Anda di halaman 1dari 72

SC-TP-GS1

Instrumentacin de Procesos:
Medicin de Presin
Marzo 2012

For internal use only / Protection


Siemens 2012.
noticeAll
/ Copyright
rights reserved.
notice
Contenidos

Medicin de Presin

Fundamentos de presin.
Unidades y conversin.
Tcnicas de medicin de presin
Sellos remotos.
Accesorios .
Ejercicios propuestos.

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 2 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Agenda Domingo 18 de Marzo 2012

09:00-09:30 a.m Fundamentos de Presin


09:30-09:45 a.m Unidades y conversin
09:45-10:30 a.m Tcnicas y medicin de presin
10:30-10:45 a.m Break
10:45-01:00 p.m Tcnicas y medicin de presin / Sellos
remotos
01:00-02:00 p.m Accesorios
02:00-02:30 p.m Ejercicios propuestos

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 3 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Fundamentos de presin

La presin se define como la fuerza aplicada sobre un rea definida. La


relacin entre presin, fuerza y rea es representada por la siguiente
formula:

P= F
A
Donde:
P = Presin
F = Fuerza
A = Area

Si una presin (debido a un contacto fsico) es aplicada sobre un rea,


significa que una presin esta empezando a aplicarse. La presin se
incrementa, si la fuerza incrementa o el tamao del rea sobre el cual la
fuerza esta siendo aplicada disminuye.
Protection notice / Copyright notice
Page 4 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Por qu medir presin?

El control de la presin en los procesos industriales da condiciones de


operacin seguras.

Cualquier recipiente o tubera posee cierta presin mxima de


operacin y de seguridad variando este, de acuerdo con el material y la
construccin.

Las presiones excesivas no solo pueden provocar la destruccin del


equipo, si no tambin puede provocar la destruccin del equipo
adyacente y ponen al personal en situaciones peligrosas,
particularmente cuando estn implcitas, fluidos inflamables o
corrosivos.

Para tales aplicaciones, las lecturas absolutas de gran precisin con


frecuencia son tan importantes como lo es la seguridad extrema.

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 5 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Por qu medir presin?

La presin es una de las


variables de mayor uso en la
industria en general, dado que
con ella podemos determinar
adems de las medidas de
presin propiamente dichas,
el valor de diferentes variables
de proceso como son: el nivel
de lquidos, el flujo de los
fluidos, la velocidad del aire,
deteccin de fugas, entre
otras ..

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 6 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Tipos de medidores de presin

Mecnicos

Neumticos

Electromecnicos / Electrnicos

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 7 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Tipos de medidores de presin

Mecnicos: Indicacin a
travs de dial. No emiten
seal elctrica

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 8 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Tipos de medidores de presin

Neumticos: Emiten una


seal neumtica (3 15 psi)

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 9 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Tipos de medidores de presin

Electrnicos: Emiten seales


elctricas.

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 10 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Tipos de medidores de presin

Electromecnicos: Emiten
seales elctricas teniendo
contactos mecnicos. Ej:
Presostatos

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 11 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Tipos de presin

Es la presin de un fluido medido con referencia al vaco perfecto o cero absoluto. La presin absoluta
es cero nicamente cuando no existe choque entre las molculas lo que indica que la proporcin de
Presin molculas en estado gaseoso o la velocidad molecular es muy pequea. Este termino se creo debido a
absoluta que la presin atmosfrica varia con la altitud y muchas veces los diseos se hacen en otros pases a
diferentes altitudes sobre el nivel del mar por lo que un termino absoluto unifica criterios.
El hecho de estar rodeados por una masa gaseosa (aire), y al tener este aire un peso actuando sobre la
tierra, quiere decir que estamos sometidos a una presin (atmosfrica), la presin ejercida por la
Presin
atmsfera de la tierra, tal como se mide normalmente por medio del barmetro (presin baromtrica). Al
atmosfrica nivel del mar o a las alturas prximas a este, el valor de la presin es cercano a 14.7 lb/plg2
(101,35Kpa), ,disminuyendo estos valores con la altitud.
Son normalmente las presiones superiores a la atmosfrica, que se mide por medio de un elemento que
se define la diferencia entre la presin que es desconocida y la presin atmosfrica que existe, si el valor
absoluto de la presin es constante y la presin atmosfrica aumenta, la presin manomtrica
Presin disminuye; esta diferencia generalmente es pequea mientras que en las mediciones de presiones
Manomtrica superiores, dicha diferencia es insignificante, es evidente que el valor absoluto de la presin puede
abstenerse adicionando el valor real de la presin atmosfrica a la lectura del manmetro.
Presin Absoluta = Presin Manomtrica + Presin Atmosfrica.

