thickness is great
longer wavelengths stimulates a color perception that enough. Water absorbs red light weakly. In typical
tends toward yellow or orange. Thus, light of wave quantities, such as in fishbowls, bathtubs, and swim
length 530 nm is not intrinsically green, but instead is a ming pools, water is transparent for all wavelengths
stimulus to the green response. including red. However, in oceans illuminated by sun
Benham's top provides a neat example of the light, the red light fails to penetrate deeper than
psychophysiological dependence of color perception. 30 meters.
The top has a black and white pattern on it. When the Clear glass is evenly transparent at normal thick
top is rotated at the correct frequency, flashing col nesses. Tinted glass, as in stained glass windows, has a
ored spots appear on it. Somehow the varying light reduced transmission for the absorbed wavelengths.
levels from the rotating black and white pattern are
neurally processed to give the perceived color re
sponses.
The psychophysiological dependence of color per 1.9 Reflection
ception can also be noted by viewing the same color
against different backgrounds. The appearance of the Transmission of light through a medium is decreased
color changes slightly but definitely with the changing by any absorption that may be present. In addition to
surroundings. absorption, the amount of transmitted light can be
While color is clearly recognized as a perceptual reduced by surface reflection. The word reflection
response, it is still convenient to tag or label mono comes from the Latin word reflectere, which means to
chromatic light by the color responses listed in Table bend back. Reflection is a surface or boundary
1.1. In other words, monochromatic light of vacuum phenomenon. In general, whenever light is incident on
wavelength 530 nm is referred to as green light, mono a surface or a boundary between two different med
chromatic light of vacuum wavelength 650 nm is re iums, some of the incident light is reflected or bent
ferred to as red light, and monochromatic light of back. The percent of the light reflected, and the
vacuum wavelength 460 nm is referred to as blue light. wavelength dependence of that percentage, depends
on the materials involved and the angle of incidence of
incident light.
On a molecular level, the reflection process
involves an interaction of the incident light with the
1.8 Absorption electrons in the atoms and molecules of the surface
layers. There is a connection between a material's
Different materials have different absorption strengths absorption properties and its reflection properties.
for visible light. In many cases, the absorption Strong absorbers, such as metals, are strong reflectors.
strength of a material is also a function of the incident Weak absorbers, such as water and clear glass, are
wavelength. A material may absorb the long (or red) weak reflectors.
wavelengths more than the short (or blue) wave Reflection is classified as either specular or diffuse.
lengths. Wavelengthdependent absorption is called The word specular means mirrorlike. Specular reflec
selective absorption. tion occurs when the surface is smooth and is the
The total amount of light absorbed in a medium reflection involved in the formation of images by
depends on the absorption strength and on the dis mirrors or other smooth surfaces such as a pond of
tance that the light travels in the medium. A strong water. Diffuse reflection occurs when the surface is
absorber is usually opaque, but when made thin rough.
enough it can transmit a significant percentage of the Let us consider specular reflection first. Under
incident light. rectilinear propagation conditions, the direction that
Gold, like other metals, is a strong absorber and is light is traveling can be represented by straight lines
opaque for typical thicknessess. However, a thin film called rays. Figure 1.4a shows a ray incident on a
of gold, deposited by vacuum evaporation techniques, smooth surface. The line perpendicular to the surface
transmits a significant percentage of light. The trans is called the normal to the surface. The angle of
mission of the thin gold film is actually a selective incidence of the ray is defined as the angle 6j that the
transmission. Gold absorbs more strongly in the red ray makes with the normal. The angle of reflection is
part of the spectrum. Thus, the transmitted light is defined as the angle 6S that the reflected ray makes
greenishblue. with the normal. The law of reflection states that the
Optics, Light, and Vision 7
normal normal
surface surface
a) b)
I normal
point w observer's eye
source 
surface
angle of reflection 9S is equal to the angle of the smooth. At some stage a reflected image starts to
incidence 0i5 or mathematically, become visible. Initially, the image is a degraded or
e, = e, (l.i) poor quality image instead of a perfectly clear image,
as in specular reflection from a perfectly smooth sur
The law of reflection is easy to determine and was face. The reflection from the partially polished surface
known by the ancient Greeks. The law of reflection is has a specularlike component that produces the image
independent of the wavelength of the incident light. plus a diffuselike component that degrades the image.
Figure 1.4b shows three parallel rays incident on Many naturally occurring surfaces give this type of
the smooth surface. The law of reflection applies to mixed reflection.
each ray so the three reflected rays are still parallel. The percent of light reflected can be selective. Gold
Figure 1.4c shows three rays diverging from a point absorbs reds more strongly than the blues and, con
source of light. Again, the law of reflection applies to sequently, reflects reds more strongly than blues. This
each ray. A scaled drawing easily shows that the can be observed by looking at the color of the image
reflected rays appear to be diverging away from a of a blue sky formed by reflection off a smooth gold
point below the surface. This is the image point that surface. In contrast to gold, silver absorbs and reflects
an observer looking at the reflected light would see. uniformly across the visible spectrum. Transparent
Flat bathroom mirrors as well as smooth water sur materials also reflect uniformly across the visible
faces form reflected images in this manner. spectrum.
Now let us consider diffuse reflection. Figure 1.5
shows four parallel rays incident on a rough surface.
Here the law of reflection still applies for each ray;
however, the incident angles of each ray are different
and, consequently, the reflected light is diffused in all
directions. In diffuse reflection, the information car
ried by the incident light beam is lost and no reflected
image of the original source can be seen. Instead, the
diffusing surface itself becomes a secondary source.
Suppose we take a rough metal surface that gives
perfectly diffuse reflection and start polishing it FIGURE 1.5. Reflection from a rough surface.
8 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
Wow!
What a
beautiful
blue
sky!
medium, or travel in the water is different from that in the air. The
rays indicating the direction of travel are perpendicu
n = c/v. (1.2)
lar to the wavefront. In both air and water the rays are
Equation 1.2 can be rearranged to give straight lines, but at the airwater boundary the rays
are bent. The law of refraction states that the angle of
v = c/n. (1.3)
incidence fy, made with the normal to the surface, is
For incident light of wavelength 589.3 nm, the indices related to the angle of refration , made with the
of refraction of some common transparent materials normal to the surface, by the equation
are: water, 1.33; plastic, 1.44 to 1.49; crown glass,
n1 sin 6j = n2 sin 0 r , (1.4)
1.523; other glasses, 1.5 to 1.9; diamond, 2.4. The
index of refraction of air at 20C and 1 atmosphere of where nl is the index of refraction of the medium in
pressure is 1.0003. The wavelength dependence of the which the light is incident, and n2 is the index of
index of refraction of transparent materials is slight refraction of the medium in which the light leaves
and is ignored until Chapter 20. (Figure 1.8).
When the angles 6j and are small, Eq. 1.4 can be
simplified by its small angle approximation,
n ^ n ^ . (1.5)
1.12 Refraction
For light in air (n=1.00) incident on a flat water
When you stick a straight object such as a ballpoint (n = 1.33) surface at an incident angle of 6, Eq. 1.5
pen into some water, the object appears to be bent at gives the angle of refraction as:
the water's surface. Actually, the object remains (1.00)6 = (1.33),
straight, but the light traveling through the surface is
= 6/1.33 = 4.51.
bent. The bending of light at a surface is called
refraction. The word refraction comes from the Latin For light going from air into water the rays get bent
word refractus which means to break back. toward the normal. In fact, Eq. 1.4 or 1.5 shows that
Refraction occurs because of the speed change that bending toward the normal occurs whenever the light
light undergoes when it changes mediums. Consider is entering the higher index medium. When light
light waves in air incident on a flat water surface. travels from the higher index medium to the lower
Assume that the index of refraction, n, of the air is index medium, then Eq. 1.4 or 1.5 shows that the rays
1.00, and that the index of refraction, n, of the water get bent away from the normal.
is 1.33. For a distant point source the incident wave The phenomenon of refraction was studied by the
fronts are flat, as shown in Figure 1.7a, and are ancient Greeks. Ptolemy of Alexandria made accurate
perpendicular to the direction of travel, as shown by measurements on the refraction angles in 130 AD but
the rays in Figure 1.7b. failed to determine a describing equation. Later,
The lower edge of the incident wavefront enters the about 1000 AD, the Moslem scholar known as
water first, and hence slows down first. Thus, in the Alhazen extended the currently known knowledge of
same amount of elapsed time, that part of the wave optics and studied refraction, but also failed to de
front in the water travels a smaller distance than that termine a describing equation. By 1611 AD, Johannes
part of the wavefront in air. The net effect is that the Kepler had determined the equation (Eq. 1.5) that
wavefront becomes skewed so that its direction of describes refraction for small angles, but it was not
normal normal
until 1621 AD that Willebrord Snell discovered an slightly different angles that shadows made at high
equation that described refraction for large as well as noon in deep holes that were located many miles apart
small angles. In 1637 AD, Ren Descartes published from each other.
the law of refraction in the form given in Eq. 1.4. When more than one light source is present, then
There is a historical controversy about whether De the partial shadows can be formed as well as full
scartes independently discovered the law of refraction shadows. A full shadow is called an umbra while a
or whether he had seen Snell's previous but un partial shadow is called a penumbra.
published work. As a result of this controversy, the Shadows provide some relief on hot summer days,
law of refraction is variously called Descartes' Law but they have an even more important use. Shadows
(especially in French speaking countries) and Snell's provide information or cues about the threedimen
Law (especially in English speaking countries). The sionality of solid objects, and these cues are used by
determination of the long hidden law of refraction was our visual system as an aid in depth perception.
a crucial and necessary step in the development of The law of rectilinear propagation breaks down in
high quality optical instruments. those situations in which diffraction of light waves
becomes important. The law of rectilinear propagation
also breaks down when a medium is not optically
isotropic. (Isotropie means uniform in all directions.)
1.13 Rectilinear Propagation, Shadows, The index of refraction of air is temperaturedepen
and Mirages dent. On occasion, this temperature dependence can
lead to observable effects. The air directly above a hot
In most situations, light exhibits a definite straight line surface on a sunny summer day is warmer than the air
or rectilinear propagation. In nature, rectilinear prop at higher levels above the surface. Because of this, the
agation is observed when shafts of sunlight propagate index of refraction of the air smoothly changes as a
in straight lines through holes between adjacent clouds. function of altitude above the surface, so the air is not
(Such shafts spreading across the sky are called cre optically isotropic.
puscular rays.) Light rays propagating through the hotter air near
Shadows are another manifestation of rectilinear the surface bend upward while the rays at higher levels
propagation. You are not doubt familiar with your above the surface remain straight. The result is a
own shadow and well aware that you can count your mirage. The person can see both the object and a
fingers by looking at the shadow of your hand, or even shimmering inverted image of it (Figure 1.9). This
use your hands to make shadows that resemble those type of mirage is called an inferior mirage because the
of wolves, elephants, etc. You can also tell the direc image appears below the object. Automobile drivers
tion of the primary light source by noting the relative are familiar with the inferior mirage as the shimmering
locations of the shadow and the object that is blocking "water" on the road ahead. The shimmering water is
the light. actually an inferior mirage of the sky above. Next time
It is interesting to note that the ancient Greeks you see this inferior mirage, check for the inverted
believed the Earth was round, not flat as was believed image of an automobile or truck in front of you.
by the later Europeans. As one of the supports for this There are many other types of mirages depending
belief, the Greeks cited the shape of the Earth's on the index profile. These include the superior mir
shadow seen on the moon during a lunar eclipse. They age and the fata morgana mirage. To pursue mirages
contended that the shadow indicated a spherical Earth would unfortunately lead us away from the goals of
and not a flat Earth. To make a reasonable estimate of this book, just as desert mirages have allegedly misled
the radius of the Earth, the Greeks also used the thirsty travelers.
Optics, Light, and Vision 11
u
hot road
The Geometric
Behavior of Light
2.1 Point Sources, Wavefronts, and Rays wavefront. Figure 2.3 presents the rays for the situa
tion shown in Figure 2.2. Since the medium is not
The geometric optics theory of image formation is uniform in the upper half of Figure 2.3, the wavefronts
built on the concept of point sources and point images. there are not spherical. Since the wavefronts are not
Consider an isolated point source in a uniform spherical, the rays are curved instead of straight even
medium. The isolated point source emits light waves though they are drawn in perpendicular to each wave
equally in all directions and the waves travel away front. These curved rays are the type that can occur in
from the source at the same speed. The light waves mirages, in atmospheric refraction, or in gradient
leaving the point source are represented by the wave index materials. (The acronym currently used for
fronts in Figure 2.1a. Since the wavefronts propagate gradient index is GRIN.) In the lower half of Figure
away from the source at the same speed in all direc 2.3 the medium is uniform, so the wavefronts there
tions, they have a spherical shape. Each of the diverg are spherical in shape. Consequently, the rays form
ing spherical wavefronts is centered on the point straight lines pointing away from the point source.
source. Rays and wavefronts provide interchangeable infor
Figure 2.1b shows a point source embedded in the mation. When the positions of the wavefronts are
surface of a wall. The embedded point source emits known, then one can always draw the rays. Converse
light in the geometrically allowed directions. In the ly, when the positions of the rays are known, then one
case of the embedded point source, the diverging can always draw the wavefronts. In discussing the
wavefronts are again parts of concentric spheres cen optics of image formation, it is sometimes conceptual
tered on the point source. ly easier to use the rays, while at other times it is
If the medium is not uniform, then the wavefronts conceptually easier to use the wavefronts.
will not propagate away at equal speeds. Figure 2.2 In most situations the rays represent the direction
shows a situation in which the lower half of the in which the electromagnetic energy propagated by the
medium is uniform but the upper half is not. The wave is traveling. The exception occurs in light propa
index of refraction in the upper half of the medium gation through certain anisotropic crystals. The crystal
decreases as a function of vertical distance above the case is not of major concern in this book.
point source. While the wavefronts in the lower half of The situations of major interest in this book are
the medium are spherical, the wavefronts in the upper the situations involving an isotropic homogeneous
half of the medium lose their sphericity because the medium. Therefore, the wavefronts diverging from a
waves propagating upward are moving faster than the point source are spherical in shape, and the corres
waves propagating outward or downward. ponding rays are straight lines pointing away from the
A ray is defined as a trajectory orthogonal to the point source. The collection of rays or wavefronts
wavefronts. When given the wavefronts, one can draw coming from a single point source is called a homocen
the rays by having them pass perpendicular to each tric (or monocentric) bundle. A cross section of a
13
14 Geometric, Physical, and Visual Optics
point image
point source
2.3 Diverging Wavefronts, Plane Waves, waves coming from it can be considered plane waves,
and Optical Infinity the object point is said to be at optical infinity.
Figure 2.7a shows another representation of the
Everyone who has driven a car or ridden a bicycle is plane wave case. The wavefronts on the right are
intuitively familiar with the concept of curvature. One effectively flat in the localized region under consider
must slow the car or bike down in order to negotiate a ation because they have traveled a sufficiently large
sharp or highly curved turn. On the other hand, one distance from the point source. Figure 2.7b shows the
can speed through a gradual or relatively flat turn that corresponding rays. When the wavefronts are flat,
has a small curvature. then the rays drawn in perpendicular to the wavefronts
Consider the diverging wavefronts shown in Figure are parallel to each other. These parallel rays can be
2.6. Each of the wavefronts is part of a sphere that is thought of as being very slightly divergent. However,
centered on the point source. The wavefronts nearest in the plane wave region the degree of divergence is so
the point source have a high curvature while the slight that the rays are effectively parallel to each
wavefronts farthest from the point source have a other. Even though these rays are then drawn as
smaller curvature. In fact, the wavefront farthest from parallel, one should keep in mind that they originated
the point source is part of an extremely large sphere at the point source at optical infinity.
and, in the localized region shown, is almost flat. Figure 2.8a shows converging spherical wavefronts
From Figure 2.6, it is clear that the spherical leaving an optical system. Each of the converging
diverging wavefronts lose curvature as they move out wavefronts is spherical and centered on the image
away from the point source. In a localized region far point. The converging wavefronts gain curvature as
away from the point source the wavefronts are very they travel away from the optical system toward the
flat (as shown on the right in Figure 2.6). In the local image point. In particular, the closer the wavefronts
regions where the wavefronts become very flat, they are to the image point, the higher the wavefront
are referred to as plane waves (plane meaning flat). curvature.
When the object point is far enough away so that the Suppose the light leaving an optical system is only
observer's
eye
))
FIGURE 2.6. Diverging spherical wave
front. Each wavefront is centered on the point
source.
16 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
wttt 1    >
m\
111 > (2.2)
image point formed far away 
Therefore,
b)
FIGURE 2.8. a. A converging bundle leaving a system, b. Very q in meters. (2.3)
slightly converging bundle leaving a system. q
In order to distinguish converging light from di
verging light, a negative vergence value is used for
very slightly convergent. In this case, the convergent diverging light and a positive vergence value is used
wavefronts leaving the system have only the minutest for converging light. Equations 2.1 to 2.3 can be put in
amount of curvature, and the image point, which is absolute values and then used to get the magnitude of
located at the center of curvature of the converging the vergence. The appropriate plus or minus sign can
wavefront, is exceedingly far away. Then we say that then be inserted depending on whether the light is
the image point is at optical infinity, and it is conven converging or diverging.
ient to approximate the very slightly converging wave Alternatively, one can use q as a directed distance
fronts by plane waves. The rays representing the light instead of just a magnitude and establish a plusminus
are really very slightly convergent, but for all intents sign convention for q. The sign convention for q is as
and purposes they can be considered parallel to each follows. Always measure q from the wavefront to the
other at least in the region immediately behind the center of curvature of the wavefront. When the di
optical system. rected distance from the wavefront to the center of
curvature of the wavefront is in the same direction
that the light is traveling, then q is a positive value. If
the directed distance from the wavefront to the center
2.4 The Concept of Vergence of curvature of the wavefront is opposite to the direc
tion that the light is traveling, then q is a negative
The index of refraction of a vacuum is, by definition, value. With these sign conventions, q is always nega
exactly 1. The index of refraction of air is just slightly tive for a diverging wave and positive for a converging
larger (typically 1.0003). For now, the small difference wave.
The Geometric Behavior of Light 17
point y
source * /
W//
i J_
/ / / / /
L
[ / , point
m
I \ image
\
\ 1
100. 50. 25. 20. 10. 5.r1
0 FIGURE 2.11. Vergence values for converging
distance in cm to the point image wavefronts.
18 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
2.5 Vergence: Conversion Factors the vergence gets closer to zero as the wavefronts
move further from the point source. This is a result of
Frequently, the distances of optical interest are ex the flattening of the diverging waves as they move
pressed in centimeters (cm) or in millimeters (mm), away from the point source (Figure 2.10). For large
instead of in meters. The distances can be converted enough distances, the vergence is effectively zero and
to meters and then Eq. 2.3 is used to calculate ver the waves are considered plane waves. The distance is
gence. However, sometimes it is quicker and intuitive then designated by the infinity symbol (00).
ly easier to use the conversion factor explicitly in the In terms of Eq. 2.5, when the absolute value of q,
vergence equation. labeled \q\, is a very large number, then V is a very
Suppose the radius q is expressed in centimeters. small number. As \q\ gets larger and larger, V gets
Since there are 100cm/m, Eq. 2.3 becomes closer and closer to zero. In the limit of\q\ going to 00,
V goes to zero.
V = In Figure 2.11, the center of curvature of each of
^/(lOO cm/m)' ^2'4^ the converging wavefronts is at the point image posi
When algebraically simplified, Eq. 2.4 results in tion. Since the light is converging, the vergence of
each wavefront is positive. The wavefront on the left is
(100 cm/m)
q in cm. (2.5) 100 cm from the point image. The directed distance
from the wavefront to the point image is in the
Equation 2.5 shows that the conversion factor can be direction that the light is propagating, therefore, q is
written in the numerator. + 100 cm. From Eq. 2.5,
Again consider the diverging waves shown in Fi lOOcnWm
gure 2.10. The wavefront labeled A is a distance of
( + 100 cm)
0.05 m or 5 cm from the point source, so q equals
 5 cm. Then, from Eq. 2.5, The next wavefront is 50 cm from the point image, and
from Eq. 2.5,
w 100cm/m ~
V = 7z 7 = 20.00 D, 100
(  5 cm) V = (+50) = +2.00D.
which is the same value as before.
Similarly, the wavefront at B is a distance of 0.25 m The vergence values for the other wavefronts are
or 25 cm from the point source, so q equals  2 5 cm. found similarly and are listed in Table 2.2. Note that
Then, the vergence of the converging light increases as the
light moves closer to the point image position. This
100
V= = 4.00D occurs because the curvature of the converging wave
(25) fronts is increasing as the light moves closer to the
Table 2.1 shows the vergence values for diverging image position.
wavefronts as a function of the distance (absolute When the radius q is expressed in millimeters, then
value) from the point source. Note in Table 2.1 that q can be converted to meters and the reciprocal taken
to get the vergence (Eq. 2.3). Alternatively, the con
version factor can be put in algebraically, in which
case it again ends up in the numerator, or
TABLE 2.1
Vergence Values for Diverging Light 7 (1000 mm/m) .
v , q 111 111111. Vz',u/
As an example, consider a converging wavefront the point source. From Eq. 2.8,
with a 20 mm radius of curvature. (Note, by the sign
40
convention chosen the vergence must be positive since v
the light is converging.) From Eq. 2.6, ~F3) = _ 3  0 8 D
The difference between the approximate value
1000 mm/m (3.08 D) and the exact value (3.03 D) is 0.05 D. In
V = =+50.00 D.
(+20 mm) most visual optics cases this difference is negligible.
For a diverging wavefront 2 mm away from the point
source,
1000 2.6 Upstream and Downstream Vergence
V= =500.00 D.
(2) Changes
The metric system conversion factors are multiples This section discusses examples of how to compute
of 10 and are all extremely easy to use. If the radius of vergences either upstream or downstream from the
the wavefront is given in inches or feet, then the location of a known vergence value. As mentioned in
conversion factors are not convenient multiples of ten. the last section, one can use the absolute values of the
There are 2.54 centimeters per inch or 1/2.54 inches radius of curvature q of the wavefronts and get the
per centimeter. The reciprocal of 2.54 is 0.394. In one correct sign for the vergence by checking whether the
meter there are 100 cm and, consequently, 39.4 inches. light is diverging or converging. The latter method has
The conversion factor of 39.4 in/m can be used to get the advantages that one does not have to worry about
the relationship, the correct plusminus sign for q. More importantly, it
(39.4 in/m) helps one to think in terms of whether the light is
q in inches. (2.7) converging or diverging. All the examples in this
section are worked using the absolute value of the
As an example, consider the vergence of a diverg radius of curvature.
ing wavefront located 13 inches from a point source.
EXAMPLE 2.1
39 4 Consider diverging light traveling to the right as
V= =  3 03 D shown in Figure 2.12. The vergence of the light at
point A is 10.00 D. What is the vergence of the
The conversion factor of 39.4 is not as easy to work light at point B, which is 15 cm downstream from
with as the metric system units particularly when a A?
calculator is not available. For cases in which precision A good problem solver tries to anticipate or
predict what characteristics the answer will have.
is not needed, the conversion factor of 39.4 in/m is From the sketch, the wavefronts at B will still be
approximated by 40 in/m. With this approximation, diverging and will be flatter than the wavefronts at
A. Therefore, the expected vergence at B will be
(40 in/m) minus and will be a number smaller in magnitude
V q in inches. (2.8)
than 10.00D (i.e., we expect a number like  8 D
or  4 D as opposed to a number like  1 2 D or
Now reconsider the example immediately above. 16 D). Now that we have our expectations, let's
There, a diverging wavefront was 13 inches away from do the calculation.
10.0
\ \
point source <
v
"~Y~ ltm
FIGURE 2.12. Downstream vergence example.
20 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
The magnitude of the radius of curvature of the is shorter than the radius of the wavefront at C, or
wavefront at A is k D l = kcl3cm,
100cm/m and
kAl = VA  qO = 50 cm  30 cm = 20 cm.
Then
100cm/m 100 cm/ml
I*AI = 10.00 cm. v D  = = 5.00D.
(IO.OOD)I (20 cm)
From Figure 2.12, the radius of curvature of the Since the light is diverging, the vergence is negative
wavefront at B is greater in magnitude than that at and
A, or VD =  5 . 0 0 D ,
kBl = kAl + 15cm, which agrees with our anticipated results.
and
EXAMPLE 2.3
I qB  = 10 cm + 15 cm = 25 cm. The vergence of light at point C is +18.12 D. What
is the vergence of the light at point B, which is
The magnitude of the vergence VB of the wavefront
36.75 cm upstream? Try doing a quick sketch to
at B is then
convince yourself that VB should be positive and
100 cm/m less than +18.12 D. Then verify that the vergence
v B  = = 4.00D, at position B is +2.37 D.
(25 cm)
Since the light is diverging, VB is minus, or EXAMPLE 2.4
VB = 4.00 D. Consider converging light traveling to the right
(Figure 2.14). The vergence of the light at point A
The answer qualitatively agrees with our antici is +8.00 D. What is the vergence at point B, which
pated results that the wavefront would be flatter. is 5 cm downstream from A? The magnitude of the
radius of curvature of the wavefront at A is
EXAMPLE 2.2 100 cm/ m
In Figure 2.13, the vergence of light at position C is kAl = 12.5 cm.
(8.00 D)
2.00 D. What is the vergence at position D, which
is 30 cm upstream from position C? The wavefronts are still converging at point B, so
Since diverging wavefronts lose curvature as the wavefront there is steeper than at point A
they propagate, the wavefront at D is more highly (Figure 2.14). Therefore, we expect the vergence
curved than the wavefront at C. (The conventional at B to be a number like + 1 0 D , + 1 5 D , or +20 D,
terminology is that the wavefront at D is steeper as opposed to + 6 D , + 4 D , or + 2 D .
than the wavefront at C.) Therefore, we expect From the sketch, the magnitude of the radius of
that the vergence at D will be more minus than the curvature at B is
vergence at C (i.e., we expect numbers like  5 D \qB\ = 12.5 cm  5 cm = 7.5 cm.
or  1 0 D as opposed to  I D or  0 . 5 D).
Then
The magnitude of the radius of curvature of the
wavefront at position C is 100 cm/ml
vJ = = 13.33 D.
(7.5 cm)
100 cm/m Since the light is converging at point B, the ver
= 50 cm.
kcl (2.00) gence is positive and
From Figure 2.13, the radius of the wavefront at D VB = + 1 3 . 3 3 D.
2.D
\
V
point source
# image point
l
Y '
1
/ ] /
1*1 I
Y
)
>r~ IQBT
L 30 cm ) ^ 5 cm
Y T
FIGURE 2.13. Upstream vergence example. FIGURE 2.14. Downstream vergence example.
The Geometric Behavior of Light 21
spherical wavefronts,
Q=, (2.10)
v=^. (2.11)
projector
image
?> image
lens. The individual bundles leaving the lens are con the tree at position A. Two bundles of rays are shown,
verging, which is why the image is formed. In this and each bundle forms its respective point image at
case the beam leaving the lens is shrinking in size or position A.
converging as it moves away from the lens. The When the object points all subtend a small enough
individual converging bundles form the image, but the angle directly in front of the lens, then the cross
converging beam is responsible for the image size sectional shape of each bundle is well approximated by
being smaller than the lens size. a circle. If the screen is moved to position B, which is
The above examples show that a diverging beam closer to the lens, each bundle forms a blur circle
can be made with either diverging or converging bun instead of a point image. The result is a blurred image
dles, and that a converging beam can be made with on the screen. The blurred image can be simulated by
converging bundles. There is a fourth logical possibi drawing a small circle at each place that a point would
litythat of a converging beam made with diverging occur in the clear image. The result is still a recogniz
bundles. Is such a case physically possible? The an able tree, but fine detail (such as a bird's nest) may be
swer is yes. This situation is treated later in connection lost. If the screen is moved to position C, which is still
with the discussion of the exit pupil of an optical closer to the lens, the blur circles get even larger and
system. (In the meantime, you might contemplate how more information is lost. As the process continues, the
such a system would be set up.) blur circles eventually get large enough so that no
Since both beams and bundles can have converging information about the tree is present on the screen.
and diverging properties, what do we mean by con Each of these steps is simulated by drawing the blur
verging light? The standard usage is that the term circles larger and larger as in Figure 2.19. A similar
converging light means the individual bundles are sequence would occur if the screen were moved from
converging. The beam may or may not be converging. the clear image position back away from the lens.
The light coming out of the movie projector is then
referred to as converging light because the bundles are
converging. The term diverging light means that the
individual bundles are diverging. 2.10 Pinholes or Image Formation by
Blur Minimization
If the screen is left at a blurred image position, the
2.9 Extended Images and Blur amount of blur can be reduced by placing an aperture
next to the lens and making the aperture smaller. This
Figure 2.19 represents light from a tree being con reduces the crosssectional size of each bundle, and,
verged by a lens and forming a clear inverted image of consequently, each blur circle is smaller. The degree
image
object
of blur in the image is then reduced. This blur minimi blur circles, and the illumination pattern on the screen
zation is sometimes called the pinhole effect. resembles an inverted blurred image of the arrow
Figure 2.20a represents light coming from two object.
points on an arrow object. Assume that the arrowhead Figure 2.20c shows the aperture narrowed down
is red and the bottom of the arrow is green. The light further. The effective blur circles decrease further in
is incident on a screen, but because of the divergence size, and a less blurred inverted image appears on the
of the incident bundles, no image is formed and no screen.
information about the arrow is present on the screen. If diffraction did not exist, one could make the
Figure 2.20b shows a circular aperture placed be aperture so small that only one ray from each object
tween the object and the screen. The aperture limits point would pass through. The illumination distribu
the size of each bundle, and the illumination pattern tion on the screen would then have onetoone corres
on the screen now has a definite red illuminated region pondence with the object. In other words, a clear
on the bottom and a definite green illuminated region image would be formed. This is called the pinhole
on the top. These illumination patches act just like effect because a small aperture, such as a pinhole, is
red
uniform
illumination
green
a)
red
green
green
b)
red green
green
problem is optical. If one's vision is blurred and a blur circles occur on the retina instead of point images
pinhole does not clear it, then the problem is (Figure 2.22b). In this case, the near object appears
pathological. Thus, the pinhole is an important tool blurred to the unaccommodated emmtrope. When
for optometrists and ophthalmologists. the ciliary muscle contracts, converging power is
added to the crystalline lens and the point image is
pulled forward onto the retina. Thus, the accommo
dated emmetropic eye can clearly see the near object
2.11 Refracting States of the Eye (Figure 2.22c).
The emmtrope can clearly view a range of objects
In the emmetropic eye, the cornea and unaccommo from far to near by changing the amount of accommo
dated crystalline lens converge the light from a distant dation. The nearer the object, the more accommoda
object and form a clear image on the retina (Figure tion is required. When the ciliary muscle contracts
2.22a). Remember that the ciliary muscle around the maximally, maximum accommodation occurs. As an
crystalline lens is relaxed when the eye is unaccommo object is brought closer and closer to the eye, the
dated. The unaccommodated emmtrope can then see maximum amount of accommodation is eventually
distant objects clearly. reached. If the object continues to be brought closer
When the object is moved closer to the eye, the to the eye, it begins to blur. Just as a person cannot
divergence of the incident light increases. (For exam sprint at full speed for very long, so too a person
ple, a point source 25 cm away from the eye produces cannot accommodate maximally for very long. If the
a wavefront that when incident on the eye has a object is held at a point requiring a considerable
vergence of 4.00 D; whereas, a distant point source amount of accommodation, fatigue eventually occurs,
produces a wavefront that when incident on the eye accommodation decreases, and the near object ap
has a vergence of zero.) The unaccommodated em pears blurred.
metropic eye will converge the light from the near The maximum amount of accommodation available
object, but the converging light runs into the retina declines as a natural part of aging. This is apparently
before the point images are formed. Consequently, due to the fact that the crystalline lens grows in layers
like an onion. The interior or core of the lens hardens
with age and slowly ceases to change its shape when
the ciliary muscle contracts. The symptom of the loss
of accommodative ability is that the aging emmtrope
has to hold things further away to see them clearly.
