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The instantaneous angular momen

defined by the cross product of the p


instantaneous linear momentum p:
Momento angular
Angular momentum of a particle L

This allows us to write Equation 11.

z
!
L = r p which is the rotational analog of Newt
causes the angular momentum L to ch
change. Equation 11.11 states that the
time rate of change of the particles
O y
m p Note that Equation 11.11 is valid on
r
gin. (Of course, the same origin must

thermore, the expression is valid for
x
The SI unit of angular momentum
Active Figure 11.4 The angular
momentum L of a particle of mass and the direction of L depend on the
m and linear momentum p located we see that the direction of L is perp
at the vector position r is a vector Figure 11.4, r and p are in the xy pla
given by L ! r ! p. The value of L p ! mv, the magnitude of L is
depends on the origin about which
it is measured and is a vector per- L
Javier Junquera pendicular to both r and p.
where # is the angle between r and p
At the Active Figures link p (# ! 0 or 180). In other words, wh
at http://www.pse6.com, you line that passes through the origin, t
can change the position vector
r and the momentum vector p respect to the origin. On the other h
Bibliografa FUENTE PRINCIPAL
Fsica, Volumen 1, 3 edicin
Raymod A. Serway y John W. Jewett, Jr.
Ed. Thomson
ISBN: 84-9732-168-5
Captulo 10
Fsica para Ciencias e Ingeniera, Volumen 1, 7 edicin
Raymod A. Serway y John W. Jewett, Jr.
Cengage Learning
ISBN 978-970-686-822-0
Captulo 11

Tips on Physics
R. P. Feynman, R. B. Leighton, y M. Sands
Ed. Pearson Addison Wesley
ISBN: 0-8053-9063-4
Captulo 3-3 y siguientes
The instantaneous angular momen
defined by the cross product of the p
Definicin de momento angular o cintico instantaneous linear momentum p:
Angular momentum of a particle L
Consideremos una partcula de masa m, con un vector de posicin
This allows us to write Equation 11.
y que se mueve con una cantidad de movimiento

z
!
L = r p which is the rotational analog of Newt
causes the angular momentum L to ch
change. Equation 11.11 states that the
time rate of change of the particles
O y
m p Note that Equation 11.11 is valid on
r
gin. (Of course, the same origin must

thermore, the expression is valid for
x
The SI unit of angular momentum
Active Figure 11.4 The angular
momentum L of a particle of mass and the direction of L depend on the
m and linear momentum p located we see that the direction of L is perp
at the vector position r is a vector Figure 11.4, r and p are in the xy pla
El momento angular instantneogiven by
deLla! partcula relativo
r ! p. The value of L al origen
p ! mv, O semagnitude
the define como
of L isel
producto vectorial de su vectordepends on the
posicin origin about which
instantneo y del momento lineal instantneo
it is measured and is a vector per- L
pendicular to both r and p.
where # is the angle between r and p
At the Active Figures link p (# ! 0 or 180). In other words, wh
at http://www.pse6.com, you line that passes through the origin, t
can change the position vector
r and the momentum vector p respect to the origin. On the other h
The instantaneous angular momen
defined by the cross product of the p
Definicin de momento angular o cintico instantaneous linear momentum p:
Angular momentum of a particle L
Consideremos una partcula de masa m, con un vector de posicin
This allows us to write Equation 11.
y que se mueve con una cantidad de movimiento

z
!
L = r p which is the rotational analog of Newt
causes the angular momentum L to ch
Tanto el mdulo, la direccin como
change. Equation 11.11 states that the
el sentido del momento angular
time rate of change of the particles
dependen del origen que se elija O y
m p Note that Equation 11.11 is valid on
r
gin. (Of course, the same origin must

thermore, the expression is valid for
x
The SI unit of angular momentum
Active Figure 11.4 The angular
momentum L of a particle of mass and the direction of L depend on the
m and linear momentum p located we see that the direction of L is perp
at the vector position r is a vector Figure 11.4, r and p are in the xy pla
Direccin: perpendicular
given by Lal!plano formado
r ! p. The value of Lpor py! mv, the magnitude of L is
depends on the origin about which
Sentido: regla de lait ismano derecha
measured and is a vector per- L
pendicular to both r and p.
Mdulo: where # is the angle between r and p
At the Active Figures link p (# ! 0 or 180). In other words, wh
atUnidades SI: kg myou
2/s
http://www.pse6.com, line that passes through the origin, t
can change the position vector
r and the momentum vector p respect to the origin. On the other h
Momento angular o cintico:
Casos particulares

cuando es paralelo a . Es decir, cuando la partcula se mueve a lo largo de una lnea


recta que pasa por el origen tiene un momento angular nulo con respecto a ese origen

mxima cuando es perpendicular a . En ese momento la partcula se mueve


exactamente igual que si estuviera en el borde de una rueda que gira alrededor del origen
en el plano definido por y (movimiento circular).

Mdulo

Direccin y sentido
Conservacin del momento angular

En general, si sobre la partcula actuase ms de una fuerza

Ecuacin anloga para las rotaciones de las segunda ley de Newton para las traslaciones

Esta ecuacin es vlida:


- slo si los momentos de todas las fuerzas involucradas y el momento angular se
miden con respecto al mismo origen.
-vlida para cualquier origen fijo en un sistema de referencia inercial.
Conservacin del momento angular

Si

Esto se verifica si:


La fuerza se anula (caso, por ejemplo, de la partcula libre)
La fuerza es paralela a la posicin (fuerzas centrales)

(ley de Gravitacin Universal)


Analogas entre rotaciones y traslaciones

Traslaciones Rotaciones

Una fuerza neta sobre una partcula Un torque neto sobre una partcula
produce un cambio en el momento produce un cambio en el momento
lineal de la misma angular de la misma

Una fuerza neta actuando sobre una Una torque neto actuando sobre una partcula
partcula es igual a la razn de cambio es igual a la razn de cambio temporal del
temporal del momento lineal de la partcula momento angular de la partcula
tance a from the pole? (a) zero (b) mvd (c) mva (d) impossible to determine tum about any axis displaced
from the path of the particle.

Momento
Example 11.3angular
Angular Momentumde ofuna partcula
a Particle en un
in Circular Motion

movimiento circular
A particle moves in the xy plane in a circular path of radius Solution The linear momentum of the particle is always
r, as shown in Figure 11.5. Find the magnitude and direc- changing (in direction, not magnitude). You might be
tion of its angular momentum relative to O when its linear tempted, therefore, to conclude that the angular momen-
Supongamos
velocity is v. una partcula que se mueve en eltum
plano
of the xy en un
particle movimiento
is always changing. In circular dehow-
this situation, radio r.
Hallar la magnitud y direccin de su ever, this iscon
momento angular not respecto
the caseletal us origen
see why. O
From Equation
si su velocidad
11.12, the magnitude of L is given by
lineal es
y L ! mvr sin 90% ! mvr
v
Como
where el used
we have momento linealv de
$ ! 90 because la partcula
is perpendicular to r.est en
This value of L is constant
constante because(en
cambio all three factors on no
direccin, the en
right are constant.
m magnitud),
The direction ofpodramos pensar
L also is constant, que el
even though themomento
di-
r
rection of p ! m v keeps changing. You can visualize this by de
angular de la partcula tambin cambia
O
x manera rule
applying the right-hand contnua con
to find the direction of L !
el tiempo
r " p ! m r " v in Figure 11.5. Your thumb points upward
and away from the page; this is the direction of L Hence, we
can write the vector expression L ! (mvr)k. If the particle
were to move Sin embargo
clockwise, L wouldeste
point no es eland
downward casointo
Figure 11.5 (Example 11.3) A particle moving in a circle of ra- the page. A particle in uniform circular motion has a
dius r has an angular momentum about O that has magnitude constant angular momentum about an axis through the
Magnitud Direccin
mvr. The vector L ! r " p points out of the diagram. center of its path.
Perpendicular al plano de la pantalla y saliendo
hacia fuera (regla de la mano derecha)
Angular Momentum of a System of Particles
Una partcula en un movimiento circular uniforme tiene un momento angular
In Section 9.6, constante
we showed thatcon respecto
Newtons second a
lawun
foreje que pase
a particle por
could be el centro
extended to de la trayectoria
a system of particles, resulting in:
Momento angular total de un sistema de partculas

El momento angular total de un sistema de partculas con respecto a un determinado


punto se define como la suma vectorial de los momento angulares de las partculas
individuales con respecto a ese punto.

