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Permasteelisa Gartner Middle East L.L.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 MATERIAL PROPERTIES .........................................................................................................5

1.1 Structural Aluminium Alloys........................................................................................................... 5


1.1.1 CW Frame Elements : Alloy 6063 T6 (extrusion) ADM 2005............................................... 5
1.1.2 Bracket Elements : Alloy 6061 T6 (extrusion) ADM 2005 .................................................... 5

1.2 Structural Steel S275..................................................................................................................... 5

1.3 Fasteners....................................................................................................................................... 5
1.3.1 Stainless Steel Bolts (ASTM F 738M Grade A2-70, M6-M20) ................................................ 5

2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION.........................................................................................................6

3 LOADS........................................................................................................................................9

3.1 Dead Load ..................................................................................................................................... 9

3.2 Barrier Loads ............................................................................................................................... 13

3.3 Wind Loads.................................................................................................................................. 13

3.4 Cable Forces due to Wind & Pretension Loads, PCF ................................................................... 13

4 GLASS......................................................................................................................................14

4.1 General Description and Dimensions.......................................................................................... 14

4.2 Allowable Stresses for Glass Analyses ....................................................................................... 14

4.3 Glass Verification for Wind Load ................................................................................................. 15


4.3.1 Analysis Results WLsuction (3-sec) ....................................................................................... 15
4.3.2 Analysis Results WLpressure (3-sec) ..................................................................................... 18
4.3.3 Analysis Results Dead Load (beyond 1 year) .................................................................... 19

4.4 Glass Verification for Barrier Loads............................................................................................. 21


4.4.1 Analysis Results .................................................................................................................... 21

5 STRUCTURAL SEALANT .......................................................................................................25

5.1 General Description..................................................................................................................... 25


5.1.1 Structural Check .................................................................................................................... 25

6 MULLIONS ...............................................................................................................................26

6.1 Male and Female Mullions (inclined / vertical facades)............................................................... 26


6.1.1 Section Properties ................................................................................................................. 26
6.1.2 Analysis Results .................................................................................................................... 27
6.1.3 Structural Check .................................................................................................................... 30

7 TRANSOMS .............................................................................................................................36

7.1 Top and Bottom Transoms .......................................................................................................... 36


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7.1.1 Section Properties ................................................................................................................. 36


7.1.2 Structural Check .................................................................................................................... 38

8 BRACKET DESIGN..................................................................................................................40

8.1 General Description..................................................................................................................... 40

8.2 Bracket Forces ............................................................................................................................ 40

8.3 Main Hook Bracket ...................................................................................................................... 41


8.3.1 Finite Element Model ............................................................................................................. 41
8.3.2 Analysis Results .................................................................................................................... 42

8.4 Secondary Hook Bracket............................................................................................................. 44


8.4.1 Finite Element Model ............................................................................................................. 44
8.4.2 Analysis Results .................................................................................................................... 45

8.5 Slide Bracket ............................................................................................................................... 46


8.5.1 Finite Element Model ............................................................................................................. 46
8.5.2 Analysis Results .................................................................................................................... 47
8.5.3 Slide Bracket Bolt Connection to Mullion............................................................................... 48

9 ANCHORAGE DESIGN ...........................................................................................................50

9.1 Channel Forces ........................................................................................................................... 50

REFERENCES .............................................................................................................................................58

APPENDIX A - ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR 6063-T6..........................................................................59

APPENDIX B ALLOWABLE STRESS & FACTOR OF SAFETY............................................................61

FOR ALUMINIUM ALLOY 6061-T6.............................................................................................................61

APPENDIX C FACTOR OF SAFETY FOR METAL FASTNERS ............................................................65

APPENDIX D ENGINEERING VALUES for PVB ....................................................................................66

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1 MATERIAL PROPERTIES

1.1 Structural Aluminium Alloys

1.1.1 CW Frame Elements : Alloy 6063 T6 (extrusion) ADM 2005


Minimum Mechanical Properties: Table 3.3-1M
Ftu = 205 MPa tensile ultimate strength
Fty = 170 MPa tensile yield strength
Fcy = 170 MPa compressive yield strength
Fsu = 130 MPa shear ultimate strength
Fty,ALLO = min (Fty/1.65,Ftu/1.95) = 103.03 MPa allowable tensile strength
Fcy,ALLO = Fcy/1.65 = 103.03 MPa allowable compressive strength