When an older emmtrope can no longer see near
a) objects clearly, the condition is called presbyopia or
"old age" vision.
The myopic eye is an eye that is too long for the
converging power of the eye (Figure 2.23a). The
unaccommodated myopic eye forms the image of a
distant object in front of the retina somewhere in the
vitreous humor. The light then diverges from this
point and blur circles are formed on the retina. If the
myopic eye accommodates, the point image is formed
even further in front of the retina and the retinal blur
b) gets worse.
When the distant object is moved closer to the
unaccommodated myopic eye, the divergence of the
incident light wave is increased and the image moves
back towards the retina. At some near point the
object will be close enough so that the image point is
formed on the retina. At this point the unaccommo
dated myopic eye can clearly see the near object
(position A in Figure 2.23b). If the myope now ac
commodates, objects closer than A can be seen clearly
(position B in Figure 2.23c). The condition of myopia
FIGURE 2.22. Emmtrope, a. Unaccommodated and viewing a is commonly called nearsightedness since an uncorrec
distant object, b. Unaccommodated and viewing a near object, c. ted myope cannot clearly see distant objects but is
Accommodated for the near object. able to clearly see near objects.
The Geometric Behavior of Light 27
Problems
cate whether the wavefronts are gaining or losing 9. Given a 8.00 D diverging wavefront in air, how
curvature as they move towards the image point. far (in cm) is the wave from its point source? For
3. The light at position A has a vergence of +4.50 D. a 6.00 D wavefront?
What is the vergence at position B, which is 14 cm 10. Given a +7.00 D converging wavefront, how far
downstream from position A? At a point C, which (in cm) is the image point? For a +3.00 D wave
is 43 cm downstream from position A? front?
4. The light at position A has a vergence of 11. An object is 6 m from a pinhole. A screen is
15.50 D. What is the vergence at position B, placed 15 cm behind the pinhole. When the object
which is 21 cm downstream from position A? is 2 m tall, what is the size of the image?
5. The light at position A has a vergence of 12. If the screen in no. 11 is moved closer to the
+ 13.50 D. What is the vergence at position B, pinhole, what happens to the image? If the screen
which is 3 cm upstream from position A? is moved further from the pinhole, what happens
6. The light at position A has a vergence of 6.30 D. to the image?
What is the vergence at position B, which is 9 cm 13. If the screen is fixed 15 cm from a pinhole, what
upstream from position A? At position C, which is happens to the image as the object is moved closer
37 cm upstream from A? to the pinhole?
7. A point source is under water (n = 1.33). What is 14. A piece of film 3 in x 5 in is placed 6 in from a
the vergence in the water at a distance of 11cm pinhole. What would be the linear field of view of
from the source? At 21 cm from the source? this pinhole in object space at a distance of 40 feet
8. A point source is in air. What is the vergence of from the pinhole?
the light 6 in from the point source? At 17 in?
CHAPTER THREE
Optical Objects
and Images
3.1 Optically Real vs Physically say that an optical system has an optically real object
Real Objects whenever the light incident on the system is diverging.
The optically real object may or may not be physically
Figure 3.1 shows light waves from a specific source, a real.
tree, incident on a specific optical system, a camera. The location of an optically real object point can be
The tree is a physically real entity. However, the specified in terms of the diverging spherical wavefront
optical stimulus for the camera is provided exclusively that is incident on the optical system (Figure 3.3). The
by the incident divergent light waves. These waves location assigned to the optically real object point for
leave the tree, travel across the space between the tree the system is at the center of curvature of the incident
and the camera, and are then incident on the camera. spherical wavefront. If a physically real object point
Suppose that light waves identical to those coming produced the incident diverging light wave, then the
from the tree can be artificially generated without the center of curvature of the wavefront is located at the
tree present. In that case, the optical stimulus for the physically real object point. However, if the diverging
camera would be unchanged and the camera would light wave was produced by a hologram, lens, or
photograph a "tree" even though no tree is physically mirror, then there is not a physically real object point
present. at the location assigned to the optically real object
A hologram can be used to artificially generate point.
such light waves. Holograms are usually made optical The rays associated with the incident diverging
ly, but some can also be computer generated. The wavefront will, when extended back, intersect at the
hologram is a recording of a light wave interference center of curvature of the wavefront. Since the center
pattern. When properly illuminated, the interference of curvature is the assigned object point, the incident
pattern artificially generates the light waves identical rays appear to be diverging away from the assigned
to those coming from the tree (Figure 3.2). Not only object position regardless of whether a physically real
does the camera photograph the tree, but a human object is there or not. Figure 3.2b shows the location
observer looking at the waves coming from the holog for a point on the tree produced by the hologram.
ram sees the tree complete with threedimensional
depth and parallax effects.
In the aforementioned cases, the optical system
responds identically regardless of whether the incident 3.2 Optically Real vs Physically
diverging light waves are coming from the physically Real Images
real source, or were artificially generated by the holog
ram. Since optical systems respond to the incident Figure 3.4a shows an optical system with diverging
light, it is useful to separate the concept of an optically light incident on it and converging light leaving it. The
real object from that of a physically real object. We relative distribution of visible electromagnetic radia
29
30 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
eMSSWWu
p observer In analyzing the action of the system, it then
becomes useful to say that the system has an optically
camera real image whenever converging light leaves the sys
FIGURE 3.1. An observer photographing a tree.
tem. The system has a physically real image only if the
bundles in the converging light are actually allowed to
form point images. In the brick wall case, we would
tion in the object plane is recreated in the image say that the system has an optically real image, but not
plane. The actual electromagnetic radiation at the a physically real image.
image plane constitutes the physically real image. The position assigned to an optically real image
In Figure 3.4b, a brick wall has been placed be point is at the center of curvature of the converging
tween the back of the system and the position of the spherical wavefront that is leaving the back of the
physically real image. The wall stops the electromag system (Figure 3.5a). When the brick wall is not
netic radiation from reaching the plane of the phy present, the bundle actually converges to form the
sically real image. However, the wavefronts leaving physically real image point at the center of curvature
the back of the optical system are still converging and of the exiting wavefront (Figures 3.5b and 3.5c).
still have the same curvature that they had prior to the When the brick wall is present, the light is converging
placement of the brick wall. Furthermore, the angles toward the center of curvature of the exiting wave
between the different converging bundles leaving the front but is stopped before reaching it (Figure 3.5d).
back of the system are still the same. In effect, the In other words, the optically real image point is the
placement of the brick wall had no effect on the point toward which the light is converging.
converging light waves that are immediately behind The center of curvature of the wavefront that is
the system. leaving the system can be located by drawing in the
> observer
From
primary
light
source hologram camera
a)
apparent
"tree"
hologram
FIGURE 3.2. a. The hologram generates light waves
identical to those coming from the tree. b. The apparent
b) tree as seen by the camera and the observer.
incident spherical
incident spherical wavefront
wavefront
0
center of
curvature,
L^
corresponding rays. These rays are of course converg path of converging bundles and thus prevent the for
ing and will pass through the center of curvature in mation of the physically real image. The concept of
those cases where the physically real image is formed. the optically real image is then useful in analyzing the
In the brick wall case, the rays are pointing toward the components that formed the converging bundles.
center of curvature when they are stopped by the wall,
but the rays can still be extended straight ahead to
locate the center of curvature. The ray extensions are
the dashed lines in Figure 3.5d. 3.3 Real Images as Objects for
Brick walls are not usually introduced as discussed the Eye
above. However, in a multiplecomponent optical sys
tem, lenses or mirrors are frequently placed in the In our everyday lives, we are familiar with the real
images formed by movie and slide projectors. The
light leaving the projector system is converging and a
screen is placed at the position of the clear image. The
light then diffusely reflects from the screen, and the
now diverging bundles travel to the various observers'
eyes (Figure 3.6a). The (physically) real image on the
a) screen serves as the real object for the observers' eyes.
On the other hand, a real image can also be
directly viewed without the use of a screen. When no
screen is present, each bundle of the converging light
leaving the lens system forms a point image and then
diverges away from that point. To view the real image
b) directly, the observer needs to move his eye into the
path of the diverging light (Figure 3.6b). The real
image for the lens directly serves as the real object for
the observer's eye.
The real image for a single lens is inverted relative
to the original object and, depending on the object
distance, may be larger or smaller than the original
object. In Figure 3.6c, the original object is a tree and
the observer is looking at the small inverted real image
of the tree. Since the real image is inverted, it is
particularly easy for the observer to realize that he is
looking at the real image and not at the original
d) object.
The real image is, in effect, floating out in air with
FIGURE 3.5. A converging wavefront leaving the system, a.
Exiting wavefront and its center of curvature C. b. Wavefronts
no solid objects around it and, as such, is called an
converging to C. c. Wavefronts and rays. d. Brick wall does not aerial image. Consequently, the observer may have
change location of C but blocks light from reaching C. depth perception difficulties. The image may be per
32 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
eye 5
eye'
aerial image
~^> eye
b)
distant tree
lens
inverted image of tree
ceived as being on the other side of the lens when in In our everyday lives, we are familiar with the
fact the image is between the lens and the observer. images formed by mirrors. However, your image
This misperception is due to the absence of the normal formed by a flat bathroom mirror is not a real image.
perceptual cues when viewing the aerial image. The light leaving the bathroom mirror is diverging, not
Remember that the reason the observer sees the converging. Nevertheless, the mirror's image is clearly
object, whether it is the real tree or the inverted real visible and has some of its own characteristics. For
image of the tree, is that the refracting elements of the example, when you wave your left hand at your image
observer's eye form a real image on the retina. In in the mirror, it waves its right hand back at you.
Figure 3.6c, the inverted real image that the lens Spherical diverging mirrors are now commonly
forms is serving as the real object for the eye and is used for security purposes as well as for giving an
thus the distal stimulus for the observer's visual per increased field of view in automobile and truck mir
ception. The proximal stimulus for the observer's vis rors. Your image formed by a spherical diverging
ual perception is the retinal image formed by the mirror is smaller than you, but it still waves its right
refracting elements of the eye. hand when you wave your left hand. Again, the image
is not a real image because the light leaving the mirror
is diverging and not converging. While the images of
these mirrors are not real, they are certainly visible
3.4 Virtual Images and have the attributes of an image.
Images analogous to those of mirrors can also be
Virtual, adjective Being in essence or in effect formed by lenses (or even by holograms). In general,
though not formally recognized or admitted, for exam whenever diverging light is leaving an optical system,
ple, He was a virtual saint. we say that the system has a virtual image. Virtual
Optical Objects and Images 33
, observer
center of curvature
of diverging
wavefront leaving
the mirror
point source 2 * FIGURE 3.7. Observer viewing a mirror's image.
images cannot be formed on a screen because converg assigned to the virtual image point is the point from
ing light is needed to form images on screens. How which the light appears to be diverging.
ever, virtual images can serve as optically real objects For a flat mirror, the position assigned to the
for our eyes or for other optical systems such as virtual image (i.e., at the center of curvature of the
cameras. In fact it makes no optical difference to an diverging wavefront that leaves the mirror) is where
eye or camera whether it is looking at a real or virtual the image perceptually appears to be. When you stand
image. In each case, the light incident on the eye or 1 m in front of your bathroom mirror, your image
camera is diverging. appears to be 1 m behind it. Note that no light is
The position assigned to a virtual image point is at physically present behind the mirror. You can build a
the center of curvature of the diverging spherical brick wall against the back of your bathroom mirror
wavefront that is leaving the back of the system and it won't affect your image in the mirror.
(Figure 3.7). The rays associated with the exiting Figure 3.8a shows a tree in front of a diverging
diverging wavefront will, when extended back, inter lens. For each point on the tree, the lens creates a
sect at the center of curvature point that is the as virtual image point, and its position is assigned to be
signed image position. The ray extensions are the at the center of curvature of the wavefront leaving the
dashed lines in Figure 3.7. In other words, the position back of the lens. An observer looking through the lens
T^> observer
a)
t> observer
b)
distant tree
lens
virtual image
incident on the cornea. Since this wavefront is con at the place from which the exiting light appears to be
verging, the assigned position is behind the eye. How diverging.
ever, while the optics of the hyperope's eye are anal
yzed with the virtual object position, remember that
the proximal stimulus for the hyperope's visual per
ception is the physically real retinal image of the 3.7 The Image for System 1 Is the
hyperope's eye. Just as with an emmtrope or a Object for System 2
myope, the hyperope perceives the object to be in
front of the eye. Figure 3.11 shows four different twolens systems. In
each case, a physically real object point is located at
position A in front of the first lens ( L J , and a
physically real image point is located at position C
3.6 Object and Image Summary behind the second lens (L 2 ). In each example, the
image for the first lens and the object for the second
The aforementioned definitions for optical objects lens are located at point B. Depending on the exam
were in terms of the wavefront that is actually incident ple, the image for the first lens is either real or virtual,
on the system. When you encounter the word object, and the object for the second lens is either real or
you should immediately think in terms of what the virtual.
incident wavefront is doing. The aforementioned defi In Figure 3.11a, the light leaving the first lens is
nitions for optical images were in terms of the wave converging and a real image is actually formed at
front that is actually leaving the system. When you position B. The light waves that converge to form the
encounter the word image, you should immediately image point at position B then diverge away from
think in terms of what the exiting wavefront is doing. there and are incident on the second lens. Clearly, the
The discussion given in the previous sections of this real image for the first lens serves as the real object for
chapter is summarized below for quick reference. the second lens. Note that the wavefront leaving the
Whenever diverging light is incident on an optical first lens is converging and has its center of curvature
system, the system is said to have an optically real at B, while the wavefront incident on the second lens
object. Note, the object may not be physically real. is diverging and also has its center of curvature at B.
The position assigned to an optically real object point In Figure 3.11b, the first lens is a diverging lens.
is at the center of curvature of the incident diverging The light incident on it is diverging, and the light
wavefront. Consequently, the position assigned to the leaving it is diverging even more. The center of curva
optically real object is at the place from which the ture of the wavefront leaving the first lens is at B. We
incident light appears to be diverging. say that the first lens has a virtual image, and the
Whenever converging light is incident on an optical location assigned to the image is at B. The diverging
system, the system is said to have a virtual object. This wavefronts that leave the first lens propagate across
can happen only when some previous system has the space between the two lenses and are incident on
converged the light. The position assigned to a virtual the second lens. The second lens has an optically real
object point is at the center of curvature of the object. The center of curvature of the diverging wave
incident converging wavefront. Consequently, the po front incident on the second lens is also at B, as are
sition assigned to the virtual object is at the place the centers of curvature of all the diverging wavefronts
toward which the incident light is converging. between the first and second lenses. The position
Whenever converging light leaves an optical sys assigned to the object for the second lens is at B. In
tem, the system is said to have an optically real image. effect, the virtual image for the first lens serves as the
(A physically real image exists only when the bundles real object for the second lens.
are actually allowed to form their point images.) The In Figure 3.11c, the first lens is a converging lens.
position assigned to an optically real image point is at However, the light incident on the first lens has a high
the center of curvature of the exiting converging wave enough divergence so that the light emerging from it is
front. Consequently, the position assigned to the opti still divergent. The first lens did have a converging
cally real image is at the place toward which the effect since the divergence of the exiting light is less
exiting light is converging. than the divergence of the incident light. All of the
Whenever diverging light leaves an optical system, wavefronts traveling from the first lens to the second
the system is said to have a virtual image. The position lens are diverging and have their centers of curvature
assigned to a virtual image point is at the center of located at B. Since the wavefront emerging from the
curvature of the exiting diverging wavefront. Con first lens is divergent and has its center of curvature
sequently, the position assigned to the virtual image is located at B, we say that the first lens has a virtual
36 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
^^B
image located at B. Since the wavefront incident on incident on the second lens. The center of curvature of
the second lens is diverging and also has its center of the wavefront incident on the second lens is also at B.
curvature located at B, we say that the second lens has In effect, the optically real image of the first lens
an optically real object located at B. In effect, the serves as the virtual object for the second lens.
virtual image for the first lens serves as the real object In each of these four cases, the light leaving the
for the second lens. first lens propagates across the space between the two
In Figure 3.lid, the light leaving the first lens is lenses and is incident on the second lens. The light
converging. The converging light is then incident on that leaves the first lens carries information about the
the second lens. All of the converging wavefronts image of the first lens. The light incident on the
traveling from the first lens to the second lens have a second lens carries information about the object for
common center of curvature located at B. Since the the second lens, but the information carried by the
wavefront emerging from the first lens is converging, light leaving the first lens is the same information that
we say that the first lens has an optically real image, the light is carrying when it is incident on the second
and we assign the image position to be at B, which is lens. Since the information transferred is the same, we
the center of curvature of the wavefront leaving the say that the image of the first lens is the object for the
first lens. Note that in this case, no physically real second lens.
image point exists at B. The wavefront incident on the The preceding statement can be extended to other
second lens is converging. We say that the second lens optical systems including mirrors. Consider your bath
has a virtual object, and we assign the object position room mirror. Use your face as the object for the
to be at the center of curvature of the wavefront mirror. The mirror forms a virtual image of your face.
Optical Objects and Images 37
The mirror's virtual image serves as the object for even try making up your own two or threelens
your eye. The object for system two (your eye) is the example and analyzing it.)
image for system one (the mirror).
a)
b)
B *2A red
imaging with a tinted lens. In each example, the light In Figure 3.12c and d, a previous lens, which is not
is traveling left to right. shown, has been used to generate white converging
In Figure 3.12a, a white point source is placed in light incident on the red tinted diverging lens. In
front of a red tinted converging lens. The incident Figure 3.12c, the object for the diverging lens is virtual
rays, drawn in black, represent the incident white and is located at the center of curvature of the incident
light. The exiting rays, drawn in red, represent the wavefront. The center of curvature is found by extend
transmitted red light. Point A is in object space and ing the incident black rays forward until they intersect
point B is in image space. at point A. Point A is shown in black since it is
In Figure 3.12b, the white point source is placed in associated with the incident white light and not with
front of a red tinted diverging lens. The incident rays the exiting red light. The light leaving the lens is still
are black representing the incident diverging light. converging, but not as convergent as the incident light.
The outgoing rays are red and represent the exiting A real image is formed at point B. In this case, point
light, which is more divergent than the incident light. A is in the object space set (or simply, in object
The image is virtual and the associated position is at space), and point B is in the image space set (or
the center of curvature of the exiting wavefront. This simply, in image space), even though they are both to
center of curvature is located by extending the outgo the right of the lens.
ing red rays backward until they intersect at point B. In Figure 3.12d, the incident white light is converg
Clearly, point A is in object space. Point B is as ing, but the degree of convergence is not as high as in
sociated with the red light leaving the lens. Therefore, part c. Consequently, the diverging lens has enough
it is in image space even though it is to the left of the power to make the outgoing red light divergent. Both
lens. the image and the object points are virtual. The object
Optical Objects and Images 39
point is at A, represented in black, and the image lens 1 have a real or virtual image? Is lens 1 a
point is at B, represented in red. Point A is in object converging or a diverging lens?
space even though it is to the right of the lens, and 4. Consider lens 3 in Figure 3.13. Which point (A,
point B is in image space even though it is to the left B, C, or D) is the object position for lens 3? Does
of the lens. lens 3 have a real or a virtual object? Is lens 3
In conclusion, when you see the term object space, converging or diverging? What point serves as the
you should think in terms of the convergence or center of curvature for the wavefront incident on
divergence of the light incident on the system even if lens 3?
the object is virtual and located behind the system.
When you see the term image space, you should think 5. Consider Figure 3.14. Point B is in the object
in terms of the convergence or divergence of the light space for which lens ( 1 , 2 , 3, 4, or 5)? What lens
leaving the system even if the image is virtual and is point B in the image space for?
located in front of the system. Once learned, the 6. Consider Figure 3.14. Point D is in the object
object space/image space concepts serve as a useful space for which lens (1, 2, 3, 4, or 5)? What lens
tool in dealing with multiplecomponent systems. is point D in the image space for?
7. Consider Figure 3.14. What lens (1, 2, 3, 4, or 5)
is point E in the object space for? What lens is
point E in the image space for?
Problems 8. Consider Figure 3.14. List the converging lenses.
List the diverging lenses.
1. A flat bathroom mirror reflects light without 9. Consider Figure 3.14. For lens 2, what point is
changing the vergence. Suppose you stand in front conjugate to point C? Now consider lens 2 and 3
of the bathroom mirror and look at your image in as one system. For lens 2 and 3 as one system,
the mirror. Is the image formed by the mirror real what point is conjugate to C?
or virtual? The mirror's image serves as the object 10. Consider Figure 3.14. There is light blue water
for your eye. Does your eye have a physically real between lens 1 and 2. There is light green jello
object, an optically real object, or a virtual between lens 2 and 3. There is light red water
object? When you hold your right hand up, does between lens 3 and 4. Draw the wavefronts that
your image in the mirror hold its right or its left have point E as their center of curvature. We want
hand up? to represent point E by the color of the medium
2. Consider lens 2 in Figure 3.13. Which point (A, that these wavefronts are in. What color should
B, C, or D) is the object position for lens 2? Does we use for E?
lens 2 have a real or virtual object? Which point 11. A myope wears a diverging spectacle correction.
serves as the image for lens 2? Is the image for When the myope looks through the spectacle lens
lens 2 real or virtual? Is lens 2 a converging or a at a distant tree, is the optical object for his eye
diverging lens? What point is the center of curva the tree, or the image of the tree formed by the
ture of the wavefront incident on lens 2? spectacle lens? Is the image of the spectacle lens
3. Consider lens 1 in Figure 3.13. Which point (A, real or virtual? Is the object for the myope's
B, C, or D) is the image position for lens 1? Does cornea real or virtual?
1 2> 2I
<^^ B<C *Z
12. A hyperope wears converging spectacle lenses. cornea? The spectacle corrected hyperope has a
When the hyperope looks through the spectacle real image on the retina. For the spectacle lens
lens at a distant tree, converging light leaves the eye system, what is the retinal image conjugate
spectacle lens and is incident on the hyperope's to?
cornea. Does the hyperope's cornea have a real or 13. Which is the better statement: "Seeing is believ
virtual object? Where is the center of curvature of ing" or "Sight is an illusion"? Why?
the wavefront that is incident on the hyperope's
CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 How Spherical Lenses Work spherical glass surface in which the air bulges into the
center of the glass surface. The edges of the plane
waves enter the glass surface first and are consequent
The long glass rod shown in Figure 4.1a has a spheri ly slowed down before the center section of the plane
cal surface on the front. Plane waves from a distant wave. Thus, when the entire wavefront has entered
point source are incident from the left. In Figure 4.1b, the glass, the edges are lagging behind the center.
the first wavefront is entering the glass. The speed of Within the accuracy of the paraxial approximation, the
the wavefront in the glass is slower than its speed in wavefronts in the glass are spherical diverging wave
the air. Consequently, the center of the wavefront, fronts.
which enters the glass first, slows down first and starts Figure 4.4 shows plane waves in the glass incident
lagging behind the edges. The result is that the wave from the opposite direction on the same spherical
fronts in the glass become converging wavefronts. surface shown in Figure 4.3. Here, the middle of the
Within the accuracy of the paraxial approximation, the wavefront enters the air first and thus speeds up first.
converging wavefronts are spherical and form a point Hence, the middle of the emerging wavefront leads
image at position E in Figure 4.1c. the edges, so that the wavefront that emerges into the
Figure 4.2 shows plane waves in the glass incident air is again diverging.
from the opposite direction on the same spherical glass The glass surface shown in Figures 4.3 and 4.4 has
surface. As the first wavefront approaches the surface, the physical property such that, at its center, the air
the edges of the wavefront enter the air (before the bulges into the glass. Note that this surface diverges
center of the wavefront) and speed up. Consequently, plane waves traveling in either direction, i.e., plane
the edges of the wavefront start leading the center of waves initially in the air are diverged when passing
the wavefront that is still in the glass. Within the into the glass (Figure 4.3), and plane waves initially in
accuracy of the paraxial approximation, the exiting the glass are diverged when passing into the air (Fig
wavefronts in air are converging and spherical and ure 4.4).
form a point image at G. Figure 4.5a shows a converging glass lens made
The spherical glass surface in Figures 4.1 and 4.2 with two spherical surfaces. In the center, each glass
has the physical property of its center bulging out into surface bulges out into the air. Each of the surfaces
the air. This surface converges plane waves no matter contributes to the converging action of the lens. A
which way the waves travel through the surface, i.e., converging lens is thicker in the middle than it is at the
plane waves initially in the air are converged when edges.
passing into the glass (Figure 4.1), and plane waves Figure 4.5b shows a diverging glass lens made with
initially in the glass are converged when passing into two spherical surfaces. In the center, each glass sur
the air (Figure 4.2). face is indented so that the air bulges into the glass.
Figure 4.3 shows plane waves in air incident on a Each glass surface contributes to the diverging action
41
42 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
>
plane waves
glass
a)
glass
b)
a)
glass
b) M
<e
a) a) b)
FIGURE 4.5. a, A converging lens with two converging sur
^ faces. b. A diverging lens with two diverging surfaces.
b)
FIGURE 4.4. a. Plane waves in the glass incident on the
concave interface of the previous figure, b. In the air, the middle
of the wavefronts leads the edges resulting in diverging waves.
4.2 Optical Axis of incidence Q{ is zero. Therefore, from Eq. 4.1, the
angle of refraction must also be zero. Therefore, a
Figure 4.7 shows a diverging lens. Each surface of the ray incident normal to a surface passes straight
lens is spherical. The center of curvature of the left through the surface without bending.
spherical surface is marked C1? and the center of Consider an incident ray lying on the optical axis of
curvature of the right spherical surface is marked C 2 . a spherical lens. The optical axis is normal to both of
The dashed lines shown in Figure 4.7a complete the the surfaces, so the angles of incidence and refraction
spheres for which C1 and C2 are the respective centers of the ray are equal to zero for both surfaces. Thus, a
of curvature. ray coming in along the optical axis does not bend
Figure 4.7b shows a straight line drawn through the while passing through the lens. The ray leaves the lens
centers of curvature of both spherical surfaces (i.e., still traveling along the optical axis.
through Cj and C 2 ). This line is a symmetry axis for In order for two points to be conjugate points, any
the lens. A clockwise or counterclockwise rotation of ray associated with the object point must, after passing
the lens around this axis produces no change in the through the lens, also be associated with the image
lens image. This line, through the centers of curvature point. Since a ray incident along the optical axis does
of the two spherical surfaces, is called the optical axis not bend, any object point (real or virtual) lying on
of the lens. Figure 4.8 shows the respective centers of the optical axis has a conjugate image point that also
curvature, C1 and C 2 , for the left and right spherical lies on the optical axis.
surfaces of several other lenses together with the
optical axis.
Whenever a line passes through the center of cur
vature of a sphere, it is normal to the sphere's surface. 4.3 Thin Lenses
Since the optical axis passes through the center of
curvature of each spherical surface of a lens, it is The central thickness of the lenses discussed in the
normal to each surface. For the diverging lenses previous sections is the thickness of the lenses along
shown in Figures 4.7 and 4.8, the optical axis passes the optical axis. When the central thickness of a lens is
through the thinnest portion of the lens, while for the small enough, the converging and diverging properties
converging lenses, the optical axis passes through the of the lens in air are independent of the shape or form
thickest portion of the lens. of the lens as well as the direction in which the light is
The small angle approximation to Snell's law re traveling through the lens. In this case, the lens is
lated the incident angle of a light ray to the angle of called a thin lens. All converging thin lenses are
refraction of the light ray by the equation, represented by the symbol shown in Figure 4.9. Figure
4.10 shows the symbol for all diverging thin lenses.
n,6i = n 2 9 r . (4.1)
The optical axis of a thin lens is drawn normal to
The incident angle Q{ and the angle of refraction the lens as shown in Figure 4.11. The point on the lens
were defined relative to the normal for a surface. through which the optical axis passes is called the
When an incident ray is normal to a surface, the angle optical center of the lens.
/ N "^
optical
FIGURE 4.7. C, and C 2 are the respective
axis centers of curvature for the spherical surfaces of
the lens. The optical axis is the line that passes
through C, and C 2 .
a) b)
5 <"
>
A
FIGURE 4.9. Thin converging lenses and the shapeindependent
representation.
V
<=
V
4^
v v\
optical optical
optical optical
center center FIGURE 4.11. The optical center and optical axis for thin
V lenses.
4.4 Secondary Focal Point (F2) lens. The basic definition of the secondary focal point
is still the same, i.e., the secondary focal point is the
The secondary focal point (F 2 ) for a thin lens is axial image point conjugate to an axial object point at
defined as the onaxis image point that results when a optical infinity. Again, the waves incident on the lens
bundle of plane waves is incident normally on the lens. from the distant axial object point are effectively flat
An alternative definition is that the secondary focal or plane waves. The lens diverges the waves and the
point F 2 for a thin lens is the onaxis image point axial image point, F 2 , is virtual and located at the
conjugate to an onaxis object point at optical infinity. center of curvature of the exiting diverging wavefront.
The two definitions are equivalent since the onaxis This position is found in Figure 4.13b and c by extend
object point at optical infinity results in incident plane ing the outgoing rays back until they intersect. (The
waves. Since an axial object point is always conjugate extensions are dashed.)
to an axial image point, F 2 is always located on the For incident light traveling to the right, F 2 lies to
optical axis. the right of a converging lens (Figure 4.12) and to the
Figure 4.12 shows the situation for a thin converg left of a diverging lens (Figure 4.13). However, for the
ing lens. The wavefronts from the distant axial point diverging lens case, keep in mind that F 2 is a point in
source are effectively flat, or plane waves, when they image space. F 2 is associated with the light leaving the
reach the lens. The lens converges the light and a real lens (i.e., the light physically to the right of the lens)
image point is formed at F 2 on the axis behind the and not with the plane waves incident on the lens.
lens. The location of F 2 relative to the lens is a measure
Figure 4.13 shows the situation for a thin diverging of the converging or diverging power of the lens. A
^
> ^
HHri
>I [ TH FIGURE 4.12. a. Plane waves incident on a
converging lens resulting in waves that con
**J^ verge to the secondary focal point, b. Wave
b) c) fronts and rays. c. Rays only.