En un sistema continuo habra que reemplazar la suma por una integral


Momento angular total de un sistema de partculas

A priori, para cada partcula i tendramos que calcular el torque asociado con:
- fuerzas internas entre las partculas que componen el sistema
- fuerzas externas

Sin embargo, debido al principio de accin y reaccin, el torque neto


debido a las fuerzas internas se anula.

Se puede concluir que el momento angular total de un sistema de


partculas puede variar con el tiempo si y slo si existe un torque neto
debido a las fuerzas externas que actan sobre el sistema
Momento angular total de un sistema de partculas

El torque neto (con respecto a un eje que pase por un origen en un


sistema de referencia inercial) debido a las fuerzas externas que actan
sobre un sistema es igual al ritmo de variacin del momento angular
total del sistema con respecto a dicho origen
Momento angular de un slido rgido en rotacin
Consideremos una placa que rota alrededor de un eje perpendicular y
que coincide con el eje z de un sistema de coordenadas

Cada partcula del objeto rota en el plano xy


alrededor del eje z con una celeridad angular

El momento angular de una partcula de masa


que rota en torno al eje z es

Y el momento angular del sistema angular (que en este


caso particular slo tiene componente a lo largo de z)
Momento angular de un slido rgido en rotacin

Y el momento angular del sistema angular (que en este


caso particular slo tiene componente a lo largo de z)

Donde se ha definido el momento de inercia del objeto


con respecto al eje z como

En este caso particular, el momento angular tiene la misma direccin que la velocidad angular
Momento angular de un slido rgido en rotacin

En general, la expresin no siempre es vlida.

Si un objeto rgido rota alrededor de un eje arbitrario, el momento angular y la velocidad angular
podran apuntar en direcciones diferentes.
En este caso, el momento de inercia no puede ser tratado como un escalar.
Estrictamente hablando, se aplica slo en el caso de un slido rgido de cualquier forma
que rota con respecto a uno de los tres ejes mutuamente perpendiculares (denominados ejes
principales de inercia) y que pasan por su centro de masa.
Ecuacin del movimiento para la rotacin
de un slido rgido
Supongamos que el eje de rotacin del slido coincide con uno de sus ejes principales,
de modo que el momento angular tiene la misma direccin que la velocidad angular

Derivando esta expresin con respecto al tiempo

Si asumimos que el momento de inercia no cambia con el tiempo


(esto ocurre para un cuerpo rgido)

El torque externo neto que acta sobre un slido rgido que rota alrededor de
un eje fijo es igual al momento de inercia con respecto al eje de rotacin
multiplicado por la aceleracin angular del objeto con respecto a ese eje
Ecuacin del movimiento para la rotacin
de un slido rgido
Supongamos que el eje de rotacin del slido no coincide con uno de sus ejes principales,
de modo que el momento angular tiene la misma direccin que la velocidad angular

Pero como el momento angular ya no es paralelo a la velocidad angular,


sta no tiene por qu ser constante
Conservacin del momento angular

El momento angular total de un sistema es contante, tanto en direccin como en


mdulo si el torque resultante debido a las fuerzas externas se anula

Tercera ley de conservacin: en un sistema aislado se conserva:


- energa total
- el momento lineal
- el momento angular

El principio de conservacin del momento angular es un resultado general que se


puede aplicar a cualquier sistema aislado.
El momento angular de un sistema aislado se conserva tanto si el sistema es un
cuerpo rgido como si no lo es.
Conservacin del momento angular

El momento angular total de un sistema es contante, tanto en direccin como en


mdulo si el torque resultante debido a las fuerzas externas se anula

Para un sistema aislado consistente en un conjunto de partculas, la ley de


conservacin se escribe como
Conservacin del momento angular

Si la masa de un sistema aislado que rota sufre un redistribucin,


el momento de inercia cambia

Como la magnitud del momento angular del sistema es

La ley de conservacin del momento angular requiere que el


producto de I por permanezca constante

Es decir, para un sistema aislado, un cambio en I requiere un cambio en


Esta expresin es vlida para:


- una rotacin en torno a un eje fijo.
- una rotacin alrededor de un eje que pase por el centro de masas de un
sistema que rota.
Lo nico que se requiere es que el torque neto de la fuerza externa se anule
other part of the system is the student plus the stool she is
sitting on. So, we can now state that
Lf ! Li ! L student&stool % Li
Problema de conservacin del momento angular
Figure 11.12 (Example 11.9) The wheel is initially spinning
when the student is at rest. What happens when the wheel is
inverted? 2L
L student&stool !
Un disco de 2.0 kg que vuela con una celeridad de 3.0 m/s golpea una i barra de 1 kg y longitud
4.0 m que
Example se apoya
11.10 Disk andsobre
Stick una superficie de hielo sin rozamiento. AsumimosInteractive que la colisin es
elstica y que el disco no se desva de su trayectoria original.
A 2.0-kg disk traveling at 3.0 m/s strikes a 1.0-kg stick of
Encontrar: stick. Because the disk and stick form an isolated system, we
length 4.0 m that is lying flat on nearly frictionless ice, as can assume that total energy, linear momentum, and angu-
(a) La celeridad de traslacin del disco
shown in Figure 11.13. Assume that the collision is elastic despus de la colisin
lar momentum are all conserved. Thus, we can categorize
(b)
and Lathatceleridad
the disk doesdenottraslacin
deviate from itsdeoriginal
la barraline ofdespus
this as a de la colisin
problem in which all three conservation laws might
La velocidad angular de la barra despus play
motion. Find the translational speed of the disk, the transla-
(c) de alapart. To analyze the problem, first note that we have
colisin
tional speed of the stick, and the angular speed of the stick three unknowns, and so we need three equations to solve si-
afterElthemomento
collision. The de inercia
moment deoflathebarra
of inertia con respecto
stick about multaneously.a The
su centro
first comesde frommasas esthede
the law of 1.33 kg m2
conserva-
its center of mass is 1.33 kg m2. tion of linear momentum:

Solution Conceptualize the situation by considering Figure pi ! pf


11.13 and imagining what happens after the disk hits the m dvdi ! m dvdf & m svs
(2.0 kg)(3.0 m/s) ! (2.0 kg)vdf & (1.0 kg)vs
Before After Como6.0
(1)
elkg#m/s
disco%y(2.0 la kg)v
barra forman un sistema aislado
df ! (1.0 kg)vs
y la colisin es elstica:
vdi = 3.0 m/s vdf - Now
Se conserva la energa
we apply the law total
of conservation of angular mo-
mentum, using the initial position of the center of the stick
- our
as Sereference
conserva el momento
point. We lineal of an-
know that the component
2.0 m
- Se
gular conserva
momentum of theeldisk
momento angular
along the axis perpendicular
to the plane of the ice is negative. (The right-hand rule
vs shows that Ld points into the ice.) Applying conservation of
angular momentum to the system gives

