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RESPIRATORY

The respiratory system consists of a set of organs whose main function carry atmospheric
oxygen to body cells and remove body carbon dioxide produced by cellular metabolisno.
The bodies composing the respiratory system are grouped into: upper respiratory -paths:
nasal cavities, pharynx and lower larynx.-AIRWAYS: trachea, bronchi and lungs are
pulmones.Los central bodies of the respiratory system where gas exchange is performed.
The other structures, called air or airways act as conduits for air to circulate inhaled and
exhaled to and from the lungs, respectivamente.Por contact with the pharynx, the oral
cavity allows the air inlet to the airways but not part respiratorioLa system the inside of all
respiratory organs is covered by: - a layer of epithelial tissue whose cells very close
together and protect against injuries infecciones.- respiratory mucosa, responsible for
maintaining roads and good wet adecuada.La surface temperature of the respiratory
mucosa has two following cell types: - mucous cells: produce and secrete mucus toward
the entrance of the airways. - ciliated cells: have cilia in constant motion in order to
dislodge the mucus and foreign particles are fixed in the respiratory mucosa. whose very
interconnected cells protect from injury infecciones.- A respiratory mucosa, responsible for
maintaining roads and good wet adecuada.La surface temperature of the respiratory
mucosa has two following cell types: - mucous cells: produce and secrete mucus towards
the entrance of the airways. - ciliated cells: have cilia in constant motion in order to
dislodge the mucus and foreign particles are fixed in the respiratory mucosa. whose very
interconnected cells protect from injury infecciones.- A respiratory mucosa, responsible for
maintaining roads and good wet adecuada.La surface temperature of the respiratory
mucosa has two following cell types: - mucous cells: produce and secrete mucus towards
the entrance of the airways. - ciliated cells: have cilia in constant motion in order to
dislodge the mucus and foreign particles are fixed in the respiratory mucosa.

CAVITY NASALESSon two structures, located left and right above the mouth. They are
separated by a nasal septum cartilaginous tissue. In front of each cavity nares, inlet ports
are located respiratory system. The back communicates with the pharynx through the
nares. The floor of the nasal cavities borders the hard palate and the soft palate, which
separates the oral cavity. They are lined with mucous enveloping turbinate, bone wound
series of three (upper, middle and lower). Said mucosa heats the inspired air.
The nasal cavities have hairs acting as a filter, preventing dust and airborne particles
reaching the lungs. On the back of the cavities where no nerve endings seated sense of
olfato.Las nasal cavities have the following functions: -Filter impurities inspired air-moisten
and warm the air entering the inspiration -Allow the sense of smell participate in speech

muscular tubular FARINGErgano that is located in the neck. Connects the nasal cavity
with the larynx and mouth with the esophagus. They pass through the pharynx food and
air to and from the lungs, so it is an organ belonging to the digestive and respiratory
systems. Parts of the pharynx are -Nasofaringe: upper portion that is located behind the
nasal cavity. It connects to the ears through the Eustachian tube-oropharynx: middle
portion communicating with the mouth through the isthmus of fauces.-Laryngopharynx: the
lower portion surrounding the larynx to the entry to the esophagus. The epiglottis marks
the boundary between the oropharynx and pharynx laringofaringe.Las functions are:
-Deglucin-breathing -Fonacin -Listening

LARINGErgano tubular, muscle structure - cartilaginous, which connects the pharynx to


the trachea. The vertical diameter is 5.7 centimeters. It is located above the trachea. It
consists of the hyoid bone, which acts as a suspending apparatus. It also has nine
cartilages: arytenoid Santorini and Wrisberg (pairs) and the thyroid cartilage, epiglottic
cricoid and (odd).
The larynx contains the vocal cords, fundamental structures to allow fonacin.De
according to the position they adopt the vocal cords two features are set: -Position
breathing: vocal cords open to the sides and the air circulates freely.

