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Pollution level of Sungai Karang Besuki Based Biological Indicators

Disusun untuk memenuhi tugas matakuliah Pencemaran Lingkungan

yang dibimbing oleh Dr.H. Sueb, M.kes

Offering GHL

Kelompok 1

Devy Atika Farah (150342605754)

Rina Fiji Lestari (150342608273)

R.R. Adetiyas Fara Ulil M. (150342607686)




Januari 2017
Pollution level of Sungai Karang Besuki Based Biological Indicators
Devy Atika Farah, Rina Fiji Lestari, R.R. Adetiyas Fara Ulil M.

Dr. Sueb M.Kes

Jurusan Biologi

Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam

Universitas Negeri Malang,

Abstrak: Sungai Karang Besuki adalah salah satu sungai yang berada di Kota
Malang dan berada dikawasan perumahan padat penduduk. Tujuan
penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat pencemaran air di sungai
Karang Besuki menggunakan makroinvertebrata dan mikroinvertebrata
yang di identifikasi menggunakan skor BMWP. Penelitian dilakukan di
sungai karang besuki pada tanggal 10 februari 2017 dengan mengambil
sampel makroinvertebrata dan mikroinvertebrata kemudian di
bandingkan dengan indeks BMWP. Teknik pengambilan sampel pada
penelitian ini yaitu teknik sampling Insidental. Hasil dari penelitian ini
yaitu jumlah makroinvertebrata dan mikroinvertebrata sebanyak 194
diidentifikasi dari sungai karang besuki. Makroinvertebrata berjumlah 2
family dan mikroinvertebrata berjumlah 2 family. Taksa yang paling
melimpah adalah kelas dari Gastropda family Phacychilidae sebanyak
81,93%, dan family Gecarcinucidae sebanyak 19,07%. Dilihat dari
perbandingan skor family yang ada dengan dengan tabel indeks BMWP
maka sungai karang besuki termasuk dalam kategori tercemar.
Kata Kunci: Makroinvertebrata, Mikroinvertebrata, indeks BMWP

Abstract: Karang Besuki river is one of the rivers that are located in the city of Malang
and were the lowliest dense residential population. The purpose of this
research is to know the level of water pollution in the Karang Besuki
river with makroinvertebrata and mikroinvertebrata using the Besuki
who in identification using BMWP score.The study was conducted in
Karang Besuki river on 10 February 2017 by taking samples of
macroinvertebrates and mikroinvertebrata then compared with the index
BMWP. The sampling technique in this research is quantitative sampling
techniques. The results of this analysis, the number of macroinvertebrates and
mikroinvertebrata 194 Besuki identified from river rock. Macroinvertebrates
than 2 family and mikroinvertebrata amounted to 2 family. The most abundant
taxa are classes of Gastropda family Phacychilidae as much as 81.93%, and
the family Gecarcinucidae as much as 19.07%.

Keyword: Makroinvertebrata, Mikroinvertebrata, BMWP index



The river serves as a container of water flow. In Indonesia the quality of

water resources of the river generally heavily polluted. Changes in water quality
conditions in the watershed is the impact of the discharge of existing land use.
Changes in land use patterns into and settlement and increased industrial activity has
an impact on the hydrological conditions in the watershed. In addition, various
human activities in meeting their needs of activity from industry, households and
agriculture will produce waste that impact on the quality of river water (Owa, 2013).

The decline in water quality will be followed by changes in the physical,

chemical and biological river. The changes that occur will affect the habitat
destruction and the decline in the diversity of organisms that live in the waters of the
river, including macrozoobenthos community. Macrozoobenthos is one of the biotic
components that can provide a picture of the condition of the river waters.
Macrozoobenthos are in the river from upstream to downstream. Macrozoobenthos is
one of the aquatic organisms that live on the bottom, which has a relatively slow
movement and can live relatively long so that it has the ability to respond to the
condition of the river water quality bio-indicators used to find an association between
biotic and abiotic factors of the environment. Bioindikator or ecological indicators
are a group of organisms that live and vulnerable to environmental changes as a
result of human activities and natural damage (Nangin et al., 2015).

