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Mungkin wacana tentang zat gizi mikro dan makro telah sering kita dengar atau baca di beberapa

media seperti majalah,

ARS Foods high in zinc (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

televisi dan internet. Biasa istilah tersebut akan kita temui ketika kita menonton atau membaca
masalah bertemakan kesehatan, diet, hidup sehat dan semacamnya. Namun apakah anda sudah
mengetahui apa itu zat gizi mikro dan makro? Pengetahuan mengenai hal ini perlu diperhatikan
karena saat membaca kita kan lebih mengetahui apa yang kita baca.

Zat Gizi Mikro

Sebelum mempelajari perbedaannya marilah kita tinjau dahulu makna dari kata per kata. Zat gizi
dan mikro. Zat gizi merupakan suatu zat yang dibutuhkan oleh tubuh untuk hidup dan melakukan
tugasnya masing masing, zat gizi ini seperti bensin pada kendaraan bermotor. Jika tidak ada,
maka tidak bisa bergerak kalau cadangan sudah habis.

Sedangkan kata mikro berasal dari bahasa yunani yang berarti Kecil. Jadi zat gizi mikro ialah Zat
yang diperlukan tubuh dalam jumlah kecil. Zat gizi mikro ini hanya dibutuhkan lebih sedikit
daripada zat gizi makro namun keberadaannya di dalam tubuh tetap harus ada.

Yang termasuk zat gizi mikro ini ialah vitamin dan beberapa ion mineral yang penting seperti
zinc, besi dan lain lain.
Manfaatnya sangat banyak, misalnya besi berperan dalam pembentukan sel darah merah. sel
darah merah harus terus di produksi karena sel darah merah kita memiliki umur yang tidak
panjang. Jadi tubuh terus memproduksi untuk meregenerasi, Sedangkan vitamin C berlaku
sebagai antioksidan.

Zat Gizi Makro

Zat Gizi Makro meruapakan kebalikan dari zat gizi mikro. Makro juga berasal dari bahasa
yunani yang berarti Besar. Maka Zat gizi makro ialah zat yang dibutuhkan tubuh dalam jumlah
besar. Seberapa banyak? Tentu tidak terlalu banyak seperti yang dibayangkan. Asupan zat gizi
dalam tubuh telah dihitung dan diatur sehingga kita dapat mengetahui ambang batasnya. Karena
segala sesuatu yang berlebihan tidaklah baik.

Dikutip dari : http://belajar-gizi.blogspot.com

Yang merupakan zat gizi makro ialah lemak, karbohidrat dan protein. Ya, 3 kata tersebut
merupakan yang paling sering anda dengan dalam dunia gizi. Karena memang itulah yang kita
banyak butuhkan untuk tubuh. Kata siapa kita harus menghindari lemak? Itu hanya mitos. yang
harus dihindari ialah lemak jahat, karena dapat menyumbat pembuluh darah yang berakibat
stroke. Lemak baik dapat membawa lemak jahat agar tidak bertumpuk. Selain itu lemak dapat
berfungsi sebagai cadangan makanan, penghangat tubuh dan berbagai fungsi dalam metabolisme
tubuh.
Lalu karbohidrat, inilah yang merupakan sumber energi kita. Dalam tubuh kita karbohidrat yang
dipakai sebagai sumber energi ialah glukosa. Gula pasir merupakan karbohidrat yang bernama
sukrosa, namun dalam tubuh kita. Sukrosa akan diubah menjadi glukosa terlebih dahulu. Serat
juga merupakan karbohidrat, Namun serat merupakan karbohidrat yang tidak bisa kita cerna.
Mengapa? silahkan baca disini

Yang terakhir ialah protein. Protein ini merupakan penyusun utama dari otot kita atau yang biasa
kita sebut daging. Bisa dibayangkan sangat banyak protein dalam tubuh kita, Protein sendiri
memiliki fungsi bermacam macam tergentung jenisnya. Bahkan protein juga dapat berfungsi
sebagai sumber energi jika cadangan lemak sudah sedikit.

Jelaslah kenapa zat gizi makro dibutuhkan dalam jumlah besar di dalam tubuh.

Ada satu hal lagi yang sangat penting yang belum di bahas. Yaitu AIR. karena tubuh kita ini
lebih dari 50% terdiri dari air. Janganlupa minum air ya.

Referensi

http://www.organicsoul.com/macro-and-micronutrients-what-they-are-and-why-we-need-them/

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Photo Courtesy of InHabit

Everyone knows that its vital we get enough nutrients in our diets to survive and be healthy. We
also know that different foods contain different nutrients. Some of us may even know that these
nutrients are divided into two categories: micro and macronutrients. But what do these titles
really mean, and what are the functions for each group?