Figure 11.13 (Example 11.10) Overhead view of a disk striking Li ! Lf


a stick in an elastic collision, which causes the stick to rotate
and move to the right. Tenemos tres incgnitas y tres leyes de conservacin
% rm d vdi ! %rm d vdf & I"
other part of the system is the student plus the stool she is
sitting on. So, we can now state that
Lf ! Li ! L student&stool % Li
Problema de conservacin del momento angular
Figure 11.12 (Example 11.9) The wheel is initially spinning
when the student is at rest. What happens when the wheel is
inverted? 2L
L student&stool !
Un disco de 2.0 kg que vuela con una celeridad de 3.0 m/s golpea una i barra de 1 kg y longitud
4.0 m que
Example se apoya
11.10 Disk andsobre
Stick una superficie de hielo sin rozamiento. AsumimosInteractive que la colisin es
elstica y que el disco no se desva de su trayectoria original.
A 2.0-kg disk traveling at 3.0 m/s strikes a 1.0-kg stick of
Encontrar: stick. Because the disk and stick form an isolated system, we
length 4.0 m that is lying flat on nearly frictionless ice, as can assume that total energy, linear momentum, and angu-
(a) La celeridad de traslacin del disco
shown in Figure 11.13. Assume that the collision is elastic despus de la colisin
lar momentum are all conserved. Thus, we can categorize
(b)
and Lathatceleridad
the disk doesdenottraslacin
deviate from itsdeoriginal
la barraline ofdespus
this as a de la colisin
problem in which all three conservation laws might
La velocidad angular de la barra despus play
motion. Find the translational speed of the disk, the transla-
(c) de alapart. To analyze the problem, first note that we have
colisin
tional speed of the stick, and the angular speed of the stick three unknowns, and so we need three equations to solve si-
afterElthemomento
collision. The de inercia
moment deoflathebarra
of inertia con respecto
stick about multaneously.a The
su centro
first comesde frommasas esthede
the law of 1.33 kg m2
conserva-
its center of mass is 1.33 kg m2. tion of linear momentum:

Solution Conceptualize the situation by considering Figure pi ! pf


11.13 and imagining what happens after the disk hits the m dvdi ! m dvdf & m svs
(2.0 kg)(3.0 m/s) ! (2.0 kg)vdf & (1.0 kg)vs
Before After Como6.0
(1)
elkg#m/s
disco%y(2.0 la kg)v
barra forman un sistema aislado
df ! (1.0 kg)vs
y la colisin es elstica:
vdi = 3.0 m/s vdf Conservacin
Now we apply del momento
the law of conservation lineal
of angular mo-
mentum, using the initial position of the center of the stick
as our reference point. We know that the component of an-
2.0 m
gular momentum of the disk along the axis perpendicular
to the plane of the ice is negative. (The right-hand rule
vs shows that Ld points into the ice.) Applying conservation of
angular momentum to the system gives

Figure 11.13 (Example 11.10) Overhead view of a disk striking Li ! Lf


a stick in an elastic collision, which causes the stick to rotate
and move to the right. % rm d vdi ! %rm d vdf & I"
other part of the system is the student plus the stool she is
sitting on. So, we can now state that
Lf ! Li ! L student&stool % Li
Problema de conservacin del momento angular
Figure 11.12 (Example 11.9) The wheel is initially spinning
when the student is at rest. What happens when the wheel is
inverted? 2L
L student&stool !
Un disco de 2.0 kg que vuela con una celeridad de 3.0 m/s golpea una i barra de 1 kg y longitud
4.0 m que
Example se apoya
11.10 Disk andsobre
Stick una superficie de hielo sin rozamiento. AsumimosInteractive que la colisin es
elstica y que el disco no se desva de su trayectoria original.
A 2.0-kg disk traveling at 3.0 m/s strikes a 1.0-kg stick of
Encontrar: stick. Because the disk and stick form an isolated system, we
length 4.0 m that is lying flat on nearly frictionless ice, as can assume that total energy, linear momentum, and angu-
(a) La celeridad de traslacin del disco
shown in Figure 11.13. Assume that the collision is elastic despus de la colisin
lar momentum are all conserved. Thus, we can categorize
(b)
and Lathatceleridad
the disk doesdenottraslacin
deviate from itsdeoriginal
la barraline ofdespus
this as a de la colisin
problem in which all three conservation laws might
La velocidad angular de la barra despus play
motion. Find the translational speed of the disk, the transla-
(c) de alapart. To analyze the problem, first note that we have
colisin
tional speed of the stick, and the angular speed of the stick three unknowns, and so we need three equations to solve si-
afterElthemomento
collision. The de inercia
moment deoflathebarra
of inertia con respecto
stick about multaneously.a The
su centro
first comesde frommasas esthede
the law of 1.33 kg m2
conserva-
its center of mass is 1.33 kg m2. tion of linear momentum:

Solution Conceptualize the situation by considering Figure pi ! pf


11.13 and imagining what happens after the disk hits the m dvdi ! m dvdf & m svs
(2.0 kg)(3.0 m/s) ! (2.0 kg)vdf & (1.0 kg)vs
Before After Como6.0
(1)
elkg#m/s
disco%y(2.0 la kg)v
barra forman un sistema aislado
df ! (1.0 kg)vs
y la colisin es elstica:
vdi = 3.0 m/s vdf Conservacin
Now we apply del momento
the law of conservation of angularangular
mo-
mentum, using the initial position of the center of the stick
as our reference point. We know that the component of an-
2.0 m La componente
gular momentum delthe
of the disk along momento angular del
axis perpendicular

to the plane of disco
the ice ais lo largo(The
negative. de right-hand
la direccin
rule
vs shows that Ld points into theal
ice.) Applying
perpendicular plano delconservation
hielo esofnegativa
angular momentum to the system gives
(regla de la mano derecha)
Figure 11.13 (Example 11.10) Overhead view of a disk striking Li ! Lf
a stick in an elastic collision, which causes the stick to rotate
and move to the right. % rm d vdi ! %rm d vdf & I"
other part of the system is the student plus the stool she is
sitting on. So, we can now state that
Lf ! Li ! L student&stool % Li
Problema de conservacin del momento angular
Figure 11.12 (Example 11.9) The wheel is initially spinning
when the student is at rest. What happens when the wheel is
inverted? 2L
L student&stool !
Un disco de 2.0 kg que vuela con una celeridad de 3.0 m/s golpea una i barra de 1 kg y longitud
4.0 m que
Example se apoya
11.10 Disk andsobre
Stick una superficie de hielo sin rozamiento. AsumimosInteractive que la colisin es
elstica y que el disco no se desva de su trayectoria original.
A 2.0-kg disk traveling at 3.0 m/s strikes a 1.0-kg stick of
Encontrar: stick. Because the disk and stick form an isolated system, we
length 4.0 m that is lying flat on nearly frictionless ice, as can assume that total energy, linear momentum, and angu-
(a) La celeridad de traslacin del disco
shown in Figure 11.13. Assume that the collision is elastic despus de la colisin
lar momentum are all conserved. Thus, we can categorize
(b)
and Lathatceleridad
the disk doesdenottraslacin
deviate from itsdeoriginal
la barraline ofdespus
this as a de la colisin
problem in which all three conservation laws might
La velocidad angular de la barra despus play
motion. Find the translational speed of the disk, the transla-
(c) de alapart. To analyze the problem, first note that we have
colisin
tional speed of the stick, and the angular speed of the stick three unknowns, and so we need three equations to solve si-
afterElthemomento
collision. The de inercia
moment deoflathebarra
of inertia con respecto
stick about multaneously.a The
su centro
first comesde frommasas esthede
the law of 1.33 kg m2
conserva-
its center of mass is 1.33 kg m2. tion of linear momentum:

