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DIENCHEPHALON

DIENCEPHALON

Letak: diantara bagian bawah kedua hemisphaerum cerebri, persis diatas mesencephalon

Bagian yg tidak tertutup oleh hemispherium cerebri:

mammillare,

corpus

chiasma opticum

Terbagi atas:

1.

Epithalamus

2.

Subthalamus

3.

Thalamus

4.

Hypothalamus

infundibulum,

tuber

cinereum,

EPITHALAMUS

Letak di dorsal

Bagian terkecil

Bentuk spt topi menutupi Thalamus

Tdd :

1. Corpus pineal

2. Nuclei habenular

3. Commissura caudal

terkecil • Bentuk spt topi menutupi Thalamus • Tdd : 1. Corpus pineal 2. Nuclei habenular
terkecil • Bentuk spt topi menutupi Thalamus • Tdd : 1. Corpus pineal 2. Nuclei habenular

SUBTHALAMUS

SUBTHALAMUS • Lokasi di ventral thalamus dan lateral hypothalamus (hanya ada di mamalia). • Berperan membangun

Lokasi di ventral thalamus dan lateral

hypothalamus (hanya ada

di mamalia).

Berperan membangun

gerakan ritmik

Berperan mengontrol proses miksi (Menghambat reflek

miksi).

Stimulasi subthalamus lebih efektif pada terapi

parkinson stadium lanjut.

THALAMUS

THALAMUS
THALAMUS

Fungsi thalamus

1. Mengitegrasikan sistem sensorik sadar dgn motorik sadar

2. Merupakan relay station dari semua sensorik sadar (kecuali penciuman) utk kmd diteruskan kecortex cerebri gyrus post- centralis area Brodmann 3, 2, 1 (utk sensasi suhu, sentuhan,

tekanan, sakit), ke cortex fissura calcarina Area Brodmann 17, 18 dan 19 (utk sensasi penglihatan), ke cortex gyrus temporalis superior area Brodmann 22, 41 dan 42 (utk sensasi

pendengaran), cortex lobus parietalis inferior area Brodmann 40

(utk sensasi pengecapan)

3. Menginterpretasikan secara samar sensasi sadar (kecuali penciuman), tapi interpretasi yg lengkap dilakukan oleh cortex

cerebri area Brodmann 3, 2, 1 berdasarkan pengalaman

sebelumnya

HYPOTHALAMUS

HYPOTHALAMUS • Terletak di bagian ventral thalamus • Berhubungan dengan endokrin, limbik dan sistem otonom.

Terletak di bagian ventral thalamus

Berhubungan

dengan endokrin,

limbik dan sistem

otonom.

HYPOTHALAMUS • Terletak di bagian ventral thalamus • Berhubungan dengan endokrin, limbik dan sistem otonom.

Fungsi hypothalamus

1. Mengontrol sistem saraf otonom, dimana fungsi ini berintregrasi dgn sistem neuroendokrin, yg pd akhirnya mempengaruhi sistem homeostasis tubuh

2. Mengontrol kelenjar endokrin dgn mengeluarkan releasing factors yg mengendalikan produksi ACTH, FSH, LH, TSH, MSH dan LTH

3. Mengontrol suhu tubuh

4. Mengontrol intake air dan makanan: hunger center kl rusak menyebabkan hyperphagia+ perilaku agresif dan satiety centerkl rusak menyebabkan anorexia dan lethargia

5. Mengontrol emosi dan perilaku

6. Mengontrol irama cicardia

7. Mengontrol tidur

NERVUS CRANIALIS

NERVUS I

= NERVUS OLFACTORIUS PENCIUMAN

NERVUS II

= NERVUS OPTICUS PENGLIHATAN

NERVUS III

= NERVUS OCCULOMATORIUS OTOT BOLA MATA

NERVUS IV

= NERVUS TROCHLEARIS OTOT BOLA MATA

NERVUS V.1

= NERVUS OPTHALMICUS CORNEA MATA

NERVUS V.2

= NERVUS MAXILLARIS RAHANG ATAS

NERVUS

V.3 = NERVUS MANDIBULARIS RAHANG BAWAH

NERVUS

VI

= NERVUS ABDUCEN OTOT BOLA MATA

NERVUS

VII

= NERVUS FACIALIS OTOT MUKA + SEXRESI LUDAH

NERVUS

VIII = NERVUS OCTAVUS PENDENGARAN +

KESEMBANGAN

 