Se refiere a presiones manomtricas menores que la atmosfrica, que normalmente se miden, mediante
los mismos tipos de elementos con que se miden las presiones superiores a la atmosfrica, es decir, por
Vaco diferencia entre el valor desconocido y la presin atmosfrica existente. Los valores que corresponden al
vaco aumentan al acercarse al cero absoluto y por lo general se expresa a modo de centmetros de
mercurio (cmHg), metros de agua, etc.

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 12 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
TIPOS DE PRESION

The Pressure Picture

Gage Pressure
Differential Pressure
PSI
in WC Atmosphere

Vacuum
14.7 psi
Absolute Pressure -30 inHg

PSIA, in WCA 30 inHg Vac


Vacuum

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 13 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Unidades de presin

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 14 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Medidas de presin tpicas

PT
101

V
100

Reactor
FT
100

LT
102

Orifice
Plate

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 15 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Presin Hidrosttica

Como A y B estn a la
misma altura la presin en A y en B
debe ser la misma. Por una rama la
presin en B es debida al gas
encerrado en el recipiente. Por la
otra rama la presin en A es debida
a la presin atmosfrica ms la
presin debida a la diferencia de
alturas del lquido manomtrico.

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 16 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Medicin de nivel por presin

Pressure p-
Measurement Measurement

Open vessel Closed vessel

P = liquid g H liquid
Protection notice / Copyright notice
Page 17 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Medicin de flujo por presin

q p

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 18 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Medicin de Nivel por presin

VENTAJAS:
Confiable, Simple.
Fcil Uso.
Bien Entendido.
Uso Flexible: nivel, densidad, interfase, masa.
Puede ser usado en tanques con agitacin y
espuma.
Uso de sellos de diafragma: Altas temperaturas,
corrosin, fluidos viscosos, slidos en
suspensin, taponeo y conexiones sanitarias.

DESVENTAJAS:
Cambios en la densidad del fluido afectan la
medicin de nivel.
Posibles fugas.
Solo lquidos.
DSIII -Transmisor de Presin
Diferencial
No aplicable con lquidos muy corrosivos ni
abrasivos.

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Region / Sector / Division / Department
Instrumentacin de procesos - Presin

TRANSMISORES DE PRESION

TRANSMISORES PARA
PRESION MANOMETRICA O
ABSOLUTA

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 20 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Instrumentacin de procesos Presin

TRANSMISORES DE PRESION

TRANSMISORES PARA
PRESION DIFERENCIAL

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 21 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Instrumentacin de Procesos Presin

TRANSMISORES DE PRESION

TRANSMISORES
SUMERGIBLES
(PRESION HIDROSTATICA)

Protection notice / Copyright notice


23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta
Page 22 Region / Sector / Division / Department
SITRANS P a complete family

Performance

DS III
P300

Compact
MPS
ZD
P250
Z

Price
Protection notice / Copyright notice
Page 23 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
SITRANS PZ

One range transducer

Ceramic or stainless steel membrane

Stock device

Analog technology

Pressure 0 400bar

Absolute pressure 0 16bar

Accuracy 0,5%

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 24 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
SITRANS PZ

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 25 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
SITRANS P 250

Accuracy <= 1%

Long-Term Stability <= 0,5% / 12 months

Connection and housing of high-grade steel 1.4305

Ceramic diaphragm

Measuring range from 0 - 100 mbar to 0 - 25 bar

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 26 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
SITRANS P 250

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 27 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
SITRANS P ZD

