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"

A STUDY OF THE ECONOMICS OF THE USE OF


VARIOUS TYPES OF MASS TRA1';sPORTATION VEHICLES
ON THE SURFACE SYSTEM IN BROOKLYN

-0-0-0­

Btklyn & ~ueens Transit Corp.

Brooklyn Bus Corp. MAY 1940

Traffic Div. K.M.H.

Th econom1C8 of operating varia kinds of vehicles on


lines of different e raeterist1cB as been d1scussed frequently among
ou peop"e. or some t .me w va een atudying the matter, taking
lnto con3~.~e .tt/)D struflt ears, e' ectr1c buse end gas buses or various
81:~es tor use on x1st ng st eet cal' 11nes.

The results of the study are cont loed 1n this report in


whicb w have separe tec_ the lines into seVEL 81 groups 1n accordence
with most; 6tC IZomlcal pEtra ion for each Un. Tb.e lines divide tnto
groups en w1ng that ths heavier trunk 11n 8 sho d be operate with
modern st:r.ee't cars, while tnt rilled1ate 8nd tgnter 11n B Bold be
operated lith electric or gas buse .

Th estimates we e d~ 0 ig1nall pon a prlv te company


operation bS131s i bu .ere altered to sho t 6 cost as they wo'ld be
with City op r~t1on, inaEwuch 8S hese line. re part of the Unification
Plan. For C t operation, all taxes, lnclu iug the gaa taxes for CUB
operatiolll, wor removed.

Tn tudy do s not include det 11 onaern1ng exact disposal


of vax-lou.s 11 n s w ic are in a r lna1 po 1tionnor 1s consldaratlo~
given to cbaJ _ outings in certain ease wore we believe this. to be
desirable. T sa sho ld be the subjects to urther study after Unl­
1 etion has b~en e!!e<:ted.

Th followIng tabulatl n summa 1z 8 the surface lin 81 tua tion


in BrooldYIl 6 sho n in graa er det 11 in the attached report:

Present treet
Car 0 oration .. "..As aho in Attached Report
45.Passenget:,
Street Electric Gas
Cars ~Buse!..., ~usea Total

Numb r f Hnes 49 "'8 12 9 49

Number f Vehicl e 1230 849 229* 85* 1163

Rou'!: Kil is 289 1 9 73 31 289

It< Th s vehicles would a in addltl n to the 308 gas buses


an trolley buses now 0 srat d 1n the Borough of Brooklyn.
C 0 T S

GGneral 1scuss1cD.ts •••••• 0 ••• ~ • 0 0 •• :3

Basis f S udy" D • e _ • ., to .. • .. • It . 8

s tlon and Cone us1ons ••••••••••••••••••••• 12

Co t of t 1 11.;11. ell e • • eo • • • 011 • 0 Cl til .. • • • 15

Line R v nuso ••••• 18

fis1 for Study •••••••.••• lA

Foundation F1gures r r Ro te Cost A lya s •••••••• lOA

WeJI'k Set........................................ 1

.. 0 0-0=
1.

A DY OF THE ECONOU OS OF THE USE OF

VARIOD co TRANSPORTATIO vmICLFS

"1'1 'l'RE SURFACE SYSTFll IN BROO YN.


2.

FOREWORD

T e consummation or t eOnif cat on Plan, including

the Burfa ~l 11ne in Brooklyn, rese:n e problem ot rehebl11­

tatjo~ of arioua surface lin a . n orde. ttwt the best possible

eni e y be glv n to th peop e ot th t Bo Qugh. 'fhis prob·­

16 T :1..1 be of paramo1,m't inter at 1n the near ut e. 1 aamuch

as a larga portion or the present e ulpment 1s haole e.

~ G eh ice of typea of equlpm nt or this rej v nation

shoo 11 b made 1n a manner which 111 P ovl t a greatest amount

ot of th 19he t ca11 r at the lowest continuing cost.

Choice sold be guid d by me s ~1 both he tangible and 10­

tanglb e t ctora in olved, glvl g prop6r eight to t s conam1ca

of contin 0 S op rat on.

T 1a stu y haa been mad 1n an en savor to set forth

the op t1ng econo ies of t e problem, all 0 conal e~at1on

the at ~ct ne vehicles ot any ty' 6 ould oave upon gross and

net rev nues from the operation.