Solution Conceptualize the situation by considering Figure pi ! pf


11.13 and imagining what happens after the disk hits the m dvdi ! m dvdf & m svs
(2.0 kg)(3.0 m/s) ! (2.0 kg)vdf & (1.0 kg)vs
Before After Como6.0
(1)
elkg#m/s
disco%y(2.0 la kg)v
barra forman un sistema aislado
df ! (1.0 kg)vs
y la colisin es elstica:
vdi = 3.0 m/s
Now weConservacin de la energa
apply the law of conservation mecnica
of angular mo-
vdf
mentum, using the initial position of the center of the stick
as our reference point. We know that the component of an-
2.0 m Solo tenemos
gular momentum of the diskenerga
along the cintica (tanto en
axis perpendicular su

to the planeforma translacional
of the ice is negative. (Thecomo rotacional
right-hand rule
vs shows that Ld points into the ice.) Applying conservation of
angular momentum to the system gives

Figure 11.13 (Example 11.10) Overhead view of a disk striking Li ! Lf


a stick in an elastic collision, which causes the stick to rotate
and move to the right. % rm d vdi ! %rm d vdf & I"
other part of the system is the student plus the stool she is
sitting on. So, we can now state that
Lf ! Li ! L student&stool % Li
Problema de conservacin del momento angular
Figure 11.12 (Example 11.9) The wheel is initially spinning
when the student is at rest. What happens when the wheel is
inverted? 2L
L student&stool !
Un disco de 2.0 kg que vuela con una celeridad de 3.0 m/s golpea una i barra de 1 kg y longitud
4.0 m que
Example se apoya
11.10 Disk andsobre
Stick una superficie de hielo sin rozamiento. AsumimosInteractive que la colisin es
elstica y que el disco no se desva de su trayectoria original.
A 2.0-kg disk traveling at 3.0 m/s strikes a 1.0-kg stick of
Encontrar: stick. Because the disk and stick form an isolated system, we
length 4.0 m that is lying flat on nearly frictionless ice, as can assume that total energy, linear momentum, and angu-
(a) La celeridad de traslacin del disco
shown in Figure 11.13. Assume that the collision is elastic despus de la colisin
lar momentum are all conserved. Thus, we can categorize
(b)
and Lathatceleridad
the disk doesdenottraslacin
deviate from itsdeoriginal
la barraline ofdespus
this as a de la colisin
problem in which all three conservation laws might
La velocidad angular de la barra despus play
motion. Find the translational speed of the disk, the transla-
(c) de alapart. To analyze the problem, first note that we have
colisin
tional speed of the stick, and the angular speed of the stick three unknowns, and so we need three equations to solve si-
afterElthemomento
collision. The de inercia
moment deoflathebarra
of inertia con respecto
stick about multaneously.a The
su centro
first comesde frommasas esthede
the law of 1.33 kg m2
conserva-
its center of mass is 1.33 kg m2. tion of linear momentum:
Resolvemos el sistema de las tres
Solution Conceptualize the situation by considering Figure ecuaciones
pi ! pf con tres incgnitas
11.13 and imagining what happens after the disk hits the m dvdi ! m dvdf & m svs
(2.0 kg)(3.0 m/s) ! (2.0 kg)vdf & (1.0 kg)vs
Before After (1) 6.0 kg#m/s % (2.0 kg)vdf ! (1.0 kg)vs

vdi = 3.0 m/s


Now we apply the law of conservation of angular mo-
vdf
mentum, using the initial position of the center of the stick
2.0 m Despejando
as our reference point. variables
We know that en la primera
the component y segunda
of an-
gular momentum of the disk along the axis perpendicular
ecuacin, y sustituyendo en la tercera
to the plane of the ice is negative. (The right-hand rule
vs shows that Ld points into the ice.) Applying conservation of
angular momentum to the system gives

Figure 11.13 (Example 11.10) Overhead view of a disk striking Li ! Lf


a stick in an elastic collision, which causes the stick to rotate
and move to the right. % rm d vdi ! %rm d vdf & I"
other part of the system is the student plus the stool she is
sitting on. So, we can now state that
Lf ! Li ! L student&stool % Li
Problema de conservacin del momento angular
Figure 11.12 (Example 11.9) The wheel is initially spinning
when the student is at rest. What happens when the wheel is
2L
Un disco de 2.0 kg que vuela con una celeridad de 3.0Lm/s
inverted? student&stool !
golpea una i
barra de 1 kg y longitud
4.0 m11.10
Example que se apoya
Disk sobre una superficie de hielo sin rozamiento. Asumimos
and Stick que la colisin es
Interactive
elstica y que el disco no se desva de su trayectoria original.
A 2.0-kg disk traveling at 3.0 m/s strikes a 1.0-kg stick of
Encontrar: stick. Because the disk and stick form an isolated system, we
length 4.0 m that is lying flat on nearly frictionless ice, as can assume that total energy, linear momentum, and angu-
(a) La celeridad de traslacin del disco
shown in Figure 11.13. Assume that the collision is elastic despus de laarecolisin
lar momentum all conserved. Thus, we can categorize
and(b) Latheceleridad
that disk does notde traslacin
deviate de laline
from its original barra
of despus de la
this as a problem colisin
in which all three conservation laws might
motion. Find the translational speed of the disk, the transla- play a part. To analyze the problem, first note that we have
(c) La velocidad angular de la barra despus de la colisin
tional speed of the stick, and the angular speed of the stick three unknowns, and so we need three equations to solve si-
after the El momento
collision. de inercia
The moment of inertia ofde
thela barra
stick about con respectoThe
multaneously. a su
first centro
comes from dethemasas
law of thees de 1.33 kg m2
conserva-
its center of mass is 1.33 kg m2. tion of linear momentum:
Despejando variables en la primera y segunda
Solution Conceptualize the situation by considering Figure ecuacin,
pi ! pf y sustituyendo en la tercera
11.13 and imagining what happens after the disk hits the m dvdi ! m dvdf & m svs
(2.0 kg)(3.0 m/s) ! (2.0 kg)vdf & (1.0 kg)vs
Before After (1) 6.0 kg#m/s % (2.0 kg)vdf ! (1.0 kg)vs

vdi = 3.0 m/s


Now we apply the law of conservation of angular mo-
vdf
mentum, using the initial position of the center of the stick
as our reference point. We know that the component of an-
2.0 m
Sustituyendo
gular momentum datos
of the disk y resolviendo
along the axis perpendicularla ecuacin de
to the plane of the ice is negative. (The right-hand rule
vs segundo grado
shows that Ld points into the ice.) Applying conservation of
angular momentum to the system gives