Sensitivity types of macrozoobenthos of the organic wastes are grouped into

three, namely the intolerant or sensitive, facultative or moderate, and tolerant. The
existence of groups of predators can be used to indicate the state of the pollution
level of the river flow. In other words, the presence of groups of tolerant and
intolerant group's absence can be used as an indication of contamination in the water.
But there are also other types of makrozoobetos scattered in various water conditions
so it can not be used as an indication of contamination in the water and be classified
as non indicators and are included in this group include Malacostraea and some
Coleoptera (Evans et al., 2012).
Facultative organisms or intermediates are organisms that can survive in a
range of changes in environmental conditions that are not too extensive. This group
can survive in water that is high in organic matter. Nevertheless this group can not
tolerate the environmental pressure and is quite sensitive to water quality
degradation. Groups included in this group, among others, some kind of Odonata,
Gastropoda, Diptera, and crustaceans (Zheng & Liu, 2010).

Intolerant organisms are organisms that can only grow and flourish in the
range of changes in environmental conditions are cramped. The organism is rarely
found in waters rich in organic matter and are very sensitive to water quality
degradation. Included in this group include most types of Ephemeroptera,
Trichoptera, Coleoptera, and Plecoptera (Macova et al., 2009). The reason we
examined the coral river Besuki is due to the terrain of the river that is easy to take
the survey because the flow of the river is not too heavy, and the river contains a lot
of garbage views of the surrounding riverside lot of trash.

Identification Problem
From the above problems, we take formula papers this field is How
pencemran water level in the river Karang Besuki using macroinvertebrates and
mikroinvertebrata was identified using scores BMWP?


The purpose of this study was to determine the level of water pollution in the
river Karang Besuki using macroinvertebrates and mikroinvertebrata was identified
using scores BMWP.


Time and place

The research was done on the river Karang Besuki, in Malang. Sampling was
carried out on Friday February 10, 2017. The sample was retrieved later identified
with the aim of obtaining a representative sample macroinvertebrates and
mikroinvertebrata water from the river.

Figure 1. Map of the location of Sungai Karang Besuki

Sumber: Google Maps

Sampling Technique

This research is a descriptive study in which a sample of the population

residing macroinvertebrates and river rock mikroinvertebrata Besuki be identified
and quantified the level of river water pollution. The sampling technique used in this
study is a sampling technique Insindental. Sampling macroinvertebrates and
mikroinvertebrata done manually with the collection of samples using nets. Sampling
point is only performed on the riverbank. After that the data obtained is then used
Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) as an indicator of river water
pollution index. BMWP scoring system used in this study were made by Hellawell.
This is described in (Szczerbinska et al., 2015) which states that the score BMWP
been modified for use in many developing countries .The system called BMWP-PL.
BMWP is a combination of biodiversity indices and biotic indices that exist in the
watershed. In this method, taxa are certain areas in parts of the river were identified
and given a number or a specific point. Then the value of the index is calculated.

Tools and Materials

The tools used in this study are:

- Mikroskop stereo - Nampan plastik

- Cawan petri - Chart indikator biologis
- Ember - Botol aqua
- Jaring ikan kecil
Work Procedures

To search mikroinvertebrata namely:

1. Take a sample of water from the river rock Besuki then insert it into the bottle
2. Water samples taken to the laboratory for the observed
3. Setting up a stereo microscope and set its focus
4. Samples of water poured into a petri dish
5. The Petri dish containing water sample is placed on the table microscope
6. Observe the water samples to find mikroinvertebrate
7. After mikroinvertebrata found, in comparison with biological indicators and
indices chart BMWP
To search for macroinvertebrates are:

1. Come to the reef river Besuki

2. Viewing macroinvertebrates at some point
3. Take macroinvertebrates using a net of small fish
4. In calculating the number of macroinvertebrates at each point
5. Identify the family macroinvertebrates
6. Compared using BMWP index.
Data Collection and Data Analysis