The Nutrients Defined


Lets start at the beginning. Nutrients, at their most basic definition, are chemicals that any living
organism needs to continue their survival. They help give us energy to perform daily functions,
as well as fuel to build tissues and grow. These nutrients, however, are broken up into two
distinct categories.

First, macronutrients are substances that provide caloric value (calories) which are metabolized
for energy. Macronutrients are called macro because we need them in large amounts and
because they are large in molecular standards: -macro literally means very large in scale, or in its
Greek understanding, big or far. Essentially, we need more of these large nutrients, making
them macro.

On the other hand, micronutrients are nutrients we need in smaller quantities: hence, -micro,
which is Greek for small. These are just as important as macronutrients in the sense that we
need them, but the key difference lies in the sheer amount of the nutrients we need to digest.

Why Theyre Important: Macro


Macronutrients are vital for every function we perform in the body because they provide us with
fuel for the body. Without that energy, our bodies would not be able to perform the constant
upkeep required and we would eventually perish.

We have three main macronutrients in our diet, each with their own caloric value. They are as
follows:

Carbohydrate: 4 kcal/gm

Fat: 9 kcal/gm

Protein: 4 kcal/gm

So which nutrients are most important?

As Ive stated in a previous article, All About Energy: The Sources and the Systems,
Regularly, we do not want to burn protein as it has important structural uses in our bodies. For
example, it shares a vital relationship with amino acids, is important to muscle development, and
it performs regular housekeeping tasks in every one of our cells. In fact, we rarely burn protein
unless we are in a period of starvation or, alternatively, have a high protein diet where we train
our bodies to burn itThat said, carbs and fats are our main sources of energy with the three
macronutrients.
Even at that, our bodies most prefer to burn carbs they are smaller than fats, making them
easier to burn, and fat performs special purposes with the construction of cells and gives our skin
its elasticity. Because of this, many argue an optimal diet looks something like this (along with
regular exercise):

Calories from carbs Recommended: 65-75% Consumed:40-50%

Calories from fat Recommended: 10-15% Consumed: 30-35%

Calories from protein Recommended: 15-20% Consumed:15-20%

As we can see, the recommended value is hardly representative of what people usually consume,
leading to health risks like obesity. That is, however, another topic in and of itself.

In sum, lets take a quick look at the reason why we need each macronutrient (special thanks to
the McKinley Health Center for a straightforward list!):

Carbs: These are our main source of fuel; they are easily converted into fuel; our cells require the
glucose of energy; the central nervous, kidney, brain, and muscles need carbs; they can be stored
for later use; they help with intestinal health and waste elimination; and they are in many foods,
making them easy to acquire.

Fats: fats help with normal growth and development; a great source of energy; helps with
absorption of vitamins; provides cushioning for organs; help maintain cell membranes; and
provide taste, consistency, and stability to food.

Proteins: proteins helps with growth, especially in children, teens, and pregnant women; tissue
repair; immune function; the making of essential hormones and enzymes; providing energy when
nothing else is available; and preserving of lean muscle mass.

Why Theyre Important: Micro


Micronutrients, while in smaller quantities, are just as important for healthy living. When the
body uses oxygen, it undergoes wear and tear. That wear and tear is a little something we call
aging, and it can be destructive to our health (common sense, no?); you can think of this like
biological rust. Micronutrients, which include vitamins like Vitamin C, B, and E and
minerals like Zinc, Magnesium, and Iron help to safeguard our bodies.

One area of special importance is the brain. When our brain uses oxygen, it promotes the
creation of free radicals. These can get out of control as the name implies and can cause
damage to our cells. Antioxidants, in this case, are our saviors. Because free radicals are a
normal occurrence in the brain, the regular input of antioxidants in your diet is vital. Free
radicals are more attracted to antioxidants than cellular components, which means with the
increase in antioxidants, youll be more protected from these free radicals.
Because our bodies do not manufacture all of the needed vitamins, and the ones they do are
usually in insufficient amounts, we have to be vigilant with our diets.

Great Sources for Great Nutrition


When aiming at your desired levels of macro and micro nutrients, keep in mind some of the basic
tenets of a good diet. Eat plenty of vegetables, fruits, lean fatty meats, and nuts and grains these
contain a ton of vitamins and minerals like Vitamin A (carrots, spinach, milk, eggs), Folic Acid
(asparagus, dark leafy greens), Iodine (seaweed, fish), Iron (lentils, red meats, leafy vegetable),
and Zinc (eggs, buts, cereals, seafood), just to name a few.

I suggest starting a daily meal planner or consulting a nutritionist for extra direction in getting
the most nutrition out of your diet. Above all, remember to avoid food high in fat content, salt,
and sugars!

Thanks to the Franklin Institute for helpful information on nutrients and their uses!