NERVUS

IX

= NERVUS GLOSSOPHARYNGEUS OTOT PHARYNX

NERVUS

X

= NERVUS VAGUS RESPIRASI,KARDIOVASKULAR DAN DIGESTIVUS

NERVUS

XI

= NERVUS ACCESORIUS M.TRAPEZIUS DAN STERNOMASTOIDEUS

NERVUS

XII

= NERVUS HYPOGLOSSUS OTOT LIDAH

NERVUS CRANIALIS

1. Nervus olfactorius ( 1 ) melalui lamina cribrosa ethmoidalis . inti pada lobus frontalis

2. Nervus opticus ( 2) melalui foramen opticum pada tulang orbita . inti pada lobus occipitalis,

3. Nervus ( III,IV,V.1 dan VI ) Melalui foramen orbitalis superior inti pada mesencephalon (III&IV) pada pons (V.1&VI)

4. Nervus V.2

5. Nervus V.3 melalui foramen ovale . inti pada pons.

6. Nervus

melalui foramen rotundum. Inti pada pons/

VII dan VIII melalui meatus acusticus internus , inti

pada batas pons dan medulla oblangata.

7. Nervus IX , X , XI melalui foramen jugulare,

somatosensorik

somatomotorik

BASIC COMPONENTS

3.CNS SOMATOSENSORY

CENTERS

(thalamus, cerebral cortex)

3.CNS SOMATOSENSORY CENTERS (thalamus, cerebral cortex) 2.SENSORY AFFERENT NEURONS & ASCENDING PATHWAYS 1.

2.SENSORY AFFERENT NEURONS & ASCENDING PATHWAYS

cortex) 2.SENSORY AFFERENT NEURONS & ASCENDING PATHWAYS 1. SOMATOSENSORY RECEPTORS BASIC FUNCTIONS 3. PROCESS &

1. SOMATOSENSORY RECEPTORS

BASIC FUNCTIONS

3. PROCESS &

ANALYZE INFO. (in the brain)

FUNCTIONS 3. PROCESS & ANALYZE INFO. (in the brain) 2. CONVEY INFO. TO CNS & CARRY

2. CONVEY INFO. TO CNS & CARRY IT TO THE BRAIN

brain) 2. CONVEY INFO. TO CNS & CARRY IT TO THE BRAIN 1. DETECT OF STIMULUS:

1. DETECT OF STIMULUS:

SITE OF TRANSDUCTION

Basic components & functions of somatosensory system

Info. from receptor to the cortex is conveyed through 3 orders of neurons

3

3 classes/ orders of neurons
3 classes/
orders
of neurons

2

3. Cortex 3 rd (Thal.
3. Cortex
3
rd
(Thal.

Cortex)

SENSATIONorders of neurons 2 3. Cortex 3 rd (Thal. Cortex) Interpret. PERCEPTION (COMPREHEND) 2. Interneuron (2

of neurons 2 3. Cortex 3 rd (Thal. Cortex) SENSATION Interpret. PERCEPTION (COMPREHEND) 2. Interneuron (2

Interpret.

PERCEPTION

(COMPREHEND)

2. Interneuron (2 nd order)

(post. horn of spin.cord

Thal.)2. Interneuron (2 n d order) (post. horn of spin.cord

1
1

RECEPTOR

STIMULUS

(post. horn of spin.cord Thal.) 1 RECEPTOR STIMULUS 1. Afferent neuron (1 s t order) (spinal
(post. horn of spin.cord Thal.) 1 RECEPTOR STIMULUS 1. Afferent neuron (1 s t order) (spinal

1. Afferent neuron (1 st order)

(spinal gang./cranial gang.

1 RECEPTOR STIMULUS 1. Afferent neuron (1 s t order) (spinal gang./cranial gang. post. horn of

post. horn of

the spinal cord)

PRIMARY AFFERENT FIBERS Dorsal root ganglia (spinal gang.):Pseudounipolar

Fibers: large/small; spinothalamic tract: DCML and ALS

Peripheral process Central process

tract: DCML and ALS Peripheral process Central process SG: Substantia gellatinosa DCML ALS SG Pain, temperature
SG: Substantia gellatinosa DCML ALS SG Pain, temperature Tactile, proprioception SMALL FIBERS LARGE FIBERS
SG: Substantia gellatinosa
DCML
ALS
SG
Pain, temperature
Tactile,
proprioception
SMALL FIBERS
LARGE FIBERS

DCML SYSTEM

Perception and appreciation of mechanical stimuli (-fine form/texture discrimination/stereognosis (form recognition of 3 dimentional shape)/motion direction - conscious awareness of body position (proprioception) in space

THE SOMATOSENSORY SYSTEM

position (proprioception) in space THE SOMATOSENSORY SYSTEM BODY HEAD CEREBRAL CORTEX CEREBRAL CORTEX (appreciation of

BODY

HEAD

CEREBRAL CORTEX CEREBRAL CORTEX (appreciation of the somatic) perceive/recognize a sensation

(appreciation of the somatic) perceive/recognize a sensation INFO DCML S* RECEPTORS ALS** RECEPTORS RECEPTORS STIMULI