46 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
>
IV\M\
^
^F^
TT Wl 1
II 1 1 1 3fe
> ^CH
FIGURE 4.13. a. Plane waves incident on a
J/r*^L/
diverging lens resulting in diverging waves
b)
leaving, b. Wavefronts and rays showing the
virtual secondary focal point, c. Rays only.
strong lens has F 2 located close to the lens, while a lens. In order to get plane waves to leave the diverging
weak lens has F 2 located far away from the lens. lens, the incident light must be converging. The object
point is located at the center of curvature of the
incident wavefront and is virtual. The virtual object
point can be located by extending the incident rays
forward until they intersect. Again, the rays represent
4.5 Primary Focal Point (F,) ing the light leaving the lens are all parallel to each
other and to the optical axis since one of the rays is
The primary focal point (F x ) is defined as the onaxis traveling along the axis.
object point that results in plane waves leaving the For incident light traveling to the right, Fj lies to
lens. An alternative definition is that the primary focal the left of a converging lens (Figure 4.14) and to the
point Fj is the onaxis object point that is conjugate to right of a diverging lens (Figure 4.15). However, for
an onaxis image point at optical infinity. the diverging lens case, keep in mind that Fx is a point
Figure 4.14 shows the situation for a thin converg in object space. is associated with the light incident
ing lens. The wavefronts incident on the lens are on the lens, i.e., the light physically to the left of the
diverging, while the wavefronts exiting the lens are lens, and not with the plane waves that are exiting the
plane waves. The rays leaving the lens are effectively lens.
parallel to each other and to the optical axis since one The location of Fx relative to the lens is a measure
of the rays is traveling along the axis. Clearly, for a of the converging or diverging power of the lens. A
thin converging lens, Fj is a real object point. strong lens has Fj located close to the lens, while a
Figure 4.15 shows the situation for a thin diverging weak lens has Fx located far away from the lens.
> 1
^
^~r
^ ^ FIGURE 4.14. a. Wavefronts diverging
* < from the primary focal point result in plane
V 'r waves leaving, b. Wavefronts and rays. c.
b) Rays only.
4.6 Equidistance of Focal Points for argument also shows that the primary and secondary
a Thin Lens in Air focal points simply change places when light travels in
the opposite direction through a lens.
When the central thickness of a lens in air is small
enough, then the imaging properties of the lens are
independent of the lens shape and of the direction the
light travels through the lens. This was the thin lens 4.7 Predictable Rays/Converging
assumption. Let us apply this assumption to a converg Lenses/OffAxis Object Points
ing lens.
In Figure 4.16a, incident plane waves are traveling Figure 4.17 shows the rays used in defining the pri
to the right and the secondary focal point, F 2 , is mary and secondary focal points for a thin converging
located 10 cm to the right of the lens. In Figure 4.16b, lens in air. The secondary focal point, F 2 , is an onaxis
plane waves incident on the same lens are traveling to image point conjugate to optical infinity, while the
the left. In this case, since the imaging properties of primary focal point, F l 5 is an onaxis object point
the thin lens in air are independent of the direction in conjugate to optical infinity.
which the light is traveling, F 2 is now located 10 cm to Figure 4.18 shows an extended object located a
the left of the lens. finite distance in front of a thin converging lens. Our
According to the principle of reversibility, rays initial interest is in the offaxis point at the top of the
travel the same path backward through a system; thus, object. The figure shows some of the incident diverg
only the direction indicators on the rays need to be ing rays from the top object point.
changed. Figure 4.16c shows the principle of re We cannot predict how most of the rays in Figure
versibility applied to Figure 4.16b. However, in the 4.18 will leave the lens. However, we can use Figure
reversed situation (Figure 4.16c), the light is diverging 4.17 to predict how two of the rays will leave the lens.
away from the point 10 cm to the left of the lens and In Figure 4.17a, the incident rays are all parallel to the
plane waves are leaving the lens. Consequently, the axis and the exiting rays all point toward F 2 . Con
point labeled F 2 in Figure 4.16b becomes the primary sequently, any incident ray that is parallel to the axis
focal point, Fl9 for the same lens in Figure 4.16c. will point toward F 2 when it leaves the lens. One of
Since the imaging properties of the thin lens in air the incident rays in Figure 4.18 is parallel to the axis;
are independent of the direction in which the light is therefore, it must point toward F 2 when it leaves the
traveling, then by comparing Figures 4.16a and 4.16c, lens. Figure 4.19a shows this ray by itself, and Figure
one can see that the primary and secondary focal 4.19b shows this ray together with the other incident
points are both 10 cm from the lens. This argument rays.
can be repeated for any focal length. Therefore, the In Figure 4.17b, the incident rays all originate at F1
primary and secondary focal points for any thin lens in and the exiting rays are all parallel to the axis. Based
air are always equidistant from the lens. Note, the on Figure 4.17b, we can predict that any incident ray
FIGURE 4.16. a. Plane waves incident
* from the left give a secondary focal point
10 cm right of the lens. b. Plane waves inci
"2 ^ ^ ^ " \ ' dent from the right give a secondary focal
" point 10 cm to the left of the lens. c. The
10cm % f
principle of reversibility shows that the pri
10cm mary focal point is also 10 cm from the lens.
b)
>
i1
>
^ s .
F
^5r~Fz
F
<
,>
^
> ^
s *
FIGURE 4.17. Diagrams used to predict the respective
behavior of rays associated with the focal points of a
a) { 1 b) converging lens.
48 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
\
1
/ K ^
Fi FN
a)
\f FIGURE 4.19. a. Isolation of the predictable ray
incident parallel to the axis. b. Path of predictable ray.
i 1
F > ^ > F2
FIGURE 4.20. a. Isolation of the pre
b) dictable ray through the primary focal
<1 point, b. Path of the predictable ray.
Fi F2
Figure 4.25a shows both of the predictable rays.
The exiting rays indicate that the outgoing light is
diverging. Consequently, the image is virtual and can
t
be located by extending the rays backward until they
FIGURE 4.23. Incident rays for object inside the primary focal intersect (Figure 4.25b). The virtual image is erect
point. relative to the object and larger than the object. (This
is an example of a simple magnifying lens.)
All of the outgoing rays must appear to be coming
dent diverging rays. Again, most of these diverging from the same virtual image point. So, the remaining
rays are not predictable. However, one of the incident rays can now be traced as shown in Figure 4.26a.
rays is parallel to the axis; therefore, we can use Figure 4.26b also shows the incident diverging wave
Figure 4.17a as a guide to see that this ray must exit fronts and the exiting diverging wavefronts. In Figure
the lens pointing toward F 2 . Figure 4.24a isolates this 4.26b, the exiting wavefronts have less divergence
ray. Another of the incident rays in Figure 4.23 hits than the incident wavefronts.
b)
4= FIGURE 4.24. Predictable rays associated
with the focal points.
^ 1 *
F, F
FIGURE 4.25. Virtual image location from the
predictable rays. a. Actual rays. b. Backward ex
a) tensions to locate the image.
50 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
FIGURE 4.27. Ray diagram showing some rays bend down and
other bend up, while the nodal ray passes through the optical
center.
J_ '
F, Fi I F i \
a) b
K ^
F2 F,
c) *
^ <>
toward point F 2 . The ray incident on the lens that and the location assigned to the virtual object is at the
passes through Fj exits parallel to the axis as shown in center of curvature of the wavefront incident on the
Figure 4.28c. The nodal ray is shown in Figure 4.28d. lens. The location of the virtual object is found by
Finally, all the rays are shown in Figure 4.28e. extending the converging rays forward until they inter
Figure 4.29a shows converging light incident on the sect. These extensions are shown as the dashed lines.
lens. The light has been converged by a preceding Out of all the incident converging rays, three are
optical system, which is not shown. Since the incident predictable as discussed previously. Figure 4.29b iso
light is converging, the object for the lens is virtual lates the nodal ray. Since the nodal ray passes straight
>*
^1
I I "ta
r^ J
a) y\ >
through the lens without bending, it is drawn entirely the incident light must be converging. Thus, F t must
as a solid line. be a virtual object point. Figure 4.30b shows the rays
Figure 4.29c shows the incident ray that is parallel associated with Fj for a thin diverging lens. Based on
to the axis. This ray exits the lens pointing toward F 2 . Figure 4.30b, any incident ray pointing toward Fj of a
(Recall Figure 4.17a for the general behavior of rays thin diverging lens leaves the lens parallel to the axis.
incident parallel to the axis.) Remember that Fj and F 2 are equidistant from the
Figure 4.29d shows the incident ray that passes lens.
through Fx and exits parallel to the axis. (Recall Figure 4.31a shows the rays from a near extended
Figure 4.17b for the general behavior of rays incident object located in front of a thin diverging lens. Three
through Fj.) of these rays are predictable. Figure 4.31b isolates the
Figure 4.29e shows all three of the incident predict incident ray parallel to the axis. In accordance with
able rays. The exiting rays, drawn solid and to the Figure 4.30a, this ray appears to be coming from F 2
right of the lens, show that the light leaving the lens is when it leaves the lens. Figure 4.31c isolates the
converging and forms a real image, which is erect and incident ray that is pointing toward F ^ In accordance
smaller relative to the virtual object. with Figure 4.30b, this ray leaves the lens parallel to
Note that in this case, the lens took the incident the axis. Figure 4.3Id shows the nodal ray. Figure
converging light and converged it even more, which is 4.31e shows all three of the predictable rays. The
what one might expect a converging lens to do. Once exiting rays indicate that the light leaving the lens is
the conjugate image point is located, all the other diverging. Figure 4.3If shows that the virtual image
incident rays can then be traced through the system. position is located by extending the exiting rays back
Some of these other rays are shown in Figure 4.29f. ward until they intersect. The virtual image is erect
and smaller relative to the object.
Figure 4.32 shows a case of converging light inci
dent on a diverging thin lens. The incident light was
converged by a preceding optical system, which is not
4.10 Predictable Rays/Diverging shown. The location of the virtual object is at the
Lenses/OffAxis Object Points center of curvature of the incident wavefront. The
location is found by extending the incident converging
The secondary focal point, F 2 , is the axial image point rays forward until they intersect (Figure 4.32a).
that is conjugate to an axial object point at optical Out of all the incident rays in Figure 4.32a, three
infinity. In other words, F 2 is the onaxis image point are predictable. Figure 4.32b isolates the incident ray
that results when plane waves are incident on the lens. parallel to the axis. In accordance with Figure 4.30a,
For a thin diverging lens, F 2 is a virtual image point. this ray appears to be coming from F 2 when it exits the
Figure 4.30a shows the rays associated with F 2 for a lens. Figure 4.32c isolates the incident ray that is
thin diverging lens. Each incident ray parallel to the pointing toward Fl. In accordance with Figure 4.30b,
axis is bent by the lens and appears to be coming from this ray exits the lens parallel to the axis. Figure 4.32d
F 2 when it exits the lens. Figure 4.30a shows that for a shows the nodal ray. Figure 4.32e shows all three of
thin diverging lens any incident ray parallel to the axis the incident predictable rays with their corresponding
must appear to be coming from F 2 when it leaves the exiting rays. The exiting rays are converging to form a
lens. real image that is erect and larger relative to the
The primary focal point, F 1? is the onaxis object virtual object. Note in this case that the light leaving
point that results in plane waves leaving the lens. the lens is not as convergent as the light incident on
Clearly, to get plane waves leaving a diverging lens, the lens.
>* + > +
>+ >> +
f L^'
s' F< virtual such that the virtual object is outside the pri
^
1
^ ' object
v
mary focal point, b. The predictable ray inci
dent parallel to the axis. c. The predictable ray
k pointing toward the primary focal point, d. The
nodal ray. e. The three predictable rays. /. Ray
extensions locating the virtual image.
Thin Lenses and Ray Diagrams 55
diverging lens (Figures 4.34a and 4.34b, respectively). point toward Fx for a diverging lens (Figures 4.35c and
For both converging and diverging lenses, the parallel 4.35d, respectively). In both cases, the rays are easily
rays associated with the incident plane waves are drawn in from the wavefront diagrams.
always associated with F 2 when exiting the lens. The
exiting rays point toward F 2 for a converging lens and
point away from F 2 for a diverging lens (Figures 4.34c 4.12 Scaling of Ray Diagrams
and 4.34d, respectively). In both cases, the rays are
easily drawn in from the wavefront diagrams. The vertical scale on a ray diagram is frequently
When plane waves leave the back of a lens, the different than the horizontal scale. Figure 4.36 shows a
original object point is the primary focal point, Fj. To case where the vertical scale spacing is 1 cm per mark
get plane waves leaving a converging lens, the incident and the horizontal scale spacing is 10 cm per mark.
light waves must be diverging. To get plane waves Scale differences are used so that ray diagrams are
leaving a diverging lens, the incident light must be large enough to see. If the 10 cm per mark were used
converging. The location of the primary focal point is for both vertical and horizontal scales, the ray diagram
at the center of curvature of the incident wavefront. would be squashed along the horizontal axis and the
The center of curvature of the incident wavefront is in details would be hard to see. If the 1 cm per mark
front of a converging lens and behind a diverging lens scale were used, the ray diagram would be too large
(Figures 4.35a and 4.35b, respectively). For both con for convenient use. The different scales enable the ray
verging and diverging lenses, the parallel rays as diagram to be compact with the details still visible.
sociated with the exiting plane waves are always as Note, with different scales the angles are distorted and
sociated with Fj when entering the lens. The incident can look large even though they are, in reality, small
rays point away from Fx for a converging lens and angles made by paraxial rays.
^ V
y
Oei
<Tl
7
F^i
^C
1 r FIGURE 4.35. Common features of wavefronts and
rays associated with the primary focal point.
56 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
Thin Lens
Equations
>> +
image
object
L image
25 cm*k 50cm
image point is at the center of curvature of the wave vergence V of this wavefront (in diopters) equals the
front that is just leaving the lens. reciprocal of the image distance (in meters).
Both the object point and image point can be on
either side of a lens. For example, a real object point V=. (5.3)
might be 15 cm in front of the lens while a virtual v v ;
object point might be 15 cm behind the lens. A sign When the distances are not expressed in meters,
convention is used to distinguish between these cases. then conversion factors can be used in the numerator,
The object distance u and image distance v are di as discussed in Section 2.5. In Figure 5.1, u =
rected distances along the optical axis measured from 25.0 cm and from Eq. 5.2,
the lens to the object and from the lens to the image 100cm/m
TT A _ _
respectively. The positive direction is the direction
along the optical axis in which the light is traveling 25.0 cm
when it leaves the lens. while v = +50 f 0cm and from Eq. 5.3,
In Figure 5.1a, light leaves the lens traveling to the , 100 cm/m ^
right, which thus becomes the positive direction (indi v =
^; = +2.OOD.
cated by the symbol, >+). The image distance v, 450.0 cm
measured from the lens to the image position, is in the In Figure 5.2, the light leaving the lens is again
same direction that the exiting light is traveling and is traveling to the right. The incident light is converging
therefore positive (i; = +50.0 cm). The object distance and the center of curvature of the incident wavefront
w, measured from the lens to the object position, is is 20.0 cm to the right of the lens. The light leaving the
opposite to the direction that the exiting light is lens is diverging and the center of curvature of the
traveling and is therefore negative (u = 25.0 cm). exiting wavefront is 10.0 cm to the left of the lens.
The object distance u is the radius of curvature of Here,
the wavefront incident on the lens and the vergence U u = + 20.0 cm,
of this wavefront (in diopters) equals the reciprocal of
U== * =+5.00D,
the object distance (in meters). u +20.0n cm
1 v= 10.0 cm,
U= (5.2)
and
The image distance v is the radius of curvature of
the wavefront that is just leaving the lens and the V = iv = _J^
10.0 cm = _ 1 0 . 0 0 D .
Thin Lens Equations 59
^+
u= +20cm
** +
v= 10cm
*4
virtual
object v JK
virtual
image^ 10cm 20 cm
5.3 Dioptric Power: Focal Length V is equal to the dioptric power P of the lens, or
Relationships
V = P + U = P.
v=f2
When plane waves are incident on the lens, the inci
dent vergence U equals zero and the exiting vergence
'i
Equation 5.4 relates the secondary focal length (in
(5.4)
60 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
For plane waves leaving the lens, V= 0 and from Eq. In this case, the focal points are both virtual.
5.1,
v=o = p + u,
or 5.4 Lateral Magnification
P=U.
The images of extended objects are typically larger or
From Eq. 5.2,
smaller than the object. The ratio of the image size to
the object size is called the lateral magnification (m).
U=
Let O be the object size and I be the image size.
P = 3.00D
\
F2 Fl
^> OO <JO ~ , OO OO . ^
.
Assume O is positive if the object point is above the Equation 5.7 shows that the lateral magnification is
optical axis and negative if the object point is below equal to the linear ratio of the image distance to the
the axis. Similarly, assume I is positive if the image object distance. For this reason lateral magnification is
point is above the axis and negative if the image point sometimes called linear magnification.
is below the axis. Then, Since the object and image distances are recipro
cally related to the vergences U and V, we can com
I bine Eqs. 5.7, 5.2, and 5.3 to obtain
(5.6)
U
A positive lateral magnification (m) indicates that the m= (5.8)
image is erect relative to the object and a negative m
indicates the image is inverted relative to the object. Equation 5.8 shows that a knowledge of U and V is
A lateral magnification m greater than 1 indicates the sufficient to compute the lateral magnification.
image is larger than the object and an m less than 1
indicates the image is smaller than the object. Assume
that the object size O is +4.0 cm and the image size I
is 2.0 cm. Then from Eq. 5.6, the lateral magnifica
5.5 Examples
tion m is,
2.0 cm It is a good problem solving technique to predict what
m = = 0.5. characteristics an answer should have before doing any
+4.0 cm
calculations. In working these examples, I suggest that
Figure 5.5 shows the nodal ray for a lens that has a a quick ray diagram sketch initially be made. This
real object and a real image. Since the nodal ray is a sketch provides the predictions for what the numerical
straight line, the angle w subtended by the object at answer should be. If the answers do not correlate with
the nodal point is equal in magnitude to the angle w' the predictions, that is a tipoff that something is
subtended by the image at the nodal point. Then, wrong. If this does occur, then doublecheck the ray
diagram (might have to be more accurate this time)
tan w' = and the numerical calculations.
and
O EXAMPLE 5.1
tan w = .
u A real object is located 100 cm in front of a
Since w == w', the above equations give +5.00 D lens. Where is the conjugate image? Is it
real or virtual, erect or inverted, larger or smaller?
I _ O The primary and secondary focal lengths for a
v u ' +5.00 D lens are, from Eqs. 5.4 and 5.5,
or 1 100cm/m ^ ^
r
I _ v / = p = T I F  + 2 0 0 0 c m
0~ u' 100
= 20.00 cm.
Therefore, from Eq. 5.6,
f.l
From a ray diagram sketch (Figure 5.6), the predic
m= (5.7)
tions are: the image is real, inverted, smaller, and
P=+5.00D
** +
The image distance also agrees with the ray dia point is 30 cm in front of the lens. Therefore, the
gram. wavefront 5 cm in front of the lens is 25 cm from
the object point and has a vergence of 4.00 D.
U 3.33
= 2.0.
V + 1.67 EXAMPLE 5.3
A real object is placed 10 cm in front of a +7.00 D
The lateral magnification indicates that the image is lens. Is the image real or virtual, larger or smaller,
inverted and twice as large as the object. Note that erect or inverted? What is the image distance?
the lateral magnification can also be calculated (Again, try this example yourself before looking at
from Eq. 5.7: my solution.)
v +60 cm The focal lengths for a +7.00 D lens are:
m =  = ^ = 2.0. 100
u  3 0 cm 1
= +14.3 cm,
^ P +7.00
The vergence U incident on the lens is 3.33 D.
The vergence V leaving the lens is +1.67D. The 1. 100
= P = 14.3 cm.
wavefronts are shown in Figure 5.8. It is instructive +7.00
to calculate the vergence of the light at places other From a ray diagram sketch (Figure 5.9), the predic
than the lens. For example, what is the vergence of tions are: the image is virtual, erect, larger, and the
the light at a point 40 cm behind the lens? image distance is about 30 cm. The calculations
All of the wavefronts leaving the lens are spheri follow.
cal and have their centers of curvature at the image
point. The image point is 60 cm behind the lens, so u =  1 0 cm,
the wavefront 40 cm behind the lens is 20 cm from 100
the image point or has a radius of curvature of U = 10.00 D.
(10)
20 cm. Therefore, the vergence of the wavefront
40cm behind the lens is then +5.00D (i.e., 100/ The negative U value agrees with the fact that the
20 cm). light incident on the lens is diverging.
What is the vergence of the light at a point 5 cm V = P + U,
in front of the lens? All of the wavefronts incident
on the lens are diverging and have their centers of V = +7.00 + (10.00),
curvature located at the object point. The object V=3.00D.
The negative V value indicates that the light leav at the real object that is 10 cm in front of the lens.
ing the lens is diverging, which agrees with the ray Since point C is 6 cm in front of the lens, then point
diagram. Then C is 4 cm from the object. Therefore, the wavefront
at C has a vergence of 25.00 D. Note that the
100
= 33.3 cm, vergence of the wavefront incident on the lens was
3.00 10.00 D and that the vergence 6 cm in front of the
lens is 25.00 D.
m = = z = +3.33.
P=+7.00D
. .virtual
U^object
+ 7.00D
, virtual
r^^object
P=8.00D >
/
> +
<
j ^ > virtual ot
S ^y* /F,
^y^
y ^y^
/
virtual y ^y^f /
image y y^ /
y
y^s^
^y^
/
/
\ ^1 /
7J
^~
FIGURE 5.15. Ray diagram for a virtual object located
20 cm from a 8.00 D lens.
Thin Lens Equations 67
ing the lens is diverging, which agrees with the ray 5.6 Boundary Role of the Focal Points
diagram.
100
v=  n n = 33.3 cm, Besides the conjugate relationship of the focal points
3.00 with optical infinity and the use of the focal points in
U = +5 drawing predictable rays, the focal points also serve as
m = V "  3 = 1.67. boundaries in the imaging process. Consider a real
The lateral magnification indicates that the image is object located in front of a converging lens of dioptric
inverted and 1.67 times larger than the object. power P. When the object is between optical infinity
What is the vergence at a point D that is 5 cm in and the primary focal point F 1? then the negative
front of the lens and at a point E that is 5 cm vergence U of the incident diverging wavefront is not
behind the lens (Figure 5.16)? The light in front of enough to overcome the positive dioptric power P.
the lens is converging. Each incident wavefront has The vergence V of the wavefront leaving the lens is
its center of curvature at the virtual object position positive, the light leaving is converging, and the result
20 cm behind the lens. So, the wavefront at point D ing real image is a finite distance behind the lens.
has a radius of curvature of 25 cm. Its vergence is When the real object is at F 1? then plane waves leave
the lens, V is zero, and the image is at optical infinity.
U
U = ^  = +4.00D. When the real object is between Fx and the lens, the
(+25)
Note that this wavefront with a vergence of negative incident vergence U is great enough to over
+4.00 D at a point 5 cm in front of the lens has a come the positive dioptric power P. The exiting ver
vergence of +5.00 D when it hits the lens. Also gence V is negative, the light leaving is diverging, and
note that the dashed rays associated with the virtual the resulting virtual image is located a finite distance
image do not have anything to do with the incident in front of the lens. (I suggest that you make some
light. These dashed rays are in image space because quick ray diagrams to check the above assertions.)
they are associated only with the light leaving the In the case of a virtual object for the converging
lens. lens, the incident light is converging and U is positive.
The light behind the lens is diverging, and each Then, from V= P + U, V is always greater than P; and
wavefront has its center of curvature located at the from the reciprocal relations v = 1/V and/ 2 = 1/P, the
virtual image position 33.3 cm in front of the lens.
So, the radius of curvature of the wavefront at image distance v is less than the secondary focal length
point E is 38.3cm (i.e., 33.3cm+ 5cm). The ver f2. As a result, the real image is trapped between the
gence is lens and the secondary focal point F 2 .
A real object in front of a diverging lens always
y
=(^3)=261D results in diverging light leaving the lens. In the
E
equation V= P + U, P and U are both negative, so V
Note that the diverging wavefront leaving the lens is more negative than P. Again, from the reciprocal
has a vergence of 3.00 D and at a point 5 cm relations = 1 / V and f2 = 1 /P, the image distance v is
downstream it has a vergence of 2.61 D.
negative and smaller in magnitude than f2. Thus, the
virtual image is trapped between F 2 and the lens.
In the case of a virtual object for the diverging lens,
the converging incident light gives a positive value for
the incident vergence U. When the virtual object is
located between the lens and the (virtual) primary
focal point Fj, the positive vergence U is great enough
to overcome the negative dioptric power P. Con
sequently, V is positive, the exiting light is converging,
and the resulting real image is located a finite distance
behind the lens. When the virtual object is at F l 5 then
plane waves leave the lens and the image is at optical
infinity. When the virtual object is located between Ft
and optical infinity, then the positive U is not great
enough to overcome the negative P. Thus, the exiting
vergence V is negative, the exiting light is diverging,
and the resulting virtual image is located a finite
distance in front of the lens. (Again, I suggest that you
FIGURE 5.16. Wavefronts for vergence calculations at posi make some quick ray diagrams to check the above
tions in front of or behind the lens (D and E respectively). assertions.)
68 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
P=20.00D
One check is: The image distance is  2 . 5 cm and the lateral magnifi
v 10 cation is +1.25. Now set the object at 1 cm in front of
the lens and repeat the calculations. The image dis
An alternate check follows. tance becomes 1.111 cm and the lateral magnifica
tion m becomes +1.111. The calculations can be
u = +10 cm, repeated as the object is moved closer and closer to
U= ^ = +10.00 D. the lens. The results are shown in Table 5.1.
Note from the table that the smaller the object
Note, the incident light is converging and the ob distance becomes, the closer the image distance gets to
ject is virtual. the object distance and the closer the lateral magnifi
V = P + U, cation gets to +1. In the limit of the object distance
going to zero, the image distance goes to zero and the
V= 20.00 + ( + 10.00), lateral magnification goes to + 1 .
V = 10.00 D. The physical meaning of the +1 limit is that a thin
The light leaving the lens is diverging and the lens has no optical effect when the object distance is
image is virtual. zero. One way to observe this is to lay a thin lens
100 directly on some letters in a book. The letters appear
m the same size with or without the lens over them.
10 = 10 cm,
Another way to have an object at the lens is to use
U +10D a previous lens to converge light and form an image at
= 1.
V 10D the second lens. The image for the first lens is the
The ray diagram is shown in Figure 5.18. object for the second lens, and the second lens object
distance u2 is zero. Figure 5.19 is a ray diagram for
this case.
5.8 Unit Lateral Magnification Figure 5.19a shows two rays representing the inci
dent converging light. As usual, the ray parallel to the
What happens to the lateral magnification as an object axis passes through F 2 when it leaves the lens. The
is moved closer and closer to a lens? Let's consider a other ray, passing through F 1? leaves the lens parallel
specific case with a +10.00 D lens. First, set the object to the axis. The two outgoing rays are diverging away
at 2 cm in front of the lens. from the same point on the lens toward which the
u = 2 cm,
100
U = =50.00 D, TABLE 5.1
Lateral Magnification as Object Distance Goes to Zero
V = P + U,
V = + 1 0 + (50), u (cm) v (cm) m
/ *~ I
y/Fi F2X
FIGURE 5.19. a. Converging rays form
ing an image at a thin lens. b. Single
Y
notched ray is bent down at the lens, and
double notched ray comes out parallel to
a) b) the axis.
incoming rays converged. The object distance is zero, In Figure 5.21, an object is moved counterclock
the image distance is zero, and the lateral magnifica wise around the circle starting from optical infinity,
tion is +1. passing through the lens, and ending back at optical
infinity. The points marked on the circle include the
primary ( F J and secondary (F 2 ) focal points as well
as the symmetry points 2FX and 2F 2 . The A on the
5.9 Object Movement/Image Movement outside of the circle marks the starting position for the
real object at optical infinity. Its real conjugate image
Let us consider what happens to the image as an point is at F 2 and is marked on the inside of the circle
object for a converging lens is moved smoothly by A. As the object is moved counterclock
through space. Figure 5.20 helps to visualize the situa wise from optical infinity to 2FX, its image moves
tion. The light incident on the lens is traveling to the counterclockwise from F 2 to 2F 2 . The object position
right. The object positions are represented as points at 2Fj is now marked on the outside by B, and its
on a distorted circle. The points on the left half of the image position at 2F2 is now marked on the inside by
circle represent real object points, while the points on B'. As the object is moved from 2Fj to Fl9 its image
the right half of the circle represent virtual object moves from 2F2 to optical infinity. At F x , the object
points. position is represented on the outside by C, and its
The circle depicts the fact that there are two ways image position at optical infinity is represented on the
to reach optical infinity. A real object can be moved inside by C . As the real object continues its move
left from the lens until it reaches optical infinity, or a ment, this time from Fj to the lens, its image also
virtual object can be moved right from the lens until it continues its movement, starting from optical infinity
reaches optical infinity. As a real object is moved left, (becoming virtual at this stage) and traveling all the
the incident light is initially diverging but loses nega way from optical infinity until it finally catches up with
tive vergence until all the waves incident on the lens the object at the lens. The conjugate object and image
effectively become plane waves. As a virtual object is positions at the lens are marked D and D', respective
moved right, the incident light is initially converging ly. Next, as the object becomes virtual and moves
but loses positive vergence until all the waves incident from the lens to optical infinity (object position D to
on the lens again effectively become plane waves. A), its conjugate image becomes real once again,
oo
2F, Fi 2F2
A
QO
D'
k
B C A' B'

2F, Fi F2 2F2
>f FIGURE 5.21. ', ', C, and D' are the respec
tive image positions conjugate to the object posi
tions A, B, C, and D.
moving from the lens to F 2 (image position D' to A'). second lens. The final image position can be found by
Both the object and its conjugate image have com successively applying V= P + U to each lens.
pleted a full trip around the circle. A special equation can be derived for the total
A similar circle can be constructed for a minus lens lateral magnification mt in the twolens system. Let Ol
(see the problems). and l1 be the object and conjugate image size for the
first lens, and let 0 2 and I 2 be the object and conju
gate image size for the second lens. The total lateral
magnification mt is defined as the ratio of the final
5.10 Erect and Inverted Relationships: image size I2 to the original object size 0 1 ? or
Single Lenses x
2
m =
For a single thin lens, a real image is always inverted or
The above equation can be multiplied and divided by
relative to a conjugate real object. One can easily
prove this statement from the lateral magnification 0 2 . After algebraically rearranging, the result is
equation, m = U/V. For a real object, the incident I2 02
light is diverging and U is negative. For a real image, m = x
the exiting light is converging and V is positive. A ' ; cv
negative U value divided by a positive V value gives a However, since the image for lens one is the object for
negative m value, which indicates inversion. lens two, Ij = 0 2 . Therefore,
For a single thin lens, a virtual image is always
erect relative to a conjugate real object. Here, U is JL
m , = O,
again negative, but now V is also negative since the
exiting light is diverging. A negative U value divided The lateral magnifications ^ and m2 for lenses one
by a negative V value results in a positive m value, and two are, respectively,
which indicates the image is erect relative to the
object. m, =
Similarly, one can show that for a single thin lens a
real image is always erect relative to a conjugate _ I,
x
2
virtual object, and a virtual image is always inverted m? =
relative to a conjugate virtual object.
o,
By combining the above three equations, one finds
that
mt = m 2 m 1 . (5.9)
5.11 TwoLens Systems The total lateral magnification is the product of the
lateral magnifications for each individual lens. This
Consider a lens of dioptric power Px placed at distance statement is easily extended to multiple lens systems
d in front of a second lens of dioptric power P 2 . The containing more than two lenses. In particular, for a
light that leaves the first lens is incident on the second system of n thin lenses,
lens, so the image for the first lens is the object for the m
t = m
n m
n m 2 m! (5.10)
72 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
4.00D
+ 7.50D
100 100
= +24.0 cm, = +31.8 cm,
+4.17 +3.14
U9 +7.14
Ux = 3.33 m9 = V = +2.27.
mt = V = 0.80. 2 +3.14
x +4.17
All the axial wavefronts are schematically repre
Figure 5.22 schematically shows the diverging sented in Figure 5.23.
light incident on lens 1 and the converging light The total lateral magnification is
leaving it. The light incident on the second lens is
converging so the object for the second lens is mt = m ^ ! = (+2.27)(0.80) = 1.82.
virtual. Note from Figure 5.22 that the image for The final image is real, inverted, and 1.82 times
lens 1 is located a distance of 14cm (i.e., 24 c m  larger than the original object.