Data were taken on a study of river pollution Karang Besuki include all
macroinvertebrates and mikroinvertebrata contained in the river. Then the sample is
compared with the value of the index on the table BMWP. According to (Ojija &
Laizer, 2016) states that require identification BMWP invertebrate taxonomy only to
the level of family can still take orders for a particular group or class. BMWP overall
score is the sum of all values of the respective taxon (Family) contained in the study
site. The total score indicates the category of water quality ranging from good to
critical condition. Once you know the total score of the family are found, then
compared with the index table BMWP. To determine the percentage of
macroinvertebrates found in the river we were co-opted on 5 points with each point
within 5 meters.
Sumber: uherek dalam (Ojija & Laizer, 2016)

Table 1. BMWP class, scores, category and interpreting results

Class Skor BMWP Kategori Interpretasi

I >150 Baik Air sangat bersih
101-150 Bersih atau tidah
berubah secara
II 61-100 Diterima Bersih tapi sedikit
III 36-60 Dipertanyakan Cukup berdampak
IV 15-35 Kritis Tercemar atau
V <15 Sangat Kritis tercemar berat

Tabel 2. Skor Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP)

Sumber: Suleiman dalam (Ojija et al., 2016)



Data obtained from observations with observations macroinvertebrates into

rivers Karang Besuki and Mikroinvertebrata conducted at the Laboratory of Building
Biology, State University of Malang.

Table 1. Data macroinvertebrates and Mikroinvertebrata found in Sungai Karang

Besuki by his Family.

Family Skor
Larva mrutu biasa Ceratopogonidae 5
Larva lalat Hitam Simuliidae (Diptera) 5
Kepiting Sungai Gecarcinucidae 0
Siput Sungai Phacychilidae 3
Total 13
From the results of the total score and mikroinvertebrata macroinvertebrates
in the river Karang Besuki can be concluded that the river was heavily polluted in the
state, because BMWP score <15.

Table 2. Total macroinvertebrates in Sungai Karang Besuki in 5 points.

Family Jumlah Tiap Titik Total persentas

1 2 3 4 5
Gecarcinucida 5 10 11 6 5 37 19, 07%
Phacychilidae 20 35 40 19 43 157 80,93%
Total 25 45 51 25 48 194 100%
From the results the percentage of coral Besuki river macroinvertebrates, the
most abundant is the family Phacychilidae or snail river, it dominates the river
macroinvertebrates Besuki coral.

Diagram 1. Persentase Makroinvertebrata


geca rcunuci dae
pha cychi l i dae



Judging from the results of research conducted on the river Karang Besuki
dominated by invertebrates tolerant of polluted water for example, snails and larval
mrutu usual. This Invertebraba can survive in very extreme conditions. At present
there are many snails river rivers included in the phylum gastropods. Gastropods is
an animal that is unbelievably tolerant of water pollution. This is explained by
(Widiyanto et al, 2016) describes the Order gastropods have a good tolerance to
water conditions ranging from mild to severe polluted. Because these invertebrates
can live in an environment that is tolerant of pollution, it can illustrate that the water
sector in the river is classified as polluted.

This study does not correspond to the research conducted by (Nangin et al,.
2015) which states that the diversity index (H ') macrozoobenthos in getting on the
river Suhuyon is 2.45. Characterizing the pollution level of the river is polluted
diversity index based on a very light, medium polluted and heavily polluted with
diversity index 3; 1 -3 and 1. Based on these groupings, Suhuyon River water
quality index based on the diversity of macrozoobenthos included into polluted
waters being.

On the river Karang Besuki BMWP score is 13, the state of the river can be
categorized into class V is very critical for a score <15. This interpretation is also
seen from the large number of macroinvertebrates tolerant is 81% contained on
family gecarcinucidae collected from the river Karang Besuki. Based on the results
of the study looks the river has significantly changed the function because it can not
support life and mikroinvertebrata macroinvertebrates that have a nature sensitive to
pollutants and which are intermediates.

Water from the river Karang Besuki be clean and polluted because the flow of
water received a lot of waste of resources beberpa. Sources said waste originating
from household waste, which can change the physical and chemical parameters of
water because many organic and inorganic material that is introduced into the river
water, as well as agricultural activities. Agricultural activities that use synthetic
fertilizers, and pesticides. As a result of human activities to meet the needs of life
resulting directly on pollution of the river, we have identified the river using
biological indicators. This is in accordance with (Oliveira et al., 2005) which states
that the surface of water in a watershed given the pressures and changes, usually as a
result of human activity. This activity is one of the most important causes of the
deterioration of water quality, which can be harmful to public health.