-
GmERAL DISCUSS!OrJ
-
Fapld de elopmants i the automotive end aviation

fields d ring the 1~8t 15 years, providing qua11ty s0rvice for

the indiv1dual at cost apparently wI. thin tr.ia reach of hug.e IJ.um­

bers, bav0 created a demand for a better t pe of service froM

public tran~portat1on vehicles. This pr saure has caused a

major change in tho design of mass trans ortation equipment,

resulting n comt'o!·table, attractive, fa t and ~u1et vehicles.

which ~ wheD. p:Z'(1)6rl;r selected. for the se vice to be rendered,

. re more economical than their predeco8s~ra.

Changes 1.. equipm6 t on the Brooklyn and Q.wsens

Transit S stem h v been fewer 1n proportion th n those on

ther 5yste~Bt due to continued ~egot1at.oDB for Unifioation

and to !'r nch1se dU'ftcultlea enoountore when substitutions

'fere pr posed. The introductio of one undred st;ream lined

streElt ce::os and a ama.ll number of electric bUS8fl has been In-

Bufftclent to acqueJ.nt the general publ1 ifitb. the excellent

een1 :e r4:3Ddered b the:38 vehicles.


4.

=;,:.....;;.=.;EE CARS

?be P.C .• car, .ant oned abo e, 1s P odu t of

aev l' 1 ~ 1'6 efJa3.r,~h by the Preside t Confer nee Comm1 ttee

o~ .h P~a lean T. nait As oelation, which group carried ut

an exton 1 e r Bea ell progrWil D the Brooklyn roperty from

1931 t 1930. In 1936 the fir toe h d1'ad o! these car

were p oe in ope tioD on the 8m th-Cone Isla d. McDonald-

VanI rbilt, Save tA Ave ua and B·le Basin 11 os. Patronage

on th se 1 nes iner asad c nsldorably. the increase varying

from.it. 'to 35 ar "eut dep nding pon the line. bl C 1'13­

actio B moat raV" . able. Since that t1me ad lt1enal p.e.c.


ca. So )Ja e eo 6;1, or r be ng, pIa ed, in perat10n in

other cit1 8 as follows:

ldal'1mo e 67 San Diego Z8


Chicago 83 <~t. Louis 100
Cin inatti 26 Toronto 190
Loe Angeles 9 a.hlngton 167
P lladelpbte. 15 W st Coast 30
Pitts urgb 300 t 1scellaneou --.X!..
T 0 a 1 - 1255
6.

~h c rs are design d for 8 ooth ra id ccaleration

and are quipped 11th a multlpl system of brakes whIch p rmits

the car 0 hold its pl ce 1n fast flowIng traffic. Wheels aDd

other mo i pertH ere c shion. d with bber. result1 1 quiet

comforts 1 rid1 , superior to any 0 he... mass transportation

avallablo 'for "ity servlc • !'orward facing up olstered seat·s

are rovlded 'for "Q passengers au ampl aisle space is avail­

able for tandeea I nd for passengers moving about within the

tio ro Iree a mln~um am~unt of physical tf rt

fro the operator. Tnt eqUipment is m at satlatact ry for. oper­


etlen ou lines hor travel 1s dense and here it l' necessary

to obtai th greitest use ot street sp C6.

- -TRIO
- -SES
-
Electric buses ere introduced in Brookly 1 1932

when xp rim Iltal buses ere Infitelled n he Cortelyou Road

line" Th ae have the dv ntage ot hIgh acceleration, quiet

")le power available fo heating and l1g ting

(CGU .I'e Power. Pl t). They bave the t ex1b1l1 ty ot gas buses
in p ,:J<'1u obs ruc' ions in the £ltreet b t cannot be routed
o depe dune po OT rhea w1res tor pOllia 0

, in ~~~n~ and po er. costs are ncll les3 than f r similar

size gas us (3.

1s vehicle 1s best fitted t r operation he e

Mulin. d 1ty 1s not great eno h to supp rt rG11 operati n

but here 8ufrlcle~t frequency of service can be justified

tor vehicle.

BUS

SS 63 era 1ntrod cad on a large scale hen the

Bro ~::.y s Co o etl0 wesi ugurated in 1 :31. Since that

t1mEJ l'dd tiona and replacements have been de so that a con-

side -! a umber ot od rn buses have been vallable t delllon­

trat· tb u,s8'u1 sa ot th1s type ot tr naporta tiOD •

'hese hava greater flex bi 1ty t an either of t e

electr1."ally pow ra conve snces, " ieh are dupen,dent UpOI'

OI 8y8 ~m. Thls characterist1c 1s des1rable for


7.