10 cm) past lens 2. An offaxis ray diagram can be used to confirm
the above results. The secondary focal lengths for EXAMPLE 5.11
the two lenses are, respectively, A +12.00 D lens is located 5 cm in front of a
+8.00 D lens. An object is located 5 cm in front of
100 the +12.00 D lens. Where is the final image? Is it
() = ^ = +7.50 = +13.33 cm,
real or virtual? What is the total lateral magnifi
100 cation?
=  2 5 . 0 cm.
4.00
ux = 5 cm,
The first part of the ray diagram is shown in Figure
5.24a. Once the image Ii is located, all the rays for 100
the first lens can be drawn. In particular, we want = 5 = 20.00 D,
to pick those rays that will also turn out to be the
predictable rays for the second lens. Figure 5.24b ^ , + ^
shows the completion of the ray diagram. Figure
5.24c shows just the actual ray paths. V1 = 12.00 + (20.00) = 8.00 D,
74 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
P^+12.000 P2=+8.00D
5cm 5cm
100 100
= 12.5 cm, = +43.7 cm,
+2.29
Uj _ 20.00 U, 5.71
m, = 8.00
= +2.50. m7 = 2.49.
V2 +2.29
Figure 5.25 schematically shows the diverging The total lateral magnification is
light incident on lens 1 and the diverging light
leaving it. The light incident on the second lens is mt = m 2 m i = (2.49X+2.50) = 6.22.
diverging so the object for the second lens is real. The final image is real, inverted relative to the
From Figure 5.25, it is easy to see that the total object, and 6.22 times larger than the original
distance from the virtual image to lens 2 is 17.5 cm. object (Figure 5.26).
Then,
, = (12.5 + 5) cm = 17.5 cm,
100 5.12 Two Thin Lenses in Contact
U, = 5.71D.
17.5
Note that the vergence of the diverging wavefront An important aspect of separated twolens systems is
leaving the first lens is 8.00 D. The diverging the vergence change of the light as it propagates from
wavefronts lose curvature as they cross the gap lens 1 to lens 2. Therefore, the vergence of the light
between the two lenses so that the vergence of the incident on lens 2 is, in general, not equal to the
light incident on the second lens is 5.71 D.
vergence of the light leaving lens 1.
:P2+U2, Let us now consider the case in which two lenses
V2 = +8.00 + (5.71) = +2.29 D, are placed in contact with each other. The separation
5.13 Bundles, Beams, and Lateral is a property of at least two bundles (Section 5.13).
Magnification Consequently, use of the plane wave approximation
can significantly affect image size calculations.
A movie (or slide) projector forms a large image on a The lateral magnification equation, m = U/V,
distant screen. Figure 5.27 represents the image for shows that if U is very close to zero, then m is very
mation by a single thin lens projector. The light beam small. From Eq. 5.6, the image size I in terms of m is
leaving such a projector is a diverging beam. (This
I = mO,
beam is frequently visible in movie theaters due to
light scattering off dust particles in the air.) The where O is the object size. A very small m can be
diverging beam is composed of individual converging offset by a large object size O, so that I is not
bundles. The fact that the real image is formed is due necessarily a small value. However, the plane wave
to these individual converging bundles. The fact that approximation (U = zero) leads to m = zero and, con
the image size is larger than the lens size is due to the sequently, I = zero, which is clearly wrong for large
diverging beam. enough objects. Either the small U value must be kept
The image size is determined not by an individual and not set equal to zero, or an alternate method is
bundle, but rather by the geometric relationship be needed to calculate image sizes for distant objects.
tween at least two different bundles. (Note that an Let us consider an alternate method. Figure 5.28
axial bundle could also be drawn in Figure 5.27.) The represents a real object located far away from a thin
lateral magnification, defined as the image size divided converging lens. Two bundles are shown: one from the
by the object size, thus, depends on the relationship top of the object and one from the axial object point.
between at least two different bundles, i.e., it is not The object is far enough away so that the plane
considered a property of one, individual, solitary bun wave approximation can be used and each bundle by
dle. This twobundle dependence has important impli itself can be represented by parallel rays. The rays
cations in the next section and in the optics of from the axial point are parallel to the axis since one
spherocylindrical lenses. of the rays coincides with the axis. The rays from the
offaxis point are parallel with each other but not with
the axis. Note that there are two predictable rays in
the offaxis bundle: one through the nodal point of the
lens (the optical center), and the other through the
5.14 Image Sizes for Distant Objects primary focal point Fj. The extended image is formed
in the secondary focal plane of the lens.
When an object is far away from a thin lens, the Figure 5.29 shows only the nodal ray from the
vergence U of the wavefront incident on the lens is offaxis point. The nodal ray forms a straight line
very close to zero. In this case, we frequently use the between the conjugate object and image points. The
plane wave approximation and set the vergence U angle w is the angle that the object subtends at the
equal to zero. Use of the plane wave approximation nodal point of the lens, and the angle w' is the angle
does not significantly affect the calculation of the that the image subtends at the nodal point. Since the
image distance since the image distance is a property nodal ray is a straight line between the conjugate
of a single bundle. The lateral magnification, however, object and image points then the angles w and w', are
Thin Lens Equations 77
equal. From the figure, result is again 8.7 mm. In fact, the percent difference
between the small angle method and the tangent
tanw' = I// 2 , method is less than 0.01% in this case.
or Can a large object ever be imaged with zero size?
l=/2tanw, (5.14) A typical star is larger than the planet Earth, but so
far away that its subtended angle at the planet Earth is
where w has been substituted for w'. very, very small. Consequently, the subtended angle w
Equation 5.14 is the alternate equation for the is effectively zero, and from Eq. 5.15 the image size I
image size when the object is distant. It avoids the is then zero. As a result, when a person looks at a star
lateral magnification difficulties with the ultrasmall on a clear night, the person's retinal image of the star
lateral magnification values. is effectively a point image. (If you are driving, be
sure to park before checking the stars.) You might
EXAMPLE 5.15 also note some radial streaks of light around the point
A full moon subtends an angle of 0.5 degrees at the image of the star. These radial streaks are due to
earth's surface. A real image of the full moon is diffraction from the structure of the crystalline lens
formed by a +1.00 D thin lens. What is the size of sutures. The twinkling of the stars is due to atmos
the image? pheric turbulence. If you get a ride on the space
The secondary focal length of a +1.00D lens is shuttle, you can observe the stars without having to
+ 100 cm. From Eq. 5.14, look through the atmosphere.
I = ( + 100cm)tan(0.5);
I = ( + 100cm)(0.0087)
= 0.87 cm = 8.7 mm.
Often even a large distant object, such as the 5.15 Reversibility and Finding the Object
moon, subtends a small angle at the lens. When this
occurs, the small angle approximation for the tangent Many of the previous examples in this chapter deal
can be used so that Eq. 5.14 results in with finding the image once the object is given. Sup
pose instead that the image is given and we are asked
I=/ 2 w (5.15) to find the object. One approach is to use the thin lens
where w is expressed in radians. When the small angle vergence equation, solve for the incident vergence U,
approximation is used for the full moon example, the and then find the object distance u.
original
1 ^ + 9.00D
r ^C i ^
reversed
Vrev = ? Urev =  2 0 cm
6.1 Emmtropes The image distance is 16.67 mm and the screen should
be placed that distance behind the +60.00 D lens in
The simplest optical model of the eye is a thin lens and order to simulate Amy's eye (Figure 6.1a).
screen model. The thin lens represents the cornea and A distant object is conjugate to the secondary focal
the crystalline lens while the screen represents the point of a lens. An alternate solution for the emme
retina. Air is assumed to be between the lens and the tropic lensscreen distance is to recognize that the
screen. A typical dioptric power for the lens represent secondary focal point of the unaccommodated emme
ing the unaccommodated human eye is +60.00 D. tropic eye coincides with the retina. Thus, the lens
An emmtrope is a person who can clearly see a screen distance is just equal to the secondary focal
distant object without accommodating. The light that length of the lens. From Eq. 5.4, the secondary focal
reaches the eye from the distant object consists of length is
plane waves. The unaccommodated emmetropic eye
converges the plane waves and forms a clear image on f= i
the retina. In the thin lens and screen model of the 32 p>
unaccommodated emmetropic eye, the screen, which or
represents the retina, is placed at the image point 1000mm/m_ , 1 f i f i 7 m m
conjugate to optical infinity. /2
(+60 D) +1667mm
Consider Amy who is an emmtrope and has an
unaccommodated eye with +60.00 D power. What Brian is an emmtrope whose eye is simulated with
should the lensscreen separation be in a model a lensscreen separation of 18.00 mm. What is the
simulating Amy's eye? One method for answering this power of the lens in the model for Brian's unaccom
question is to find the image position for incoming modated eye? In this example, the image distance for
plane waves. From Eq. 5.1, a distant object is 18.00 mm which is thus the sec
ondary focal length for the eye. Therefore,
V = P + U,
V = + 6 0 D + 0,
V=+60D,
>k
1000 mm/m
and (18 mm) '
P = +55.56 D.
_ 1000 mm/m
V Brian's unaccommodated eye has a dioptric power less
~ (+60 D) ' than the typical value of +60.00 D but is still emme
i; = +16.67 mm. tropic because the eye is longer than the 16.67 mm
81
82 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
+ 60.00D
*
lensscreen separation corresponding to the +60.00 D the divergence of the incident light increases and the
emmetropic eye. image moves back towards the retina. Eventually, the
We usually think in terms of light entering the eye. image is formed on the retina and the near object
However, consider the situation when an examiner appears clear to the unaccommodated myope. In this
uses an ophthalmoscope or a retinoscope to examine case the near object is located at the far point of the
the eye. The light is initially directed into the eye to myope's eye. It is a characteristic of a myopic eye that
illuminate the retina (just as you turn on the room its far point is a real point located a finite distance in
lights to illuminate a wall). The retina then acts as a front of the eye.
secondary source with the diffusely reflected light Cindy is a myope whose unaccommodated eye is
diverging away from it and emerging from the eye. simulated by a +58.00 D lens and a 20 mm lensscreen
Figure 6.1a shows plane waves from a distant ob distance. One way to check that the model is simulat
ject point entering an unaccommodated emmetropic ing a myopic eye is to determine if the light from a
eye model. The image point is on the retina. Accord distant object point is imaged in front of the retina.
ing to the principle of reversibility, light diverging For incident plane waves, the image is at the
from a point on the retina retraces the same path back secondary focal plane. Then,
out of the eye. (In Figure 6.1a, simply reverse the
arrow direction on each ray.) Therefore, the light f2 = P '
emerging from the unaccommodated emmetropic eye
consists of plane waves with the image point at optical 1000
infinity (Figure 6.1b).
f2 =
+58'
The far point of an eye is the point conjugate to the / 2 =+17.24 mm.
axial retinal point for the unaccommodated eye. For
the unaccommodated eye, an object point at the far The lensscreen distance is 20 mm. Consequently, the
point results in an image point on the retina (light is clear image is formed in front of the screen represent
incident on the eye), and an object point on the retina ing the retina (Figure 6.2a). While this calculation
results in an image point at the far point (light is shows that Cindy's eye is myopic, it does not de
emerging from the eye). The far point is also known termine the amount of myopia.
by its Latin name, punctum remotum. One way to determine the amount of myopia is to
The far point of an emmtrope is at optical infinity. take the retina as the object and consider the light that
In the following sections, two types of ametropes, emerges from the eye, as occurs in ophthalmoscopy
myopes and hyperopes, are discussed. The far point and retinoscopy. In the reversed case, the object
for ametropes is not at optical infinity. distance u for the retina is  2 0 mm (Figure 6.2b).
Then,
u =  2 0 mm,
1000
6.2 Myopes U= = 50.00 D.
(20)
Myopes are nearsighted. When a myope views a dis Since
tant object, the eye converges the light to form a clear V = P + U,
image in front of the retina (i.e., in the vitreous
humor) resulting in a blurred image on the retina. V = + 5 8 + (50),
When the object is brought closer to the myopic eye, V=+8.00D,
Thin Lens Eye Models 83
P=+58.00D
2D 8D
12.5cm
The lensscreen separation for Dan's eye is 16.67 mm. The concept of the far point, and hence U fp , is
This happens to be the same lensscreen separation of particularly useful. Once the far point is known, then
a typical emmtrope. Dan's +62.00 D power is 2.00 D the correcting lens for the eye can be determined even
more than the typical emmtrope, and the Ufp of if the internal dimensions of the eye are not known.
2.00 D simply neutralizes the +2.00 D error.
Dan's distance vision contact correction must take
incoming plane waves and convert them into light of
2.00 D vergence. Hence, Dan's contact lens power 6.3 Hyperopes
Pc is 2.00 D, which is the same result that Eq. 6.1
gives. An unaccommodated hyperopic eye is too short to
The amount of myopia is directly quantified by the clearly image a distant object on the retina (Figure
absolute value of U fp , which was 8.00 D and 2.00 D, 6.4a). When an unaccommodated hyperope looks at a
respectively, for Cindy and Dan. An alternative con distant object, the eye converges the light, but the
ceptual quantification of the amount of myopia is in converging light runs into the retina before the image
terms of the far point location. The closer the far point is formed. Hence, the retinal image is blurred. To get
is to optical infinity, the less the degree of myopia and a clear image on the retina of an unaccommodated
the closer the eye is to being emmetropic. The closer hyperope, the light incident on the eye must be con
the far point is to the eye, the greater the degree of verging. This means that the far point of a hyperope's
myopia. Dan, the 2.00 D myope, had a far point 50 cm eye is virtual and located a finite distance behind the
in front of the eye, while Cindy, the 8.00 D myope, eye (Figure 6.4b).
had a far point 12.5 cm in front of the eye. Note that Fay has an unaccommodated eye that is simulated
in all cases the far point for a myope is a real point as by a +60.00 D thin lens and a screen located 16 mm
opposed to a virtual point (Figure 6.3). behind the lens. Since the typical +60.00 D eye has a
length of 16.67 mm, Fay's eye is clearly too short and lensscreen distance of 16.67 mm. Where is George's
is therefore hyperopic. What is the degree of hy far point? What distance vision contact lens correction
peropia and where is the far point for Fay's eye? does George require?
Again, as in retinoscopy, we will consider the light A typical emmetropic model eye has a dioptric
emerging from the eye when the retina serves as the power of +60.00 D and a lensscreen distance of
object (Figure 6.4c). Then 16.67 mm. George's lensscreen distance is 16.67 mm,
u = 16 mm, but George only has +54.00 D of power. Hence,
George is lacking +6.00 D of converging power. In
and other words, George has 6.00 D of hyperopia.
1000
U = (16) 62.50 D. Alternatively, we can determine the amount of
hyperopia by taking the retina as the object and
Since considering the light emerging from the eye. Thus,
V = P + U,
u = 16.67 mm,
V = 60 + (62.50), and
V=2.50D,
and
100 Since
v = , ^ = 40.0 cm.
(2.50) V = P + U,
The light emerging from Fay's eye is diverging and has V = + 5 4 + (60),
a vergence of 2.50 D. The image point is virtual, V=6D,
located 40 cm behind the +60.00 D lens, and is the far
point for Fay's eye. then
Plane waves emerge from an emmetropic eye. Fay 100
v = (6) = 16.67 cm.
has diverging light of 2.50 D emerging from her eye.
Fay's eye is lacking 2.50 D of converging power. This The light leaving George's eye is diverging and has a
2.50 D is the degree of hyperopia. vergence of 6.00 D. Plane waves emerge from an
Since Fay's eye is lacking +2.50 D, light entering emmetropic eye, so the 6.00 D vergence confirms
her eye must be converging and have a vergence of that George is lacking 6.00D of power (i.e., George
+2.50 D in order to produce a clear retinal image. In has 6.00 D of hyperopia). The image conjugate to the
other words, to obtain a clear retinal image, the object retina is virtual and located 16.67 cm behind the
for the eye must be virtual and located 40 cm behind +54.00 D lens. This is the far point for George's eye.
the eye at the far point. Then wfp = +40cm and To get a clear retinal image, the light incident on
Ufp = +2.50D. (In Figure 6.4c, the rays would be George's eye must have a vergence Ufp equal to
unchanged except that the arrows would be reversed +6.00 D. Consequently, the contact lens correction
and point to the right.) necessary for George to clearly see a distant object
A contact lens correction that enables Fay to see a without accommodating is +6.00 D.
distant object without accommodating must take inci Fay was a 2.50 D hyperope and had a virtual far
dent plane waves and produce exiting light of vergence point located 40 cm behind her eye, while George was
+2.50 D. A +2.50 D contact lens does this. We can a 6.00 D hyperope and had a virtual far point located
also find the power of the contact lens from Eq. 6.1: 16.67 cm behind his eye. Note that the closer the far
Pc = Ufp = +2.50D. point is to optical infinity, the lesser the degree of
hyperopia and the closer the eye is to being emme
George is a hyperope whose unaccommodated eye tropic. The closer the far point is to the eye, the
is simulated by a +54.00 D thin lens and a typical greater the degree of hyperopia (Figure 6.5).
6D 2.5D
16.67 cm
6.4 Spectacle Lens Corrections leaving the lens and traveling to the cornea must be
spherical and centered on the far point. The wavefront
While contact lens corrections sit on the cornea, spec leaving the spectacle lens is 13 mm or 1.3 cm closer to
tacle lens corrections are mounted in a frame and sit a the far point than the wavefront incident on the
certain distance in front of the cornea. The distance cornea. Therefore, the radius of curvature of the
from the back of the spectacle lens to the cornea is wavefront leaving the spectacle lens is 10 cm minus
called the vertex distance. Because of the vertex dis 1.3 cm, or 8.7 cm (Figure 6.6b). The radius is negative
tance, the dioptric power of a spectacle correction can since the wavefront is diverging, and the vergence
differ from the dioptric power of the contact lens leaving the spectacle lens is
correction. The reason for this difference is that the
wavefronts that leave the back of the spectacle lens 100
V= =11.50 D.
gain or lose curvature as they cross the gap to the (8.7 cm)
cornea. Since plane waves are incident on the spectacle lens
Helen has a far point that is real and located 10 cm for distance vision (U = 0), the dioptric power of the
in front of her cornea. What contact lens correction lens is:
and what spectacle lens correction does Helen need
V = P + U,
for distance vision? Assume a vertex distance of
13 mm. P=VU,
First of all, since Helen's far point is in front of her
eye, Helen is a myope and needs diverging light P=11.500,
incident on her cornea. Secondly, Helen's far point is
or
relatively close to her eye, so Helen is a fairly high
myope. When an object is placed at Helen's far point, P =  1 1 . 5 0 D.
wfp = 10.0 cm, Helen's distance vision spectacle correction worn at
a vertex distance of 13 mm is 11.50 D, while Helen's
and contact lens correction is 10.00 D. Note that the
U f p = 10.00 D. spectacle correction and contact correction were de
termined by knowing the far point location of Helen's
Helen needs a vergence of 10.00 D incident on her eye and without knowing the dioptric power or length
cornea. From Eq. 6.1, Helen's distance vision contact of the eye.
lens correction is then 10.00 D. Ian wears a +5.00 D distance vision contact lens
The distance vision spectacle lens correction must correction. What distance vision spectacle lens correc
take incoming plane waves and diverge them in such a tion worn at a vertex distance of 15 mm does Ian
manner that the vergence of the light reaching the need?
cornea is 10.00 D (Figure 6.6a). Since the diverging Ian is hyperopic, and from Eq. 6.1,
wavefronts lose curvature as they travel across the gap
from the spectacle lens to the cornea, the vergence Ufp = Pc = +5.00D,
leaving the spectacle lens must be more minus than resulting in
10.00 D.
For the proper correction, the wavefront incident 100
= +20.0 cm.
on the cornea must be spherical and centered on the
far point of the eye that is 10 cm in front of the Ian's far point is virtual and located 20 cm behind the
cornea. In fact, all of the wavefronts in the bundle cornea.
fp
~~v
8.7 cm
8
1.3 cm
FIGURE 6.6. a. Plane waves incident
on a spectacle correction for a myopic
eye. The vergence of the wavefront inci
dent on the cornea must be 10.00 D.
b) y b. Geometry to get vergence of the
10.0 cm wavefront leaving the spectacle lens.
Thin Lens Eye Models 87
uice e
1.5 cm
20 cm
O fp
behind the spectacle lens, Figure 6.8b) is Again, this statement assumes that plane waves are
100 incident on the lens, so this also is simply another way
V = (7.020.3)' of stating that diverging wavefronts lose curvature as
they travel from the spectacle lens to the eye.
100 The gain in plus effectivity or loss in minus effec
v = (6.72) ' tivity statements may not accurately describe what
happens when diverging or converging light is incident
V = +14.88 D.
on a spectacle lens because there the vergence incident
For distance vision, a spectacle lens placed 12 mm on the lens may be changing in the opposite manner as
from Karen's eye must take incoming plane waves and the effectivity changes.
change them into converging waves with a vergence of What is actually changing in the effectivity cases is
H14.88 D. From P = V  U, the power of the spectacle the vergence of the wavefronts as they travel from one
lens is then +14.88 D. Note that the +14.88 D lens at position to the other. Therefore, the name vergence
a vertex distance of 12 mm is a change of +0.63 D effectivity is more appropriate than lens effectivity.
from the +14.25 D lens at a vertex distance of 15 mm, However, the lens effectivity terminology is useful for
and this amount is clinically significant. those who are not familiar with vergence.
In the previous sections we saw that the power of a In dealing with distance vision corrections, we con
distance spectacle correction can differ from that of a sider only unaccommodated eyes. Let us now take
contact correction because of the change in vergence accommodation into account.
of the wavefronts as they move from the spectacle The crystalline lens in the eye adds converging
plane to the eye. Historically, this phenomenon has power when the eye accommodates. In our thin lens
been described under the name of lens effectivity. and screen model, we can simulate this change by
Instead of directly mentioning the change in vergence, adding power to the thin lens. In the model, let Pu be
people would refer to the effect of the spectacle lens at the power of the unaccommodated eye, and Pa be the
the cornea. power of the accommodated eye. The amount of
Consider a vertex distance of 12 mm. Then, the ocular accommodation A 0 is the difference in the two
effect of a +10.00 D spectacle lens at the eye is values, or
+ 11.36 D. This statement means that for plane waves
incident on the +10.00 D lens, the vergence of the A0 = P a  P u . (6.2)
light leaving the lens is +10.00 D, but the vergence of Let ve be the distance between the thin lens and the
the light at the eye is +11.36 D. screen. Since the eye does not change length when it
Plus lenses are said to gain plus effectivity as they accommodates, ve is a constant. In order to have a
move away from the eye. This statement assumes that clear retinal image, the vergence Ve of the light leav
plane waves are incident on the lens, so this is simply ing the thin lens representing the eye must equal the
another way of stating that converging wavefronts gain reciprocal of ve, or
curvature as they travel from the spectacle lens to the
eye. (6.3)
Minus lenses are said to lose minus effectivity, or to
gain plus effectivity, as they move away from the eye. When the object is at the far point of the eye and
Thin Lens Eye Models 89
fp
6.7 Near Point and Range of Clear Now consider Marcie who wears a 5.00 D dis
Vision: Myope tance vision contact correction and has a 3.00 D am
plitude of accommodation. What is Marcie's uncorrec
As a person moves an object closer and closer to his ted range of clear vision?
eye, more and more accommodation is used. Eventu From Eq. 6.1,
ally, the maximum amount is reached. The maximum Ufp =  5 . 0 0 D ,
amount of accommodation is called the amplitude of
accommodation (A m ). and
The near point of an eye is the point conjugate to
u{p= 20.0 cm.
the axial retinal point of the maximally accommodated
eye. The near point is also known by its Latin name of From Eq. 6.7,
punctum proximum. The near point can be found as a A0 = U f p  U x ,
special case of Eq. 6.7 by setting A 0 equal to the
amplitude of accommodation A m . The points that or
successively become conjugate to the retina as a per
Ux = U f p  A 0
son increases his or her accommodation constitute the
person's range of clear vision. Ux=5.003.00,
Suppose Larry, the myope in the preceeding sec U =8.00D.
tion, has an amplitude of accommodation of 9.00 D.
Where is Larry's near point? Finally,
We can solve Eq. 6.7 for U x : 100
M
np  "x  (_ 8 oo) '
A 0 = Ufp Uv
unp= 12.5 cm.
Therefore,
Ux = U f p  A 0 . Marcie's uncorrected range of clear vision extends
from her far point at 20 cm to her near point at
Larry's far point was 40 cm, and 12.5 cm.
Ufp = 2.50D. The amplitude of accommodation gradually di
minishes with age. At the age of 8 years, the am
When A is set equal to the 9.00 D amplitude of plitude of accommodation is approximately 14.00 D,
accommodation, the point x is the near point. at 20 years it has fallen to 11.00 D, at 30 years it is
Ux =  2 . 5 0  9 . 0 0 , approximately 9.00 D, and at the age of 50 years it is
less than 2.00 D. Because of the decline of the am
or plitude of accommodation with age, a person's near
U =11.50 D. point steadily recedes from the eye and approaches
the far point.
Then
" v =
Norman is an emmtrope who looks at a poster adds plus converging power, it can be used to over
50 cm from his eye. What is Norman's ocular accom come some or all of the hyperopia. Since the un
modative demand? corrected hyperope uses accommodation to see distant
Here, objects, he or she may not have enough left for near
objects. Furthermore, the ciliary muscle, like any
Uv = J ^ = 2.00D, muscle in the body, is subject to fatigue under condi
(50) tions of exertion for long periods of time. Therefore,
and from Eq. 6.7, while a high hyperope may be able to see a distant
Ao = 0  (  2 . 0 0 ) . object clearly by accommodating, he may not be able
to sustain the accommodation.
or An uncorrected hyperope has a virtual far point.
A=+2.00D. As the hyperope accommodates, the virtual point
conjugate to the retina moves away from the eye and
If Norman moves the poster in to a point 25 cm in toward optical infinity. If a hyperope has enough
front of his eye, then accommodation, an object at optical infinity can be
100 imaged clearly on the retina. Whatever accommoda
U = = 4.00D. tion is left can then be used to see real objects that are
(25)
closer than optical infinity.
and Consider Paul, a hyperope who needs a +8.00 D
A o = 0  (4.00) = +4.00D. contact lens. From Eq. 6.1,
Ufp = Pc = +8.00D,
For an object 20 cm in front of his eye, Norman has an
ocular accommodative demand of +5.00 D, and for an and
object 10 cm in front of his eye he has an ocular 100
accommodative demand of +10.00 D. ufnfp = (+8.00) = +12.5 cm.
Octavia is an emmtrope with an amplitude of
accommodation of 7.00 D. What is Octavia's range of Paul's far point is virtual and located 12.5 cm behind
clear vision? his cornea.
To find Octavia's near point, use Eq. 6.7, set A 0 When Paul accommodates +3.00 D, what point is
equal to the amplitude of accommodation, and solve conjugate to his retina? From Eq. 6.7,
for U. A0 = U f p  U x ,
Ux = U f p  A 0 .
or
But Ufp is zero, therefore, 3 = 8Ux,
Ux = 0  (7.00) =  7 . 0 0 D ,
and
or Uv = 8  3 = + 5 . 0 0 D .
100
= 14.3 cm. Then
(7.00)
Octavia's near point is 14.3 cm in front of her eye. 100
+20.0 cm.
Since Octavia is an emmtrope, her far point is at (+5.00)
optical infinity. Octavia's range of clear vision extends When Paul accommodates 3.00 D, the point conjugate
from optical infinity to 14.3 cm in front of her eye. to his retina remains virtual but moves from 12.5 cm to
As Octavia ages, her near point will move out away 20.0 cm. An uncorrected 5.00 D hyperope has a far
from her eye toward her far point at optical infinity. point at 20.0 cm, so in a sense, by using 3.00 D of
Eventually, she will have difficulty seeing near objects, accommodation Paul can now function as a 5.00 D
a signal that presbyopia has arrived. hyperope instead of an 8.00 D hyperope (Figure 6.11).
What is Paul's ocular accommodative demand to
see an object at optical infinity? From Eq. 6.7,
fp
toOCZX  to O O
12.5 cm FIGURE 6.11. Point x is conjugate to
the retina for an 8.00 D hyperope who is
20.0 cm accommodating 3.00 D.
* X * CDO X *
< 1 <
x*
FIGURE 6.12. Range of clear vision as an
25.0 cm 12.5 cm 8.00 D hyperope accommodates 12.00 D.
Thin Lens Eye Models 93
CCD
The near point is closer to optical infinity than the far trope puts on a 8.00 D contact lens and looks at a
point. No real object points are imaged on the retina. distant object, the object will appear blurred (and
In each of the cases, the range of clear vision maybe not even visible). However, if the emmtrope
extends counterclockwise from the far point to the accommodates 8.00 D, the distant object will appear
near point. The region inside, or counterclockwise clear. In other words, in the thin lens eye model the
from, the near point is the region where objects are 8.00 D of accommodation neutralizes the 8.00 D
not clearly imaged on the retina because the person contact lens.
does not have enough accommodation available. The Suppose the emmtrope looks through a 8.00 D
region outside, or clockwise from, the far point is the spectacle lens at the distant object. Again the emm
region where objects are not clearly imaged because trope can accommodate to neutralize the spectacle
the unaccommodated eye already has too much con lens and see the distant object clearly. In this case, we
verging power, and the clear image is formed in front tend to say the 8.00 D spectacle lens causes 8.00 D
of the retina, i.e., in the vitreous humor. of accommodation, but, in fact, the actual ocular
Suppose each of the eyes represented in Figure accommodative demand is not 8.00 D. For the distant
6.13 has a 4.00 D amplitude of accommodation and object, the vergence of the light leaving the spectacle
the respective refractive states are: 3.00 D myopia, lens is 8.00D, but 14 mm downstream the vergence
emmetropia, 3.00 D hyperopia, and 6.00 D hyperopia. incident on the eye is 7.19D. The vergence Ufp is
The respective far points are then: real and 33.3 cm in zero for the emmtrope, so the emmetrope's ocular
front of the eye; at optical infinity; virtual and 33.3 cm accommodative demand is +7.19 D.
behind the eye; and virtual and 16.67 cm behind the In the above case, we label the 8.00 D as the
eye. You should now be able to show that the respec spectacle accommodative demand. The spectacle ac
tive near points are: real and 14.3 cm in front of the commodative demand is related (but not equal) to the
eye; real and 25.0 cm in front of the eye; real and ocular accommodative demand. Clinically, it is expedi
100.0 cm in front of the eye; and virtual and 50.0 cm ent to think in terms of the spectacle accommodative
behind the eye. Note the near point variation even demand even though it can differ from the ocular
through each has a 4.00 D amplitude of accommo accommodative demand.
dation. Another example of spectacle accommodative de
mand is that of a spectacle corrected ametrope looking
through the spectacle lenses at a near object. Assume
6.11 Spectacle Accommodative Demand that the spectacle corrected ametrope can see a distant
object clearly without accommodating. For the distant
Consider an unaccommodated emmtrope with a object, the vergence incident on the spectacle lens is
10.00 D amplitude of accommodation. When this emm zero. When the object is 25 cm from the spectacle
94 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
EXAMPLE 6.1 Because of the vergence changes across the gap be
Bobby Brickbat is wearing a distance vision specta tween the lens and the eye, the ocular accommodative
cle correction. What is the spectacle accommoda demand and the spectacle accommodative demand
tive demand when Bobby holds his bat 20 cm from may differ.
his spectacle lens and examines it for a suspected
crack? EXAMPLE 6.2a
Hilda is hyperope with a +12.00 D spectacle cor
For the bat at 20 cm (the proximal object), rection at a 14 mm vertex distance. What is Hilda's
US = 5.00D, spectacle and ocular accommodative demands when
and looking at a tapestry located 25 cm in front of her
As =  (  5 . 0 0 D) =+5.00 D. spectacle lens?