1.1.2 Bracket Elements : Alloy 6061 T6 (extrusion) ADM 2005


Minimum Mechanical Properties: Table 3.3-1M
Ftu = 260 MPa tensile ultimate strength
Fty = 240 MPa tensile yield strength
Fcy = 240 MPa shear ultimate strength
Fsu = 165 MPa compressive yield strength
Fty,ALLO = min (Fty/1.65,Ftu/1.95) = 133.3 MPa allowable tensile strength
Fcy,ALLO = Fcy/1.65 = 145.45 MPa allowable compressive strength

1.2 Structural Steel S275


E = 200000 MPa modulus of elasticity
Ftu = 380 MPa tensile ultimate strength
Fty = 275 MPa tensile yield strength

1.3 Fasteners

1.3.1 Stainless Steel Bolts (ASTM F 738M Grade A2-70, M6-M20)


Rtu = 700 MPa tensile strength
Rty = 450 MPa yield strength

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2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION

The report must be read in conjunction with Gartners relevant drawings.

Faade under study is a top-hanging unitised male-female curtain wall system. Aluminium extrusions act
as panel frame elements and are supported by high-strength aluminum alloy brackets. These brackets,
which allow vertical and horizontal tolerance adjustments, are fixed back to the supporting structure
(concrete, steel elements). Typical module widths are 1500 mm and 1433 mm for inclined and vertical
facades, respectively.

As per Permasteelisa Gartner Middle East L.L.C.s scope of work, this report covers facade spanning
from G.L. 2.7 to 18.7 (for inclined), and S.5 to V (for vertical). Kindly refer to revision 01 of drawing
number GAR-C-D-J-A-GN-2080.

Three facade sections have been considered in the report. For calculation purposes, three sections are
named as ZONE 01 (G.L. 2.7 to 4.3), ZONE 02 (G.L. 17.7 to 18.7), and ZONE 03 (G.L. 14 to 17.7). Kindly
refer to figures below.

Figure 1: Inclined Facade ZONE 01 (G.L. 2.7 to 4.3)


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Figure 2: Inclined Facade ZONE 02 (G.L. 17.7 to 18.7)

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Figure 3: Inclined Facade ZONE 03 (G.L. 14 to 17.7)

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3 LOADS

3.1 Dead Load

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3.2 Barrier Loads

The infill has been verified under barrier loads as per ASCE 7-05: Section 4.4. The following load cases
have been considered:
FIL1 = 0.22 kN point load anywhere up to 1.1 m above FFL applied to the infill on
a surface area not to exceed 305 mm square;
FIL2 = 0.73 kN/m distributed line load at 1.1 m above FFL

It should be noted that the above loads have been considered not to act simultaneously with the
maximum wind load.

3.3 Wind Loads


The following design wind loads has been derived from RWDI Cladding Wind Load Study for Doha
Convention Centre. As per Permasteelisa Gartner Middle East L.L.C.s scope of work, the maximum
recommended wind loads for cladding design are:

Profiles/CW Bracket design wind load pw = +1.0/-1.0 kPa


Glass/Sealant design wind load pw = +1.0/-1.0 kPa

3.4 Cable Forces due to Wind & Pretension Loads, PCF


The following forces have been considered in the analyses. These forces are acting on the cantilevered
brackets (cable brackets) where cable supports are running through them. Cable brackets are fastened to
the support frames (mullions), which consequently bear high stresses due to load transfer from these
brackets. (Refer to cable analysis)

Load 1: Dead Load + Pretension


F1 = 10 kN, F2 = 9 kN

Load 2: Wind Load (pressure)


F1 = 22 kN, F2 = 4 kN

Load 3: Wind Load (suction)


F1 = 3 kN, F2 = 17 kN

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4 GLASS

ASTM E 1300 latest edition: Standard Practice for Determining Load Resistance of Glass in Buildings
has been used to verify the structural adequacy of glass.

4.1 General Description and Dimensions


The standard configuration of glazing system is reported below:
External pane 10 mm heat strengthened
Air cavity 16 mm
Internal pane 4+4 mm heat strengthened, laminated

The maximum glass dimensions are 1500 x 4946 mm.

