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r No. Contents Page


1. Introduction

2. Types of Individual behavior

3. Conclusion of Individual behavior


5. Biblography
Types of Individual
Task Performance
Task performance refers to goal-directed behaviours under the individual's control that support
organisational objectives. Task performance behaviours transform raw materials into goods and services,
or support and maintain technical activities.58 For example, foreign exchange traders at the Bank of New
Zealand make decisions and take actions to exchange currencies. Employees in most jobs have more than
one performance dimension. Foreign exchange traders must be able to identify profitable trades, work
cooperatively with clients and coworkers in a stressful environment, assist in training new staff and work
on special telecommunications equipment without error. Some of these performance dimensions are
more important than others, but only by considering all of them can we fully evaluate an employee's
contribution to the organisation.

Counterproductive Work Behaviours

Organisational behaviour is interested in all workplace behaviours, including those on the dark side,
collectively known as counterproductive work behaviours (CWBs) Voluntary behaviours that
have the potential to directly or indirectly harm the organisation.. CWBs are voluntary behaviours that
have the potential to directly or indirectly harm the organisation. They include abuse of others (e.g. insults
and nasty comments), threats (threatening harm), work avoidance (e.g. tardiness), work sabotage (doing
work incorrectly) and overt acts (theft). CWBs are not minor concerns. One Australian study found that
units of a fast-food restaurant chain with higher CWBs had a significantly worse performance, whereas
organisational citizenship had a relatively minor benefit.63

Maintaining Work Attendance

Along with attracting and retaining employees, organisations need everyone to show up for work at
scheduled times. Situational factorssuch as severe weather or car breakdownexplain some work
absences. Motivation is another factor. Employees who experience job dissatisfaction or work-related
stress are more likely to be absent or late for work because taking time off is a way to temporarily
withdraw from stressful or dissatisfying conditions. Absenteeism is also higher in organisations with
generous sick leave because this benefit limits the negative financial impact of taking time away from
work. Studies have found that absenteeism is also higher in teams with strong absence norms, meaning
that team members tolerate and even expect coworkers to take time off. One study of Queensland
government employees discovered that absenteeism rates changed over time, and that these changing
absence levels may be due to changing norms about how much unscheduled time off team members
should take.67

Conclusion of Types of Individual Behavior

we can reach that conclusion collectively as a community. But each of us can make the
decision individually to be accountable for our own behavior, and we stand to live a better
life if we do.

Accountable vs. responsible sounds like nitpicking. Here's the argument that it's not. That
it's, in fact, crucial.

We often use "responsibility" as the gateway to guilt.

In other words, people often look for those responsible when they want to throttle someone
to get work done or punish them for something that should have been done but wasn't.

"Who's responsible for this?!", we bellow, just before we swing that paddle.

I'm not talking about that. I'm talking about each of us asking ourselves - who can I turn to
in order to make my life what I want it to be?

Not, who can I blame or punish for the crappy state I'm in. But starting wherever I am, am I
better off looking for someone else to blame or asking myself what I can do to make things

My experience is that we can always ask that second question, and if we take it seriously,
we'll always get headed in a better direction as a result.
Organizational Behavior

Organizational behavior is the study of individual behavior in an organizational setting. This

includes the study of how individuals behave alone, as well as how individuals behave in groups.
Organizational behavior is an interdisciplinary field dedicated to understanding individual and
group behavior, interpersonal processes, and organizational dynamics. The purpose of
organizational behavior is to gain a greater understanding of those factors that influence
individual and group dynamics in an organizational setting so that individuals and the groups and
organizations to which they belong may become more efficient and effective.

