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22 tayangan11 halamanthe interval in space time of Minkowski, the imagined esperiment of Einstein

Sep 07, 2017

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the interval in space time of Minkowski, the imagined esperiment of Einstein

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22 tayangan

the interval in space time of Minkowski, the imagined esperiment of Einstein

© All Rights Reserved

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velocity of the earth through the ether the light transmitting

medium- yielded a zero value for the wpeed of the earth through the

ether. This experiment violated common sense stating that the

velocity of light in a vauum was the same for all observers. But it was

true.(my article https://www.scribd.com/document/201222928

Michelson, Maxwell, Lorentz, Einstein)

using logic based on only two axioms (principles).

detect etheric motion and at the same time made space-time a new physical

entity were:

relative to an inertial system can not be distinguished from it by any

physical experiment. All inertial systems are equivalent to the formulation

of natural laws. When, for example, we are in a closed wagon and we travel

at steady speed in a straight track, we can not prove this movement with any

2

which was already known in engineering and applied only to mechanical

phenomena, now extends to all phenomena (electromagnetism). So there

was no ether! All Galilean observers were to be treated as equals and the

basic physical laws of nature were to be the same for all of them. Adoption

of this principle left open the questionof why Maxwells wave equation was

different for different Galilean observers.

Moving Bodies" (here translated from German into English), Albert Einstein

did call his first postulate the Principle of Relativity. But later he regretted

this name for scientific reasons because the logical foundation of his

theory is constancy, and for philosophical reasons because he saw the silly

analogies that people drew between his theory about relativity in

physics and their ideas about relativity in ideology, to claim support for

their non-scientific ideas about relativism and subjectivism. People

extended his scientific claims about the relativity of specific things (time,

space, and mass) into non-scientific claims about the relativitity of

everything (including values and ethical standards) in all areas of life, as if

Einstein was saying everything is relative. But he never said this. Craig

Rusbult, Ph.D.

straight line, at the same constant velocity c in all directions and time

periods relative to each inertial system. The principle of the invariant

velocity of light, states that in whatever Galilean system we might have

operated, the measured velocity of light in vacuo would always be the same.

Since the posture ultimately means that only the four-dimensional world

emerges from the phenomena and that the projection in space and time can

3

still be taken but with different incisions at a time, I prefer to call it the

axiom of the absolute world (or in short secular post) ... Minkowski

understand. It is because our spatial and temporal measurements as we know

them, are adapted to the space and time of our daily experience, which

strongly highlights our intuition of the law of addition of speeds. We have to

understand that the speed of light is the same and constant regardless of the

kinetic state of the light source, which we can not deny in the movement of

a projectile or the movement of a sound source. But the above principle just

attempts to replace the classical space where light is spreading, with a space-

time, a new reality, 'another space' beyond our immediate experience. This

business has as a focal point the finding of a new Pythagorean theorem for

this new space, unaltered for all moving observers as in our common

Euclidean space of geometry.

means that if its points are represented by coordinates (x, y, z), then the

differences in the coordinates of the edges of a space get the value s, where

s2 = x2 + 2 + z2 and this value remains unchanged for any beginning of

the system and for any axes orientation. This expresses the homogeneous

and the isotropic of space. Physical measurements in such a space are made

with rigid rods used as a unit of measurement and whose length does not

change at the various positions of the system and in the various.

Homogeneous is defined as "the same in all locations" while isotropic

means "the same in all directions."

4

replacing the Aristotelian movement of Heaven and the Newtonian inertial

motion which measured time. The new motion is the strange and distinct

movement of light: "If we consider a light beam passing through an inertial

system, its velocity in this system will be the same, regardless of the relative

movement of its source and system and irrespective of the radius direction. "

It is clear from the definition that measuring equal lengths of time in

the system will be done by measuring equal spatial spaces along the light

beam path knowing that it will delete them at equal times. It is also clear

that the initial moment measuring of time can be anyone. This is the

homogeneous of time (time flows uniformly)

Of course, classical physics would reject the new definition of time. It

would be argued that the speed of the system in the immobile ether would

create anisotropic problems, that is, a change in the speed of light, in the

direction. We should therefore take these results into account as we take into

account the friction of the tides on the angular velocity of the earth's

rotation. Thus the determination of time would remain uncertain and would

be theoretical as well as its own.

But when even the finer experiments did not show the slightest trace

of anisotropy in light movement, the objections to classical physics lost all

their power. The measurement of time is no longer based on a theoretical

movement that we never observe in nature (the principle of inertia) but in

the motion of light that is instantly measurable. Light beam is the most

accurate tool for measuring time. Let us pay attention to this point. We

could measure time with the help of another process, for example, with a

sound wave. But then its measurement would appear to be uncertain and

complex since we would have to calculate the velocity of the source, the

velocity of the wind-medium, etc., which would reduce the accuracy of the

measurement. This is what Einstein describes

5

without foundation, for the central role it gives to the

propagation of light, for establishing the concept of time in

the law of the stability of the speed of light. But the

situation is as follows: to give physical meaning to the

concept of time requires some kind of processes that will

restore relationships in different parts of the world. It does

not matter what kind of process one chooses for such a

definition of time. But it is beneficial for theory to choose

the process for which we know something certain. This

applies to the propagation of light in the vacuum to a

greater extent than any other evolution we would be

considering, thanks to the discoveries of Maxwell and

Lorentz ... "

clock synchronization, that is, the universality of time?