4.2 Allowable Stresses for Glass Analyses

The allowable surface and edge stresses for each load case have been obtained in accordance to ASTM
E 1300 09a multiplied by a load duration factor (LDF) in Table X6.1.

HS,SURFACE = 46.6 MPa Section X8.2 HS


HS,EDGE = 36.5 MPa Table X9.1 HS

LDF3s

LDF60s

LDF>1yr

Figure 4: Load Duration Factors

HS,3s = LDF3s* HS,SURFACE = 46.6 MPa Allow. surface stress for HS 3-sec load
HS,60s = LDF60s* HS,SURFACE = 38.7 MPa Allow. surface stress for HS 60-sec load
HS,>1yr = LDF>1yr* HS,SURFACE = 14.5 MPa Allow. surface stress beyond 1 year

HSe,3s = LDF3s* HS,EDGE = 36.5 MPa Allow. edge stress for HS 3-sec load
HSe,60s = LDF60s* HS,EDGE = 30.3 MPa Allow. edge stress for HS 60-sec load
HSe,>1yr = LDF>1yr* HS,EDGE = 11.3 MPa Allow. edge stress beyond 1 year
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4.3 Glass Verification for Wind Load

For structural verification against wind load, glass plates have been modelled using finite element
software (SJ Mepla), and a non-linear approach was employed.

4.3.1 Analysis Results WLsuction (3-sec)

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sHS,max

Figure 5: Maximum Plate Stresses (left) & Deflections (right): Case (DL+WLsuction)

Check stresses
sHS,max < sHS,3s = 46.6 MPa Adequate

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4.3.2 Analysis Results WLpressure (3-sec)

sHS,max

Figure 6: Maximum Plate Stresses (left) & Deflections (right): Case (DL+WLpressure)

Check stresses
sHS,max < sHS,3s = 46.6 MPa Adequate

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4.3.3 Analysis Results Dead Load (beyond 1 year)

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sHS,max

Figure 7: Maximum Plate Stresses (left) & Deflections (right): Case (DL+WLpressure)

Check stresses
sHS,max < sHSe,>1yr = 46.6 MPa Adequate

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4.4 Glass Verification for Barrier Loads

For structural verification against barrier loads, glass plates have been modelled using finite element
software (SJ Mepla), and a non-linear approach was employed.

4.4.1 Analysis Results

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Figure 8: Maximum Plate Stresses (left) & Deflections (right): Load Case Combination (DL+FIL1)

Figure 9: Maximum Plate Stresses (left) & Deflections (right): Load Case Combination (DL+FIL2)

Check stresses
sHS,max < sHS,60s= 38.68 MPa Adequate

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5 STRUCTURAL SEALANT

5.1 General Description

Sealant Type: GE Ultra Glaze SSG 4400 or equivalent


Sealant Properties:

Allowed design stress in tension Vallowed for short term loads 0.14 MPa
Modulus of elasticity in tension or compression E 1.50 MPa

Figure 10: Typical Sections

5.1.1 Structural Check

Primary sealant, VB: (as per ASTM C 1401)


VB= pw * a * 0.5 / hmc = 0.083 MPa < 0.14 MPa Adequate

Secondary sealant, VC:


VC= pw * 1 * a * 0.5 / hmc = 0.050 MPa < 0.138 MPa Adequate

where: a = 1.500 m = smaller panel side


hmc = 9 mm = silicone bite (primary)
hmc = 10 mm = silicone bite (secondary)
pw = 1.0 kPa = design wind load (Section 3.3)
1 = t13 / (t13 + t23) = 0.661
t1 = 10 mm
t2 = 4+4 = 8 mm

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6 MULLIONS

6.1 Male and Female Mullions (inclined / vertical facades)

Inclined and vertical facades share similar system design. However, the inclined facade is considered to
be critical since the maximum panel dimensions are larger than that of the vertical facade. Also, forces or
loads on the inclined facade are much higher and cause more critical effects on the panels structural
elements such as frames, brackets, etc. Conservatively, the following analyses will only consider inclined
facade to check the overall structural adequacy of both vertical and inclined facades.