LCD-Display

Stainless steel housing

Ceramic membrane

Turn-Down 1:5 (max. 1:10)

Pressure 1 400bar

Absolute pressure 0 400bar

Accuracy 0,25%

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 28 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
References

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 29 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
SITRANS P MPS

Piezo-resistive sensor with flush


mounted stainless steel membrane
Stainless steel housing
Measuring range: 1m H2O - 200m
H2O
Cable length: to 200 m
Measuring deviation 0,2%
2-wire system (4 - 20 mA)
Power supply: 10 36 V
Type of protection IP 68
Accessories: cable hanger, connection
Protection notice / Copyright notice
box
Page 30 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department

Certification: ATEX EEx ia IIC T4,


SITRANS P MPS

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 31 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
SITRANS P300

Designed for food and pharmaceutical applications

Pushbuttons

Stainless steel diaphragm and housing

Display optional

Gauge pressure 0 400bar

Absolute pressure 0 30bar abs

More than 90 different process connections available

Accuracy 0,075%

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 32 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
SITRANS P300

PROCESS FIELD BUS

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 33 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
SITRANS P DSIII

Free programmable Display

Turn-Down 1:100

Different membrane materials

Two chamber housing -> EEx d

Pressure 0,01 700bar

Absolute pressure 0,008 160bar

Differential pressure 0,001 30bar

Accuracy 0,075%

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 34 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
CONSTRUCCION TIPICA DE UN TRANSMISOR DE
PRESION

Magnetic Pushbuttons

Customer Terminals

LCD Display

Potted Electronics
1/2 NPT Gage Capsule

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 35 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Magnetic Pushbuttons

Setup at your Fingertips


? ! In Hazardous
Wherever Areas
...

? ! Without
Whenever Equipment
...
? ! Access to
Whatever frequently used
... functions
Protection notice / Copyright notice
Page 36 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
MODOS DE CONFIGURACION

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 37 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
HART Setup- 275 Communicator

min. 4 ... 20 mA
250
Supply
disconnector

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 38 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
HART Setup- Computer Based

Supply
device

HART
modem

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 39 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Profibus PA / FF (Fieldbus Foundation)
Worlds Most Installed Digital Fieldbus
Software for easy
commissioning and operation
of field devices
Optimum integration
in the world of
Totally Integrated Automation:
from SITRANS P PROFIBUS-DP
to coupler or link
up to the distributed control system

PROFIBUS-PA

PROCESS FIELD BUS

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 40 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
ACCESORIOS Y COMPLEMENTOS

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 41 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
SELLOS DE DIAFRAGMA

Specials materials for various applications


Many applications SITRANS P measuring cells
in the chemical industry, are also suitable for critical
petrochemicals, media due to the use of
pharmacy, special materials
foodstuffs,
power station, ...

Monel for
Stainless steel for fluorides, cyanides,
80% of all media found in sea water
industry Tantalum for phosphorus
chlorides, sodium chloride,
Hastelloy C 276 for hydrochloric acid
chloroacetic acid, formic
Gold for hydrogen H2, HF
acid, acetone
Protection notice / Copyright notice
Page 42 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Operating principle of chemical seals

Filling fluid Diaphragm


bed

Capillary tube

Pressure
Diaphragm

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Region / Sector / Division / Department
Application

Corrosive media

High viscous media

Heterogenens, fibrous media

Crystallizing media

Polymerization media

Medium temperature too low / too high

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Region / Sector / Division / Department
Limits of application

Temperature of media < -90 C or > 400 C

Abrasive media

Measuring span lower than 20 mbar

Capillary tubes only possible lower than 15 m

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Region / Sector / Division / Department
Level measurement with chemical seals

At open vessel

At closed vessel

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Region / Sector / Division / Department
Flange-type seal

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Region / Sector / Division / Department
Pancake-type seal

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Region / Sector / Division / Department
Flange-type seal with extension

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Region / Sector / Division / Department
Pancake-type seal with extension

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Region / Sector / Division / Department
Quick-release seal, DIN 11851/11864