"spot" 1 dl Sf a d tor routing ar und blockades. The use

of 1ndl d 1 pow r units nocessltat 8 c ptaDce or a 10 or

ace lera~ ng rat~ t an w1th the ele tri'sl vehicles ana lea

powe 1 aV811~bl for 11g ting. Fuel costs are bigh compared

to elect~1c po ar. and maintenance coat3 re greate' due to

the 1ntr.c to eeign of gasoline engine and drives. he

noise of the e g1ues a~d the fumes gen8.sted re obj otio 10

fea t\lreS Th eq tpmont requires s gr tar am un' ot. hys1­

cal effort 011 'the .. art of the pera tor d e to stee. tug and

gear sbl1t1ng. Some das1 advances ar beIng made wh1e 1 1

01 lostl the sh1 t. EconomicallYt the g s us 1s best for

use on l:~ne8 wber sched led headwa.'y8 a1' long and t e densitry

of trave: 1s too low to pport f1xe 1 v stmenta 1 ra 1 or

ovorhead

This I'e 1 w of available equ1 ant for surface oper­

atioD 1. iven a bac round tor Buce e ing estimates.


s.

BASIS iF STUDY

8 stat d in the Foreword, th foundation tor

selectl01 ot new qui. e t tor surface operation should be

bas c. finally on the eoonomics ot co tlnuouB oparat:lon.

n 0 'del: to prevent a reasona le p1ctttre of the

Ituatl0 ,co rison ot the total annu 1 co t tor in at-e t,

eprec1at1 n, and ~erat1on for each of tb lin 8 h~ve be n

set 'p~ h wln~ w. t these wo 1 be .1th e eh kind an 81'0

ot VEl ie-e.

h ., r OU.B co ta have been e tabl ahed f .0' th

act· 1 (at ot op ration on this yate OT r the pa13t yea •

verified t checkl11@' tbeSf:I xpendl tures for the previous

'wo e :NJ nd b . 1 o s t a , h re avail leD with

reports ~ the jrlcan Tra sit Assocla ;10n and oth sour s.

Inv tms t cos a d de r elation for trae and equlpm~nt e

b en he k d lth our ineering and E_ulpment Departm nt

and f 11 the geL ral rule. The coat t investment has en


9.

est:S ed on a at ight I1ne asis sing per cent on the

av ro· e investment. General y, this cost is considered high

but l l:zes for the different types consider d, possIbly

po 1 zing th street cara nd lectri~ buses.

Deprec1 tion has be3n calculatad on 8 basis of

20 years for trae. an overhead, 15 yo rs for street c r

10 y ars ror lee ric bus 8 and e year fo g s buses. 1

est' tea are cal ul t on he De co t f all mater1al~

for traCk, ov rhead and r 11 st ck for the different lin s,

usi Ilni"'; co-t t rou out. This ha e~n a opted 8 t e

basia of atlnat in 0 de to eliminate possible confus1 g

ls6~e and to d r it~ly scertain the group type to hi

th lin belorss.

Some c '1;'3 va been a 8 gnad 0 a car mile basis,

80m 011 a ro e 11 taals, and some a a p rcentage of ross

re Dues; D.d f ota 1y accident cos 8, have e Xl cElle ­

lat j .artly 0 t ~ sls of oar miles erate and partly on

th b S18 of route .mil s r gros reve ue •


It was conclu sd hat t rev UtS or the 11nos Quld

inc. e a av ra e a at least 1 par ee t with any ty e o~

new rollin stock. This a ~pt'on 1s out by expel' e 06

on t' .1s By tam 8 d a 1 thers wb.are ne a tractive qu1pment has

bee_ sub tltutGd for obsolete equip ent.

o e t te of ecreasod cost d e t increased achedul

sp e . fmS lila 0 e ae . che uled spe s a a 1'8 10table lthout e

extra e1 cloSG s udy ot aa h 1 8. It is re~sonable to xpect

tha~ any of t a l1e 1e yp \~ul~ 810 aU lncre· over t e

presrnt p rs ion. althe due to the hi l' acceler~t1ng lU 11­

ties of he P.C.C. cars and the electric us 6 5 or to be ad 1­

Uon J. t ex10111 t or the as bus 8.

ual rm1les ·re estima d. u5hlg the at

year's p rati n 'S u base, by inspecti the pe k load eha c­


terlatlcs of ine a d stabIls in 8 rv1ce requlre~e ts

accol'd1 to acoep ad standards. Fo? ~a y l.n s t e stl tea

are aE general y on qu1valont s. Other lines re

est te upon a sis ot mini head ys a1 owable or upon a

comb1 tlon of load requirements ane mi' l~um head


1 .

r .tar d~tal1 r the various coat units an th lr


bas B ar cont in d in the st1matlng otas appended.
RIZATION and C
...;..,;;...;..;;.;;.~...::.;;~=

1 TnC1ulations of the res lta ot individual l1UB

stud:!