6.1.1 Section Properties

Material: Aluminium Alloy 6063 T6

ITOT = 4.903e6 mm4

Figure 11: Male [right] / Female [left] Mullions


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Figure 12: Mullion Stiffener (MS Plate S275)

Note: Mullion stiffeners are only used in mullion profiles that support cable brackets.

6.1.2 Analysis Results

Figure 13:
Figure 14: Load Cases: PCF, DL, WLsuction, WLpressure

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ZONE 02

ZONE 01

ZONE 03

Figure 15: Max. Bending Moments for Unreinforced Mullions: Worst Case - (DL+PCF+WLpressure)

ZONE 02

ZONE 01

ZONE 03

Figure 16: Max. Bending Moments for Reinforced Mullions: Worst Case - (DL+PCF+WLpressure)

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ZONE 02

ZONE 01

ZONE 03

Figure 17: Max. Deflections for Unreinforced Mullions: Worst Case - (DL+PCF+WLpressure)

ZONE 02

ZONE 01

ZONE 03

Figure 18: Max. Deflections for Reinforced Mullions: Worst Case - (DL+PCF+WLpressure)
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The maximum bending moment for the worst load combination for unreinforced mullions is:
M = 5.93 kN-m (Refer to Figure 15)

The moment is divided between the mullions by stiffness.


Bending moment carried by the female mullion: (Ixx,f / Ixx,tot) x M = 2.36 kN-m
Bending moment carried by the male mullion: (Ixx,m / Ixx,tot) x M = 3.57 kN-m

Calculated deflections:
L = 4029 mm
max = 11.79 (0+2.54)/2 = 13.1 mm
lim = min.(L/200,20) = 20 mm
max < lim Adequate

6.1.3 Structural Check

Figure 19: Mullion Profiles: Female (left), Male (right)

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Female Mullion
Section check - tension in beams

Section check - compression in components of beams

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Male Mullion

Section check - tension in beams

Section check - compression in components of beams

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The maximum bending moment for the worst load combination for reinforced mullions is:
M = 14.01 kN-m (Refer to Figure 16)

The moment is divided between the mullions by stiffness.


Ixx,f = 1.955e6 mm4
Ixx,m = 2.948e6 mm4
Ixx,steel = 3.600e6 x [Esteel/Ealum] = 10.345e6 mm4 (aluminum equivalent)
4
Ixx,TOTAL = 15.248e6 mm

Bending moment carried by the female mullion: MF = (Ixx,f / Ixx,TOTAL) x M = 1.796 kN-m
Bending moment carried by the male mullion: MM = (Ixx,m / Ixx,TOTAL) x M = 2.709 kN-m
Bending moment carried by the steel stiffener: Msteel = (Ixx,steel / Ixx,TOTAL) x M = 9.505 kN-m

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Shared bending moments carried by the male and female mullions are lower compared to that at Section
6.1.2; therefore, no further structural check is necessary.

Check bending stress capacity of stiffener (MS plate, S275)


MR,steel = [Fty/nu]*Sxx,steel = 14.82 kN-m bending stress capacity
where: Fty = 275 MPa tensile yield strength
nu = 1.67 safety factor
2 3
Sxx,steel = 25*120 /4 = 90000 mm plastic modulus

MR,steel > Msteel Adequate

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7 TRANSOMS

7.1 Top and Bottom Transoms

7.1.1 Section Properties


Material: Aluminium Alloy 6063 T6

Figure 20: Bottom Transom

Figure 21: Top Transom

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ZONE 02

ZONE 01

ZONE 03

Figure 22: Top Transom Bending Moments & Deflections (Strong Axis): Worst Case - (DL+PCF+WLpressure)

ZONE 02

ZONE 01

ZONE 03

Figure 23: Bott. Transom Bending Moments & Deflections (Strong Axis): Critical Case - (DL+PCF+WLpressure)

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7.1.2 Structural Check

Bottom Transom
For Strong axis bending
Section check - tension in beams

For Weak axis bending

P = 2500*0.018*1.476*4.414*9.81*(cos 20.6o)/2*1000
1.35 kN

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Maximum Deflection parallel to wall:


max = 1.8 mm
75% = 75% (B) = 7.5 mm where: B = 10 mm
net = B - max = 8.2 mm > 75% Adequate

Maximum Bending Moment (weak axis):