Organizational behavior is a relatively new field of study that draws most heavily from the
psychological and sociological sciences. It also looks to scientific fields such as ergonomics,
statistics, and psychometrics. Other topics of interest in the field of organizational behavior
include the extent to which theories of behavior are culturally

bound, unethical decision-making, self-management and self-leadership, and work/family



One of the main reasons for this interdisciplinary approach is because the field of organizational
behavior involves multiple levels of analysis. These different levels of analysis are necessary for
understanding individual behavior within organizations because people always act within the
context of their environment, which includes both objects and other people. Workers influence
their environment and are also influenced by their environment, making the study of
organizational behavior a multi-level endeavor. The different levels of analysis used in the field
of organizational behavior are: the individual level, the group level, and the organizational level.

Individual Level of Analysis . At the individual level of analysis, organizational behavior

involves the study of learning, perception, creativity, motivation, personality, turnover, task
performance, cooperative behavior, deviant behavior, ethics, and cognition. At this level of
analysis, organizational behavior draws heavily upon psychology, engineering, and medicine.
For example, a study of organizational behavior at the individual level of analysis might focus on
the impact of different types of overhead lighting on such factors as productivity and

Group Level of Analysis . At the group level of analysis, organizational behavior involves the
study of group dynamics, intra- and intergroup conflict and cohesion, leadership, power, norms,
interpersonal communication, networks, and roles. At this level of analysis, organizational
behavior draws upon the sociological and socio-psychological sciences. For example, a study of
how different personality types correspond to different leadership styles and levels of results
operates at the group level of analysis.

Organization Level of Analysis . At the organization level of analysis, organizational behavior

involves the study of topics such as organizational culture, organizational structure, cultural
diversity, inter-organizational cooperation and conflict, change, technology, and external
environmental forces. At this level of analysis, organizational behavior draws upon anthropology
and political science. The various studies on organizational cultures, from William Ouchi's
classic Theory Z: How American Business Can Meet the Japanese Challenge (1981) to the more
recent Organizational Culture and Leadership (2004) are examples of organizational behavior
conducted at the organization level of analysis.


Much of organizational behavior research is ultimately aimed at providing human resource
management professionals with the information and tools they need to select, train, and retain
employees in a fashion that yields maximum benefit for the individual employee as well as for
the organization. As one author has written, People are an organization's most important
assets! The study of organizational behavior is an attempt to maximize the effectiveness of this

Organizational behavior management utilizes studies of organizational behavior as a tool to

improve productivity and profit. There is an attempt to develop scientific principles that improve
employee performance. This goes beyond simply understanding the general principles of human
behavior in the organizational context and focuses on such specific issues as:

Employee safety, stress, and health

Evaluation of employee satisfaction and feedback systems
Use of monetary and nonmonetary incentives
Development of self-management procedures
Programmed instruction, behavioral modeling, and computer-aided instruction
Positive and negative side effects of management interventions
Systems analysis of the way in which work gets done, measured, and evaluated

A number of important trends in the study of organizational behavior are the focus of research
efforts. First, a variety of research studies have examined topics at the group level of analysis
rather than exclusively at the individual level of analysis. For example, while empowerment has
largely been investigated as an individual-level motivation construct, researchers have begun to
study team empowerment as a means of understanding differences in group performance. Similar
research has focused on elevating the level of analysis for personality characteristics and
cooperative behavior from the individual level to the group level.

Another research trend is an increasing focus on personality as a factor in individual- and group-
level performance. This stems from the movement toward more organic organization designs,
increased supervisory span of control, and more autonomous work designs. All of these factors
serve to increase the role that personality

plays as a determinant of outcomes such as stress, cooperative or deviant behavior, and


Personality traits that are related to flexibility, stress hardiness, and personal initiative are also
the subject of research. Examples of these personality traits include a tendency toward
individualism or collectivism, self-monitoring, openness to experience, and a proactive
personality. Forms of behavior that are constructive and change-oriented in nature are also
studied. These forms of behavior are proactive in nature and act to improve situations for the
individual, group, or organization. Examples of these behaviors include issue selling, taking
initiative, constructive change-oriented communication, innovation, and proactive socialization.

Organizational behavior is a central concern of human resource managers. Research at all levels
of organizational behavior continues to be an active field in both academia and management. A
wide variety of issues and concerns are the focus of on-going studies and management