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SAMPLE LITERATURE REVIEW

A. Presentation of Past Findings

The alarming rate at which the global population rises poses a threat to world sanitation due to
its accompanying waste generation, allowing seepage to spill through habitats and into water
systems consequently providing a haven for harmful pathogens. Current methods employed by
third world countries which are guilty of high population growth are inadequate and is not
suitable for long term processing to nullify the damage done to the environment. In India,
waste dumps and landfills are the common answer for waste collection offering no
environmental protection whatsoever. Greenhouse gases and other biohazards are allowed to
accumulate affecting the earths climate as well as humanitys health by the action of pollutants
entering our food supplies and water reserves. In response to this the SAARC opted for
engineered facilities geared to reusing waste for energy generation.

That aside, Indias MoEF, a separate institution with the same goals toward environmental
rehabilitation chose an emerging technology called bioremediation. It makes use of Earths
inherent biodiversity to combat contamination and other threats. This novel process provides a
safer alternative for inorganic and organic spills, mining and agricultural runoff, as well as
hazardous trash through the introduction of organisms, usually microbes, capable of absorbing,
digesting and processing pollutants in order to break it into simpler forms. A similar area of
endophytic research aptly coined biocontrol, involves the incorporation of antagonistic species
in an area rife with pests in order to control its population. Since it does not warrant a lot for
maintenance it is hence cheaper than other existing methods.

Specific examples involve the use of microorganisms present in coal mines, example here*, and
other commonly occurring acidophilic Archaeas ability to metabolize iron and sulfate to
rehabilitate mine water. he infamous BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010 was mitigated by
deep-sea bacteria. A cocktail of microorganisms dominated by the class Oceanospirilales was
able to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons paving the way for easier clean up. Agricultural
runoff contaminated with high amounts of nitrogenous compounds has been shown to be
remediated by the species Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. In the Philippines, the DGA14 strain of B.
amyloliquefaciens has been studied by Dr. Alvindia for its antagonistic effect toward pathogenic
fungi causing anthracnose in Carabao mango and crown rot in banana plants. Based from his
experiments, the postharvest application of DGA14 showed reduced occurrence of disease
compared to fruits treated with fungicide.

B. Justification/Identification of Knowledge Gaps


The current study proposes to test alternative methods of treatment which had not been
tried in UPLB but which proved to be effective in studies conducted abroad. These include
the following methods: active sludge digesters, facultative lagoons, and Rotating Biological
Contactors (RBC).
(Note: Student should have provided brief definitions of the proposed alternative
methods,
including proofs of its efficiency based on previous studies conducted abroad.)
The current study aims to utilize Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as a biocontrol agent. Previous
experiments conducted showed antagonistic effect of the DGA14 strain toward pathogens at a
more effective scale than commercial pesticides and has been shown to metabolize nitrogen
derivatives caused by fertilizer runoff. This study proposes bioremediation and treatment of
water contaminated with common disease-causing bacteria such as Listeria and E. coli.

C. Proposed Topic/Title
Assessment of Alternative Designs of Biological Treatment to Rehabilitate the UPLB Sewage
Treatment Plant
D. Literature Cited
Crittenden, J., R. R. Trussell, D.W. Hand, K. J. Howe, G. Tchobanoglous (2005) Water
Treatment: Principles and Design2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Hoboken, New Jersey.
Tchonabanoglous,G., F.L. Burton, and H. D. Stensel (2003) Wastewater Engineering:
Treatment and Reuse, 4th ed., Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.
Davis, M. & D.A. Cornwell (2009) Introduction to Environmental Engineering, 4th ed.,
McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (1990). Revised effluent regulations of
1990: Revising and Amending the Effluent Regulations of 1982. Environmental
Management
Bureau. Retrieved on September 2013
from http://www.emb.gov.ph/portal/Portals/0/Cache/DAO%201990-35.pdf
Castro, A. (2013) Rehabilitation of the UPLB Sewage Treatment Plant: An Evaluation
Study.
UPLB: Civil Engineering Department. College, Laguna
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Sample literature review prepared by RV Generales