Based on the results of research and discussion can be concluded as follows:

In the flow of the river Karang Besuki contained biological indicator in the form of
macroinvertebrates than 2 family and mikroinvertebrata amounted to 2 family. The
most abundant taxa are classes of Gastropda family Phacychilidae as much as
81.93%, and the family as much as 19.07% Gecarcinucidae .Bedasarkan research and
mikroinvertebrata number of macroinvertebrates that 194 species are then analyzed
and obtained a score BMWP river Karang Besuki is 13.Hal this marks the river can
be categorized into class V is very critical for a score <15.


Advice in this study are those of Public Works Department of Irrigation,

maintenance Karang Besuki River basin needs to be done regularly to maintain the
quality of the river. Maintenance may include the establishment permit to dispose of
waste into the river for the industry, and monitoring waste disposal. For Malang
government, the need for strict sanctions, such as paying fines if it finds people who
throw garbage in the river. In addition, people need to change behavior in the
utilization of river water, such as not bathing, washing, toilet, and dispose of garbage
in the river, which can be done by means of socialization or posters near the river
that contains the prohibition to throw garbage in the river by the related department.
Further studies on the quality of Sungai Karang Besuki.

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Dengan Bioindikator Makroinvertebrata. JURNAL LPPM Vol. 4 No. 1
Januari 2016.

Ojija, F., & Laizer, H. 2016. Macro Invertebrates As Bio Indicators Of Water Quality
In Nzovwe Stream, In Mbeya, Tanzania. International Journal Of
Scientific & Technology Research Volume 5, Issue 06, June 2016. ISSN

Oliveira R.E.S, Lima M.M.C.L. & Vieira J.M.P. 2005. An Indicator System For
Surface Water Quality In River Basins. Potugal: Escola De Engenharia Da
Universidade Do Minho.

Barinova, S., Tavassi, M., Glassman, H., & Nevo, E. 2010. Algal Indication Of
Pollution In The Lower Jordan River, Israel. Applied Ecology And
Environmental Research 8(1): 19-38.

Szczerbinska, N., & Gaczynska, M. 2015. Biological methods used to assess surface
water quality. Arch. Pol. Fish. (2015) 23: 185-196.

Barman, B., & Gupta, S. 2015. Aquatic insects as bio-indicator of water quality- A
study on Bakuamari stream, Chakras hila Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam,
North East India. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 2015; 3(3):

Owa, F.D. 2013. Water Pollution: Sources, Effects, Control and Management.
Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences Vol 4 No 8 September 2013.

Li L., Zheng, B., & Liu, L. 2010. Biomonitoring and Bioindicators Used for River
Ecosystems: Definitions, Approaches and Trends. Procedia
Environmental Sciences 2 (2010) 15101524.

Nangin, S.R., Langoya, M.L., & Katili, D.Y. 2015. Makrozoobentos Sebagai
Indikator Biologis dalam Menentukan Kualitas Air Sungai Suhuyon
Sulawesi Utara. Jurnal Mipa Unsrat Online 4 (2) 165-168.
Macova, S., Harustiakova, D., Kolarova, J., Machova, J., Zlabek, V., Vykusova, B.,
Randak, T., Velisek, J., Poleszczuk, G., Hajslova, J., Pulkrabova, J., &
Svobodova, Z. 2009. Leeches as Sensor-bioindicators of River
Contamination by PCBs. Sensors 2009, 9, 1807-1820.

Evans, A.E.V., Hanjra, M.A., Jiang, Y., Qadir, M., & Drechsel, P. 2012. Water
pollution in Asia: The urgent need for prevention and monitoring.
Canada: Global Water Forum.

Sungai karang besuki Terdapat kepiting sungai

Terdapat siput sungai Terdapat larva lalat hitam

Terdapat larva mrutu biasa

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