M = 0.22 kN-mm

Section check - tension in beams

Check For Combined Bending


fby/Fby + fbx/Fbx < 1.0 Adequate

Top Transom
For Strong axis bending
Section check - tension in beams

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8 BRACKET DESIGN

8.1 General Description

The curtain wall bracket configuration, as shown below, is


composed of high strength extruded aluminium profiles
which allow horizontal and vertical tolerance adjustments.
The whole bracket assembly utilizes three types of
aluminium profiles, and anchor channels which are fixed
to reinforced concrete structures such as beams, columns
and slabs. At areas where there are no concrete
structures to install these anchor channels, panel brackets
are fixed to fabricated steel elements and horizontal steel
members.

8.2 Bracket Forces

ZONE 02

ZONE 01

ZONE 03

Figure 24: Support Reactions: Load Case - (DL+PCF+WLsuction)

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ZONE 02

ZONE 01

ZONE 03

Figure 25: Support Reactions: Load Case - (DL+PCF+WLpressure)

8.3 Main Hook Bracket

Material: Aluminium Alloy 6061 T6


Bracket length = 250 mm

The bracket has been analysed using a F.E. model to determine the extent of any stress concentrations.
Due to symmetry, only half of the bracket has been modelled by means of Hexa8 brick elements. Beam2
compression only beam elements have been used (with radial disposition) to simulate the contact
between bolt and bracket, and also between bracket and supporting concrete structure. A non linear
analysis has been carried-out.

8.3.1 Finite Element Model

Critical support reactions: (Refer to Figures 24 & 25)


Load Case - (DL + PCF + WLsuction) Load Case - (DL + PCF + WLpressure)
RVn = 0.89/2 = 0.45 kN RVp = 3.25/2 = 1.63 kN vertical reactions
RHn = 25.67/2 = 12.84 kN RHp = 24.26/2 = 12.13 kN horizontal reactions

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FVn or FVp FHn FHp

Figure 26: F.E. Model, Boundary Conditions, and Loads

8.3.2 Analysis Results

Figure 27: Brick Stresses & Displacements: Load Case - (DL+PCF+WLsuction)


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Figure 28: Brick Stresses & Displacements: Load Case - (DL+PCF+WLpressure)

Check for Stress


The maximum Von Mises stress for the combination of dead load and wind load is:
VVM = 116.83 MPa < Vall = 133.3 MPa Adequate

Check for Deflection


Deflection is negligible.

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8.4 Secondary Hook Bracket

Material: Aluminium Alloy 6061 T6

The bracket has been analysed using a F.E. model to determine the extent of any stress concentrations. It
has been modelled by means of Hexa8 brick elements. Compression-only beam elements have been
used to simulate the contact between secondary hook and slide brackets. A non linear analysis has been
carried-out.

8.4.1 Finite Element Model

Critical support reactions: (Refer to Figures 24 & 25)


Load Case - (DL + PCF + WLsuction) Load Case - (DL + PCF + WLpressure)
RVn = 0.89/2 = 0.45 kN RVp = 3.25/2 = 1.63 kN vertical reactions
RHn = 25.67/2 = 12.84 kN RHp = 24.26/2 = 12.13 kN horizontal reactions

FVn or FVp FHn FHp

Figure 29: F.E. Model, Boundary Conditions, and Loads

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8.4.2 Analysis Results

Figure 30: Brick Stresses & Displacements: Load Case - (DL+PCF+WLsuction)

Figure 31: Brick Stresses & Displacements: Load Case - (DL+PCF+WLpressure)

Check for Stress


VVM = 125.13 MPa < Vall = 133.3 MPa Adequate

Check for Deflection: Deflection is negligible.


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8.5 Slide Bracket

Material: 6061 T6 Aluminium Alloy

8.5.1 Finite Element Model

The bracket has been analysed using a F.E. model to determine the extent of any stress concentrations. It
has been modelled by means of Hexa8 brick elements. Compression-only beam elements have been
used to simulate the contact between secondary hook and slide brackets. A non linear analysis has been
carried-out.