For the tapestry (the proximal object), the ver
Note that the power of the spectacle lens does not gence incident on the spectacle lens is
matter for the spectacle accommodative demand.
However, the spectacle lens power does matter for US = 4.00D.
the ocular accommodative demand. From Eq. 6.8, Hilda's spectacle accommodative
demand is
As = (4.00D) = +4.00D.
6.12 Ocular Accommodation Through For the tapestry, the light leaving the spectacle
Spectacles lens has a vergence
Figure 6.14 shows a spectacle corrected hyperope
looking first at a distant object (Figure 6.14a), and Vs = +12.00 D + (4.00 D) = +8.00 D.
then at a near object (Figure 6.14b). For the distant For a +8.00 D vergence, the vergence Ux at a
object, plane waves are incident on the spectacle lens, distance 14 mm downstream is +9.01 D. When
and the vergence leaving the spectacle lens is equal to plane waves are incident on the +12.00 D lens, the
the power Ps of the spectacle lens. Converging light vergence leaving is +12.00 D, and the vergence Ufp
leaves the spectacle lens, and the vergence Ufp inci 14 mm downstream is +14.42 D. From Eq. 6.7, the
dent on the cornea is greater than Ps. For the near ocular accommodative demand is
(proximal) object, the vergence Vs leaving the specta A0 = U f p  U x ,
cle lens is less than P s , and again a vergence change A 0 =+14.42 D  ( + 9 . 0 1 D),
occurs across the gap between the lens and the eye. A 0 =+5.41D.
The vergence incident on the eye is U x . From Eq. 6.7,
the ocular accommodative demand is So while Hilda's spectacle accommodative demand
is +4.00 D, her ocular accommodative demand is
A = U Uv +5.41 D.
Thin Lens Eye Models 95
EXAMPLE 6.2b While the previous examples clearly show the ef
Myra is myope with a 12.00 D spectacle correc fect, they do not provide an intuitive feeling for the
tion at a 14 mm vertex distance. What is Myra's result. The following argument provides some intui
spectacle and ocular accommodative demands tion even though the argument is flawed. The image
when looking at the tapestry located 25 cm in front formed by the spectacle lens is the object for the eye.
of her spectacle lens? For the distant object, the spectacle lens image is at
As in Example 6.1a, the spectacle accommoda
tive demand is the eye's far point. Figure 6.15a shows the spectacle
lens images for the hyperope. The hyperope's far
A S =+4.00D. point is virtual. As one starts to move the object for
For the tapestry, the light leaving the spectacle lens the spectacle lens in from optical infinity, the spectacle
has a vergence lens' image moves from the far point out towards
V S = PS + U S , optical infinity.
Vs = 12.00 D + (4.00 D) = 16.00 D. Figure 6.15b shows the corresponding case for the
myope. Here the eye's far point is real. As one starts
For a 16.00 D vergence, the vergence Ux at a
to move the object for the spectacle lens in from
distance 14 mm downstream is 13.07 D.
When plane waves are incident on the 12.00 D optical infinity, the spectacle lens's image moves from
lens, the vergence leaving is 12.00 D, and the the far point in towards the lens. When Figure 6.15a
vergence Ufp 14 mm downstream is 10.27 D. and Figure 6.15b are compared, we see that the
From Eq. 6.7, the ocular accommodative demand myope's eye has only a small distance change to
is accommodate for, whereas as the hyperope's eye has a
A0 = U f p  U x , much larger distance change to accommodate for.
The above argument is flawed because it does not
A 0 = 10.27 D  (13.07 D),
show the effect of the spectacle lens's vertex distance
A o =+2.80D. on the ocular accommodative demand. We can use an
So while Myra's spectacle accommodative demand algebraic argument to build some legitimate intuition
is +4.00 D, her ocular accommodative demand is about the vertex distance dependence. First, we need
only +2.80 D. to consider an algebraic equation for downstream
vergence.
Note that the spectacle accommodative demand
was the same for Hilda and Myra. However, the
ocular accommodative demands are very different.
Hilda, the hyperope, has an ocular accommodative 6.13 The Downstream Vergence Equation
demand that is higher than the spectacle accommoda
tive demand; while Myra, the myope, has an ocular We have been numerically solving downstream ver
accommodative demand that is lower than the specta gence problems since Chapter 2. Here we use the
cle accommodative demand. This difference is due to same technique to derive an algebraic equation for the
the vergence effectivity changes between the spectacle downstream vergence problem.
lens and the eye. In effect, for an object at the same Figure 6.16a shows converging wavefronts in the
distance, spectacle corrected hyperopes have to ac same bundle. The wavefront at position 2 is a distance
commodate more than spectacle corrected myopes. d downstream from position 1. The wavefront at
spectacle lens
real images
a)
M
spectacle lens
virtual images FIGURE 6.15. Spectacle lens image move
A ment as object is moved in from optical
b) infinity, a. Hyperope. b. Myope.
96 Geometric, Physical, and Visual Optics
6.14 Algebraic Approach: Accommodation approximation, Eq. 6.13, in Eq. 6.11 to obtain
Through Spectacle Lenses
A 0 ~ P s ( l + d P s )  V s ( l + dV s ),
Figure 6.14 shows the situation for the ocular accom or
modative demand through spectacle lenses. For ver A 0 ~ P s  V s + d(PfVf).
gence incident on the eye, the fundamental equation is
Now
Ac = U f p  U x .
P s  V f = (P s V s )(P s + V s ),
When the person is looking at the distant object, plane
waves are incident on the spectacle lens, and, con
sequently, the vergence of the light leaving the specta and
cle lens is equal to the dioptric power of the lens.  U S = P S V S .
Then from the downstream vergence Eq. 6.9, the
vergence Ufp incident on the eye is We can combine the above four equations to obtain
A 0 ~  U s + d(U s )(P s + V s ),
U
Uf = A 0 ~  U , [ l + d(P, + V,)],
P 1dP
When the person looks at the near (proximal) object and
the vergence incident on the spectacle lens is U s and A 0 ~  U , [ l + d ( 2 P , + U,)].
the vergence leaving the spectacle lens is Vs. Then the
vergence Ux incident on the eye is Let us additionally assume that the object is just
starting to move in from optical infinity so that U s is
v small relative to 2PS. Then
U =
1  dV/ A0~Us[l+2dPs] (6.14)
When the expressions for Ufp and U x are substituted
From Eq. 6.8, the spectacle accommodative demand
into the accommodation equation, the result is
A s is equal to  U s , so
A = (6.11) A0~A,[l+2dP,]. (6.15)
1  dR 1  dVc
Equation 6.15 is an approximation to Eq. 6.11.
Equation 6.11 gives the ocular accommodative de
According to Eq. 6.15, the difference between the
mand in terms of the dioptric power of the spectacle
ocular accommodative demand and the spectacle ac
lens, the vergence Vs of the light leaving the spectacle
commodative demand is due to the 2dPs term. How
lens, and the vertex distance d. It is clear from Eq.
ever, this term has opposite effects for myopes and
6.11 that the vertex distance has an effect, but it is not
hyperopes. For hyperopes, the spectacle lens power Ps
clear what the pattern of that effect is. We can make
is positive and the term adds so that A 0 is greater than
the pattern emerge by considering some approxima
A s . For myopes, Ps is negative and the term subtracts
tions to Eq. 6.11. so that A 0 is less than A s .
Consider an equation of the form
Ginny is a myope who wears a 5.00D spectacle
y=h < 612 > lens at a vertex distance of 12 mm. From Eq. 6.15,
when Ginny looks at an object 100 cm in front of her
When x is small relative to 1, the equation can be spectacle lens, the ocular accommodative demand is
approximated by
A 0 ~  (  1 . 0 D)[l + 2(0.012 m)(5.00 D)],
y ~ l + x. (6.13)
A0~+1.00D[l0.12],
For example,
A 0 ~ +1.00 D[0.88] = +0.88 D.
1 The exact ocular accommodative demand for Ginny is
J = 1.11,
(10.10) also +0.88 D, so the approximation is very good.
while the approximation gives Gerry is a hyperope who wears a +5.00 D spectacle
lens at a vertex distance of 12 mm. From Eq. 6.15,
y ~ l + 0.10 = 1.10. when Gerry looks at an object 100 cm in front of his
The approximation gets better for smaller x values and spectacle lens he needs to accommodate
worse for larger x values. A 0 ~  (  1 . 0 0 D)[l + 2(0.012 m)(+5.00 D)],
The vergence effectivity terms in Eq. 6.11 have the
form of Eq. 6.14 with x equal to dPs or dVs. When A 0 ~ +1.00 D[l +0.12],
these terms are small relative to 1, we can use the A o ~+1.00D[1.12] = +1.12D.
98 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
The exact ocular accommodative demand for Gerry is where the vergences Ufp and Ux are incident on the
also +1.12 D so the approximation is very good. cornea. From Eq. 6.1,
In the above cases, the d term added 0.12 D of
u f p = pc.
accommodation for the hyperope (Gerry) and sub
tracted 0.12 D of accommodation for the myope The light leaving the contact lens is immediately inci
(Ginny). The vertex distance and the resulting ver dent on the eye with no vergence change. Therefore,
gence effectivity increases the ocular accommodative ux=vc.
demand for a hyperope and decreases the ocular
accommodative demand for a myope. By combining the above three equations, we get
For Gerry and Ginny the approximation gives the
A = P C V C .
same result (to two digits) as the exact procedures.
However, the approximation starts to break down for Since
Hilda and Myra in Examples 6.2a and 6.2b. Both
 U C = P C V C ,
Hilda and Myra had a +4.00 D spectacle accommoda
tive demand. For Hilda, the hyperope, the approxima the equation for the ocular accommodative demand
tion gives +4.67 D, which is greater than +4.00 D, simplifies to
while the exact ocular accommodative demand is
A0 =  U c . (6.16)
+5.41 D. For Myra, the myope, the approximation
gives +3.33 D, which is less than +4.00 D, while the For the contact corrected ametropes, the vergence
exact ocular accommodative demand is +2.80 D. of the light incident on the contact lens is equal to the
vergence of the light incident on the cornea of an
emmtrope who is standing at the same distance from
the object. Thus, in the thin lens and screen model, all
contact corrected ametropes have the same ocular
6.15 Accommodation Through Contact accommodative demand as an emmtrope.
Lenses For example, a myope wearing a 4.00 D contact
lens and viewing an object 50 cm in front of the lens
The differences in accommodative demand in the has a U c of 2.00 D, and from Eq. 6.16 an ocular
spectacle corrected cases were due to the different accommodative demand of +2.00 D. Similarly, a hy
vergence changes that occurred between the spectacle perope wearing a contact correction of +4.00 D and
lens and the eye. However, contact lens corrections sit viewing an object 50 cm in front of the lens has an
on the eye; therefore, no vergence changes occur ocular accommodative demand of +2.00 D. An
between the contact lens and the eye. emmtrope viewing the same object 50 cm in front of
We can consider a contact lens as a spectacle lens his or her eye also has an ocular accommodative
with a zero vertex distance. In this case, Eq. 6.15 demand of +2.00 D.
becomes exact, and shows that For Myra and Hilda in the previous section, the
A 0 = AS. contact corrections are 10.27 D and +14.43 D, re
spectively. The ocular accommodative demand for the
So, for a contact corrected ametrope, the ocular ac contact corrected girls to see the tapestry 25 cm from
commodative demand equals the spectacle accom the spectacle plane, or 26.4 cm from the eye is found
modative demand (spectacle at zero vertex distance). as follows:
In turn, Eq. 6.9 gives
A0 =  U c , (6.16)
where the subscript s (for spectacle) has been changed and
to c (for contact).
We can also derive Eq. 6.16 from first principles. A 0 =  U C = +3.79D.
Let Pc be the power of the contact lens, U c be the The accommodative demand of 3.79 D is the same as
vergence incident on the contact lens, and Vc be the that of an emmtrope viewing the tapestry held
vergence of the light exiting the contact lens. Then 26.4 cm in front of the cornea.
VC = PC + UC. Myra, the myope, needs 2.80 D of accommodation
to see the tapestry when spectacle corrected and
From Eq. 6.7, the ocular accommodative demand is 3.79 D when contact corrected. Hilda, the hyperope,
given by requires 5.42 D of accommodation to see the tapestry
A0 = U f p  U x ) when spectacle corrected but only 3.79 D when con
Thin Lens Eye Models 99
E
o
.>
<D
c3 vertex distance 14 mm
E object 20 cm in
8.00D4
7.00D4
e
*pv
X*f>{
6.00D 1
4.00D
nyope
3.00D
h +
+ FIGURE 6.17. Ocular accom
2D 4D 6D 8D 10D 12D 14D 16D modative demand vs spectacle and
spectacle lens powers contact lens powers.
tact corrected. In general, when a hyperope changes is only a small difference in ocular accommodative
from a contact correction to a spectacle correction, demand for the various individuals. However, the
more ocular accommodation is needed. When a difference steadily increases as the correcting lens
myope changes from a contact correction to a specta power increases.
cle correction, less ocular accommodation is required.
Keep in mind that any difference has to be 0.25 D or
greater to be clinically significant and that low hy 6.16 Corrected Near Points
peropes and myopes may not show any clinically
significant differences. The point conjugate to the retina for the correcting
The graph in Figure 6.17 shows the ocular accom lens and maximally accommodated eye is the correc
modative demand as a function of correcting lens ted near point. For contact corrected individuals, the
powers. The vertex distance of the spectacle correc corrected near point is very easy to find. In fact, it is
tions is 14 mm. For low correcting lens powers, there equivalent to finding the near point of an emmtrope.
100 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
or vs 21.05 D +7.54 D
UC=6.00D. us VT  P V S P S
s * s
conjugate to her retina for her +3.50 D lenseye sys 6.18 Range of Clear Vision Through
tem is virtual and located 50 cm from the spectacle Various Lenses
lens. In other words, a vergence of +2.00 D incident
on the +3.50 D spectacle lens compensates for the Suppose an ametrope, Randy, looking through a
2.00 D shortage. +4.00 D lens in the spectacle plane can clearly see real
Sam is a hyperope who requires a +3.00 D contact objects ranging from 100 cm to 20 cm in front of the
lens but is given a +4.00 D contact lens. Sam is lens. What is Randy's range of clear vision when the
overplussed by 1.00 D. For incident plane waves, the +4.00 D lens is replaced by a +6.00 D lens?
clear image formed by the +4.00 D lenseye system One way to proceed is to figure the bounds needed
will be in front of Sam's retina (in the vitreous for the vergence leaving the spectacle plane. For the
humor), and accommodation pulls it even further in object at 100 cm in front of the +4.00 D lens, the
front of the retina. With the +4.00 D contact lens on vergence leaving the lens is +3.00 D. For the object at
his eye, Sam will function like a 1.00 D myope. The 20 cm in front of the +4.00 D lens, the vergence
corrected far point for the +4.00 D lenseye system is leaving the lens is 1.00D. Randy can handle ver
real and 100 cm in front of the +4.00 D lens. In other gences leaving the spectacle plane ranging from
words, an incident vergence of 1.00D neutralizes +3.00 D down to 1.00 D.
the 1.00 D of excess plus. For the +6.00 D lens, the range of incident ver
Tina is a myope who needs a 8.50D spectacle gences are:
lens but instead is given a 7.00 D spectacle lens. Tina
is underminused by 1.50 D, i.e., 7.00 D of her myopia U=VP,
has been corrected leaving 1.50 D uncorrected. When U = +3.00 D  (+6.00 D) = 3.00 D,
Tina views a distant object through the 7.00 D spec
tacle lenses, the clear image formed by the 7.00D and
spectacles and her eye will be located in front of her U = 1.00 D  (+6.00 D) = 7.00 D.
retina. Accommodation will pull the image even fur
ther in front of her retina. With the 7.00 D specta So the range of incident vergences is from 3.00 D to
cles, Tina is functioning like a 1.50 D spectacle myope. 7.00 D, or Randy's range of clear vision through the
Her corrected far point is real and 66.67 cm in front of +6.00 D lens is 33.3 cm in to 14.3 cm.
her spectacles. In other words, an object placed Incidentally, for distance vision Randy needs a
66.67 cm in front of her spectacles results in a ver +3.00 D lens. Randy's amplitude of accommodation
gence incident on her spectacles of 1.50 D, which in terms of the spectacle accommodative demand is
compensates for the  1 . 5 0 D shortage. + 3 . 0 0 D  (  1 . 0 0 D ) = +4.00D. Through the +3.00
Any person who is overplussed or underminused D lens, Randy's range of clear vision is from optical
functions like a myope. When these people view a infinity in to 25 cm.
distant object without accommodating, their eye forms A bifocal lens is a lens with a distance vision area
the clear image in the vitreous humor and the retinal of one power and a near vision area of a higher plus
image is blurred. When they accommodate, the clear (or less minus) power. The difference between the
image is pulled even further away from the retina and near vision power and the distance vision power is
the blur of the retinal image increases. These people called the add. An unsophisticated bifocal can be
are sometimes said to be fogged because their distance achieved by simply gluing a small plus lens to the
vision is blurred and accommodation blurs it even distance vision lens (Figure 6.18).
more.
Any person who is underplussed or overminused
functions like a hyperope. Accommodation can be
used to compensate for the underplussed or over
minused amount.
Ursula is wearing a +3.50 D spectacle lens. While
wearing these spectacles, she has a corrected far point
that is real and 40 cm in front of her spectacle plane.
What is Ursula's proper correction?
The corrected real far point 40 cm in front of the
spectacle plane indicates that Ursula needs an addi
tional 2.50 D in her spectacle correction. Her proper
spectacle correction is:
add
+3.50 D + (2.50 D) = +1.00 D. FIGURE 6.18. A bifocal lens.
102 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
We could consider the +4.00 D lens of the above The letters on a 20/20 visual acuity line subtend an
example as the near vision region of a +3.00 D dis angle of 5' with the fine detail subtending an angle of
tance vision lens with a +1.00D add. Similarly, the . The retinal image size of such a letter is,
+6.00 D lens can be considered as a +3.00 D distance
vision lens with a +3.00 D add for near vision. Note ^ = t a n ,
that increasing the add makes the range of clear vision 16.67 mm
closer and smaller. This is an important feature in the I = 16.67 mm tan(5').
clinical selection of an add.
Since there are 60' per degree, then 5' equates to
0.083. Therefore,
I = 16.67 mm tan(0.083),
6.19 Retinal Image Sizes
I = 0.0241 mm,
Retinal images are small and inverted relative to the
real world object. Consider a 2m tall basketball or
player standing 10 m from a typical emmtrope. In the
I=24.1 Mm,
thin lens and screen model, the typical lensscreen
distance was 16.67 mm. From the nodal ray, where \ stands for micrometer. (1 = 10~ m.
That's small!)
tan6 = An alternate method for dealing with the tangents
of small angles is to use the small angle approximation
and in which the tangent is replaced by the angle itself
expressed in radians. For the above case 5' equals
i 0.083. Let us convert the angle to radians:
tan6 =
16.67 mm '
9 = 0.083/(57.3/radian),
Therefore,
= 1.45 10"3 radians.
i o
16.67 mm 10 m ' Then
2m I = 16.67 mm tan ,
1III
1 = 16.67 mm i r . ,
10 m
 I  ~ 16.67 mm ,
l = 3.33 mm.
 I ] ~ (16.67 mm)(1.45xl0" 3 ),
The retinal image of the 2m tall basketball player is
3.33 mm in size. I ~ 24.1 x 10"3 mm = 24.1 .
6.20 Retinal Image Sizes: Spectacle vs parallel in object space because they come from the
Contact Lenses same distant object point. For the myope, the path of
the ray traveling through the spectacle lens shows that
Retinal image sizes of corrected ametropes differ de the spectacle corrected retinal image is smaller than
pending on whether a contact correction or a spectacle the contact corrected retinal image. Many myopes
correction is used. Figure 6.19a shows the nodal ray prefer contact lenses to spectacle lenses because of the
for a contact corrected myope viewing a distant off larger retinal image size they get with the contact
axis object point. The nodal ray specifies the retinal lenses.
image size I c . When the myope is corrected with a Another way to reach the same conclusion is to
spectacle lens, the same incident ray is bent up by the consider the image size of the two different correcting
spectacle lens and is no longer the nodal ray of the eye lenses. The image of these correcting lenses is the
(Figure 6.19b). Figure 6.19c shows a ray (solid lines), object for the eye, and this image is formed in the far
which after being bent by the spectacle lens becomes point plane of the eye. The image size in the far point
the nodal ray for the eye and specifies the retinal plane is easily determined by considering the nodal ray
image size I s . For comparison purposes, the nodal ray for the correcting lens. Figure 6.20 shows a superposi
(dashed line) for the contact lens is superimposed on tion of the spectacle lens case (solid lines) and the
Figure 6.19c. The two rays, solid and dashed, are contact lens case (dashed lines). The two incident
^ ^  ^ t
4 h
Y
a)
nodal rays are parallel to each other because they this section. Note that we are talking about the retinal
come from the same distant object point. Clearly, the image size of the same ametrope when corrected by
contact lens image in the far point plane is larger than spectacle lenses vs contact lenses. We are not compar
the spectacle lens image in the far point plane. Since ing different ametropes. A more quantitative treat
the correcting lens images are both formed in the far ment is given in Chapter 14.
point plane and both serve as the object for the eye,
then the contact corrected retinal image will be larger
than the spectacle corrected retinal image. For high
myopes who switch back and forth between contacts Problems
and spectacles, this effect is clearly noticeable.
Similar diagrams for a hyperope are shown in For each of the next four problems, represent the
Figure 6.21ac. Figure 6.21a shows the nodal ray for unaccommodated eye by a 160.00 D thin lens and a
the contact corrected eye. Figure 6.21b shows that this screen (retina) located a distance x behind the lens.
ray is not the nodal ray for the eye when a spectacle The amplitude of accommodation is listed as A. For
correction is worn. Figure 6.21c shows the nodal ray the uncorrected eye, find the far point and near point,
(solid) for the eye when a spectacle lens is worn sketch the range of clear vision, classify the refractive
together with a superposition of the nodal ray (dash error (myopia, hyperopia, emmetropia), and give the
ed) for the contact corrected eye. The hyperope's distance vision correction at the cornea and the dis
retinal image is larger when spectacle corrected. This tance vision correction at a spectacle plane located
is exactly opposite to that of the myope. 15 mm from the cornea.
Figure 6.22 shows the correcting lens image sizes in
the hyperope's far point plane. The dashed ray is the 1. Sally Jones, age 30, x = 19.9 mm, A = 7.00 D.
nodal ray for the contact lens, while the solid ray is the 2. Richard Nixit, age 55, x = 13.9 mm, A = 1.25D.
nodal ray for the spectacle lens. Note that in the far 3. Roger Stub, age 25, x = 16.0 mm, A = 8.50 D.
point plane the spectacle lens image is larger than the 4. Thelma Elf, age 43, x = 17.2 mm, A = 2.50 D.
contact lens image. Consequently, since these images 5. Molly Finnigan is a 4.50 D ocular myope with a
serve as the object for the eye, then the spectacle 6.00 D amplitude of accommodation. When un
corrected retinal image for the hyperope will be larger corrected, can Molly clearly see the fine print in a
than the contact corrected retinal image. book held 40 cm from her cornea? If not, why
Table 6.1 summarizes the qualitative findings of not? If so, what is the ocular accommodative
demand?
6. Mike Finnigan is a 3.50 D ocular hyperope with a
5.00 D amplitude of accommodation. When un
TABLE 6.1. corrected, can Mike clearly see the fine print in a
Retinal Image Size Comparison: Same Ametrope book held 40 cm from his cornea? If not, why not?
If so, what is the ocular accommodative demand?
Contact Spectacle 7. Jim Finnigan is a 1.50 D ocular myope with a
Corrected Corrected
2.00 D amplitude of accommodation. When un
corrected, can Jim clearly see the fine print in a
Myope Larger Smaller
Hyperope Smaller Larger book held 40 cm from his cornea? If not, why not?
If so, what is the ocular accommodative demand?
Thin Lens Eye Models 105
8. Katie Finnigan is a 2.00 D ocular hyperope with a objects at a distance of 37 cm to 75 cm from the
5.50 D amplitude of accommodation. When un lens. When the +5.00 D lens is replaced by a
corrected, can Katie clearly see the fine print in a +4.00 D lens (same vertex distance), what is
book held 40 cm from her cornea. If not, why not? Wilhelmina's range of clear vision? What is
If so, what is the ocular accommodative demand? Wilhelmina's distance vision correction (same ver
9. Rose Opal has a +13.50 D distance vision specta tex distance)? What is Wilhelmina's range of clear
cle correction at a 12 mm vertex distance. Rose vision through her spectacle correction?
looks through her spectacles at a statue located 12. Elroy Frost puts on a  1 . 5 0 D spectacle lens at a
19 cm in front of the spectacles. What is the 13 mm vertex distance. With the 1.50 D lens,
spectacle accommodative demand? What is Rose's Elroy can clearly see real objects from 26 cm to
ocular accommodative demand? 50 cm from the lens. What is Elroy's range of clear
10. Zeke Feldstein has a 9.50 D distance vision vision through a +1.00D spectacle lens (same
spectacle correction at a 13 mm vertex distance. vertex distance)? What is Elroy's distance vision
Zeke looks through his spectacles at a small auto spectacle correction? What is his range of clear
motive part that he holds 14 cm in front of his vision through his correction?
spectacles. What is the spectacle accommodative 13. Jill Harkins is an emmtrope with an unaccommo
demand? What is Zeke's ocular accommodative dated eye represented by a +64.00 D thin lens and
demand? screen (retina). What retinal image size (in mi
11. Wilhelmina Roads puts on a +5.00 D spectacle crons) does Jill have when viewing a distant object
lens that has an 11 mm vertex distance. With the that subtends an angle of 16'?
+5.00 D lens, Wilhelmina can clearly see real
CHAPTER SEVEN
Single Spherical
Refracting
Interfaces
7.1 Convex/Concave Terminology surfaces. The lens itself is thus a converging lens. As
viewed from the outside, which is where a human
observer would be, each surface is convex. This lens is
Consider the spherical glass (n = 1.50) surface shown conventionally called a biconvex lens.
in Figure 7.1. In the middle, the glass bulges out into However, a discrepancy in terminology has de
the air. In Section 3.1, we saw qualitatively that such a veloped in the description of each surface. Consider
surface converges plane waves no matter which way Figure 7.4b, which shows light incident from the left
the waves propagate through the surface. Consequent on the biconvex lens. Initially the light in air ap
ly, a spherical glass surface with the glass in the middle proaches the left surface of the lens, and this surface
bulging into the air is always a converging surface. viewed from the left is convex. Then the light enters
The surface is actually an interface between two the glass and approaches the right surface of the lens.
different optical media, air and glass. Some other But the right surface of the lens, as viewed from inside
examples of optical interfaces are water and glass, the glass, is curved inward like the inside of a bowl.
plastic and water, oil and glass, air and the cornea of Consequently, some authors call the right surface
the eye, the aqueous humor and the front surface of concave, but according to such terminology, the bicon
the crystalline lens, the back surface of the crystalline vex lens, in which biconvex literally implies two con
lens and the vitreous humor. In general, when the vex sides, has a convex left side and a concave right
interface is spherical and the middle of the higher side.
index media bulges out into the lower index media, In order to avoid the above illogical terminology,
then the interface is converging no matter which way let us label a surface or interface as being convex or
the light propagates through the interface. Figure 7.2 concave from the perspective of the lower index
shows examples of converging interfaces. Conversely, medium, regardless of which way the light is traveling.
when the middle of a lower index media bulges into a Thus, let us call the right surface of the lens in Figure
higher index media, then a spherical interface diverges 7.4b convex. With this convention, a biconvex lens has
incident light no matter which way the waves prop a convex left side and a convex right side, as one
agate through the interface. Figure 7.3 shows some might expect.
diverging spherical interfaces. With the assignment of convex and concave being
Historically, people have sought to identify surfaces made from the perspective of the lower index
by their geometric characteristics rather than their medium, then a convex refracting interface always
optical characteristics. The word convex is defined as turns out to be a converging interface (Figures 7.1 and
being curved outward like the exterior of a sphere. 7.2), and a concave refracting interface always turns
The word concave is defined as being curved inward out to be a diverging interface (Figure 7.3). (When
like the interior of a bowl or the interior of a cave. referring to other books, be sure to check what ter
Figure 7.4a shows a glass lens with two converging minology they are using.)
107
)8 Geometric, Physical, and Visual Optics
glass glass
(n = 1.50) /(n = 1.50)
o o
geometric optics to quantitatively treat the relation
ship between the curvature of a spherical surface and
the dioptric power of that surface, as well as the
relationship between the curvature of a wavefront and
the vergence of that wavefront. Before treating the
sagittal approximation, an exact relationship for the
sagitta of a spherical surface is defined and discussed.
Figure 7.5a shows a crosssection of a long horizon
tal glass rod with a spherical front surface. The center
of curvature of the surface is labeled C. The horizontal
a) b) line through C is normal (i.e., perpendicular to) the
FIGURE 7.4. Biconvex lens. spherical surface at point A. In Figure 7.5b, a line
Single Spherical Refracting Interfaces 109
called a chord is perpendicular to the normal line. The The half chord length h is 0.9 cm. Then
chord intersects the surface of the sphere at points B s = 10 cm  V(10cm) 2 (0.9cm) 2 ,
and D, and intersects the normal at point E. The line
s = 10 cm  V(1000.81) cm,
segment AE, which is normal to the surface, is called
the sagitta. The point A is called the vertex or pole of s = 10 cm  9.96 cm,
the sphere. s = 0.04 cm,
Let r equal the radius of curvature of the sphere, s = 0.40 mm.
and s equal the length of the sagitta. In Figure 7.5c, r
equals both the length AC and the length BC. Let h As illustrated in the above example, h2 is frequent
equal half the chord length, which is the length BE. ly much smaller than r2. As a result, Eq. 7.3 can be
Let g equal the length EC. Then from the Pythag accurately approximated by a simpler equation. First,
orean theorem applied to the triangle BEC, rewrite Eq. 7.3 as
r 2 = g 2 + h 2, s = r  rVl  (h 2 /r 2 ). (7.4)
or From calculus, the square root can be approximated
(7.1) by a Taylor series expansion:
From Figure 7.5c, h4
AC = AE + EC, (7.5)
or 2 2
When h is much smaller than r , only the first two
r = s + g, terms of the expression are significant, or
and
s= rg. (7.2)
By substituting Eq. 7.1 into Eq. 7.2, we obtain The square root is equivalent to an exponential of 1/2,
s = rVr2h2. (7.3) which is the source of the 2 in the denominator of the
second term.
Equation 7.3 is an exact relationship between the When we substitute the above equation into Eq.
sagittal length s, the half chord length h, and the 7.4, we obtain
radius of curvature of the spherical interface or wave
front.
 r  r ( l  ^ ) ,
EXAMPLE 7.1
A spherical convex glass surface, as in Figure 7.5, or
has a radius of curvature of 10.00 cm. What is the
sagittal length for a chord length of 1.80 cm? s= rr+2?.