Figure 11.13 (Example 11.10) Overhead view of a disk striking Li ! Lf


a stick in an elastic collision, which causes the stick to rotate
and move to the right. (La otra solucin carece de sentido fsico) % rm d vdi ! %rm d vdf & I"
other part of the system is the student plus the stool she is
sitting on. So, we can now state that
Lf ! Li ! L student&stool % Li
Problema de conservacin del momento angular
Figure 11.12 (Example 11.9) The wheel is initially spinning
when the student is at rest. What happens when the wheel is
inverted? 2L
L student&stool !
Un disco de 2.0 kg que vuela con una celeridad de 3.0 m/s golpea una i barra de 1 kg y longitud
4.0 m que
Example se apoya
11.10 Disk andsobre
Stick una superficie de hielo sin rozamiento. AsumimosInteractive que la colisin es
perfectamente inelstica y que el disco no se desva de su trayectoria original.
A 2.0-kg disk traveling at 3.0 m/s strikes a 1.0-kg stick of
Encontrar: stick. Because the disk and stick form an isolated system, we
length 4.0 m that is lying flat on nearly frictionless ice, as can assume that total energy, linear momentum, and angu-
(a) La celeridad de traslacin del disco
shown in Figure 11.13. Assume that the collision is elastic despus de la colisin
lar momentum are all conserved. Thus, we can categorize
(b)
and Lathatceleridad
the disk doesdenottraslacin
deviate from itsdeoriginal
la barraline ofdespus
this as a de la colisin
problem in which all three conservation laws might
La velocidad angular de la barra despus play
motion. Find the translational speed of the disk, the transla-
(c) de alapart. To analyze the problem, first note that we have
colisin
tional speed of the stick, and the angular speed of the stick three unknowns, and so we need three equations to solve si-
afterElthemomento
collision. The de inercia
moment deoflathebarra
of inertia con respecto
stick about multaneously.a The
su centro
first comesde frommasas esthede
the law of 1.33 kg m2
conserva-
its center of mass is 1.33 kg m2. tion of linear momentum:
Qu pasara si la colisin fuera perfectamente
Solution Conceptualize the situation by considering Figure pi ! pf inelstica?
11.13 and imagining what happens after the disk hits the m dvdi ! m dvdf & m svs
(2.0 kg)(3.0 m/s) ! (2.0 kg)vdf & (1.0 kg)vs
Before After En este
(1)
caso, el disco se adhiere a la barra despus
6.0 kg#m/s % (2.0 kg)vdf ! (1.0 kg)vs
de la colisin
vdi = 3.0 m/s vdf Conservacin
Now we apply del momento
the law of conservation lineal
of angular mo-
mentum, using the initial position of the center of the stick
as our reference point. We know that the component of an-
2.0 m
gular momentum of the disk along the axis perpendicular
to the plane of the ice is negative. (The right-hand rule
vs shows that Ld points into the ice.) Applying conservation of
angular momentum to the system gives

Figure 11.13 (Example 11.10) Overhead view of a disk striking Li ! Lf


a stick in an elastic collision, which causes the stick to rotate
and move to the right. % rm d vdi ! %rm d vdf & I"
other part of the system is the student plus the stool she is
sitting on. So, we can now state that
Lf ! Li ! L student&stool % Li
Problema de conservacin del momento angular
Figure 11.12 (Example 11.9) The wheel is initially spinning
when the student is at rest. What happens when the wheel is
inverted? 2L
L student&stool !
Un disco de 2.0 kg que vuela con una celeridad de 3.0 m/s golpea una i barra de 1 kg y longitud
4.0 m que
Example se apoya
11.10 Disk andsobre
Stick una superficie de hielo sin rozamiento. AsumimosInteractive que la colisin es
perfectamente inelstica y que el disco no se desva de su trayectoria original.
A 2.0-kg disk traveling at 3.0 m/s strikes a 1.0-kg stick of
Encontrar: stick. Because the disk and stick form an isolated system, we
length 4.0 m that is lying flat on nearly frictionless ice, as can assume that total energy, linear momentum, and angu-
(a) La celeridad de traslacin del disco
shown in Figure 11.13. Assume that the collision is elastic despus de la colisin
lar momentum are all conserved. Thus, we can categorize
(b)
and Lathatceleridad
the disk doesdenottraslacin
deviate from itsdeoriginal
la barraline ofdespus
this as a de la colisin
problem in which all three conservation laws might
La velocidad angular de la barra despus play
motion. Find the translational speed of the disk, the transla-
(c) de alapart. To analyze the problem, first note that we have
colisin
tional speed of the stick, and the angular speed of the stick three unknowns, and so we need three equations to solve si-
afterElthemomento
collision. The de inercia
moment deoflathebarra
of inertia con respecto
stick about multaneously.a The
su centro
first comesde frommasas esthede
the law of 1.33 kg m2
conserva-
its center of mass is 1.33 kg m2. tion of linear momentum:
Qu pasara si la colisin fuera perfectamente
Solution Conceptualize the situation by considering Figure pi ! pf inelstica?
11.13 and imagining what happens after the disk hits the m dvdi ! m dvdf & m svs
(2.0 kg)(3.0 m/s) ! (2.0 kg)vdf & (1.0 kg)vs
Before After (1)
Clculo del centro de masas
6.0 kg#m/s % (2.0 kg)vdf ! (1.0 kg)vs
(necesario para la parte rotacional)
vdi = 3.0 m/s
Now we apply the law of conservation of angular mo-
vdf
mentum,Tomamos el centro
using the initial position ofde
thela barra
center como
of the stick origen
as our reference point. We know that the component of an-
2.0 m Justo en el instante de la colisin, la posicin
gular momentum of the disk along the axis perpendicular
to the plane of del centro
the ice de masas
is negative. estarrule
(The right-hand en
vs shows that Ld points into the ice.) Applying conservation of
angular momentum to the system gives

Figure 11.13 (Example 11.10) Overhead view of a disk striking Li ! Lf


a stick in an elastic collision, which causes the stick to rotate
and move to the right. % rm d vdi ! %rm d vdf & I"
Es decir, a 0,67 m del borde superior de la barra
other part of the system is the student plus the stool she is
sitting on. So, we can now state that
Lf ! Li ! L student&stool % Li
Problema de conservacin del momento angular
Figure 11.12 (Example 11.9) The wheel is initially spinning
when the student is at rest. What happens when the wheel is
inverted? L student&stool !2L
Un disco de 2.0 kg que vuela con una celeridad de 3.0 m/s golpea una i barra de 1 kg y longitud
4.0 m que
Example se apoya
11.10 Disk andsobre
Stick una superficie de hielo sin rozamiento. AsumimosInteractive que la colisin es
perfectamente inelstica y que el disco no se desva de su trayectoria original.
A 2.0-kg disk traveling at 3.0 m/s strikes a 1.0-kg stick of
Encontrar: stick. Because the disk and stick form an isolated system, we
length 4.0 m that is lying flat on nearly frictionless ice, as can assume that total energy, linear momentum, and angu-
(a) La celeridad de traslacin del disco
shown in Figure 11.13. Assume that the collision is elastic despus de la colisin
lar momentum are all conserved. Thus, we can categorize
(b)
and Lathatceleridad
the disk doesdenottraslacin
deviate from itsdeoriginal
la barraline ofdespus
this as a de la colisin
problem in which all three conservation laws might
La velocidad angular de la barra despus play
motion. Find the translational speed of the disk, the transla-
(c) de alapart. To analyze the problem, first note that we have
colisin
tional speed of the stick, and the angular speed of the stick three unknowns, and so we need three equations to solve si-
afterElthemomento
collision. The de inercia
moment deoflathebarra
of inertia con respecto
stick about multaneously.a The
su centro
first comesde frommasas esthede
the law of 1.33 kg m2
conserva-
its center of mass is 1.33 kg m2. tion of linear momentum:
Qu pasara si la colisin fuera perfectamente
Solution Conceptualize the situation by considering Figure pi ! pf inelstica?
11.13 and imagining what happens after the disk hits the m dvdi ! m dvdf & m svmomento
Conservacin del s angular
(2.0 kg)(3.0 m/s) ! (2.0 kg)vdf & (1.0 kg)vs
Before After (1) 6.0 kg#m/s % (2.0 kg)vdf ! (1.0 kg)vs