INFO

DCML S*

RECEPTORS

ALS**

RECEPTORS

a sensation INFO DCML S* RECEPTORS ALS** RECEPTORS RECEPTORS STIMULI STIMULI Discriminative touch Position of

RECEPTORS

a sensation INFO DCML S* RECEPTORS ALS** RECEPTORS RECEPTORS STIMULI STIMULI Discriminative touch Position of the

STIMULI

STIMULI

Discriminative touch

Position of the body

Nociception/Pain *DCMLS: Dorsal Column-Medial Lemniscus System **ALS : Anterolateral System

STIMULI

Nondescr. touch

Temperature

RECEPTOR:

Transduces/converts one type of energy to other type of energy

(Receptor = Transducer) Mechanical/Physical/Chemical stimulus

type of energy to other type of energy (Receptor = Transducer) Mechanical/Physical/Chemical stimulus R Electrical signals

R

type of energy to other type of energy (Receptor = Transducer) Mechanical/Physical/Chemical stimulus R Electrical signals

Electrical signals

DCML

Skin:touch, vibration Limbs: proprioceptive On PVN (posterior ventral nuc.) (then projects to S1/primary somatosensory cortex) At the level of the

medulla obl.*

Large diameter More meddially

Send one branch to the dorsal horn,

One branch to the dorsal column (the same side) * Decussatio lemniculorum

INFO.

SYNAPSE

(THALAMUS)

DECUSSATION

NERVE FIBERS

ALS

Pain, temperature

On PVN (different region) (then projects to intralamin- ar nuclei) Earlier in the spinal cord

Small diameter More laterally

Send branches to the dorsal

horn, then sends an axon across the cord, and into the spinothalamic tract

GENERAL SOMATIC EFFERENT (GSE) SYSTEM

EFF. (INFO.)
EFF.
(INFO.)

PYRAMIDAL

SYSTEM

CNS

(BRAIN)

EXTRAPYRA-

MIDAL

SYSTEM

EFFECTOR

(SKELETAL

MUSCLE)

(instruction:

CONSCIOUS)

EFFECTOR (SKELETAL MUSCLE) (instruction: CONSCIOUS) CIRCUIT BASAL GANGLIA/ CEREBELLUM/ THALAMUS/ CORTEX
CIRCUIT
CIRCUIT

BASAL GANGLIA/ CEREBELLUM/

THALAMUS/

CORTEX

(CONTRACTION)
(CONTRACTION)

COORDINATED

MOVEMENT

Corticobulbar tract BULBUS LMN SKELETAL MUSCLE SKELETALMU SCLE LCS UMN LMN ANT. HORN
Corticobulbar tract
BULBUS
LMN
SKELETAL
MUSCLE
SKELETALMU
SCLE
LCS
UMN
LMN
ANT. HORN
Somatomotoric cortex MOTOR HOMUNCULUS
Somatomotoric cortex
MOTOR
HOMUNCULUS

(Area 4/motor stript/

motor homunculus)

SOMATOMOT. CORTEX: UMN

CST

ACS

SKELETALMU

SCLE

SKELETAL

MUSCLE

CST: CORTICOSPIN. TRACT

SKELETALMU SCLE SKELETAL MUSCLE CST: CORTICOSPIN. TRACT LCS: LAT. CORTICOSPIN. TRACT MIDLINE ACS: ANT. CORTICOSPIN.

LCS: LAT. CORTICOSPIN. TRACT

MIDLINE

ACS: ANT. CORTICOSPIN. TRACT

SOMATOMOTORIC SYSTEM PYRAMIDAL SYST. EXTRAPYRAMIDAL SYST.
SOMATOMOTORIC SYSTEM
PYRAMIDAL SYST.
EXTRAPYRAMIDAL SYST.

INITIATION

VOLUNTARY

NONSTEREOTYPIC

(specific, smooth, precise, skilled)

INDIVIDUAL MUSCLE MOVEMENT

BODY POSITION (rough)

TONUS

INHIBITION/ACTIVATION

GROUP OF MUSCLES

MOVEMENT*

INHIBITION/ACTIVATION GROUP OF MUSCLES MOVEMENT* LOWER MOTONEURONS (LMNs)* SKELETAL MUSCLES COORDINATED
LOWER MOTONEURONS (LMNs)*
LOWER MOTONEURONS (LMNs)*

SKELETAL MUSCLES

MOVEMENT* LOWER MOTONEURONS (LMNs)* SKELETAL MUSCLES COORDINATED MOVEMENT * e.g., extensors, flexors (* LMN:

COORDINATED MOVEMENT

MOTONEURONS (LMNs)* SKELETAL MUSCLES COORDINATED MOVEMENT * e.g., extensors, flexors (* LMN: Motoric neuron which axon

* e.g.,

extensors,

flexors

(* LMN: Motoric neuron which axon directly innervate the effector/skeletal muscle)