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One of the fastest growing enterprises in the local swine sector is the production of organically-raised

Philippine native pigs. This growth is mainly attributed to a growing health-conscious population and the
increasing demand for the popular Filipino delicacy, lechon. Philippine native pigs are usually smaller in
size compared to modern, commercially-grown pigs and they are either black-colored or black with a
white-colored belly. These pigs are also known for their ability to grow and reproduce even under adverse
conditions and they are more resistant to parasites and common swine diseases. Most of these native
pigs are raised in rural areas by small-scale farmers because they only require low-cost production inputs
such as housing and feeding. Marketing pigs in the Philippines is based primarily on liveweight, and this
requires the use of weighing scales. However, majority of farmers engaged in the production of local
native pigs do not have access to weighing scales due to cost, and many rely on eyeball estimation when
marketing pigs. This may limit their total revenue especially when the actual weight of pigs are
underestimated. Therefore, there is a need to develop a more accurate method of estimating liveweight
of Philippine native pigs. There is significant amount of work on the use of external body measurements
such as heart girth and flank measurements to estimate liveweight of pigs (Boado, 1971; Vergara, 1994;
Javier, 2001; Lettiere, 2004).However, these studies involved modern genetics that do not have the same
body conformation as Philippine native pigs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the
relationship of external body measurements of ready-to-market Philippine native pigs with their actual
liveweight and to develop prediction equations to estimate liveweight.

Available literature on production of native pigs in the Philippines is very scant. Thus,
only those available to the researcher are included as review.
Galasgas (1996), as cited by Padiagan in 1999, reported that rural swine raisers had a big
problem on feeds as one of the inputs for production. For this reason, pigs are not fed with pure
commercial feeds but are added to their rations. They depend more on their crop by products and
other foodstuff for substitute feeds.
Maddul (1991) wrote that native pigs in central Cordillera were commonly fed with
banana stalks, rice bran, maize and some herbaceous plants. These foodstuffs are offered to pigs
twice a day: in the morning and in the evening.
Native pigs were raised mainly on paddocks in the municipality of Kiangan, Ifugao
(Regacho, 1995). Male pigs were castrated at 6 months of age with the use of bamboo bark and
surgical wounds and minor ailments were treated with herbs. He further stated that pig raisers in
Kiangan are dominated by males. On the other hand, Tay-og (1996) observed from her study that
females play the main role for pig production and management n Bontoc, Mountain Province.
According to Fabricas (1999), observations of native sows in Sabangan, Mountain
Province showed that the mean gestation period is 114.8 days. Litter size at birth increased with
the number of parity from 5.86 for primiparous sows to 11 for 5th parity sows. However, percent
weaning decreased starting at 3rd farrowing (92.67%) to 5th farrowing (68.13%).
In the villages of Natonin, Mountain Province, Komicho (2005) reported that native pig
herds are highly populated by young pigs and least by boars. Native pigs were mainly raised for
their resistance to diseases and due to cheaper cost of stocks and feed. The pigs were reportedly
used for food, as source of additional income and as sacrificial animals.
The reproductive performance of the original parent sows at the Highland Pig
Development Project in Bektey, La Trinidad, Benguet was reported by Maddul (2009). The
native sows required at least one service per conception in all parities. After 8 farrowings, a
mean of 119.34 days was recorded as length of gestation. Litter size at birth averaged 6.0
among all sows with a mean of 87.93% weaning.
The feed is an important item in the cost of production of animals and their products. It
accounts for about 50-75% of the cost of production in most of animal production enterprises.
Hence, on enterprise may rise or fall depending on what and how the animals are feed
considering economic returns (Castillo, 1975).
Lopez (1976) stated that ration formulation is an important part of swine breeding for a
formula to be practical; it must be feasible enough to make use of the available feedstuff,
palatable and economical while at the same time maintaining the necessary nutritive balance and
adequacy. According to Lopez (1997), the basic pattern of a feed formula is fixed by the pigs
requirement with a particular stage of growth as provided in the appropriate tables on the nutrient
requirement.
Nutrient requirement of swine are dependent upon interaction of a number of specific
factors such as body size, length of production or growth, stress conditions, environment with
emphasis on the temperature, the level of certain nutrients in diet, sex and the breed or stain of
pigs being fed (Lopez, 1976).
A number of management practices influenced largely the success of swine enterprises,
some of these management practices are essentially under the control of the caretaker or the
operator. While management inputs have been shown to have little influence on the hereditary
capacity of the animals, proper care and management living about many advantages, such as
increase in litter size, survival rate of pigs, from birth to weanling growth rate, and feed
efficiently (Gonzales et al., 1969).
According to Gannad (2000), weanling pigs shoud be fed with the combination of plant
and animal protein to enhance higher return of investment with lower cost of production. Wassit
(1999) stated that litter management done by farmer includes castration at 3 months old. He
explained that this might be due to their belief that that the male should be used for breeding
purposes.

The Philippines is rich in biological and genetic resources or biodiversity. The majority of plant
and animal species in the country are unique and cannot be found anywhere else (Philippine
Development Plan 2011-2016). Domesticated pigs, cattle, carabaos, goats, chickens and ducks
primarily represent the animal production sector of Philippine agriculture. Domesticated farm
animals are utilized primarily for meat, eggs, milk and draft power. The introduction of domestic
pigs in the Philippines is believed to happen at least 4,000 years ago along with migrating
farming communities (Piper 2009). Three domestic originated on the Asian mainland and are
traditionally associated with the early farming communities of Island of Southeast Asia (ISEA) (
Piper et al. 2009) Swine is recognized as the single largest contributor to local livestock sector in
the country. As of July 2012, 56.6% of the total Philippine livestock industry is contributed by
swine sector (Bureau of Agricultural Statistics-Philippines 2013). Its population is made up of
several breeds and genetic groups that are distributed throughout the country and in different
farm types that practice different production systems. The swine genetic groups present in
the country are classified into: exotic standard purebreeds, synthetic hybrids, Philippine wild pigs
and the Philippine native pigs (PHs) and its upgrades or crosses (Status of the Philippine Animal
Genetic Resources (A Country Report 2003).The PHs are either black or black with a white
belly. Varieties include Ilocos and Jalajala. The Berkjala, Diani, Kaman, Koronadel and Libtong
breeds were all developed from this breed. However, it is now believed to be extinct (Mason
1996). Microsatellites (MS) or simple tandem repeats have been widely used for genetic
variation and relationships in animals. They are highly polymorphic and provide extremely
useful markers for comparative studies of genetic variation, parentage assessment, traceability
and studies of gene flow and hybridization (Chaiwatanasin et al. 2002). Some studies on genetic
diversity of pigs utilizing microsatellites have been reported inindigenous pig breeds of Thailand
(Chaiwatanasin et al. 2002), Chinese indigenous pig populations (Li et al., 2004), pig breeds
from Korea and China (Kim et al. 2005), Southern African domestic pigs (Swart et al. 2010),
Brazilian pig breeds (Sollero et al. 2009), native Indian Pigs (Kaul et al. 2001) and European pig
breeds (Laval 2000), but no information is available on genetic diversity of Philippine
native pigs using microsatellite markers. In the Philippines, the status of genetic diversity of
native and commercial pigs is currently unknown. Hence, this study aims to analyze genetic
variability in PHs along with Duroc, Yorkshire (Largewhite) and Berkshire using
10 porcine microsatellite markers which were developed for traceability of pork meat in Korea
(Lim et al. 2009).

Industry
Hybridization is being done to reduce the length of the snout (shorter snouts are more preferred)