110 Geometric, Physical, and Visual Optics
Finally, while
h^ h2 = (0.9 cm)2 = 0.81 cm2.
provided h2 <^ r2. (7.6)
2r' When s2 is much less than h2, s2 can be neglected in
Equation 7.6 is called the sagittal approximation. It the numerator of Eq. 7.8, and then
provides a very simple relationship between s, h, and
r. Furthermore, since the curvature R of a sphere is r =
equal to the reciprocal of the radius r, it follows from 2^'
or
the sagittal approximation that
s = 2r'
s = y R, provided h2 < 1/R2. (7.7) which is the sagittal approximation.
Equation 7.7 shows that the sagittal length is directly As shown in the next section, the sagittal approxi
related to the curvature R of the sphere for those sit mation is immensely useful. However, we need to use
uations is which the approximation is accurate. the exact relationship, Eq. 7.3, when h2 is not small
relative to r2, in which case, s2 is not small relative to
EXAMPLE 7.2 h2.
Use the sagittal approximation to calculate s for the
surface used in Example 7.1. There, the radius r
was 10 cm and the half chord length h was 0.9 cm.
From Eq. 7.6, 7.3 Derivation of the Vergence Equation
2 2
(0.9 cm) 0.81cm Figure 7.6 shows a long glass rod with a convex
s = ^^r = ^ = 0.04 cm,
2(10 cm) 20 cm spherical surface. The spherical surface is optically a
or single spherical refracting interface (SSRI) between
s = 0.4 mm, air and glass.
The medium that the light is initially in has a
which is the same value obtained with the exact refractive index n^ The medium that the light is in
equation. when leaving the interface has a refractive index n 2 .
The incident wavefront (in medium n t ) is diverging,
For those who are not familiar with the Taylor
while the exiting wavefront (in medium n 2 ) is converg
series expansion, there is a more intuitive way to ob
ing. The incident wavefront is just touching the inter
tain the sagittal approximation. First, take the exact sag
face at point B, which is the vertex of the interface.
ittal equation, Eq. 7.3, and solve for r. The steps are:
The exiting wavefront has moved to point C on the
normal to the interface.
s = rVr2h2,
The time t for the wavefront to move from B to C,
sr^VT^h2". in terms of the directed distance BC and the velocity
w2 of the wavefront in the second medium, is
Square both sides to obtain
(sr)2 = r2h2. BC
t=
w. '
Then
During this time, the part of the incident wavefront at
s2  2rs + r = r  h2, point E has moved from E to H. In the paraxial
s2  2rs = h 2 , approximation, the path of the wavefront in going
from E to H is well approximated by the horizontal
2rs = s2 + h2,
line defined by the points E, F, G, and H. In other
and finally words, any vertical movement is negligible relative to
the horizontal movement. In moving from E to H, the
s2 + h2 wavefront enters the second medium at G. The time t
(7.8)
2s. that it takes for the wavefront to get from E to F to G
Equation 7.8 is still an exact relationship between s, h, to H, in terms of the directed distances EF, FG, and
and r. However, when h2 is much less than r2, then s2 GH, and the velocities w, and w2 of the wavefront in
is also much less than h2. In the example previously the first and second mediums, respectively, is
given, EF FG GH
=
s2 = (0.04 cm)2 = 0.0016 cm2, w, w, w^
Single Spherical Refracting Interfaces 111
( 1 . 3 3  1.53)100 cm/m
P= cornea
 1 0 cm
 2 0 cm/m FIGURE 7.9. Cornea modelled as an SSRI.
P= = +2.00D.
 1 0 cm
Note that the dioptric power of the interface is
+2.00 D no matter which way the light is propagat D_ (1.001.50)100 cm/m
ing through the interface. The sign of the radius of +5 cm
curvature r does change since it depends on the 50 cm/m
sign convention for directed distances. However, P= = 10.00 D.
+5 cm
the sign of the difference in indices also changes
with the result that the sign of the dioptric power P Again note that the dioptric power of the interface
is invariant with respect to the direction that the is 10.00 D, irrespective of which way the light
light is propagating. travels through the interface.
1 / n2
a)
ni / n2
5^^^^^
is equivalent to saying that the paraxial rays are The secondary focal length f2 is the image distance
refracted at or near the vertex point of the interface. when the object is at optical infinity, or alternatively it
As an aid in remembering which way the spherical is the directed distance from the interface to the
surface is actually curving, dashed curves at the top secondary focal point F 2 . To find the secondary focal
and bottom of the vertical line represent the interface. length, we use
The center of curvature C provides the same informa
V = P + U,
tion, but not as quickly.
The secondary focal point is a real image point for and set U equal to zero (incident plane waves). Then
a converging SSRI and a virtual image point for a
diverging SSRI (Figure 7.11). Once the location of the V=R
secondary focal point is known, the incident parallel Since
rays become predictable, and can be used in a ray
diagram. V
ni n2
>
> ~ ~~.;
C ^ F 2
y
\^s '
i
b) ni > n2
ni
f "2^
r^^
Fl
X^J c
>v
a) Ik n2 >
n2 < n ,
^ n2
~0^F, cir^F,
^
/ 
*
FIGURE 7.12. Predictable rays as
n 2 < : n, d) n2 > n! sociated with the primary focal point.
116 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
leaving the interface. The incident wavefront is phys 7.13c in which C and F! are on the same side. From
ically in the medium of index n 1} and the primary focal Eq. 7.25,
length is then associated with n l 5 as is evident mathe f2 = r  f 1 ,
matically in Eq. 7.22. This is true even when the
primary focal point is virtual, in which case the inci or in absolute values
dent wavefront is converging (Figures 7.12c and
7.12d). IfJHrfJHCFj,
Besides Eqs. 7.23 and 7.24, another relationship where CT\ is the distance from C to Fl. Consequently,
exists between the focal lengths. By adding Eqs. 7.21 for the cases where C and F1 are on the same side, the
and 7.22 together, we obtain distance f2 is equal to the distance CT\.
f + f = ^_i
L
2 ~ M D D ' EXAMPLE 7.6
In Example 7.3, there was a +2.00 D SSRI be
or tween water (n = 1.33) and glass (n = 1.53). What
= 2 are the focal lengths for the +2.00 D interface?
L
2 ^ Ll p For light incident from the water side,
But from Eq. 7.19, nj = 1.33 and n2 = 1.53.
n,  n , From Eq. 7.21,
P ' n2 _ (1.53)100 cm/m
so L
2 
P +2.00 D '
f2 + f ! = r. (7.25)
or
Equation 7.25 says that the radius of curvature of 153 cm/m
the interface is equal to the sum of the primary and 2 ~~ ^ n n n = + 7 6 5 cm.
secondary focal lengths of the interface. This relation The secondary focal point is 76.5 cm behind the
ship is a useful selfconsistency check when doing interface (Figure 7.14).
SSRI calculations. It is also useful in setting up "quick From Eq. 7.22,
and dirty" ray diagrams.
In Figure 7.13a, F 2 and C are both on the right side f =iii
of the interface. From Eq. 7.25,
or
f,=rf2; 133 cm/m
f, =  66.5 cm.
or in absolute values +2.00 D
The primary focal point is 66.5 cm in front of the
f,l = r f2l = cF 2 , interface.
Let us use Eq. 7.25 as a selfconsistency check.
where CF 2 is the distance from the center of curvature From Example 7.3, the radius of curvature of this
C to F 2 . Consequently, when making a quick ray interface is +10 cm. From Eq. 7.25,
diagram for this case, one can select the horizontal
scale, plot C and F 2 , and then simply insert on the r = f!+f 2 ,
opposite side at a distance equal to CF 2 . r = 66.5 cm + 76.5 cm = +10.0 cm,
A similar relationship exists for Figures 7.13b and which checks.
* +
** +
\ Fi
n2
) )
since a ray from the center of curvature is normal to image. The image size is I and the object size is O. As
the interface so that the incident angle 4 is equal to before, the sizes are considered positive for objects or
zero, and thus the angle of refraction 9r is also zero. images above the axis and negative for objects and
The rays that pass straight through an interface are images below the axis. The lateral magnification m is
the nodal rays, and hence the nodal point of an SSRI defined as the ratio of the image size I to the object
is at the center of curvature of the interface (Figure size O, or
7.17). For a thin lens in air, the nodal point is at the m = I/0. (7.26)
lens itself. But for the SSRI, the nodal point is not at
the interface, but rather at the center of curvature of The image subtends the angle w' at the nodal point C,
the interface. and from Figure 7.18
The displacement of the nodal point away from the I
interface is a result of the asymmetry of the SSRI. A tan w = .
v r
thin lens in air is symmetric in the sense that the same
media is on both sides of the lens. An SSRI has a The object subtends the angle w at the nodal point C
different medium on each side, and thus is asym and from Figure 7.18
metric. O
In general, any ray associated with the nodal point tan w = +
(either passing through it or pointing toward or away
Note that M is a negative quantity in Figure 7.18, so
from it) is a predictable ray, and passes straight
that u is a positive quantity.
through the interface without bending. The paraxial
Since the nodal ray is a straight line, the angles w
ray diagrams with the expanded vertical scale are
and w' are equal and from the above two equations
shown in Figures 7.17c and 7.17d.
I O
v r w + r '
magnification; however, an easier expression can be for a thin lens in air by the presence of the indices of
derived as follows. refraction.
The basic vergence Eq. 7.16 is For an SSRI,
V = P + U, and U = ^ .
v u
which can be written as
n0 Mn, n, When the vergence equations are substituted into Eq.
7.29, the result is
V X + U
U
A common denominator can be found: m= (7.30)
n2rw _ n2vu nxvu \
vru VTU vru vru Equation 7.30 is a straightforward relationship be
tween the lateral magnification and the vergences U
The common denominator can be eliminated to give and V. Furthermore, Eq. 7.30 is identical in form to
n2rw = n2vu nxvu + n^v, Eq. 5.8 for thin lenses in air. This identity occurs
because the vergences U and V implicitly contain the
or indices or refraction. Equation 7.30 makes lateral
n2rw  n2vu = r\xvu + n^y. magnification calculations extremely easy.
Then
n2u(r  v) = nji;(r  w),
7.8 Imaging Examples
or
rv (7.28) EXAMPLE 7.9
n9w T u' A goldfish in water (n = 1.33) is 40 cm from a
Equations 7.27 and 7.28 can be combined to give +5.00 D waterhigh index glass (n = 1.83) interface
(Figure 7.19). First, use a ray diagram to find the
nji;
(7.29) image, and determine whether it is virtual or real,
m = n0u ' erect or inverted, larger or smaller. Then answer
the same questions by calculation.
Equation 7.29 is an equation for the lateral magnifica In order to draw the ray diagram, we first need
tion m in terms of the image distance v, the object to find the focal points and the radius of curvature
distance w, and the indices of refraction nl and n 2 . of the interface. Here n1 = 1.33, n2 = 1.83, u =
Equation 7.29 differs from the corresponding Eq. 5.7 40 cm.
glass (n=i.83)
to>
water
From Eq. 7.19, The image distance of +109 cm agrees with the ray
diagram. The lateral magnification is
U 3.32 D
m =   = 1.98.
(1.831.33)100 cm/m + 1.68 D
+5.00 D The image is inverted and 1.98 times larger than
the object, and that agrees with the ray diagram.
50 cm/m For instructional purposes, let us also use Eq.
= +10.0 cm.
+5.00 D 7.29 to calculate m:
From Eq. 7.21, riji;
_ n 2 _ (1.83)100 cm/m m = n.w '
2
~T~ +5.00 D (1.33)( + 109cm)
183 cm/m m = (1.83)(40cm) = 1.98.
U = +5.00 D = +36.6 cm.
Note that the indices are needed in the above
From Eq. 7.22, equation, and that we cannot obtain m by merely
n  1 3 3 cm/m _, , taking the image distance over the object distance.
f11 = = ^ ^ = 26.6 cm.
P +5.00 D
EXAMPLE 7.10
Equation (7.25) can be used as a selfconsistency
The goldfish in the previous example swims in to a
check: distance of 14 cm in front of the interface. Now
r = f,+f 2 , where is the conjugate image? Is it real or virtual,
r = (26.6 cm) + (+36.6 cm) = +10.0 cm. erect or inverted, larger or smaller?
The focal points and nodal points are un
Figure 7.20 shows F n F 2 , C, and the predictable
changed. The primary focal length is 26.6 cm, so
rays. the fish is inside F j . Therefore, we would expect a
From the ray diagram, the image is real, inver virtual image that is erect and larger. A quick ray
ted, larger, and approximately 100 cm from the diagram (Figure 7.21) confirms these expectations.
interface. Note that the nodal ray goes through C The calculations are:
and not through the pole of the interface. The _ n^ _ (1.33)100 cm/m
calculations are:
u  1 4 cm '
V = P + U,
u = 1 3 3 c m A n = _ 9 5 0 D
_ ni _ (1.33)100 cm/m
 1 4 cm
u  4 0 cm
Then
133 cm/m
U = 3.32D. V = P + U,
40 cm
Then V = +5.00 D + (9.50 D),
V = +5.00 D + (3.32 D), V=4.50D.
V=+1.68D. The light leaving the interface is in glass, and is
The light in the glass leaving the interface is con diverging.
verging, which agrees with the ray diagram. The image distance is
n2 183 cm/m
y= = = 40 67cm
"=V' v ^n5ir   '
183 cm/m which agrees with the ray diagram. Note that the
= +109 cm. image position is at the center of curvature of the
+ 1.68 D
wavefronts leaving the interface and these wave 40.67 cm+ 5 cm). The magnitude of the vergence
fronts are physically in the glass. at B is
The lateral magnification is . , (1.83)(100cm/m)
U _ 9.50 D 1 BI
45.67 cm
V " 4.50 D = +2.11.
m = 77 =
^ +
^+
or since the wavefront is diverging For instructional purposes, calculate the ver
VB = 9.07D. gence of the wavefront at C, the center of curva
ture of the interface. The wavefront at C is con
The wavefront leaving the interface has a vergence verging, in air, and centered on the real image that
of 16.6D, and 5 cm downstream (at B) its ver is 18.5 cm away from C (i.e., 38.5 cm  20.0 cm).
gence is 9.07 D. The vergence at C is:
EXAMPLE 7.14 100
Converging light in plastic is incident on the same + 18.5 = +5.40D.
plasticair interface discussed in the previous two Note that the wavefront leaving the interface has a
examples. The resulting virtual object is located vergence of +2.60 D, and its vergence has in
30.0 cm from the interface. Find the conjugate creased to +5.40 D at C.
image, and specify whether it is real or virtual,
larger or smaller, erect or inverted.
From Example 7.12, r = +20 cm, f2 = 45.5 cm,
fj = +65.5 cm, and P = 2.2 D. 7.9 The Symmetry Points
Figure 7.25 shows two predictable rays. The
exiting rays show that the image is real, erect, and
larger. You should draw in the predictable ray For thin lenses in air, the plane 2F2 was conjugate to
associated with F 2 . the plane 2F 2 , and the lateral magnification was  1 .
The calculations are: Let us now consider what conjugate plane gives a
u = +30 cm, lateral magnification of  1 for an SSRI. Since
n, m     l ,
U=,
u
144 U=V.
U= +4.80 D.
+30 Then
Note that the incident converging wavefront is in V = P + U,
the plastic. Then
V = P + U, becomes
V =  2 . 2 D + (+4.80D), V=PV,
V=+2.60D.
or
The light leaving the interface is in air and converg 2V=P,
ing in agreement with the ray diagram. The image
distance is: and
n0
vi
=
V'
100
v = +2.60 D = +38.5 cm. Then the expression for V and P in Eqs. 7.18 and 7.21
can be inserted to obtain
The lateral magnification is: n
n2 2
U +4.80 D
=
m = = +2.60 D = +1.85.
i; 2f2'
plastic  +
f
/
'~s6
L t r :
F2 Sc cL^) F 7
^
S^ object
FIGURE 7.25. Incident converging light in
the plastic.
124 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
*+
glass (n = 1.50) diamond (n == 2.40)
/1
virtual object
^   ' F C
/
2
virtual image
s >
FIGURE 7.26. Symmetry points for a diverging
interface.
Single Spherical Refracting Interfaces 125
v r
TABLE 7.1 and
Lateral Magnification as Object Distance Goes to Zero
v = r.
u (cm) v (cm) The lateral magnification is
nji;
1.00 1.60 + 1.06 m n2w '
0.10 0.15 + 1.006
0.01 0.015 + 1.0006 n
i r
m = n7r (7.31)
cjlass
image < .
^  [object\
Fi c FT
ly, m is greater than + 1 , and the image must be erect j\ student's eye
and larger than the object, which agrees with the ray
diagram.
glass
^XsT* real
virtual
TF^J * object
F
<^* C '^\.
EXAMPLE 7.19
An object in air is located 12.5 cm from a 2.00 D
airglass (n=1.50) interface. Find the conjugate
image and specify whether it is real or virtual, erect
or inverted, larger or smaller, and closer or further
from the interface. Here n1 = 1.00 and n 2 = 1.50.
The focal lengths and the radius of curvature
can be determined from the usual equations. The
results are as follows r = 25.0 cm, fj = +50.0 cm,
FIGURE 7.31. Iris as object for the cornea. and f, = 75.0 cm.
128 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
air ^S glass
Figure 7.32 shows two of the predictable rays. 7.13 Object Space/Image Space
(You should supply the third predictable ray.) Ac
cording to our thin lens in air intuition, an object in The concepts of object space and image space were
front of a minus system would result in a virtual introduced in Section 3.9. The set of all points, rays,
image that is erect, smaller, and closer. The ray or ray extensions associated with the light incident on
diagram shows that this is a strange case because an SSRI constitutes the object space for the interface.
the virtual image is erect, smaller, and further from
the interface than the object is. The calculations All object space entities are associated with the index
are as follows: nl. The set of all points, rays, or ray extensions
associated with the light leaving the interface consti
u = 12.5 cm, tutes image space. All image space entities are as
U=8.00D, sociated with the index n 2 .
V = P + U = 2.00 D + (8.00 D), Remember that object space and image space are
mathematical sets. An object space point might be in
V= 10.00 D, front of the interface (as for a real object) or behind
n0 150 the interface (as for a virtual object). Similarly, an
= 15 cm, image space point might be behind the interface (as
V 10
U 8.00D for a real image) or in front of the interface (as for a
m virtual image).
" V " 10.00 D  + 8
Consider a glassair interface (Figure 7.33). A real
image in air immediately indicates that the light leav
EXAMPLE 7.20
An ophthalmic crown glass (n = 1.523) lens has a ing the interface is in air and is converging. Similarly,
front surface power of +14.00 D, a back surface a virtual image in air indicates that the light leaving
power of 3.00 D, and a central thickness of 8 mm. the interface is in air and diverging. Pay special atten
What is the apparent thickness of this lens as tion to the fact that the virtual image in Figure 7.33b
viewed from the front? has no association with the incident light that is phys
The question is essentially asking for the image ically in the glass. Based on the information given so
position of the back surface of the lens as seen far, we do not know whether the incident light is
through the front. The object distance is converging or diverging. Remember that the virtual
u =  8 mm, image point is the center of curvature of the exiting
and diverging wavefront that is physically in the air.
Figure 7.34 shows a waterplastic interface. A real
11! = 1.523 while n 2 = 1.000. object in water indicates immediately that the light
Then incident on the interface is in the water and is diverg
u=n1=1523mm/m=1904 ing. Similarly, a virtual object in water indicates that
u  8 mm the light incident on the interface is in the water and is
V = P + U, converging. Pay special attention to the fact that the
virtual object in Figure 7.34b has no association with
V = +14.00 D + (190.4 D) = 176.4 D, the exiting light that is physically in the plastic. Based
1000 on the information given so far, we do not know
= v =  190.4 = 5.7 mm. whether the exiting light is converging or diverging.
The image of the back surface is virtual and located Remember that the virtual object point in Figure
5.7 mm from the front surface. Thus, the apparent 7.34b is simply the center of curvature of the incident
thickness, as seen from the front, is 5.7 mm. converging wavefront that is physically in the water.
Single Spherical Refracting Interfaces 129
virtual object
real object
Imagine an interface between glass and plastic with front of an SSRI, but now the nodal point is at the
a virtual object in plastic. What does this mean in center of curvature of the interface and not at the
terms of the incident light? The virtual object indicates interface itself.
that the incident light is converging. In plastic indi Figure 7.35a shows a converging interface and the
cates that the incident light is physically in the plastic. nodal ray for a distant object that subtends an angle w
So converging light in the plastic is incident on the at the nodal point. The image is in the secondary focal
interface. The virtual object location is at the center of plane, which is a distance of f2 minus r from the nodal
curvature of the incident converging wavefront. You point. The angle w' that the image subtends at the
should draw a sketch similar to Figure 7.34b for this nodal point is equal to w. From the triangle involving
situation. the C, the optical axis, and the image:
Imagine an interface between beer and glass with a l = ( f 2  r ) t a n w . (7.32)
virtual image in the beer. What does this mean in
terms of the exiting light? The virtual image indicates Note that Eq. 7.32 has a different form than the
that the exiting light is diverging. In beer indicates that analogous Eq. 5.11 for a thin lens in air.
the exiting light is physically in the beer. So diverging
light in the beer is leaving the interface. The virtual EXAMPLE 7.21
image location is at the center of curvature of the A distant object in air is in front of a long glass
diverging wavefront that is leaving the interface. You (n=1.50) rod with a +1.00 D front surface. The
should draw a sketch similar to Figure 7.33b for this object subtends an angle of 2 at the interface.
situation. Where is the conjugate image? What is its size?
As suggested in Section 3.9, it sometimes helps to
color code the incident light and everything associated f2 = y = ^ y = +150cm,
with it (i.e., everything in object space), and use a
different color for the exiting light and everything n9 n, 50
= +50 cm,
2
associated with it (i.e., everything in image space). P +1
I = 100 cm tan w = (100 cm)(0.0349) = 3.49 cm.
It is interesting to note that
7.14 Imaging a Distant Object
The calculation of the image size for a distant object in so that Eq. 7.32 can be written
front of a thin lens in air was discussed in Section 5.13. l = fitanw. (7.33)
There, the angle subtended at the nodal point of the
thin lens in air was used to calculate the image size. Figure 7.35b shows the geometry involved. The paral
The same technique can be used for a distant object in lel ray in image space shows that the distance AB is
130 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
\ n1 ' n2
n2
f 2 r
W ^ ^ F2
F
'iSsS. A C\.
I
equal to the image size I, and then the above equation eliminated and an equation derived that relates the old
follows directly from the triangle ABFj. dioptric power to the new dioptric power.
In the original situation, we first found the radius of
curvature from
(n2~ni)old
EXAMPLE 7.24
Consider a 13.00 D airplastic (n = 1.44) inter
face. The room is suddenly flooded with water
(n = 1.33). What is the dioptric power of the result
ing waterplastic interface? FIGURE 7.36. Lens clock.
Stop! Before calculating, do you expect a diop
tric power that is larger or smaller in magnitude?
The difference in indices decreases, so the diop
tric power should decrease in magnitude. For the
calculations, let us assume that the light is initially
in air, although the assumption is not crucial. lated directly from the lens clock reading and the
The old indices are: differences in indices.
^ = 1.00 and n2 = 1.44. The calculation is based on the fact that the lens
clock is actually measuring a sagitta, and the sagitta is
The new indices are: directly related to the curvature. When two SSRIs
nl = 1.33 and n2 = 1.44. have the same curvature, the lens clock reading is the
Then from Eq. 7.34 same on both surfaces. In effect, when going from one
surface to the other, the media is being changed
_ (1.441.33) without changing the curvature. Hence, Eq. 7.34 can
(13.00 D),
(1.441.00) be used with the old dioptric power as the lens clock
11 reading, and the new dioptric power as the true
Pe= 44 (13.00 D), dioptric power of the surface, i.e.,
Pnew = 3.25D.
p _ \n2 ~ n i ) t r u e p , <\
The 3.25 D agrees with the expectations of a
r r
true (r\ n \ clock * \I.JJ)
Vn2
1 J clock
dioptric power smaller in magnitude.
The true dioptric power is larger in magnitude than
the lens clock reading when the true index difference
is larger than the assumed index difference, and vice
versa.
7.16 Lens Clock Readings
13. The anterior surface of the crystalline lens is an 14. An airglass (n = 1.53) interface has a power of
SSRI between the aqueous humor (n = 1.336) and 10.00 D. If the room is filled with water (n =
the crystalline lens cortex (n = 1.386). If the radius 1.33), what is the power of the waterglass inter
of curvature is 10.0 mm, what is the dioptric face? If the room is filled with oil (n = 1.73), what
power of this surface in the eye? If the crystalline is the power of the oilglass interface?
lens is removed from the eye, and the anterior 15. A lens clock calibrated for n = 1.53 reads +6.00 D
surface remains spherical with the same radius, on a spherical highlite (n = 1.71) glass surface.
what is the dioptric power of the aircrystalline What is the true dioptric power of the interface?
lens interface?
CHAPTER EIGHT
Plane Refracting
Interfaces and
Reduced Systems
8.1 Plane Interfaces as a Special Case direction of travel of the incident plane waves by
of Spherical Interfaces Snell's Law (Figure 8.1c and 8.Id),
nx sinOj = n2 sin9 r . (8.1)
Consider a series of single spherical refracting inter
faces (SSRIs) where each successive interface is flatter When paraxial angles are involved, the small angle
than the preceding one. The SSRI equations in Chap approximation to Snell's law is valid, i.e.,
ter 7 hold for each of these interfaces. The limiting
 = 2 (8.2)
case of this series is a flat or plane interface, and
hence, in the limit, the SSRI equations also hold for When n2 is greater than n1? the rays bend toward the
the flat interface. normal (Figure 8.Id). For example, the ray bends
As shown in Eq. 7.20, the dioptric power P of an towards the normal when light in air is incident on a
SSRI is directly proportional to the curvature R of the plane airwater interface. When nx is greater than n 2 ,
interface. As spherical interfaces are made flatter, the rays bend away from the normal (Figure 8.2). For
their curvature decreases and their dioptric power gets example, the ray bends away from the normal when
closer to zero. A flat or plane interface has zero light in glass is incident on a plane glassair interface.
curvature and zero dioptric power. Note that the
radius r is reciprocally related to the curvature R, and
hence r goes to infinity for a plane interface.
Consider plane waves in a medium of index nt 8.2 Diverging and Converging Wavefronts
incident on a plane refracting interface between media
nl and n 2 . When the plane waves are incident normal When diverging or converging wavefronts are incident
ly, all parts of the wavefront reach the interface at the on a plane interface, part of the wavefront reaches the
same time and all parts change speed at the same interface first, and this part changes speed before the
time. The wavefronts leaving the interface are still remaining parts. The result is that diverging or con
plane waves and still normal to the interface (Figure verging wavefronts change their curvature as they pass
8.1a). through plane interfaces. Figure 8.3a shows the wave
When the plane waves are incident on a plane fronts for a case in which nl is greater than n 2 . Figure
interface at an angle to the normal, they are neither 8.3b shows the rays associated with the wavefronts.
converged nor diverged so that the waves leaving the Since nt is greater than n 2 , each ray in Figure 8.3
interface are still plane waves, as expected for a zero bends away from the normal. The object point at A is
dioptric power interface. However, the direction of real, and the image point at B is virtual and closer
travel of the plane waves is deviated (Figure 8.1b). As than the object to the interface. The image location
discussed in Section 1.12, the direction of travel of the can be determined from the vergence Eqs. 7.167.18.
plane waves leaving the interface is related to the Since P is zero,
135
136 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
** +
n2
a)
f ^ ^ * ^ l normal N n,
u
and
133
U= = 1.33D.
FIGURE 8.2. Ray incident in the higher index medium. 100
ni /n 2
f>
FIGURE 8.4. The virtual image of the mayfly serves as the FIGURE 8.5. The virtual image is the same size as the object
object for the trout's eye. (the fish), so the lateral magnification is + 1 .
138 Geometric, Physical, and Visual Optics
v =  1 5 cm.
The object distance for the emmetrope's eye is
ux =  ( 1 5 + 5) cm =  2 0 cm.
For the emmtrope, U fp is zero and the accom
d
> modative demand is
A0 = U f p  U x ,
or
100
A = = +5D.
 2 0 cm
The image distance for the emmetrope's eye is
FIGURE 8.6. Comparison for the observer viewing a fish that 16.67 mm, and the lateral magnification is
is an actual distance, d, away. When the water is drained, the
observer views the actual fish at the distance d. When the water is + 16.67mm /,
m = =
present, the observer views the virtual image at a distance less 9nn
2UU mm 0834
than d. The retinal image size I is
I = mO,
I = (0.0834)(30 mm) = 2.50 mm.
tive virtual image points also lie along these two
vertical lines, so the virtual image of the fish is the
EXAMPLE 8.4b
same size as the fish itself.
The ice in Example 8.4a melts, and the emmtrope
Whenever any object is brought closer to an obser can now hold the arrowhead in air 25 cm from his
ver, the observer's retinal image of the object gets eye and look directly at it. Calculate the accom
larger even though the object's size is unchanged. This modative demand and the retinal image size of the
same principle holds when viewing virtual images. emmtrope, and compare it with the results in
Figure 8.6 shows an observer looking at the sub Example 8.4a. Now
merged fish and then looking at the fish in air. The  2 5 cm, and U x =  4 D.
actual distance between the fish and the observer's eye
is the same in each case. The observer looking at the From
submerged fish does not see the actual fish, but rather A0 = U f p  U x ,
sees the virtual image of the fish at the apparent A = +4D.
depth. Since the apparent depth is less than the actual The accommodative demand is less when the em
depth, the observer's retinal image of the submerged mtrope is viewing the arrowhead in air as com
fish is larger than when he or she looks at the fish in pared to viewing it in ice.
air. The lateral magnification of the plane interface is The image distance remains at 16.67 mm, so
+ 1, and so, it does not cause the increase. Instead, the
v + 16.67 mm
shortened object distance for the observer when view = 0.0667,
m=  250.0 mm
ing the virtual image causes the increase.
and the retinalu image size is
EXAMPLE 8.4a I = mO,
An arrowhead, 3 cm in size, is imbedded 20 cm I = (0.0667)(30 mm) = 2.00 mm.
deep in a block of ice (n = 1.33) with flat sides. An
emmtrope stands with his eye 5 cm from the block The emmetrope's retinal image size when the ar
of ice (i.e., 25cm from the arrowhead). Use the rowhead is imbedded in the ice is 25% larger than
typical +60.00 D thin lens and screen model for the when the ice is melted.
emmetrope's eye to calculate the accommodative
demand and the retinal image size that the emmet
rope has when observing the arrowhead.
Since nl is greater than n 2 , Figure 8.3 applies to 8.4 Ray Tracing Through a Flat Slab
the situation. The emmetropic observer sees the in Equiindex Media
virtual image of the arrowhead. The virtual image
of the arrowhead is still 3 cm in size but is at an Figure 8.7 shows a ray passing through a flat slab of
apparent depth given by Eq. 8.3. index n 2 . The indices of the media in front of and
20 cm behind the slab are and n 3 , respectively. Assume
1.33 ' that nx equals n 3 .
Plane Refracting Interfaces and Reduced Systems 139
or
n3 sin w2 = n! sinwj. or
But since n3 equals n1? it follows that *>i =  n g d i .
In this case, v1 is negative, and
sin w2 = sin Wj,
or u2 = vl d2.