vdi = 3.0 m/s


Now we apply the law of conservation of angular mo-
vdf
mentum, using the initial position of the center of the stick
ahora es
as our reference la We
point. distancia delcomponent
know that the disco al of CDM
an- (0.67 m)
2.0 m
gular momentum of the disk along the axis perpendicular
El plane
to the sistemaof theva ice ais rotar con
negative. respecto
(The right-hand al
rulecentro de
vs masas,
shows that Ld as que
points into tenemos queconservation
the ice.) Applying calcular oflos nuevos
angular momentum
momentos to the system
de inercia degives
la barra (teorema de Steiner)
Figure 11.13 (Example 11.10) Overhead view of a disk striking Li ! Lf
a stick in an elastic collision, which causes the stick to rotate
and move to the right. % rm d vdi ! %rm d vdf & I"
other part of the system is the student plus the stool she is
sitting on. So, we can now state that
Lf ! Li ! L student&stool % Li
Problema de conservacin del momento angular
Figure 11.12 (Example 11.9) The wheel is initially spinning
when the student is at rest. What happens when the wheel is
inverted? 2L
L student&stool !
Un disco de 2.0 kg que vuela con una celeridad de 3.0 m/s golpea una i barra de 1 kg y longitud
4.0 m que
Example se apoya
11.10 Disk andsobre
Stick una superficie de hielo sin rozamiento. AsumimosInteractive que la colisin es
perfectamente inelstica y que el disco no se desva de su trayectoria original.
A 2.0-kg disk traveling at 3.0 m/s strikes a 1.0-kg stick of
Encontrar: stick. Because the disk and stick form an isolated system, we
length 4.0 m that is lying flat on nearly frictionless ice, as can assume that total energy, linear momentum, and angu-
(a) La celeridad de traslacin del disco
shown in Figure 11.13. Assume that the collision is elastic despus de la colisin
lar momentum are all conserved. Thus, we can categorize
(b)
and Lathatceleridad
the disk doesdenottraslacin
deviate from itsdeoriginal
la barraline ofdespus
this as a de la colisin
problem in which all three conservation laws might
La velocidad angular de la barra despus play
motion. Find the translational speed of the disk, the transla-
(c) de alapart. To analyze the problem, first note that we have
colisin
tional speed of the stick, and the angular speed of the stick three unknowns, and so we need three equations to solve si-
afterElthemomento
collision. The de inercia
moment deoflathebarra
of inertia con respecto
stick about multaneously.a The
su centro
first comesde frommasas esthede
the law of 1.33 kg m2
conserva-
its center of mass is 1.33 kg m2. tion of linear momentum:
Qu pasara si la colisin fuera perfectamente
Solution Conceptualize the situation by considering Figure pi ! pf inelstica?
11.13 and imagining what happens after the disk hits the m dvdi ! m dvdf & m svmomento
Conservacin del s angular
(2.0 kg)(3.0 m/s) ! (2.0 kg)vdf & (1.0 kg)vs
Before After (1) 6.0 kg#m/s % (2.0 kg)vdf ! (1.0 kg)vs

vdi = 3.0 m/s


Now we apply the law of conservation of angular mo-
vdf
mentum, using the initial position of the center of the stick
as our reference point. We know that the component of an-
2.0 m
gular momentum of the disk along the axis perpendicular
Despejando
to la ice
the plane of the velocidad
is negative. angular y sustituyendo
(The right-hand rule los
vs shows that Ld points into valores anteriores
the ice.) Applying conservation of
angular momentum to the system gives

Figure 11.13 (Example 11.10) Overhead view of a disk striking Li ! Lf


a stick in an elastic collision, which causes the stick to rotate
and move to the right. % rm d vdi ! %rm d vdf & I"
Movimiento de precesin de los girscopos
350 C H A P T E R 1 1 Angular Momentum

Trompo: cuerpo simtrico que gira alrededor de un eje de simetra mientras un punto
de este eje permanece
11.5 The fijoMotion
(una peonza)of Gyroscopes and Tops
Girscopo: caso particularAde
veryun trompo
unusual en el que
and fascinating elmotion
type of punto youfijo pasa
probably por
have el centro
observed de
is that of a masas
top spinning about its axis of symmetry, as shown in Figure 11.14a. If the top spins very
Supongamos el movimiento rapidly,
de una thepeonza
symmetry que gira rpidamente
axis rotates entorno
about the z axis, sweeping outaa su eje
cone deFig.simetra
(see
11.14b). The motion of the symmetry axis about the verticalknown as precessional
Precessional motion motionis usually slow relative to the spinning motion of the top.
It is quite natural to wonder why the top does not fall over. Because the center of
mass is not directly above the pivot point O, a net torque is clearly acting on the top
z La peonza acta como un girscopo y cabra
about Oa torque resulting from the gravitational force Mg. The top would certainly
L
esperar que su orientacin en el espacio
fall over if it were not spinning. Because it is spinning, however, it has an angular mo-
mentum L directed along its symmetry axis. We shall show that this symmetry axis
permaneciera invariable
moves about the z axis (precessional motion occurs) because the torque produces a
change in the direction of the symmetry axis. This is an excellent example of the impor-
tance of the directional nature of angular momentum.
CM The essential features of precessional motion can be illustrated by considering the
(a)
n simple gyroscope shown in Figure 11.15a. The two forces acting on the top are the
downward gravitational force Mg and the normal force n acting upward at the pivot
Mg
r
y Sin embargo, si la peonza est inclinada, se observa que su
point O. The normal force produces no torque about the pivot because its moment
O
eje de simetra gira alrededor del eje , formando en su
arm through that point is zero. However, the gravitational force produces a torque
! ! r " Mg about O, where the direction of ! is perpendicular to the plane formed
x desplazamiento la figura de un cono.
by r and Mg. By necessity, the vector ! lies in a horizontal xy plane perpendicular to
A este movimiento se le denomina movimiento de precesin
the angular momentum vector. The net torque and angular momentum of the gyro-
scope are related through Equation 11.13:
L
dL
!!
Li Lf dt
(b)
From this expression, we see that the nonzero torque produces a change in angular
momentum d La change that is in the same direction as !. Therefore, like the torque
Figure 11.14 Precessional motion
vector, d L must also be perpendicular to L. Figure 11.15b illustrates the resulting pre-
La velocidad
of a top spinningangular del eje de simetra alrededor del eje vertical es normalmente lenta con
about its symme- cessional motion of the symmetry axis of the gyroscope. In a time interval dt, the
change in angular momentum is d L ! L f " Li ! ! dt. Because d L is perpendicular to
respecto
on the topaare
lathevelocidad angular de la peonza alrededor de su eje de simetra
try axis. (a) The only external
forces acting L, the magnitude of L does not change (! Li ! ! ! L f !). Rather, what is changing is the
normal force n and the gravita- direction of L. Because the change in angular momentum d L is in the direction of !,
tional force Mg. The direction of
the angular momentum L is along
which lies in the xy plane, the gyroscope undergoes precessional motion.
Movimiento de precesin de los girscopos
Origen del movimiento de precesin
350 C H A P T E R 1 1 Angular Momentum