-position phonation: the vocal cords close and air strikes against them.
The functions of the larynx are: -Respiratoria-deglutory: larynx rises and passes into the
cud esfago.-Protection: epiglottis closes preventing passage of substances to trquea.-
expiratory muscle and expectorant (protective function) - Phonetics

TRQUEAEs a body shaped tube, cartilaginous structure, which communicates with the
larynx bronchi. It consists of numerous cartilage rings connected by muscle fibers, and
connective tissue. The function of the rings is to strengthen the trachea to prevent collapse
during breathing-Approximate measurements in humans are 10-11 cm long and 2 to 2.5
centimeters in diameter. The trachea has about 20-22 horseshoe-shaped cartilages. Half
rings are located at the neck, while the other half is accommodated in the thoracic cavity,
the breastbone. The trachea bifurcates near the heart, resulting in two primary bronchi.

The tubular shape of the trachea is not cylindrical as it suffers a flattening on its dorsal part
where it contacts the esophagus. The trachea is lined by columnar epithelium with mucous
secreting ciliated mucus. Mucus helps clear the roads system, thanks to the cilia
movement exerted towards the pharynx. The mucus from the trachea and the nasal
cavities reaches the pharynx and expectorated or swallowed is. The trachea has the
function of bringing air from the larynx to the bronchi.

Scheme trachea

BRONCHI

There are two tubular structures and fibrocartilaginous consistency, which are formed after
the bifurcation of the trachea. Like the trachea, bronchi have muscularis mucosa and
ciliated columnar epithelium coated. The right bronchus measuring 2-3 cm and is between
6 and 8 cartilages. The left bronchus is 3 to 5 cm and has between 10 and 12 cartilages.

Cross section of a bronchus


The bronchi enter each lung and are reducing its diameter. As they progress gradually lose
cartilage, muscle layer thins and thin secondary and tertiary bronchi are formed. Bronchi
function is to drive the inspired air from the trachea to the alveoli.

BRONQUIOLOSSon small tubular structures product of the division of the bronchi. They
are located in the middle of each lung and lack of cartilage. Bronchioles are formed by a
thin wall smooth muscle and cuboidal epithelial cells without cilia. Penetrate the lung
where lobules are divided into terminal bronchioles and respiratory bronchioles.

Structure of bronchi and bronchioles

ALVEOLI PULMONARESLos respiratory bronchioles are continuous with the alveolar


ducts and those with alveolar sacs. Alveolar sacs contain many tiny sac-like structures
called alveoli. Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar duct alveolar sac and alveoli are the
respiratory drive.

Scheme respiratory unit


In the alveoli of the lung it is carried out the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, a
process called hematosis. The walls of the alveoli is reduced to a very thin membrane 4
microns thick. One side contacts the air reaching the bronchioles. The other hand is
related to the capillary network, where red blood cells made hematosis.

Wall lung alveoli


Within the alveoli there is a type of cells that produce a substance that covers the
epithelium on the inside. This substance is the surfactant, whose mission is to prevent the
collapse of alveoli after an exhalation to reduce the surface tension of the alveolus.
Pulmonary surfactant produces improved oxygenation, increased alveolar expansion and
increased residual lung capacity. The surfactant consists of 90% phospholipids and 10%
protein.

PULMONESrganos holes located within the thoracic cavity, on both sides of the heart
and protected by the ribs. It has three faces: costal, mediastinal and diaphragmatic.
The lungs are separated by the mediastinum. The mediastinum is a virtual cavity that
divides the chest in two parts. It is located behind the breastbone in front of the spine and
between both right and left pleura. Borders below the diaphragm and above the cervico
isthmus.

Projection of the mediastinum


They are located inside the mediastinum: heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchi, the aorta
and vena cava, pulmonary artery and veins and other vessels and structures
nerviosas.Los lungs are filled with air, and its structure is elastic and fluffy. They are
surrounded by the pleura, a cover connective tissue which prevents rubbing of the lungs
with the inside of the thoracic cavity, thus smoothing the movements. The pleura has two
layers (parietal and visceral) and between both pleural fluid lubricant action is. -Pulmn
right: is somewhat larger than the left and weighs about 600 grams. It has three lobes:
upper, middle and lower, separated by fissures. -Pulmn left: weighs about 500 grams and
has two lobes, one above and one below. Each lung contains about 300 million alveoli.
The main function of the lungs is to establish the gas exchange with blood. It is for this
reason that the cells are in close contact with capillaries. In addition, they act as an
external filter to air pollution by their mucociliary cells and alveolar macrophages.