Equation 8.3 applied to the second surface is
The equality of w2 and v/x means that the outgoing ray
in n3 is parallel to the incident ray in nl. 1 V
The fact that the outgoing ray is parallel to the or
incident ray makes it easy to quickly draw qualitative
ray sketches for flat slabs in equiindex media. How v2 = di .
ever, when is not equal to n 3 , the outgoing ray is n
g
not parallel to the incident ray. The object distance for the lens is
u3 = v2d3,
or
8.5 Flat Slabs
3=[d1 + ^ + 4
Figure 8.8 shows a point source in air at a distance dj (8.4)
from the front surface of a glass slab. The slab itself
has a thickness d2 and an index n g . A thin lens in air is In Eq. 8.4, dj and d3 are actual distances in air,
located a distance d3 behind the back surface of the while d2 is a thickness of glass and is divided by the
slab. The object for the lens is the image formed by index n g . Evidently, the thickness d2 in glass of index
the back surface of the slab. ng is equivalent to an air thickness of d 2 /n g .
Each of the diverging rays leaving the point source By the same reasoning, it is easy to show that any
bends toward the normal on entering the slab and thickness d of a material of index n is equivalent to an
away from the normal on leaving the slab. The outgo air thickness of d/n. Let us temporarily label the
140 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
equivalent air thickness as d, or oil (Figure 8.9). What distance must the camera be
focused for?
(8.5) The object for the camera is the virtual image
n that the top oil surface forms. From the equivalent
Then we can write Eq. 8.4 as air system, the object distance for the camera lens
is
i*3 =  [ d 1 + d 2 + d 3 ]. (8.6)
7 16 5 1
M
EXAMPLE 8.5 ^ = Ll44 + r33 + r72 + 1 J C m '
A 4mm tall object in air is located 17 cm from the ".ens = [^.86 + 12.03 + 2.91 + 10] cm,
front surface of a 33cm thick glass (n = 1.50) slab.
A thin lens in air is located 8 cm behind the glass "ien. = 29.80 cm.
slab. What is the object distance for the lens? What Note that the 7 cm of plastic is equivalent to
is the size of the (apparent) object for the lens? 4.86 cm of air, the 16 cm of water is equivalent to
The object for the lens is the virtual image 12.03 cm of air, and the 5 cm of oil is equivalent to
formed by the back surface of the slab, and Figure 2.91 cm of air. Note also that the apparent depth of
8.8 shows the situation. the butterfly is 19.80 cm from the top oil surface,
Equation 8.6 gives the object distance for the and finally the virtual image of the butterfly at the
lens: apparent depth is the same size as the imbedded
butterfly.
33 cm
3 =  [ l 7 cm + + 8 cm
] Whenever the refractive index n is greater than 1,
u3 = [17 + 22 + 8] cm = 47 cm. the equivalent air distance d is less than the actual
Note that the 33 cm of glass of index 1.5 is equival distance d. For this reason, the equivalent air distance
ent to 22 cm worth of air. is usually called the reduced distance. In the preceding
The lateral magnification for each plane surface example, the reduced distance for the 7 cm of plastic
is +1, so the size of the object for the lens is still was 4.86 cm, the reduced distance for the 16 cm of
4 mm. water was 12.03 cm, and the reduced distance for the
5 cm of oil was 2.91 cm. In this context, reduced is a
Equation 8.6 is easily extended to systems with synonym for equivalent air.
multiple plane interfaces. Figure 8.9a shows three flat
slabs in front of a thin lens in air. The object distance EXAMPLE 8.7
for the lens can be found by stepping through the A 3cm thick oil layer (n = 1.72) floats on top of
plane interfaces, a somewhat slow process, or by 26.6 cm of water (n = 1.33), which in turn is on a
setting up the equivalent air distances as shown in 27cm thick flat glass slab (n = 1.50). A camera is
Figure 8.9b and writing directly that held so that its lens is 4 cm above the oil's top
surface. A beetle is clearly imaged in the camera
. =  [ d , + d2 + d3 + d 4 ]. (8.7) when it is focused for an object distance of 21.5 cm.
Where is the actual beetle?
EXAMPLE 8.6 One method of solving this problem is to step
A butterfly is imbedded 7 cm deep in a plastic back through the surfaces, again a slow process. An
(n = 1.44) slab. The plastic is covered by 16 cm of alternate method is to use the equivalent air (or
water (n = 1.33), and a 5 cm layer of oil (n = 1.72) reduced) system to determine the apparent location
is floating on the water. A camera is held in the air of the beetle relative to the apparent boundaries of
so that its lens is 10 cm above the top surface of the the different media.
I1
I
air air  air
I
I
I
I
**'v  ^ , * * v
d2 d3 d4 T di d4 FIGURE 8.9. a, A series of plane interfaces in
di front of a lens. b. The equivalent air (or reduced)
a) b) system.
Plane Refracting Interfaces and Reduced Systems 141
4 ,
4cm {
U
water
53 cm
i7cm czr"_izr.L 21
20cm \ J virtual image
. ^ of beetle
18 cm .
FIGURE 8.10. Reduced (equivalent air) system for beetle ex FIGURE 8.11. Converging light incident on a flat interface.
ample.
The dioptric power of the thin lens in the reduced The reduced object distance is
system is Pr and
66.5 cm
Vr = Pr + U r . u = 1.33 =50.0 cm,
By substituting the equation for the reduced distance and the reduced image distance is
into the above equation for U r , we see that +37.5 cm
v = 1.50 = +25.0 cm.
Ur=
(^S) = "^ = U a ' Thus, the reduced system consists of a +6.00 D
thin lens in air. The (real) object is located 50 cm in
where Ua is the vergence in the actual system. By front of the lens and the (real) image is located
substituting the expression for the reduced distance v, 25 cm behind the lens.
we find that In the reduced system:
10
r a
u= 50.0 cm
= 2.00D.
(v/n2) v '
and
where Va is the exiting vergence in the actual system. 100
Since the corresponding vergences are equal, the sub V= = +4.00D.
scripts can be dropped: +25.00 cm
From U and V, it is clear that the dioptric power of
u = ua = ur, the thin lens in the reduced system must be
+6.00 D.
and In the actual system:
v=v =v. U= M
133
=2.00D,
It then follows that the dioptric power of the thin lens 66.5 cm
in the reduced system must be equal to the dioptric 150
power of the actual SSRI, or V= = +4.00D.
+37.5 cm
P = P M. = PX .. The respective vergences are equal, and in both
M. a r
systems the lateral magnification is U/V or 0.5.
The lateral magnificaton of an SSRI is equal to the
vergence ratio U/V. Since the respective vergences are EXAMPLE 8.11
the same in the actual system and in the reduced A real object in plastic (n = 1.44) is located 18 cm
system, the lateral magnification is the same in the two in front of a +3.00 D plasticwater (n = 1.33) inter
systems. Thus, given the same object size, the image face. The conjugate image is virtual and located
size I is the same in the actual and in the reduced 26.6 cm from the interface. Set up the reduced
system. system, and verify that the vergences are equal.
Figure 8.14a shows the actual system and Figure
EXAMPLE 8.10 8.14b shows the reduced system. The thin lens in
A real object in water (n = 1.33) is 66.5 cm in front the reduced system has a power of +3.00 D. The
of a 16.00 D waterglass (n = 1.50) interface. The reduced object distance is given by
conjugate image is real and located in the glass
u= 18 cm = 12.5 cm.
u
37.5 cm from the interface (Figure 8.13). Set up the
equivalent air system and verify that the vergences n, 1.44
and the lateral magnification are equal in the two Now look at Figure 8.14a again. What index should
systems. we use to reduce the image distance? The correct
> + + 3.00D
+ 3.00D
A n = 1.44 \ n = 1.33 air ' air
12.5 cm
 2 0 . 0 cm y i FIGURE 8.14. a. Actual system, b. Re
b) duced system.
144 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
+ 8.00D 2.00D
+ 8.00D 2O0D
water /^glass f water
y
44.33 cm 12 cm
a) b) 33.33 cm 8 cm FIGURE 8.15. a. Actual, b. Reduced.
The calculations for the actual system are: See Figure 8.15b. Then
10
ux = 44.33 cm,
u,=
33.33 cm
 3 . 0 0 D,
133
Ux = = 3.00D, ^, + ,,
44.33 cm
^, + ,, V1 = +8.00 D + (3.00 D) = +5.00 D,
V1 = +8.00 D + (3.00 D) = +5.00 D. 100
= +20 cm.
+5.00 D
l >1 =
 12 cm ux =  8 5 cm,
d= =8cm
T5 = 2.00D,
U
The reduced object distance for the first lens is '  8 5 cm
44.33 cm
= 33.33 cm.
^, + ,,
" l =
1.33 V, = +5.00 D + (2.00 D) = +3.00 D.
146 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
water
t Y
plastic
air air air
y y i A
85 cm 28.8 cm
b) 50 cm 20 cm FIGURE 8.16. a. Actual, b. Reduced.
The light leaving the interface is in the plastic, and Vj = +5.00 D + (2.00 D) = +3.00 D,
144 100
+48.00 cm. v1 = +33.33 cm,
+3.00 D +3.00 D
The object distance for the 9.00 D interface is 2 = +33.33 cm  20.0 cm = +13.33 cm,
then
100
u2 = +48.00 cm  28.8 cm = +19.20 cm. U2 = +7.50D,
+13.33 cm
The light incident on the interface is still in the
plastic so V2 = P2 + U 2 ,
144 V2 = 9.00 D + 7.50 D = 1.50 D,
U9 = +7.50 D,
+ 19.20 cm
100
V2 = P 2 + U 2 , = 66.67 cm.
1.50D
V2 = 9.00 D + 7.50 D = 1.50 D.
The final image is virtual and located 66.67 cm to
The light leaving the interface is in the water so the left of the 9.00 D lens. In the actual system,
133 the light leaving the 9.00 D interface is in the
= 88.67 cm. water. So the actual image distance is
1.50D
The final image is virtual and located 3.67 cm to 2 = 1.332,
the left of the plasticwater interface.
The total lateral magnification is 2 = (1.33)(66.67 cm) = 86.67 cm.
Note that the vergences at each step in Examples
8.14a and 8.14b are identical. Therefore, the total
U, U , lateral magnification is the same in both the re
mtrtt = duced and in the actual system. Consequently, the
(0.67)(5.00) = +3.33. image size I is the same in both the reduced and in
mt, the actual system.
The final image is erect and 3.33 times larger than
the object.
The above examples show the equivalency of the
actual system and the reduced system. However, in
EXAMPLE 8.14b general, the numerical roundoff errors are different in
Solve Example 8.14a by using the reduced system. the actual system vs the reduced system. So when
Figure 8.16b shows the reduced system. The diop
comparing the two systems, one needs to keep in mind
tric powers in the reduced system are the same as
those in the actual system, namely, +5.00 D and the number of significant figures.
9.00 D. The lenses are separated by the reduced
distance d where
EXAMPLE 8.15
28.8 cm
d= = 20.0 cm. A real object is in water 133 cm from 3.00 D
1.44 waterplastic interface. The refractive indices of the
water and plastic are 1.33 and 1.44, respectively.
The calculations for the reduced system are: The plastic is 14.4 cm thick and followed by a
 8 5 cm 4.02cm thick slab of ice (n = 1.34). The ice is
50 cm, followed by 13.5 cm of glass (n = 1.50). The back
1.70
surface of the glass is a +10.00 D glassair inter
100 face. The plasticice and iceglass interfaces are
U 2.00 D,
 5 0 cm plane interfaces (Figure 8.17a). Where is the final
^,+,, image? What is the lateral magnification?
Plane Refracting Interfaces and Reduced Systems 147
3.00D +10.00D
3.00D 1
waterNplastid
F,
11.7cm 12.2 cm
FIGURE 8.17. a. Actual, b. Reduced, c. Focal
points in actual system.
Since the system has some plane interfaces, it is In the actual system, the final medium is air (n =
easier to work this problem with the reduced sys 1.00), so it is trivial to find the actual distance.
tem. The reduced system consists of a 3.00 D thin u2 = 1.00 i72,
lens in air at a distance of d in front of a +10.00 D
thin lens in air (Figure 8.17b). The reduced dis i;2 = (1.00)( + 12.7cm) = +12.7cm.
tance d is given by The lateral magnification is the same in both the
reduced and the actual system. From the reduced
 14.4cm 4.02cm 13.5cm .. _ system,
d= + +
T4^ T3r ^^=220cm
m
tot m j m 2 ,
The reduced object distance for the  3 . 0 0 D lens is
u, u2
=
v, v2 >
m
 1 3 3 cm tot
= 100 cm.
1.33  I D 2.13 D
m
tot =  4 D '+7.87 D '
Then
mtot = (+0.25)(0.27) = 0.068.
100
u,  cm =  1 . 0 0 D ,
= 100
^, + ,,
8.9 Front and Back Vertex Powers
W, = 3.00 D + (1.00 D) = 4.00 D,
Consider a centered multiple refracting interface sys
100
=  2 5 cm, tem with an image space index of n{ (the refractive
4.00 D
index of the medium behind the system), and an
u2 =  ( 2 5 cm + 22 cm) =  4 7 cm, object space index of n 0 (the refractive index of the
medium in front of the system) (Figure 8.18a). Three
100 dioptric values are used to characterize the paraxial
U,= = 2.13D,
 4 7 cm imaging properties of such refractive systems. These
values are the equivalent dioptric power, the back
V2 = P2 + U 2 , vertex dioptric power, and the front vertex or neut
V2 = +10.00 D + (2.13 D) = +7.87 D, ralizing dioptric power.
In the basic vergence equation, V = P + U, the
100 dioptric power P is operative for any incident vergence
i>, + 12.7 cm. U. Of the three dioptric values for refractive systems,
+7.87 D
148 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
P =  (8.9)
plane waves Figure 8.18d shows a system with a positive Pn. For
emerging emerging plane waves, the incident light is diverging
and F 1 is real. Figure 8.18e shows a system with a
negative P n . For emerging plane waves, the incident
light is converging and Fj is virtual.
Consider a system with a back vertex power of
FIGURE 8.18. a. Paraxial representation of multiinterface +7.00 D. When plane waves are incident on the sys
system, b. Positive back vertex power, c. Negative back vertex tem, the vergence of the converging light leaving the
power, d. Positive (or plus) neutralizing power, e. Negative (or back vertex is +7.00 D. Now reverse the light. When
minus) neutralizing power. the light is reversed, diverging light of vergence
7.00 D is incident on the back surface of the system,
and according to the principle of reversibility, plane
only the equivalent dioptric power is operative for any waves leave the front vertex (Figure 8.19a). For the
incident vergence. The front and back vertex powers reversed situation, the system has a neutralizing diop
are operative only for situations involving plane tric power of +7.00D, i.e., it neutralizes light of
waves, and thus are not real dioptric powers in the vergence 7.00 D. In general, when the light through
V= P + U sense. Here only the back vertex and neut a system is reversed, the original back vertex power
ralizing powers are discussed. The equivalent dioptric becomes the new neutralizing power.
power is discussed in Chapter 11. Similarly, consider light of vergence 5.00 D inci
The back vertex power of a system is the vergence dent on a system with a neutralizing power of
Vb of the light leaving the back of the system when +5.00 D. Then plane waves leave the back of the
plane waves are incident on the front (Ul = 0), i.e., system. Now reverse the light so that the plane waves
for U, = 0 , P v =V b . For plane waves incident along are incident on the back of the system. From the
Plane Refracting Interfaces and Reduced Systems 149
original Then
Ux=0,
Vj = +10.00 D,
^ = +10.00 cm,
2 = +10.00 cm  22.00 cm = 12.00 cm,
reversed U2=8.33D,
a)
V2 = 3.00 D + (8.33 D) = 11.33 D.
original So in the reversed system,
(Pv)rev=  1 1 . 3 3 D ,
or in the original system
Pn = 11.33 D.
EXAMPLE 8.16
F 1 is virtual and located 11.7 cm behind the front
Find the neutralizing and back vertex powers of the vertex of the system (Figure 8.17c).
system in Example 8.15 (shown in Figure 8.17a).
Since the vergences are the same in the actual Note that the back vertex power provides informa
and in the reduced system, we can use the reduced tion only when plane waves are incident on a system,
system. The reduced system consists of a 3.00 D and the neutralizing power provides information only
thin lens 22 cm in front of a +10.00 D thin lens when plane waves are leaving a system. For the system
(Figure 8.17b). To find the back vertex power, in Example 8.15, the back vertex power is +8.19 D,
consider plane waves incident on the system front, and the neutralizing or front vertex power is
which is the 3.00 D lens, then 11.33 D. Clearly, the two vertex powers can be very
different, but this is not always the case.
Consider a thin lens of dioptric power P. When
V^3OOD, plane waves are incident on the lens:
vl = 33.33 cm,
V = P + U = P,
2 = (33.33 cm + 22.00 cm) = 55.33 cm,
so the back vertex power of the thin lens is equal to P.
U2=1.81D, When plane waves leave the lens:
V2 = +10.00 D + (1.81 D) = +8.19 D. V = 0 = P + U,
So or
P=+8.19D. P=U,
The easiest way to find the neutralizing power is to so the neutralizing power of the thin lens is equal to P.
reverse the light and let plane waves be incident on Thus, for a thin lens of power P, the back vertex
the back lens. For the reversed system, relabel the
power and the neutralizing power are both equal to P.
lens as
As shown in Chapter 11, the equivalent dioptric power
Pj = +10.00 D and P2 = 3.00 D. also equals P.
150 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
8.10 Vertex Neutralization 8.10 gives the same result. Note that the informa
tion given does not specify the neutralizing power
Assume that optical systems A and B are in contact of A. Also, the back vertex power of B is not
with each other, with A in front of B. Assume that useful here since plane waves are not incident on
whenever plane waves are incident on A, plane waves B.
leave B. Then we say that the systems have neutral
EXAMPLE 8.19
ized each other. What condition is needed for this to
A system has a neutralizing power of 3.75 D and
happen? a back vertex power of 6.25 D. What thin lens
Since plane waves are incident on A, the vergence placed against the back of the system will neutralize
leaving it is equal to its back vertex power (P V ) A . it?
Since the systems are in contact, this vergence is When plane waves are incident on the front of
incident on B without change. For plane waves to the system, the vergence of the light leaving the
leave B, the vergence incident on it must equal back is 6.25 D. Therefore, a +6.25 D thin lens is
" ( P J B where (P n ) B is the neutralizing power of needed to give plane waves leaving.
system B. Therefore, the condition is that the back What thin lens placed against the front of the
vertex power of system A is equal in magnitude but system will neutralize it?
opposite in sign to the neutralizing power of system B, To get plane waves leaving the back of the
system, the vergence of the light incident on the
or front must be +3.75 D. The thin lens in front of the
(PV)A =  ( P ) E (8.10) system must take incident plane waves and convert
them to the needed vergence. A +3.75 D thin lens
EXAMPLE 8.18
will do the job.
System B has a neutralizing power of +4.00 D and
a back vertex power of +7.00 D. System B is
placed in contact with the back of system A. What
parameters must A have to neutralize B? 8.11 Reduced Angles
To get plane waves out of B, the vergence
incident on it must equal 4.00 D. Therefore, the Figure 8.20a shows a paraxial ray incident on a spheri
vergence leaving A must be 4.00 D, and A must cal surface. The object space index is n. The axial
have a back vertex power of 4.00 D. Equation point is a distance d from the surface. The ray makes
"M
a)
I =n0
i
equivalent air (reduced) air air
y
^
I T
b)
1f
FIGURE 8.20. a. Actual ray angle, b. Reduced ray angle.
Plane Refracting Interfaces and Reduced Systems 151
an angle with the axis and hits the surface at a the water (n = 1.33) outside the window. What is
distance y above the axis. Therefore, the ocular accommodative demand when the fish
y is 21 cm from the outside of the submarine's win
tan ~ = ^ . dow and when the lens representing the hy
perope's eye is 15 cm from the inside of the
Figure 8.20b shows the same ray in a reduced system. window?
Now the axial point is a (reduced) distance d from the
5. A lens in air has exiting light of vergence
surface, where
+3.50 D. Seven centimeters behind the lens is a
flat airglass (n = 1.53) interface. The glass is
a4. 11cm thick followed by a flat glasswater (n =
n 1.33) interface. The water is 9 cm thick followed
Since image sizes are the same in an actual system and by a flat waterplastic (n = 1.44) interface. The
in a reduced system, it follows that the lateral distance plastic is 5 cm thick followed by a flat plasticair
y is the same in the two systems. The (reduced) angle interface. Where and in what medium is the phys
that the ray makes with the axis is given by ically real image formed?
~ tan = =.
y 6. Find the reduced (equivalent air) system for a
d 7cm thick glass (n = 1.61) lens with a +7.00 D
We can then substitute for the reduced distance to front surface and a 3.00 D back surface. Specify
obtain the plastic (n=1.44) lens (surface powers and
y central thickness) that has the same reduced
A  y
 ny system.
d d/n d 7. A system consists of an ophthalmic crown (n =
or 1.523) glass component in front of a barium crown
= . (8.11) (n = 1.617) glass component. The ophthalmic
crown glass is 4 cm thick and has a +10.00 D front
Equation 8.11 relates the reduced angle to the angle surface. The barium crown component is 3 cm
in the actual system. Remember that reduced is a thick and has a 4.00 D back surface. The inter
synonym for equivalent air. While a reduced distance d face between the two glass types is flat. Find the
is smaller than the actual distance d, the reduced angle reduced system, the back vertex power, and the
is the larger than the actual angle . neutralizing power.
8. A +2.00 D thin lens is located 6 cm in front of a
6.00 D thin lens, which in turn is 3 cm in front of
a +7.00 D thin lens. What is the back vertex
Problems power? What is the neutralizing power?
9. A +8.00 D thin lens is located 15 cm in front of a
1. A butterfly is 18.5 cm above the surface on a pond 10.00 D thin lens. Find the back vertex power
(n = 1.33). What is the apparent height of the and the neutralizing power of the system.
butterfly as seen by a fish under water in the 10. A three lens system has a +3.00 D neutralizing
pond? If the fish is 250 cm below the pond's power, and a +7.00 D back vertex power. Rela
surface, what is the apparent depth of the fish as tive to the front surface of the system, where can
seen by the butterfly? an object be placed in order for plane waves to
2. While tubing down the Muskegon River (n = leave the back of the system?
1.33), a student notices a rock that appears to be 11. A system has a distant object, a +4.00 D neut
80 cm vertically below the surface. What is the ralizing power, and a +6.50 D back vertex power.
actual depth of the rock? What thin lens placed against the front of the
3. A real object is located 12.5 cm in front of a 15cm system results in plane waves leaving the back of
thick glass (n = 1.50) slab. A lens is located 7 cm the system?
from the back surface of the slab. What is the 12. A system has a distant object, a 5.00D neut
vergence of the wavefront incident on the lens? ralizing power, and a +8.00 D back vertex power.
What is the equivalent air thickness (reduced What thin lens placed against the back of the
thickness) of the slab? system results in plane waves leaving the thin
4. A submarine has a 12cm thick plastic (n = 1.58) lens?
window with flat sides. A 3.25 D uncorrected hy 13. What is the neutralizing power of a +4.50 thin
perope in the submarine views a tropical fish in glass (n = 1.53) lens?
152 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
14. A system has a distant object, a +5.00 D back d. neutralizing power 17.00 D, back vertex pow
vertex power, and a +12.00 D neutralizing power. er anything.
Which of the following systems placed against the e. back vertex power 5.00 D, neutralizing power
back of the first system will result in plane waves anything.
leaving the back of the second system. f. back vertex power 12.00 D, neutralizing pow
a. neutralizing power 5.00 D, back vertex power er anything.
anything. g. back vertex power 7.00 D, neutralizing pow
b. neutralizing power 12.00 D, back vertex pow er anything.
er anything. h. back vertex power 17.00 D, neutralizing pow
c. neutralizing power 7.00 D, back vertex pow er anything.
er anything.
CHAPTER NINE
Lenses Revisited
153
154 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
EXAMPLE 9.1
A thin glass (n = 1.60) biconvex lens has surface
radii of magnitude 12 cm and 20 cm, respectively
ni ln2 n3 (Figure 9.1a). What is the dioptric power of the
lens?
Unless specified otherwise, we assume the lens
is in air. Since the lens is biconvex, the surface
powers are both positive. From Eq. 9.1,
FIGURE 9.3. Lens surface powers. (1.601.00)(100cm/m)
1_
+12 cm
curvature by or
Pl =
p.=
l
and p2 =
n,n, (9.1) ^ = + 5 0 0 D
l
Similarly,
where xx and r 2 are the respective radii of curvature of
the surfaces, n 2 is the refractive index of the lens P2 = ^ = +3.00D.
material, and where nx and n 3 are the respective
refractive indices for the mediums in front of and From Eq. 9.3,
behind the lens. Pt = ( + 5.00 D) + (+3.00 D) = +8.00 D.
Let Uj and Vj be the respective incident and
exiting vergence of the light at the first surface. Let U 2
EXAMPLE 9.2
and V2 be the respective incident and exiting vergence
A thin plastic (n = 1.50) meniscusconvex lens has a
of the light at the second surface. The vergence equa convex side with a radius of curvature 5 cm and a
tions at each surface are: concave side with a radius of curvature of 25 cm
(Figure 9.Id). What is the dioptric power of the
^ , + ,, lens?
and For the convex side:
V2 = P2 + U 2 .
P, = y = +10.00 D.
When the central thickness of the lens is small enough,
no significant vergence changes occur as the light For the concave side:
travels across the lens, and
U2=V,.
; = ! = 2000
Then
Then
V2 = P 2 + V Pt = ( + 10.00 D) + (2.00 D) = +8.00 D.
suits would be 9.00 D. For the back vertex Consider a meniscusconvex polymethylmethacry
power, the converging light across the interior adds late (PMMA) contact lens correction with a central
plus vergence to the 9.00 D (or reduces the thickness of 0.36 mm, a front surface radius of
minus). For the neutralizing power, (in the re 6.30 mm, and a back surface radius of 7.80 mm. The
versed system) the diverging light loses minus ver refractive index of P M M A is 1.49. The front and back
gence across the interior. surface powers are +77.78 D and  6 2 . 8 2 D , respec
Again let us use the reduced system
tively. The sum of the surface powers is +14.96 D.
4 cm The back vertex power is +16.45 D , and the neutraliz
P T Q =2.35 cm. ing power is +15.90 D. The contact lens has a small
For the back vertex power: central thickness, but the surface powers are high.
^ = +6.00 0 and P2 = 15.00 D. Therefore, a clinically significant vergence change oc
curs across the interior of the lens, and this contact
For lens must be treated as a thick lens. Clearly, the
Uj=0, ^ = +6.00 0 , surface powers as well as the central thickness must be
taken into account in deciding whether or not a lens
100
l>i = = +16.67 cm, can be treated as thin.
+6.00 D
2= + 1 6 . 6 7 c m  2 . 3 5 c m = +14.31 cm,
100
U,= = +6.98D,
+ 14.31 cm 9.4 Thin Lenses in Different Media
V2 = P2 + U 2 = 15.00 D + 6.98 D,
P V =V 2 =  8 . 0 2 D , Typically, lenses are used in air and so the thin lens
power Pt is the power of the lens in air. Suppose the
which agrees with our expectations that the result medium in front of or behind the lens is changed.
would be less minus than the thin lens value of What happens to the dioptric power? To answer this
9.00 D. question, we need to know the refractive index n 2 of
For the reversed system:
the lens material.
P, = 15.00 D and P2 = +6.00D, Let n1 be the refractive index of the medium in
1^ = 0 gives V! =  1 5 . 0 0 D , front of the lens (the object space index), n 2 be the
and then refractive index of the lens material, and n 3 be the
 100 m refractive index of the medium behind the lens (the
l =
^i^D="667cm' image space index). When the object space index nl is
changed, the lens' front interface power F{ changes
2 = (6.67 cm + 2.35 cm) = 9.02 cm,
according to
100
U2 = 11.09 D, (n2 n
9.02 cm /D\ _ i)new / p x
(9.4)
VMJnew in n \ Vrl/old
V2 = P2 + U 2 = +6.00 D + (11.09 D). U
\ 2 n
lJold
Since this is the reversed system When the image space index n 3 is changed, the lens'
Pn=V2 = 5.09D, back interface power P2 changes according to
which also agress with our expectations that the /p \ ( n 3 n2)new / p v
result would be less minus than the thin lens value V r 2^new /_ _ _ \ V r 2;old>
(n3  n2)olc
of 9.00 D.
This lens has a back vertex power of 8.02 D or
and a front vertex (or neutralizing) power of /D\ _ (n2 n
3)new / p x
5.09 D. Again, the difference is due to the differ V r 2^new ( n  nr> \)
in
2
V^r 2o /lodl d
3 old
( 9
5 )
where Pnew is the new thin lens power and Pold is the TT 1000 mm/m ^
old thin lens power, i.e., U
' = 15.72 mm = ~^>
*new
VM/new ' V*2>Jnew5 Vl = P, + Uj = +19.00 D + (63.61 D)
"old =
( * l ) o I d "*" ( " 2 ) o l d = 44.61 D,
Note that in Eq. 9.6 the interface powers have _ 1000 mm/m
dropped out and only the thin lens powers remain. " 1 = 44.61 D =  2 2  4 2 m m >
2 = (22.42 mm + 2.70) = 25.12 mm,
EXAMPLE 9.6 1000
A +13.00 D thin ophthalmic crown lens is dropped U2 = = 39.81 D,
into water (n = 1.333). What is the power of the 25.12
lens while under water? V2 = P2 + U 2 = +47.00 D + (39.81 D),
The refractive index of ophthalmic crown is
1.523. Then from Eq. 9.6, V2=+7.19D,
_ _ (1.5231.333) 100
( + 13.00 D), v? = = +13.91 cm.
(1.5231.000) +7.19 D
190 The light coming out of the eye is converging and has
Pnew= 523 ( +13.00 D)=+4.72 D. a vergence of magnitude 7.19 D. This eye is a 7.19 D
ocular myope. The far point is real and located a
distance of 13.91 cm in front of the eye.
EXAMPLE 9.7 What (thick) spectacle lenses worn at a vertex
Assume the crystalline lens of the human eye is
thin and has a refractive index of 1.400. The power distance of 12 mm corrects this eye for distance vision?
of the lens in the eye is about +19D. What is the For this model, assume the vertex distance is from the
power of the crystalline lens in air? back vertex of the lens to the cornea.
In the eye, the crystalline lens is bounded on the To get a clear image on the retina, the vergence
front by the aqueous humor, and on the back by incident on the cornea must be 7.19 D. The far point
the vitreous humor, both of which have a refractive is 13.91 cm minus 1.2 cm or 12.71 cm from the specta
index of 1.336. From Eq. 9.6, cle plane. The vergence Vb leaving the back of the
= (1.4001.000)
spectacle lens must be
new
(1.4001.336) ^Lyu> ^11^ 100
Actually, the crystalline lens should be treated as a
Vb
12.71 cm = 7.87D.
thick lens. At this vertex distance, any spectacle lens with a back
vertex power of 7.87 D corrects the eye for distance
vision.