Por qu11.5 The no


la peonza Motion of Gyroscopes
mantiene su direccinand Tops
de giro?
A very unusual and fascinating type of motion you probably have observed is that of a
top spinning about its axis of symmetry, as shown in Figure 11.14a. If the top spins very
rapidly, the symmetry axis rotates about the z axis, sweeping out a cone (see Fig.
11.14b). The motion of the symmetry axis about the verticalknown as precessional
Precessional motion
Como el centro de masas de la peonza no se encuentra
motionis usually slow relative to the spinning motion of the top.
directamente sobre el punto de pivote , hay un par neto
It is quite natural to wonder why the top does not fall over. Because the center of
mass is not directly above the pivot point O, a net torque is clearly acting on the top
z con respecto a que acta sobre la peonza.
about Oa torque resulting from the gravitational force Mg. The top would certainly
fall over if it were not spinning. Because it is spinning, however, it has an angular mo-
L
mentum L directed along its symmetry axis. We shall show that this symmetry axis
moves about the z axis (precessional motion occurs) because the torque produces a
El par est producido por la fuerza de la gravedad
change in the direction of the symmetry axis. This is an excellent example of the impor-
tance of the directional nature of angular momentum.
CM The essential features of precessional motion can be illustrated by considering the
(a)
n simple gyroscope shown in Figure 11.15a. The two forces acting on the top are the

Mg
r
y
Si no estuviera girando, la peonza caera
downward gravitational force Mg and the normal force n acting upward at the pivot
point O. The normal force produces no torque about the pivot because its moment
O
arm through that point is zero. However, the gravitational force produces a torque
! ! r " Mg about O, where the direction of ! is perpendicular to the plane formed
x
by r and Mg. By necessity, the vector ! lies in a horizontal xy plane perpendicular to
Como est girando, la peonza tiene un momento angular
the angular momentum vector. The net torque and angular momentum of the gyro-
cuya direccin coincide con el eje de simetra de la peonza
scope are related through Equation 11.13:
L
dL
!!
Li Lf dt
(b)
From this expression, we see that the nonzero torque produces a change in angular
momentum d La change that is in the same direction as !. Therefore, like the torque
Figure 11.14 Precessional motion
vector, d L must also be perpendicular to L. Figure 11.15b illustrates the resulting pre-
cessional motion of the symmetry axis of the gyroscope. In a time interval dt, the
El par provoca un cambio en la direccin del eje de simetra que a la postre es el responsable del
of a top spinning about its symme-
try axis. (a) The only external change in angular momentum is d L ! L f " Li ! ! dt. Because d L is perpendicular to
movimiento de este eje de simetra con respecto al eje
forces acting on the top are the L, the magnitude of L does not change (! Li ! ! ! L f !). Rather, what is changing is the
normal force n and the gravita- direction of L. Because the change in angular momentum d L is in the direction of !,
tional force Mg. The direction of
the angular momentum L is along
which lies in the xy plane, the gyroscope undergoes precessional motion.
Movimiento de precesin de los girscopos
Origen del movimiento de precesin
350 C H A P T E R 1 1 Angular Momentum

Por qu11.5 The no


la peonza Motion of Gyroscopes
mantiene su direccinand Tops
de giro?
A very unusual and fascinating type of motion you probably have observed is that of a
top spinning about its axis of symmetry, as shown in Figure 11.14a. If the top spins very
rapidly, the symmetry axis rotates about the z axis, sweeping out a cone (see Fig.
11.14b). The motion of the symmetry axis about the verticalknown as precessional
Precessional motion
Las dos fuerzas que actan sobre la peonza son:
motionis usually slow relative to the spinning motion of the top.
- Su peso: acta hacia abajo
It is quite natural to wonder why the top does not fall over. Because the center of
mass is not directly above the pivot point O, a net torque is clearly acting on the top
z - La normal: acta hacia arriba en el punto de pivote
about Oa torque resulting from the gravitational force Mg. The top would certainly
L la normal no produce ningn par alrededor del pivote
fall over if it were not spinning. Because it is spinning, however, it has an angular mo-
mentum L directed along its symmetry axis. We shall show that this symmetry axis
porque su brazo de palanca con respecto a dicho
moves about the z axis (precessional motion occurs) because the torque produces a
punto es cero
change in the direction of the symmetry axis. This is an excellent example of the impor-
tance of the directional nature of angular momentum.
CM The essential features of precessional motion can be illustrated by considering the
(a)
n simple gyroscope shown in Figure 11.15a. The two forces acting on the top are the
downward gravitational force Mg and the normal force n acting upward at the pivot
Mg
r
y Par con respecto a debido a la gravedad
point O. The normal force produces no torque about the pivot because its moment
O
arm through that point is zero. However, the gravitational force produces a torque
Direccin
! ! r " Mg about O, where the direction of ! is perpendicular to the plane formed
x
by r and Mg. By necessity, the vector ! lies in a horizontal xy plane perpendicular
perpendicular toal plano
the angular momentum vector. The net torque and angular momentum formado por
of the gyro- y
scope are related through Equation 11.13:
L
dL
Li Lf
Obligatoriamente el vector ! !sedtencuentra en el plano horizontal
(b)
(perpendicular
From this expression,alwe
peso) perpendicular
see that the nonzero torqueal vectora change
produces momento angular
in angular
(que lleva
momentum la direccin
d La change that is de lasame
in the posicin
direction del centro de
as !. Therefore, like masas
the torquecon
vector, d L must also be perpendicular to L. Figure 11.15b illustrates the resulting pre-
cessional motion of the symmetry respecto a ) In a time interval dt, the
Figure 11.14 Precessional motion
of a top spinning about its symme- axis of the gyroscope.
try axis. (a) The only external change in angular momentum is d L ! L f " Li ! ! dt. Because d L is perpendicular to
forces acting on the top are the L, the magnitude of L does not change (! Li ! ! ! L f !). Rather, what is changing is the
normal force n and the gravita- direction of L. Because the change in angular momentum d L is in the direction of !,
tional force Mg. The direction of
the angular momentum L is along
which lies in the xy plane, the gyroscope undergoes precessional motion.
Movimiento de precesin de los girscopos
Origen del movimiento de precesin
350 C H A P T E R 1 1 Angular Momentum