Scheme lungs
lung lobes

CIRCULATION PULMONARLos lungs are organs that receive two types of blood supply.
-Receives pulmonary artery blood emanating from the right ventricle (lower flow) for
oxigenacin.-is irrigated with oxygenated blood bronchial artery from the aorta (high
circulation).

The main functions of the respiratory system are: -Make gas exchange between alveoli
and blood -Acondicionar air above the lungs -Fair the blood pH
Act as route of elimination of substances other -Allow phonation

MECHANICAL RESPIRATORIAEl exchange of oxygen and carbon (hematosis) dioxide


takes place between the alveoli and the lung capillaries through alveolar membrane, which
is semipermeable. With inspiration, air enters the lungs because the pressure within them
is less than atmospheric pressure. -InspiracinSe constrict the diaphragm, the external
intercostal muscles, the serratus anterior and chest. The thoracic cavity expands. Dilate
the lungs to get oxygenated air. After inhalation, oxygen reaches the alveoli and passes
the arterial capillaries. -EspiracinIntervienen internal intercostal muscles, abdominal
oblique and the rectus abdominis. The diaphragm, the pectoral muscles and the external
intercostal relax. The thoracic cavity is reduced in volume. The lungs contract when
leaving deoxygenated air. With exhalation air out of the lungs because the pressure in the
alveoli is higher than atmospheric. Inspiration is an active process because it needs the
muscle work. Before each inspiration, intrapulmonary pressure is almost equal to that in
the atmosphere. Expiration is a passive phenomenon, which only depends on the elasticity
of the lungs. Before each exhalation, the intrapulmonary pressure is greater than
atmospheric. only it depends on the elasticity of the lungs. Before each exhalation, the
intrapulmonary pressure is greater than atmospheric. only it depends on the elasticity of
the lungs. Before each exhalation, the intrapulmonary pressure is greater than
atmospheric.
HEMATOSISEs the process by which oxygen inspired air into the blood and exchanged
with carbon dioxide which is driven from the blood into the alveoli to be removed with the
exhalation to the outside. Hematosis is governed in compliance with the law of gases,
since diffusion occurs from a place higher to a lower concentration. Hematosis occurs at
the level of the alveoli (external respiration) and the cells of all tissues (internal or cellular
respiration).

Inspired air with high oxygen charge, through simple diffusional the alveolar-capillary
membrane and reaches the blood, which has less concentration. The passage of oxygen
from the alveoli into the arterial capillaries is favored by the presence of hemoglobin in red
blood cells. When the blood leaves the lungs carrying 97% oxygen in the form of
oxyhemoglobin, leaving 3% dissolved in plasma. A hemoglobin molecule binds to four
oxygen reversibly.

Carbon dioxide comes from cellular debris is turned to blood, which has less
concentration, and caught by red blood cells. A portion becomes carbonic acid, which
rapidly ionizes to form bicarbonate and protons. The rest is taken into the lungs in the form
of Carboxyhemoglobin. The blood that reaches the lungs has more concentration of
carbon dioxide existing in the inspired air, why it passes the alveoli and is eliminated from
the body by exhalation.

FREQUENCY RESPIRATORIAEs the number of times per minute that a respiratory cycle,
that is, an inspiration followed by an expiration is performed. During rest humans have a
respiratory rate of 12 to 18 cycles per minute, which value depends on the age and
physical condition.

VOLUMES RESPIRATORIOS- Tidal volume is the amount of air going in and out in each
breath. In an adult equivalent to half a liter. - expiratory reserve volume: after normal
expiration, is the amount of air which can be removed after a forced expiration. In humans
is about 2 liters. - Residual volume: amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced
expiration. In an adult equals one liter.
- inspiratory reserve volume: after a normal inspiration, amount of air that can enter the
lungs after forced inspiration. The average value is 2 liters.