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Region / Sector / Division / Department
Quick-release seal, Clamp - connection

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Region / Sector / Division / Department
Miniature diaphragm seal

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Region / Sector / Division / Department
Seal with internal diaphragm

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Region / Sector / Division / Department
Quick-release inline-seal, DIN 11851/11864

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Region / Sector / Division / Department
Quick-release inline-seal, Clamp - connection

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Region / Sector / Division / Department
Inline-seal for flange mounting

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Region / Sector / Division / Department
Wetted parts materials

Stainless steel 1.4404 or 1.4435 or 1.4571

Hastelloy C 4

Hastelloy C 276

Monel 400

Tantalum

Inconel alloy 600 or 825

Nickel

Titanium Link: Chemical resistance


Protection notice / Copyright notice
Region / Sector / Division / Department
Diaphragm - coatings

PTFE - Coating

ECTFE - Coating

PFA - Coating

Gold - Coating

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Region / Sector / Division / Department
Filling fluids (1)

Standard:

Silicon oil M 5

Silicon oil M 50

High-temperature oil

Halocarbon oil (for measuring O2)

Vegetable oil (Pharmaceutical)

Glycerin / water (variation in temperature,


pharmaceutical)
Protection notice / Copyright notice
Region / Sector / Division / Department
Filling fluids (2)

Permissible temperature of medium (C) Density at Viscosity at


Filling liquid 20 C 20C
pabs < 1 bar pabs > 1 bar (kg/dm) (m/s.106)
Silicone oil M 5 - 60 to +80 - 90 to +180 0,914 4
Silicone oil M 50 - 20 to +150 - 20 to +300 0,96 50
High-temperature oil - 10 to +200 - 10 to +400 1,07 39
Halocarbon oil -40 to +80 - 40 to +175 1,968 14
Vegetable oil -10 to + 200 - 10 to +250 0,94 66
Glycerine/water not possible - 10 to +120 1,22 88

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Region / Sector / Division / Department
Vacuum proof design

The vacuum proof design has to chosen in case of


continuous operating in vacuum (e.g. lower than 500 mbar
abs.)

The following alterations have been taken:

metallic sealing between transmitter and seal with


copper sealing

welding of all filling holes

evcuating of the whole measuring unit under


high temperature
Protection notice / Copyright notice
Region / Sector / Division / Department
Recommendation
of minimum measuring spans (1)

Single-sided connection to pressure- absolute pressure-,


differential pressure- and level- transmitters

Nominal diameter Recommended minimum span


DN 25 1" 6 bar
DN 40 1 1/2 " 2 bar
DN 50 2" 500 mbar
DN 65 2 1/2 " 500 mbar
DN 80 3" 100 mbar
DN 100 4" 100 mbar
DN 125 5" 20 mbar

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Region / Sector / Division / Department
Recommendation
of minimum measuring spans (2)

Double-sided connection to differential pressure


transmitters

Nominal diameter Recommended minimum span


DN 25 1"
DN 40 1 1/2 " } not recommended
DN 50 2" 250 mbar
DN 65 2 1/2 " 250 mbar
DN 80 3" 50 mbar
DN 100 4" 50 mbar
DN 125 5" 20 mbar

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Region / Sector / Division / Department
SELLOS REMOTOS

Specials materials for various applications

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 65 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Manifolds for Pressure

Gage Uses Block & Bleed Valve

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 66 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Manifolds for Pressure

DP Uses 3 Valve Manifold (Flg x Thrd)

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 67 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Manifolds for Pressure

DP Uses 3 Valve Manifold (Flg x Flg)

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 68 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
References

References

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 69 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Lote04/05 Project Sedapal

363 Pressure transmitters DSIII with Profibus PA


for measure pressure and level

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 70 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
Lote04/05 Project Sedapal

140 MAGFLO (5100W and MAG6000) with Profibus PA

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Page 71 23/03/2012 Uriel Chavesta Region / Sector / Division / Department
REFERENCIAS LOCALES
s
Modernizacin UDV / UDP Refinera Talara (Petroper)

Protection notice / Copyright notice


Region / Sector / Division / Department