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Sympathetic

    Skeletal  Muscle   Activate  


CNS   Pre-­‐ganglionic  fibers  
Chain  Ganglion   Spinal  nerves            -­‐Norepinephrine  released  by   Forms  IP3  
-­‐acetylcholine   Phospholipase  C  
post-­‐ganglionic  fibers  activates  α1-­‐
  released   adrenergic  receptors  
Pre-­‐gangionic  fibers   Binds  Ryanodine  
Greather,  lesser  and   Forms  DAG  
least  Splancnic  nerves   Receptors  
Celiac  and  Superior  
Mesenteric  ganglion   GI  Track  
-­‐acetylcholine            -­‐Norepinephrine  released   Activates  PKC   2+
Ca  Released  
released   by  post-­‐ganglionic  fibers  
activates  α1-­‐adrenergic  
receptors  
Sympathetic        
Chain  Ganglion   Activates   Binds  
  Rho   Calmodulin  
-­‐acetylcholine  
  Activate  
released   Forms  IP3  
Phospholipase  C  

Activates  
Cardiac  Nerves  

Binds  Ryanodine   Activates    


Rho-­‐kinase  
Forms  DAG   Receptors   MLCK  (myosin  
light-­‐chain  
  kinase  
Activates  PKC   2+
Ca  Released   Inactivates  MLCP  
(myosin  lightchain  
Heart   phosphatase)   Phosphorylates  
Myosin  light  chain  
         -­‐Norepinephrine  released   Releases  G-­‐ Activates   Binds  
by  post-­‐ganglionic  fibers   Protein  αs   Rho   Calmodulin  
 
activates  β1-­‐adrenergic   subunit   Allows  Myosin  to  be  
receptors  
Activates   phosphorylated  and  
  Activates     cross-­‐link  with  actin  
Rho-­‐kinase   MLCK  (myosin  
Activates  Adenyl  
Activates  PKA   light-­‐chain   Phosphorylates  
Cyclase      
kinase   many  targets  
Inactivates  MLCP  
(myosin  lightchain   Phosphorylates   Contraction  of  
Phosphorylates  
phosphatase)   Myosin  light  chain   Vascular   Vasoconstriction  
Phosphorylates  L-­‐ Phosphorylates   Phosphorylates  
2+
RyR   Troponin  I   Smooth  Muscle  
Type  Ca   Phospholamban  
Channels    
Allows  Myosin  to  be  
phosphorylated  and  
Increases  inward   Enhances  Ca  
2+ 2+
Enhances  Ca   Desensitizes   cross-­‐link  with  actin  
2+
Ca  when  channel   uptake   release  when   Myofilaments  
Phosphorylates  
 
2+
depolarizes   activated   for  Ca  
many  targets  
Contraction  of  
Vasoconstriction  
Vascular  
Smooth  Muscle  
2+ 2+
Increases  Ca  available  for  contractile  activation,  Increases  Ca  
reuptake  into  SR  to  help  the  heart  relax  quickly,  Desensitizes   Blood  shunted  
2+ Increased  Heart  Rate   Increased  blood  flow   away  from  GI  track  
myofilaments  to  allow  quicker  relaxation  as  Ca  levels  decline  
and  Contractility   to  Skeletal  muscles