Critical support reactions: (Refer to Figures 24 & 25)


Load Case - (DL + PCF + WLsuction) Load Case - (DL + PCF + WLpressure)
RVn = 0.89/2 = 0.45 kN RVp = 3.25/2 = 1.63 kN vertical reactions
RHn = 25.67/2 = 12.84 kN RHp = 24.26/2 = 12.13 kN horizontal reactions

FVn or FVp FHn FHp

Figure 32: F.E. Model, Boundary Conditions, and Loads

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8.5.2 Analysis Results

Figure 33: Brick Stresses & Displacements: Load Case - (DL+PCF+WLsuction)

Figure 34: Brick Stresses & Displacements: Load Case - (DL+PCF+WLpressure)

Check for Stress


The maximum Von Mises stress for the combination of dead load and wind load is:
VVM = 66.46 MPa < Vall = 133.3 MPa Adequate

Check for Deflection: Deflection is negligible.


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8.5.3 Slide Bracket Bolt Connection to Mullion

Material:
Bolt type: M10 A2/70

Critical support reactions: (Refer to Figure 24)


Load Case - (DL + PCF + WLsuction)
RVn = 0.89/2 = 0.45 kN vertical reactions
RHn = 25.67/2 = 12.84 kN horizontal reactions

Shear due to eccentricities,


(x2 + y2) = 0 + 2*752 = 11250 mm2

Mtot = Fhn*(10tolerance) - Fvn*72 = 96.0 kN-mm


Fh1 = Mtot*75/(x2 + y2) = 0.64 kN

Direct shear,
Fh2 = Fh/3 = 4.28 kN
Fv = Fv/3 = 0.15 kN

Resultant shear,
VR = [(Fh1 + Fh2)2 + Fv2]1/2 = 4.92 kN

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9 ANCHORAGE DESIGN

Anchor Channel / Bolt: HAC-50 F hef = 106 mm; HBC-C 4.6F, M12

9.1 Channel Forces

Critical support reactions: Load Case - (DL+ PCF +WLsuction) (Refer to Figure 24)
V = RVn = 0.89 kN
N = RHn = 25.67 kN

M = 25.67*205 + 0.89*80 = 5333.55 kN-mm


Sb = (1732 + 232) / 173 = 176.1 mm
T1 = M / Sb = 30.29 kN
T2 = [d2/d1]*M = 4.03 kN

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REFERENCES

LOADS
SEI/ASCE 7-05 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures

ALUMINIUM
ALUMINIUM DESIGN MANUAL Specification guidelines for aluminium structures
ASTM B209 Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Sheet and Plate
ASTM B221 Specification for Aluminum-Alloy Extruded Bars, Shapes and Tubes
AAMA TIR-A9-1991 Metal curtain wall fasteners

GLASS
ASTM E 1300-09a Standard Practice For Determining The Minimum Thickness And Type
Of Glass Required To Resist A Specified Load
AAMA- 1984 Structural Properties Of Glass

SILICONE
ASTM C 1401 - 02 Standard Guide for Structural Sealant Glazing
ASTM C 1249 - 93 Standard Guide for Secondary Seal for Sealed Insulating Glass Units
for Structural Sealant Glazing Applications

STEEL
ANSI/ AISC 360-05 Specification for Structural Steel Building

SOFTWARE
Straus 7.1/ Strand 7.1 Finite Element Analysis System, researched and developed by
G+D Computing Pty.Ltd in Australia. Address: Suite1, Level7, 541
Kent Street, Sydney, 2000. Australia. Email: strand7@gd.com.au.
Web: www.strand.aust.com. Fax: +61 2 9264 2066..
Tel: +61 2 9264 2977.
Reference manual and User Guide.

SJ MEPLA SJ Software GmbH


Version 3.5
Address: Haarhofstr. 52, 52080 Aachen, Germany

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APPENDIX A - ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR 6063-T6


Aluminium Design Manual 2005
Table 2-24 ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR BUILDING TYPE STRUCTURES 6063-T6, Extrusions and
Pipe

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APPENDIX B ALLOWABLE STRESS & FACTOR OF SAFETY

FOR ALUMINIUM ALLOY 6061-T6


(AS PER ALUMINIUM DESIGN MANUAL 2005)

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APPENDIX C FACTOR OF SAFETY FOR METAL FASTNERS


(AS PER AAMA TIRA9-1991)

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APPENDIX D ENGINEERING VALUES for PVB

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