I will quote here an excerpt from the original text of Einstein's

"Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" of 1905, where he

introduces the new methods of measuring time:

of its co-ordinates as functions of the time. Now we must bear carefully in

mind that a mathematical description of this kind has no physical meaning

unless we are quite clear as to what we understand by time. We have to

take into account that all our judgments in which time plays a part are

always judgments of simultaneous events. If, for instance, I say, That train

arrives here at 7 o'clock, I mean something like this: The pointing of the

6

small hand of my watch to 7 and the arrival of the train are simultaneous

events.

definition of time by substituting the position of the small hand of my

watch for time. And in fact such a definition is satisfactory when we are

concerned with defining a time exclusively for the place where the watch is

located; but it is no longer satisfactory when we have to connect in time

series of events occurring at different places, orwhat comes to the same

thingto evaluate the times of events occurring at places remote from the

watch.

observer stationed together with the watch at the origin of the co-ordinates,

and co-ordinating the corresponding positions of the hands with light

signals, given out by every event to be timed, and reaching him through

empty space. But this co-ordination has the disadvantage that it is not

independent of the standpoint of the observer with the watch or clock, as we

know from experience. We arrive at a much more practical determination

along the following line of thought.

the time values of events in the immediate proximity of A by finding the

positions of the hands which are simultaneous with these events. If there is

at the point B of space another clock in all respects resembling the one at A,

it is possible for an observer at B to determine the time values of events in

the immediate neighbourhood of B. But it is not possible without further

assumption to compare, in respect of time, an event at A with an event at B.

We have so far defined only an A time and a B time. We have not

defined a common time for A and B, for the latter cannot be defined at all

unless we establish by definition that the time required by light to travel

7

light start at the A time tA from A towards B, let it at the B time tB be

reflected at B in the direction of A, and arrive again at A at the A time tA.

and possible for any number of points; and that the following relations are

universally valid:

synchronizes with the clock at B.

2. If the clock at A synchronizes with the clock at B and also with the

clock at C, the clocks at B and C also synchronize with each other.

settled what is to be understood by synchronous stationary clocks located at

different places, and have evidently obtained a definition of simultaneous,

or synchronous, and of time. The time of an event is that which is

given simultaneously with the event by a stationary clock located at the

place of the event, this clock being synchronous, and indeed synchronous

for all time determinations, with a specified stationary clock.

Thus, the universality of time is finally established, but only for the

observer's inertial system, which seemed unmanageable in the Newtonian

system. Synchronization of the clocks at different points is defined and

measured with the light ray stopping to be a unclear prerequisite.

So finally we have for space and time in a Galilean system in

relativity:

a. space is homogeneous

8

b. space is isotropic

c. time is homogenous

d. time is universal

the space-time interval will occur by a thought experiment in the region of

physics, using logic, without the knowledge of the transformations between

the two inertial frames (Lorentz).

from those of P by dx, dy, dz, dt in S and by dx, dy, dz, dt in S,the

systems being in standard configuration

9

Suppose that at the event P a flash of light is emitted and that L is the

event of some particle in space being illuminated by that flash. In

accordance with the law of light-propagation (second axiom) the observer in

P will find that

themselves may be, provided they are differentiable, the transformation

between the differentials are linear and homogeneous (physical axiom) and

thus the left member of (20 equals a homogeneous quadratic in dx, dy, dz

,dt. This quadratic must vanish for all real numbers of the differentials

which satisfy (1). It can easily shown that it must therefore be a multiple of

the quadratic in (1).Thus at any event P the following relation holds:

systems since Einstein's homogeneous space and time ensure the

independence of x2 + y2 + z2 and x2 + y2 + z2 from the choice of axes as

well as the independence of c2 t2 and c2t2 from the election of the beginning

of time. So, by choosing P as the (0, 0, 0, 0) in both systems, the space

isotropic, allows us to consider any orientation of the axes of the two

systems so that the relationship between them and the fact P is totally

symmetrical.

So we must have

From (3) and (4) it follows that K=1. K=-1 can at once be dismissed since

(3) must remain valid as 0

10

Consequently

Now not only will this expression have a zero value for all Galilean

frames , but in addition , if it does not happen to have a zero value in one

frame but have some definite non-vanishing value, it will still maintain this

same non-vanishing value in all other Galilean frames. In other words,

Einstein premises are presented mathematically by the invariance of the

total value dx2 + dy2+dz2 c2 dt2 for all Galilean frames, regardless of

whether this value happens to be zero o non-vanishing. The deep

significance of this condition of invariance was first noticed by Minkowski,

and it led to the discovery of four-dimensional space-time.

differential form with

quantity representing the square of the distance that a particle has deleted in

a Galilean system minus twice the square of the time required for that path,

which quantity remains unchanged either the measurements were made in

one system or the other (inertial) .

,the expression of the square of the distance of a four-dimensional

continuous. This distance, was called the Einstein interval or just interval.

Having expressed the distance of two points of this continuous with an

absolute character independent of the movement, we understand the

absolute nature of the continuum itself. This continuum is neither space nor

time, but refers to both, since the distance between two points can be

expressed in spatial and temporal distances in many ways just as the

11

distance in the usual space can be expressed in length, width and height in

various ways. For these reasons this continuous was called a space-time (or

Minkowski space)

From my book H

www.mpantes.gr

Serres 5/9/17

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