Por qu11.5 The no


la peonza Motion
mantiene of Gyroscopes
su direccinand Tops
de giro?
El par neto y el momento angular estn relacionados por
A very unusual and fascinating type of motion you probably have observed is that of a
top spinning about its axis of symmetry, as shown in Figure 11.14a. If the top spins very
rapidly, the symmetry axis rotates about the z axis, sweeping out a cone (see Fig.
11.14b). The motion of the symmetry axis about the verticalknown as precessional
Precessional motion motionis usually slow relative to the spinning motion of the top.
It is quite natural to wonder why the top does not fall over. Because the center of
mass is not directly above the pivot point O, a net torque is clearly acting on the top
z
about Oa torque resulting from the gravitational force Mg. The top would certainly
L El cambio en el vector momento angular producido por el par
fall over if it were not spinning. Because it is spinning, however, it has an angular mo-
mentum L directed along its symmetry axis. We shall show that this symmetry axis
va en la misma direccin del par.
moves about the z axis (precessional motion occurs) because the torque produces a
Por ello tambin tiene que ser perpendicular a
change in the direction of the symmetry axis. This is an excellent example of the impor-
tance of the directional nature of angular momentum.
CM The essential features of precessional motion can be illustrated by considering the
(a)
n
En un periodo de tiempo determinado el cambio en el
simple gyroscope shown in Figure 11.15a. The two forces acting on the top are the
downward gravitational force Mg and the normal force n acting upward at the pivot
r
Mg
O
y momento angular es
point O. The normal force produces no torque about the pivot because its moment
arm through that point is zero. However, the gravitational force produces a torque
! ! r " Mg about O, where the direction of ! is perpendicular to the plane formed
x
by r and Mg. By necessity, the vector ! lies in a horizontal xy plane perpendicular to
the angular momentum vector. The net torque and angular momentum of the gyro-
scope are related through Equation 11.13:
L
Dado que es perpendicular
dL a el mdulo de no cambia
!!
Li Lf dt
(b)
From this expression, we see that the nonzero torque produces a change in angular
momentum d La change that is in the same direction as !. Therefore, like the torque
Lo que cambia es la direccin de .
Figure 11.14 Precessional motion
vector, d L must also be perpendicular to L. Figure 11.15b illustrates the resulting pre-
Puesto que el cambio en el momento angular
of a top spinning about its symme-
try axis. (a) The only external
va en la direccin de (situado en el plano
cessional motion of the symmetry axis of the gyroscope. In a time interval dt, the
change in angular momentum is d L ! L f " Li ! ! dt. Because d L is perpendicular to
),
la peonza experimenta un movimiento de precesin
forces acting on the top are the L, the magnitude of L does not change (! Li ! ! ! L f !). Rather, what is changing is the
normal force n and the gravita- direction of L. Because the change in angular momentum d L is in the direction of !,
tional force Mg. The direction of
the angular momentum L is along
which lies in the xy plane, the gyroscope undergoes precessional motion.
Movimiento de precesin de una peonza
Descripcin cuantitativa
350 C H A P T E R 1 1 Angular Momentum

11.5 The Motion of Gyroscopes and Tops


En el intervalo de tiempo el vector momento angular
A very unusual and fascinating type of motion you probably have observed is that of a
rota un ngulo que es tambin el ngulo que rota el eje.
top spinning about its axis of symmetry, as shown in Figure 11.14a. If the top spins very
A partir del tringulo que define en la figura (b)
rapidly, the symmetry axis rotates about the z axis, sweeping out a cone (see Fig.
11.14b). The motion of the symmetry axis about the verticalknown as precessional
Precessional motion motionis usually slow relative to the spinning motion of the top.
It is quite natural to wonder why the top does not fall over. Because the center of
mass is not directly above the pivot point O, a net torque is clearly acting on the top
z
about Oa torque resulting from the gravitational force Mg. The top would certainly
fall over if it were not spinning. Because it is spinning, however, it has an angular mo-
L Por otra parte, el mdulo del momento del peso viene definido por
mentum L directed along its symmetry axis. We shall show that this symmetry axis
moves about the z axis (precessional motion occurs) because the torque produces a
change in the direction of the symmetry axis. This is an excellent example of the impor-
tance of the directional nature of angular momentum.
CM The essential features of precessional motion can be illustrated by considering the
(a)
n simple gyroscope shown in Figure 11.15a. The two forces acting on the top are the
r Como
downward gravitational force Mg and the normal force n acting upward at the pivot
Mg y
point O. The normal force produces no torque about the pivot because its moment
O
arm through that point is zero. However, the gravitational force produces a torque
! ! r " Mg about O, where the direction of ! is perpendicular to the plane formed
x
by r and Mg. By necessity, the vector ! lies in a horizontal xy plane perpendicular to
the angular momentum vector. The net torque and angular momentum of the gyro-
scope are related through Equation 11.13:
L Definiendo la velocidad angular
dL
de precesin como
!!
Li Lf dt
(b)
From this expression, we see that the nonzero torque produces a change in angular
Independiente del
momentum d La change that is in the same direction as !. Therefore, like the torque
Figure 11.14 Precessional motion
vector, d L must also be perpendicular to L. Figure 11.15b illustrates thengulo
resultingde inclinacin
pre-
of a top spinning about its symme- cessional motion of the symmetry axis of the gyroscope. In a time interval dt, the
try axis. (a) The only external change in angular momentum is d L ! L f " Li ! ! dt. Because d L is perpendicular to
forces acting on the top are the El resultado es vlido siempre que
L, the magnitude of L does not change (! Li ! ! ! L f !). Rather, what is changing is the
normal force n and the gravita- direction of L. Because the change in angular momentum d L is in the direction of !,
tional force Mg. The direction of
the angular momentum L is along
which lies in the xy plane, the gyroscope undergoes precessional motion.
out Oa torque resulting from the gravitational force Mg. The top would certainly
over if it were not spinning. Because it is spinning, however, it has an angular mo-
ntum L directed along its symmetry axis. We shall show that this symmetry axis
ves about the z axis (precessional motion occurs) because the torque produces a
nge in the direction of the symmetry axis. This is an excellent example of the impor-

Movimiento de precesin de los girscopos


ce of the directional nature of angular momentum.
The essential features of precessional motion can be illustrated by considering the
ple gyroscope shown in Figure 11.15a. The two forces acting on the top are the

Descripcin cuantitativa
wnward gravitational force Mg and the normal force n acting upward at the pivot
nt O. The normal force produces no torque about the pivot because its moment
m through that point is zero. However, the gravitational force produces a torque
! r " Mg about O, where the direction of ! is perpendicular to the plane formed
r and Mg. By necessity, the vector ! lies in a horizontal xy plane perpendicular to

Repitiendo el proceso anterior para el caso de un girscopo


angular momentum vector. The net torque and angular momentum of the gyro-
pe are related through Equation 11.13:
dL
!!
dt
m this expression, we see that the nonzero torque produces a change in angular
mentum d La change that is in the same direction as !. Therefore, like the torque En el intervalo de tiempo el vector momento angular
tor, d L must also be perpendicular to L. Figure 11.15b illustrates the resulting pre-
sional motion of the symmetry axis of the gyroscope. In a time interval dt, the
nge in angular momentum is d L ! L f " Li ! ! dt. Because d L is perpendicular to
rota un ngulo que es tambin el ngulo que rota el eje
the magnitude of L does not change (! Li ! ! ! L f !). Rather, what is changing is the
ction of L. Because the change in angular momentum d L is in the direction of !,
ch lies in the xy plane, the gyroscope undergoes precessional motion.

Del tringulo formado por los vectores , ,y


h
n


Li

Donde hemos utilizado que para ngulos pequeos


Lf Li
Mg
d

Lf
dL

Dividiendo entre y utilizando la expresin


(a) (b)
ure 11.15 (a) The motion of a simple gyroscope pivoted a distance h from its center
mass. The gravitational force Mg produces a torque about the pivot, and this torque
erpendicular to the axle. (b) Overhead view of the initial and final angular momen-
vectors. The torque results in a change in angular momentum d L in a direction
pendicular to the axle. The axle sweeps out an angle d # in a time interval dt.

A esta velocidad angular se la conoce como frecuancia de precesin.


El resultado es vlido siempre que