9.5 Another Eye Model
Previously, we dealt with thin lens in air and single 9.6 Exploding a Single Spherical
spherical refracting interface eye models. Now con Refracting Interface
sider a slightly more sophisticated eye model. The
cornea is represented as a +47.00 D SSRI between air Figure 9.4a shows a system with water (n = 1.33) in
and the aqueous humor (n = 1.336), while the crystal front, air (n = 1.00) in the middle, and glass (n = 1.53)
line lens is represented as a +19.00 D thin lens with behind. Both the concave waterair interface and the
the aqueous humor in front of it and the vitreous convex airglass interface have a radius of curvature of
humor (n = 1.336) behind it. The distance from the 4 cm. From
cornea to the crystalline lens is 3.6 mm, and the p_ n
2"i
distance from the crystalline lens to the retina is r '
21 mm. What is the ocular refractive status of this eye? the dioptric powers of the two interfaces are, respec
The easiest way to answer this question is to reduce tively,
the system and reverse the light. The reduced system 33
consists of a +47.00D lens located 2.70mm (i.e., Pi = +4 = 8.25D,
3.6/1.336) in front of a +19.00 D lens, which in turn is and
located 15.72mm (i.e., 21/1.336) in front of the re +53
p2 = = +13.25 D
tina. Then in the reversed system: +4
158 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
Let Uj be the vergence of the light in water incident that, for analysis purposes, we can conceptually split
on the first interface and Vt be the vergence of the the water and glass apart, and consider a thin air layer
light in air leaving the first interface. Let U 2 be the in between them.
vergence of the light in air incident on the second The above argument can be repeated for an SSRI
interface and V2 be the vergence of the light in glass between media of refractive index n0 and n. Thus, the
leaving the second interface. The vergence equations interface can be split in two with a thin air gap in
at the two interfaces are between. (Conceptually, you might think of one
molecular layer of air.) The curvature of each inter
vr = p, + u,, face remains the same as the original interface. A
and system with each interface split in this manner is
V 2 = P2 + U 2 . sometimes called an exploded system. Exploded sys
tems are useful in the analysis of contact lens correc
In general, there is a vergence change across the air tions.
gap so that U 2 is not equal to \ x .
Suppose the air gap is so thin that no significant EXAMPLE 9.8
vergence change occurs across it. Then Find the exploded system for a 2.00 D spherical
v, = u2, refracting interface between plastic (n = 1.44) and
high index glass (n = 1.74).
and similar to the thin lens situation, the above three Figures 9.5a and 9.5b show the actual and the
equations can be combined to give exploded system, respectively. One way to proceed
is to find the radius of curvature r, and then
V2 = P, + U calculate the powers in the exploded system. How
where ever, since the curvature is unchanged, we can also
use the PnewPold equations.
PS = PI + P 2 The old interface is between plastic and the high
Then index glass. In the exploded system, the first new
interface is between plastic and air, so
Ps = +13.25 D + (8.25 D) = +5.00 D.
Consider a single spherical waterglass interface P, = P... = 1.741.44
^ ^ (  ^ D ) ,
with a radius of curvature of 4 cm (Figure 9.4b). The 44
dioptric power of the waterglass interface is Pi +30
(2.00 D) =+2.93 D.
(1.531.33)100 _ 20 In the exploded system, the second new interface is
P= = +5.00D. between air and high index glass. So,
+4 cm +4
Essentially, the +5.00 D waterglass interface acts = P...= i ^ ? ? (  2 . 0 0 D ) ,
paraxially just like the system consisting of the 1.741.44
8.25 D waterair interface separated by a thin air gap +74
from the +13.25 D airglass interface. This means (2.00 D) =4.93 D.
+30
plastic glass
The exploded system consists of a +2.93 D plastic surface of the contact lens is a diverging surface in
air interface separated by a thin air layer from a air. In the exploded system, the contact lens has a
4.93 D airglass interface. As a check, the sum back surface power of
should equal the original dioptric power.
(1.001.49)1000 mm/m
4.93 D +2.93 D =  2 . 0 0 D. +7.15 mm '
490
P= =  6 8 . 5 4 D.
+7.15
9.7 Hard Contact Lens Corrections The rest of the problem is easy. For plane waves
incident on the front of the contact lens, we want
light of vergence 7.19 D coming out the back (in
A knowledge of the eye's far point enables us to
the exploded system). If we reverse the light, we
calculate the vergence U f p of light in air incident on then have light of vergence +7.19 D incident on
the cornea that results in a clear retinal image. A the back surface of the contact lens and
spectacle lens correction sits in the air in front of the
eye and has a back vertex power that gives the proper
U fp value. However, a contact lens correction sits on V, = 68.54 D + 7.19 D = 61.35 D,
the cornea and wipes out the aircorneal interface. 1000
Nevertheless, we can use the exploded system concept
> = 61.35 D = _ 1 6  3 0 m m
and consider a thin layer of air (perhaps one molecu
lar layer thick) between the contact lens and the The reduced central thickness of the contact lens is
cornea. This enables us to continue to use the U fp  0.20 mm
d= , =0.13 mm.
information in the same manner as it is used for 1.49
spectacle lenses. Then
2 = (16.30 + 0.13) mm = 16.43 mm,
EXAMPLE 9.9
The eye considered in Section 9.5 was a 7.19 D 1000
U2 = 60.86 D.
ocular myope, so U fp equals 7.19 D. The cornea 16.43 mm
was a +47.00 D spherical refracting interface be Note that the vergence changed by 0.49 D (a clini
tween air and the aqueous humor (n = 1.336). Con cally significant amount) across the interior of the
sider a PMMA (n = 1.49) hard contact lens that has contact lens.
the same back surface radius of curvature as the Light of vergence 60.86 D is incident on the
cornea and a central thickness of 0.2 mm (Figure front surface of the contact lens, and plane waves
9.6). What must the front surface power of the must leave. Therefore, the front surface power
contact lens be? must be +60.86 D. The radius of curvature of the
The radius of curvature of the cornea is: front surface of the contact lens is
n7  n , (1.491.00)1000
r= r= +60.86 D
(1.3361.000)1000 mm/m 490
= +8.05 mm.
+47.00 D +60.86 D
336
r = +47.00 D = +7.15 mm. EXAMPLE 9.10
A +9.25 D ocular hyperope has a cornea with a
Thus, the back surface of the contact lens has a radius of curvature of 7.8 mm. A PMMA (n = 1.49)
radius of curvature of +7.15 mm. Clearly, the back contact lens has the same back surface radius of
curvature as the cornea and a central thickness of
0.4 mm. What is the front surface radius of the
distance vision contact correction?
First, explode the system. The back surface
(diverging) power in the exploded system is
(1.001.49)1000
P=
+7.8 mm
490
P= =  6 2 . 8 2 D.
+7.8
The light emerging from the back surface in the
exploded system should have a vergence of
FIGURE 9.6. Contact lens correction. +9.25 D. Now reverse the light. Then
160 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
The thin lens power of the tears is must be +71.74 D. The radius of curvature of the
Pt = +45.00 D + (42.69 D) = +2.31 D. front surface of the contact lens is then
(1.491.00)1000
In the exploded system, the light leaving the tears r=
must have a vergence of +9.25 D. The tears have a +71.74 D
thin lens power of +2.31 D. So from the thin lens 490
vergence equation, the light incident on the tears = +6.83 mm.
+71.74 D
must have a vergence of +6.94D (i.e., 9.25
2.31). Thus, the needed back vertex power of the EXAMPLE 9.12
contact lens is +6.94 D. Suppose the same 9.25 D ocular hyperope is fit with
The effect of the tear layer is to change the a contact lens that has a back surface radius of
needed back vertex power of the contact lens in air. 8 mm. Now the back surface is flatter than the
The patient is a 9.25 D ocular hyperope, but the cornea (radius 7.8 mm), so in the exploded system,
tear lens corrects 2.31 D of the hyperopia. So the the tear lens acts like a diverging lens. What must
back vertex power of the contact lens in air needs the back vertex power of the contact lens be?
only to be +6.94 D. In the exploded system, the front surface power
Given the back vertex power of +6.94 D, what of the tear lens is
is the front surface power of the contact lens? (1.3331.000)1000
The back surface (diverging) power in the ex =
+8.0 mm
ploded system is
333
(1.001.49)1000 PA = +8.0 = + 4 1 . 6 3 D.
P=
+7.4 mm
The back surface power is the same as the previous
490 example, or 42.69 D. The thin lens power of the
P= 66.22 D.
+7.4 tears is
The light emerging from the back surface in the Pt = +41.63 D + (42.69 D) = 1.07 D.
exploded system should have a vergence of
+6.94 D. Now reverse the light. Then In the exploded system, the light leaving the tears
must have a vergence of +9.25 D. The tears have a
^^+^, thin lens power of 1.07 D. So from the thin lens
% = 66.22 D + (6.94 D) = 73.16 D, vergence equation, the light incident on the tears
must have a vergence of +10.32D (i.e., 9.25 +
_ 1000 1.07). Thus, the back vertex power of the contact
Vl = 13.67 mm.
~ 73.16 D lens must now be +10.32 D.
The reduced central thickness of the contact lens is The effect of the tear layer is to change the
0.40 mm needed back vertex power of the contact lens in air.
d = ,_ = 0.27 mm. The patient is a 9.25 D ocular hyperope, but the
1.49
tear lens adds another 1.07 D of divergence. So the
Then needed back vertex power of the contact lens in air
is +10.32 D.
u = (13.67 + 0.27) mm = 13.94 mm,
_1000_
2 =  7 1 . 7 4 D.
13.94 mm
Note that the vergence changed by 1.42 D, a clini
cally significant amount, across the interior of the
9.9 Newton's Equation
contact lens.
Light of vergence 71.74 D is incident on the The single spherical refracting interface is the fun
front surface of the contact lens, and plane waves damental building block for the paraxial analysis of
must leave. Therefore, the front surface power spherical refracting systems. The (reduced) vergence
162 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
> +
equation for a spherical system was heavily used by is labeled x. The ray leaves the surface a distance h
Allvar Gullstrand (18621930). The corresponding from the axis, but since this ray is parallel to the axis,
image distanceobject distance equation was first intro h is equal to the image size I. Since the ray angles w
duced by Carl Gauss (17771855). There is an alter and w' at the primary focal point are equal, it follows
nate formulation of the optics of an SSRI that is due from the tangents that
to Issac Newton (16421727). The alternate analysis is
I _ O
as follows.
fi * '
Figure 9.9 shows a paraxial ray parallel to the or
optical axis incident on a spherical interface. At the
1
interface, the ray is bent down and passes through the
m = (9.8)
secondary focal point and then on to the image posi =" X '
tion. The directed distance from the secondary focal We can set Eqs. 9.7 and 9.8 equal to each other and
point to the image is called the secondary extrafocal obtain
length and is labeled x'. The incident ray hits the
surface at a distance h from the axis, but since the f2 '
incident ray is parallel to the axis, h equals the object or
size O. Since the angles labeled w and w' are equal, it
is easily shown from the tangents of the angles that '=^2. (9.9)
t F.
1
FIGURE 9.11. Newton's parametersreal object and real
FIGURE 9.10. Ray giving x dependence. image.
Lenses Revisited 163
EXAMPLE 9.16
Rework Example 9.13 using Eq. 9.14. In Example
*   9.13, n, = 1.00 and n 2 = 1.50. The secondary focal
/ length of the interface is +30 cm, and the dioptric
power of the interface is
,. P = ^ _ 150_ = +5.00D.
X F2 f2 +30 cm
Y
> From Example 9.13, x is  2 5 cm. The object is
'
^ then 25 cm in front of F j , and X is
From Eq. 9.14, 5.0 cm. Find the back vertex power and the neut
2 ralizing power of the lens.
P2 (+5.00 D)
5. A thick plastic (n = 1.49) lens has a +5.00 D front
X' =
X 4.00 D surface and a 12.00 D back surface. The central
25.00 thickness is 6.0 cm. Find the back vertex power
X' = = +6.25D.
4.00 and the neutralizing power.
The light at F2 is converging, and a real image is 6. A thick lens has a +4.00 D back surface power
rom F22 where
located a distance x' from and a +7.00 D back vertex power. Find the back
(1.50)100 cm/m focal length for the lens.
n, 7. A thick lens has a +5.00 D front surface power
X' +6.25 D
and a 3.00 D neutralizing power. What vergence
150 = +24 cm. must the incident wavefront have in order to get
+6.25 plane waves leaving the back of the lens? Find the
primary focal point of the lens.
EXAMPLE 9.17
Rework Example 9.14 using Eq. 9.14. In Example 8. A thick lens has a +8.00 D neutralizing power and
9.14 the interface is the same as in Examples 9.13 a +10.00 D back vertex power. What thin lens
and 9.16. From Example 9.16, = 1.00, n2 = 1.50, held against the back of the thick lens will neutral
and P=+5.00D. ize it? (Plane waves out for plane waves in.)
From Example 9.14, x is +5 cm. The object is 9. Dr Pepper is a 7.00 D ocular myope with a spheri
then 5 cm past F\. The light at Fx must be converg cal cornea of radius of curvature 8.20 mm. Doc is
ing toward the object position and X is fit with a contact lens that has a back surface
(1.00)100 cm/m radius of 8.20 mm. What is the front surface
X = =+20.00 D. power and radius if the contact lens central thick
+5 cm
ness is 0.30 mm and it has a 1.49 index?
From Eq. 9.14,
10. Maribell Maple is a 4.50 D ocular myope.
 P 2 = (+5.00 D)2 Maribell's cornea has a 7.00 mm radius of curva
X'
X ~ +20.00 D ture. Maribell is fit with a contact lens (n = 1.49)
25.00 of back surface radius 7.20 mm. What back vertex
power must the contact lens have in air? (Assume
The light at F2 is diverging, and a virtual image is 1.333 is the refractive index of Maribell's tears.)
located a distance x' from F2 where 11. Baron Smith is a 3.50 D ocular hyperope. The
baron's cornea has a 7.60 mm radius of curvature
, _ n2 _ (1.50)100 cm/m and the baron is fit with a contact lens (n = 1.49)
X' 1.25 D of back surface radius of 7.90 mm. What back
150 vertex power must the contact lens have in air?
x = =120 cm. (Assume 1.333 is the refractive index of the
1.25
baron's tears.)
12. Sugar Brains is a 4.25 D ocular hyperope. Sugar's
cornea has a 7.50 mm radius of curvature. Sugar is
Problems fit with a contact lens (n = 1.49) with a back
surface radius of 7.35 mm. What back vertex
1. A thin meniscusconvex polycarbonate (n = 1.58) power must the contact lens have in air? (Assume
lens has surfaces with radii of curvature of 9.0 cm 1.333 is the refractive index of Sugar's tears.)
and 6.0 cm, respectively. What is the dioptric 13. Represent the cornea of an eye by a +45.00 D
power of the lens? SSRI between air and the ocular media (n =
2. A thin meniscusconcave highlite (n=1.71) lens 1.336). Represent the crystalline lens as a
has surfaces with 12.0 cm and 8.0 cm, respective +20.00 D thin lens between the aqueous and vit
radii of curvature. What is the dioptric power of reous humor (n = 1.336 each). The distance from
the lens? the cornea to the crystalline lens is 4.0 mm, and
3. A thin biconvex ophthalmic crown (n = 1.523) the distance from the cornea to the retina is
lens has radii of curvature of 16 cm and 25 cm, 20.0 mm. Where is the far point for this eye? Is it
respectively. What is the dioptric power of the real or virtual? What correction is needed at the
lens? cornea?
4. A thick ophthalmic crown (n = 1.523) lens has a 14. A +14.00 D thin glass (n = 1.523) trial lens is
front surface power of +12.00 D and a back sur placed underwater (n = 1.33). What is the power
face power of 4.00 D. The central thickness is of the lens while underwater?
Lenses Revisited 165
15. An SSRI between water (n = 1.33) and glass (n = 17. A spherical concave ophthalmic crown (n = 1.523)
1.73) has a real object in water and a real image in surface is held against a convex spherical barium
glass at a distance of 20.0 cm from the secondary crown (n = 1.617) surface. The dioptric power of
focal point. If the image is two times larger than the barium crownophthalmic crown interface is
the object, what is the dioptric power of the +2.00 D. If the surfaces are slightly separated so
interface? that a thin air gap exists between them, what is
16. An SSRI between glass (n = 1.61) and air has a the dioptric power of the airophthalmic crown
real object in glass at a distance of 13 cm from the interface, and what is the dioptric power of the
primary focal point and a real image in air at a airbarium crown interface? What is the sum of
distance of 35 cm from the secondary focal point. these two powers?
What is the dioptric power of the interface?
CHAPTER TEN
Reflection
10.1 Mirrors and Other Reflecting Interfaces ence, whereas for lenses (refraction) the word convex
is associated with convergence. A concave metallic
Chapters 4 through 9 treated image formation by re surface converges light, so that a converging mirror is
fraction. Images are also formed by reflection. The also referred to as a concave mirror (Figure 10.2b).
reflection may be from metallic surfaces that reflect Thus, for reflection the word concave is associated
most of the incident light, or the reflection may be with convergence, whereas for lenses (refraction) the
from dielectric surfaces, such as glass, which reflect word concave is associated with divergence.
only a small percentage of the incident light. An airglass single spherical refracting interface
The law of reflection states that (SSRI) convex with respect to the lower index
(10.1) medium converges the transmitted light no matter
fl = A, which way the light travels through the interface. The
where { and 0S are the angles of incidence and reflec same interface can either diverge or converge the
tion, respectively (Figure 10.1). The media involved reflected light depending on which way the incident
influence the percentage of light reflected, but the light is traveling. The interface diverges the reflected
geometry of Eq. 10.1 is independent of the media. light incident from the air side, but converges the
This chapter covers paraxial image formation by reflected light incident from the glass side (Figures
spherical or plane mirrors. A convex metallic surface 10.2c and 10.2d). Thus, we need to take the direction
diverges light, so that a diverging mirror is also re of propagation into account in deciding whether a
ferred to as a convex mirror (Figure 10.2a). Thus, for particular interface acts like a converging or a diverg
reflection the word convex is associated with diverg ing mirror.
When light in a transparent medium of refractive
index nl is incident on a transparent medium of
refractive index n 2 , the percentage of light R % that is
spherical surface
paraxially reflected is given by Fresnel's law:
Re 100%. (10.2)
167
168 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
a)
rived from Maxwell's classical electromagnetic equa From Fresnel's law, the percentage of light re
tions. As such, R % is a fundamental electromagnetic flected at an interface between two transparent media
property of the materials involved. This chapter treats depends on the difference in refractive indices. The
only the paraxial situation, but you should be aware higher the difference, the larger the percent reflection,
that the percent reflection increases outside the paraxi and vice versa. The percentage reflected at an air
al region. water (n = 1.33) interface is 2.0%, while the percen
tage reflected at an airdiamond (n = 2.4) interface is
EXAMPLE 10.1 17.0%. For CR39 (n = 1.498), a hard resin plastic
Light in air is paraxially incident on an airophthal used for spectacle lens corrections, the percent reflec
mic crown glass (n = 1.523) interface. What percen tion in air is 4.0%. For highlite glass (n = 1.71), a high
tage of the incident light is reflected? index glass used for spectacle corrections, the percent
From Eq. 10.2, reflected in air is 6.9%.
1.5231.000 A 2 % , 3 % , or 4 % reflection is a small percentage,
R<2 100%, but the luminance of the reflected light can be large if
1.523 + 1.000
the luminance of the incident light is high. As an
R. analogy, consider the fact that 4 % of a billion dollars
is 40 million dollars. It is only 4 % , but it is still a lot of
R % = (0.207) 2 100%, money.
R % = (0.043)100% = 4.3%; A lens has two interfaces, and some light is re
flected at each interface. A first approximation to the
4.3% of the incident light is reflected at the air total percent reflected is just twice that reflected at
glass interface. Therefore, 95.7% of the incident
light is transmitted through the interface and re each interface. A more accurate calculation takes into
fracted. The percent reflected is independent of account the fact that not all the incident light gets to
which medium the light is initially in. So if the light the second interface, and a still more accurate calcula
is reversed and is incident on the airglass interface tion would take into account multiple reflections back
from the glass side, then again 4.3% of the incident and forth across the interior of the lens.
light is reflected.
EXAMPLE 10.3
EXAMPLE 10.2 Taking into account only single reflections, what
Light is paraxially incident on a water (n = percent of the incident light is transmitted by an
1.33)plastic (n = 1.49) interface. What percent of ophthalmic crown (n = 1.523) lens in air?
the incident light is reflected? From Example 10.1, 4.3% is reflected at each
surface. Therefore, 95.7% of the incident light is
=/1.49  1.33x2
2
transmitted through each surface (Figure 10.3). As
%
\ 1.49+ 1.33:) 100%, a first guess, since the lens has two surfaces, we
R % = (0.057) 2 100% = 0.3%. would expect the lens to lose 8.6% due to reflection
(i.e., 2 times 4.3%). For a more accurate calcula
Only 0.3% of the incident light is reflected at the tion, let I 0 , I 1? and I 2 be the intensity of the light,
waterglass interface, so 99.7% is transmitted. respectively, incident on the first surface, trans
Reflection 169
+ *
N
+ * A B E
h
1 ^ ^ 1 /
C F2
a) b) ) FIGURE 10.4. a. Actual rays associated with the (sec
ondary) focal point, b. Scaled ray.
170 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
>
FIGURE 10.6. Predictable rays. a. b. Con
verging (concave) mirror, c. d. Diverging (con
d) vex) mirror.
Reflection 171
*
C "^F^O
a)
J
FIGURE 10.8. a. Two predictable rays
for object outside C. b. Nodal ray.
virtual
image virtual
image
incident parallel ray again reflects and passes through (Figure 10.10b). When the reflected ray is extended
F, and the incident ray that appears to be coming from backwards, it also passes through the virtual image
F reflects and goes out parallel to the axis (Figure point. The virtual image point is just the center of
10.10a). The two outgoing rays indicate that the re curvature of the diverging wavefront that is physically
flected light is diverging and the image is virtual. The leaving the mirror, so the image space medium is the
virtual image is located by extending the outgoing rays medium in front of the mirror even though the virtual
backwards until they intersect. The virtual image is image location is behind the mirror.
erect and larger than the object. When the object is a Now, consider an object in the center of curvature
person, that person will see his/her own erect and plane, and remember that F is exactly halfway be
larger image in the mirror. This is the principle of tween C and the mirror. The ray incident parallel to
cosmetic and shaving mirrors. The nodal ray is drawn the axis reflects and passes through F, while the ray
from the object to the mirror so that it appears to be incident through F reflects and comes out parallel to
coming from C, and it reflects directly back along itself the axis. The two outgoing rays intersect at the center
Reflection 173
and erect. The nodal ray is drawn from the object extension backwards passes through the virtual image
towards C, and its extension also passes through the point (Figure 10.16c).
virtual image point (Figure 10.15b). (This type of In Figure 10.17a, the virtual image is between F
mirror gives a large field of view, and is used as a and the mirror. Again, all the incident rays point
truck and car side mirror or as a security mirror in toward the object. The incident ray parallel to the axis
stores.) reflects, and the outgoing ray appears to be coming
Figure 10.16a shows a virtual object located farther from F. The incident ray pointing toward F reflects,
away than C. The incident rays all point toward the and the outgoing ray is parallel to the axis (Figure
virtual object point. The incident ray parallel to the 10.17b). The two outgoing rays indicate that the re
axis reflects at the mirror, and the outgoing ray ap flected light is converging, and a larger, erect real
pears to be coming from F (Figure 10.16b). The image is formed. You should check that the nodal ray
incident ray that points toward C reflects, and the also passes through the image point.
outgoing ray goes straight back along the path of the Now consider a virtual object in the focal plane.
incident ray. The two outgoing rays are diverging, and All the incident rays point toward the virtual object.
their extensions give a virtual image that is smaller and The nodal ray points toward C, and the outgoing ray
inverted relative to the virtual object. The third pre goes straight back along the path of the incident ray
dictable ray points towards F, as well as towards the (Figure 10.18a). The incident ray parallel to the axis
object. The outgoing ray is parallel to the axis, and its reflects, and the outgoing ray appears to be coming
virtual virtual
object r
x object
v
/ 1
pN /c
i
/ virtual
image
/
/
b) y f
reflection process, the light is always in this medium,
but the reflected light and the incident light travel in
opposite directions. Therefore, let
F C
virtual n2 = +n, and ! =  n , (10.16)
image
where the minus sign describes the change in direction
FIGURE 10.19. Ray diagram for incident parallel rays from a that occurs at the reflection. (Other choices are pos
distant offaxis object. sible, but no matter what choice is made a minus sign
needs to be introduced to describe the reflection.)
Equation 10.8 remains the same, while Eq. 10.11
becomes
10.4 Vergence Equations +n(n)
P=
The vergence equations for reflection from a spherical
surface can be obtained from the sagittal approxima 2n
P= (10.17)
tion, from the law of reflection, or as a special modifi
cation of the single spherical refracting interface equa Equation 10.17 describes the converging or diverging
tions. The latter method is used here. The vergence power of a spherical interface as a result of reflection.
equations for a SSRI are: The power P in Eq. 10.17 is referred to as the
(10.8) reflecting power or as the catoptric power. (The word
V = P + U,
catoptric comes from katoptrikos, the Greek word for
mirror.) The catoptric power acts exactly like dioptric
where
power in that it is measured in diopters, and in that it
(10.9) is positive for converging power and negative for
U= diverging power.
Reflection 177
When Eqs. 10.12, 10.16, and 10.17 are combined, When a real object is 50 cm in front of any system, the
the result is incident light is diverging and the incident vergence U is
2n __ +n 2.00D. i.e.,
r f ' 100 cm/m
luh 50 cm
= 2.00D,
or
r and since the light is diverging,
f2 =
2' U=2.00D.
which is just Eq. 10.6. Note that while Eq. 10.17 for P Then, from Eq. 10.8,
depends on n, the relationship between the focal
length and the radius of curvature of the mirror is V= P + U = +10.00 D + (2.00 D),
independent of n, and the focal point for reflection is V=+8.00D.
always halfway between the center of curvature and The outgoing light is converging, and the image is real
the mirror. We can also derive Eq. 10.6 by combining and located 12.5 cm in front of the mirror (i.e., 100/8 D).
the primary focal length Eq. 10.13 with Eqs. 10.16 and From Eq. 10.14, the lateral magnification is
10.17. U 2D
m =
V = T8D=25'
so the image is inverted and considerably smaller than the
object (in agreement with the ray diagram).
10.5 Imaging Examples in Air
The above example shows that if you think in terms of
EXAMPLE 10.7
vergences, you really do not need to worry about the
A real object is 50 cm in front of a concave mirror with a signs of the object distance u and the image distance
radius of curvature of 20 cm. Where is the conjugate
image? Is it real or virtual, erect or inverted, larger or i;.
smaller? For completeness, let us consider the object dis
Assume the object is in air unless otherwise specified. tance. The positive direction is to the left, so
A concave mirror is a converging mirror, and P must be u = +50 cm,
positive. In Figure 10.20, the outgoing light travels left,
so r is positive. From Eq. 10.15, which feels wrong based on our refraction intuition.
2(1.00)(100cm/m) However, Eqs. 10.9 and 10.16 still give
P=
+20 cm (1.00)100 cm/m
200 u u +50 cm
+20 = +10.00 D. or
Alternatively, we could use Eq. 10.6 to find f, 100
U= = 2.00D.
_ r +20 cm +50
f= = 2 = + 1 0 c m > Our intuition in terms of the vergences is unchanged.
and then use Eq. 10.12 to find P: Diverging light still has a minus vergence, and con
100cm/m verging light a positive vergence. Therefore, you
P= : =+10.00 D. should check the vergences instead of the object and
+ 10 cm image distances to see whether your answers make
Draw a quick ray diagram, and make your guesses at the sense signwise.
answers. Your ray diagram should resemble Figure 10.8. The image distance is
v = +12.5 cm,
which means that in Figure 10.8 the image is 12.5 cm
glass
to the left of the mirror.
EXAMPLE 10.8
A real object is 16.66 cm in front of the same
mirror used in Example 10.7. Where is the conju
20 cm
gate image? Is it real or virtual, erect or inverted,
larger or smaller?
FIGURE 10.20. Outgoing direction for light in air reflecting off Be sure to draw your own quick ray diagram
a spherical airglass interface. and guess the answers before calculating. Figure
178 Geometrie, Physical, and Visual Optics
10.9 is the ray diagram that roughly fits this situ From your quick ray diagram, what are your
ation. guesses? Figure 10.14 is the corresponding dia
The light incident on the mirror is still diverging, gram.
and the incident vergence U is  6 . 0 0 D . i.e., The incident light is converging and the mag
nitude of the incident vergence is 5 D (i.e., 100/
100 20). Then
U = 6.00D,
16.67 I
U = +5.00D,
and since the light is diverging,
V = P + U = +10.00 D + 5.00 D,
U = 6.00D.
and
Then
V = +15.00 D.
y = p + u = +10.00 D + (6.00 D),
The outgoing light is converging, so the image is
V=+4.00D.
real and located 6.67cm (i.e., 100/15) in front of
The light leaving the mirror is converging so the the mirror. The lateral magnification is
image is real and the image 25 cm in front of the
U + 5 D
mirror (i.e., 100/4D). The lateral magification is ^n r i
U 6
m = v = _ = 1.5, so the image is erect and smaller than the object.
For completeness, the object distance is nega
so the image is inverted and larger than the object. tive in this case, or
Again, the sign of U is chosen because the incident
light is diverging, as opposed to using the sign of 20 cm.
the object distance u. For completeness, Then from
+ 16.67 cm,
and u
n, n 100
U = = = + 16.67 =  6 . 0 0 D . = (i.ooKioo cm/m) = z ioo +500D
u u  2 0 cm 20
The image distance v is +25 cm.
Method 1 Method 3
Since the law of reflection and the interface's center The third method is to reduce the system. There is
of curvature do not depend on the index, the ray no advantage to reducing the system for a single
diagram is unchanged by the water, and one can mirror, but in mixed lensmirror systems there is an
solve the problem as if air was still present. This is advantage. The dioptric or catoptric power in the
exactly the solution of the previous example. The reduced system has to be the same as in the actual
image is still real and formed 12.5 cm in front of the system, so from method 2, the reflecting power is
mirror. The lateral magnification is still 0.25. + 13.33 D. The reduced object distance is 50/1.333
or 37.51 cm. A real object in air 37.51 cm from a
Method 2 surface gives an incident vergence on the surface of
The solution can also be worked out in the actual 2.67 D. Then
system. Here, for the reflected light V = P + U = +13.33 D + (2.67 D),
n = 1.333, and r=+20cm. V = +10.66 D.
Then Note that the vergences in the reduced system are
2n = 266.6 the same as those in the actual system (except for
P= = +13.33 D. possible numerical roundoff differences). Then
r +20
The light incident on the mirror is diverging, and 100
= +9.38 cm.
the incident vergence U is negative. Then + 10.66 D
u = +50 cm, The image space index is water, so the actual image
nt n distance is
U = ^ = , i; = (1.333)(9.38 cm) = +12.5 cm.
u u
133 The lateral magnification is still given by U/V, and
u = +50 =  2 . 6 6 D , equals  0 . 2 5 . Again, these answers are the same as
those in methods 1 and 2.
V = P + U = +13.33 D + (2.66 D),
and EXAMPLE 10.15
V = +10.67 D. A thick polycarbonate lens (n = 1.58) has a front
The light leaving the mirror is converging so the surface dioptric power of +10.00 D, a back surface
image is real and in front of the mirror, and dioptric power of 3.00 D, and a central thickness
of 3.16cm (Figure 10.21a). You stand 50 cm from
n
+n
2 the front surface of the lens, and can see your own
V ' reflected images from the front and back surfaces
+ 133 of the lens. Describe the location and size of these
= +12.5 cm. images.
+ 10.67 D
The lateral magnification is
For the Image Formed by Reflection from the
U 2.66 D Front Surface
m = 0.25.
V +10.67 D From the refraction information, the radius of the
These answers agree with those of method 1. front surface is
3.00D
50 cm 3.16cm
a)
+ 10.00D 3.00D
50 cm