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Review Homework

1. Tekanan sebuah ban mobil yang terbaca pada alat ukur sebesar 30
psig. Berapa tekanan total yang sebenarnya dalam atm?
2. Pada musim panas, suhu rata-rata di US mencapai 65oF. Berapa
bacaan suhu tersebut dalam skala Rankine dan Celcius?
3. Akibat hurricane Harvey, harga bensin di Texas naik menjadi
$2.59/gallon. Bandingkan harga tersebut dengan harga bensin
PERTAMAX dan hitung selisih harga per liternya. (1 US$= Rp 13.300)
z
Conservation of
Energy in Closed
System
Thermodynamics

Universitas Pertamina
Learning Objectives
Students are able to determine the boundary work, internal energy, &
enthalpy of a system
Students are able to apply the concept of energy balance in simple
thermodynamic cases for closed system
Outline
General
Boundary Specific
energy
Work Heats
balance
Energy Balance: review

Closed system + = + + kJ

Open system + + =
+ + kJ/s or kW

In differential form
Energy balance : Review
1. Hitung kerja yang dilakukan/diterima sistem stasioner apabila kalor
yang masuk ke sistem sebesar 350 kJ, dan perubahan internal
energy sistem sebesar -160 kJ.
2. Hitung energi akhir sistem (total) yang menerima kalor sebesar 350
Btu dan melakukan kerja sebesar 130 Btu. Diketahui energi awal
sistem (total) sebesar 550 Btu.
3. Berapa daya pompa (hp) yang dibutuhkan untuk memindahkan 100
kg/s air dari sumur dengan kedalaman 10 m ke permukaan jika
kecepatan air keluaran pompa sebesar 25 m/s?
WORK
Types of Work : Review
2
Moving boundary =
(compression/expansion) 1

Shaft work

Electrical work
Spring work
Other forms Acceleration
Gravity
Polarization
Magnetization
Solid deformation
Liquid film stretching
ME 152 9
Boundary Work (PdV work)

= F ds = PA ds = P dV
2
The moving boundary = (P= P inside the piston)
1

Work as path function Net work (Wnet) of a cycle


Boundary work Isochoric process
A rigid tank contains air at 500 kPa and 150C. As a result of heat
transfer to the surroundings, the temperature and pressure inside the
tank drop to 65C and 400 kPa, respectively. Determine the boundary
work done during this process.
=0
2
=
1

= 0
Boundary work Isobaric process
A frictionless pistoncylinder device contains 10 lbm of steam at 60 psia and
320oF. Heat is now transferred to the steam until the temperature reaches 400oF.
If the piston is not attached to a shaft and its mass is constant, determine the
work done by the steam during this process.
Boundary work Isothermal process
A pistoncylinder device initially contains 0.4 m3 of air at 100 kPa and 80C.
The air is now compressed to 0.1 m3 in such a way that the temperature
inside the cylinder remains constant. Determine the work done during this
process.
Air can be assumed as ideal gas

=
At constant n & T : =
2 2
= 1 = 1

2 = 1 1 2
1 1
Analysis on energy balance for closed system
Case 3
Stationary system
Case 2 Constant pressure process
Stationary system + =
Constant volume =
process
=
= 0
Case 1 Integration yields
Closed system, cycle = = +
Initial state = final state = 2 + 2 2 (1 + 1 1 )
= 0 While U+PV = H, so = 2 1
+ = 0 + =
If theres only boundary work:

=
Exercise - Energy balance for closed system
A 0.5-m3 rigid tank contains refrigerant-134a initially at 160 kPa and 40 percent
quality. Heat is now transferred to the refrigerant until the pressure reaches
700 kPa. Determine
(a) the mass of the refrigerant in the tank and
(b) the amount of heat transferred.
Also, show the process on a P-v diagram
Excercise - Energy balance for closed system
A pistoncylinder device contains 25 g of saturated water vapor that is maintained at
a constant pressure of 300 kPa. A resistance heater within the cylinder is turned on
and passes a current of 0.2 A for 5 min from a 120-V source. At the same time, a
heat loss of 3.7 kJ occurs.
Determine the final temperature of the steam.
=
Specific
Heat
Specific Heats
Shows energy storage capability
The energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a
substance by one degree
Specific heat at constant volume, Cv
Specific heat at constant pressure, Cp
Cp > C v
d =

d =
Specific Heats & Energy Balance
Fixed mass, stationary, closed Fixed mass, stationary, closed
system system
Constant volume process Constant pressure process
= =
d = d =

= =

= = = =


Thus: and are f(T)


Table A2
Specific Heats of Ideal Gases
Ideal-gas of monoatomic gases remain constant
Complex molecules (>2 atoms) higher Cp0 and
increase with T
Variation of specific heat with T is smooth & may be
approximated as linear over small T intervals (a few
hundred degrees or less), so:
2
= () = , (2 1 )
1

2
= () = , (2 1 )
1
Cp & Cv relation for Ideal Gases

1 = + 2 Specific heat ratio, k


= +
=
= +

= + Varies mildly with T


= + kJ/kg.K For monoatomic gases k = 1.667
Many diatomic gases, incl. Air
R: individual gas constant k=1.4 (at room T 20 25oC)
In molar basis:
= + kJ/kmol.K

Ru: universal gas constant


Ideal Gas
PV = nRuT PV=RT
Ru= universal gas constant R = gas constant
(same for all gases)
= depends on the
Ru= 8.31447 kJ/kmol K
substance
8.31447 kPa.m3/kmol K M = molecular weight
0.0831447 bar.m3/kmol.K
substance R, kJ/kg.K
1545.37 ft/lbf/lbmol.R Air 0.2870
Helium 2.0769
Argon 0.2081
Nitrogen 0.2968
Summary on obtaining u & h of ideal gases
1. Table A-17
Easiest & most accurate, if tables are readily available

2. Integration of Cv(T) or CP(T) equation


Inconvenient for manual calculation, but OK for computerized calculation
Very accurate

3. Average specific heats (Table A2)


Simple & convenient, esp if no table is available
Reasonably accurate, if the T interval is not very large
Exercise Determining u
Air at 300 K and 200 kPa is heated at constant pressure to 600 K.
Determine the change in internal energy of air per unit mass, using
(a) data from the air table (Table A17)
(b) the functional form of the specific heat (Table A2c)
(c) the average specific heat value (Table A2b)
Exercise - Energy balance for closed system
An insulated rigid tank initially contains 0.7 kg of helium at 27C and
250 kPa. A paddle wheel with a power rating of 0.015 kW is
operated within the tank for 30 min. Determine the final
temperature
Exercise - Energy balance for closed system
A pistoncylinder device initially contains 0.5 m3 of nitrogen gas at
400 kPa and 27C. An electric heater within the device is turned
on and is allowed to pass a current of 2 A for 5 min from a 120-V
source. Nitrogen expands at constant pressure, and a heat loss of
2800 J occurs during the process. Determine the final temperature
of nitrogen.
References
Cengel, Y.A. dan Boles, M.A., Thermodynamics: An Engineering
Approach 5th ed., McGraw-Hill, 2006.
Smith, J. M., Van Ness, H.C., Abbott, M. M.,Introduction to Chemical
Engineering Thermodynamics 7th ed., McGraw-HillCo-Singapore.
2005.
http://web.mit.edu/16.unified/www/FALL/thermodynamics/notes/n
ode8.html