A. 28 f t e pres nt a reet car 1 es should be

c ntl ued a street car lines.

COIside 1ng the same traffic, 1t these


linea w re to be operated with 4 pass­
eng g B b'ses ( loh are not g neral­
ly a'a11 ble at this time) the annual
c at of opera 10n ould be in ,r Bad
approx taly ~J~OOO.O
Operat1 n with 35 pas3eng r biB S, no
general"y accepted as large bus 8~ oul
inc as t e annual op rating co t pprox­
~net ly pOOO.

B~ Ot t e remaining 21 rail 11nes~ 12 can be oper­

t ld ost conom1 ,ally a lectrlc b B in 8, and 9 ca

'be, 0 rato" os economically wit g a buses of difter­

a ·t sizes.

n~' ber ot th6 lines in thea groups


should be stUdied t imp ove utlnga.
Sam· o's1bly bould be disco t1nued
and ~rts ot them connected wit other
lin s.
13.

2. It t' e yst m r re rane d ~n the suggeste

baBl ,epproxl tely 850 tr at cars, 2~0 01 at 10 bueoa,

5 a bUG a of aria s required 01' e


r d nt street C6.r sY!3tem. This in Iud 5 10 per cent ap re

3qulpmert.

T e pr sent street car e1ul~ ent consists


of one bu d. ed .C.C. car. t 0 hundred
00 B ries car built 1 1930-1931, f1 e
hQDdre and tb1rty-fi7 6000 aeries cars
~1' t uri th p r1)d. om 1923 ~o 1 25,
r.d between fou hundred a d f1 e undred
lacellaneouB typ S 0 p~asa 61 cars built
rior to t at time.

qUlpment, xceptln. t e P.C •• c rs,


lete fro t e 3ta point of appElar
pertor e. Ho ever. cars in he
d 80 0 s ries grol_S ere viceable
1 continuo 1n us tor a num er of
ya's. Old r equlpmo t h uld ~e replaced
1"0 ptly s oaslble.

s t r are a nw be of
one 131 ~trl0 u 11ne
ere ot co sld3re 1n thi study.
re operat d with t e eXisting leot
gaa buses nd lect 1e uses.
o .h's sq Ipment shoul. re laced.
14.

3" '1'he pres nt trackage ~ exclt.td~ng yaI'ds, et ., is

pp ') 1ma~ell 428 ml1eso This would be red ced to approxi­

m t~ly 2 1 m1 8S.

The tr ' remaining would be in battor


than ev rage 00 dit10n, and coul be
al11ta1ned OD a routine renewal and 1'e­
lac mont basis.

4, Reb bl1itatio on a basis such as Olltl1n~d could e

ace .pl shed wit th least exp nditure 0 new money 85 t a

e 1s'in p ant c~uld be continued witn but I1tt e alta tiODo

If ~lete substitution of buse were


'0 de, De yards, O~ garag a, with
ne p facil1tiea,nou d be necca ary.

5. A combio5tlon, sing t e v 1'1 us types of vehiclas,

o 1« fit be~t wit _ the p e ant per onnel.

It lOU d h hard to make a quick change


entl-ely e 1111 3t1ng ~traet ea .. w tho t
d splac1ng a v 1'y large num er of men
ho 0 1 find l. t mos dUfic\.lt to
ehan t an all us operation.
DATA CONOEBNING STREET CAR
OFERATICfi FOR THE FISCAL YEAR 1939

I~~
Rev.
Truck Rev. ReT. Charg.
M1-es Ncoot par per Doubl
Annual Annual Rout
oar Car 'lTeek
Mlleage
2,193,422
Hours
276,028
U1lss

8.42 034
-
1e Hour Ie
63 42., ¢ $30M 125.500
10979,6U 198~922 10046 oeo 33 3808'1 3 86 '18 0 3 "2
0

1 9 741 0208 217,1 6 ., <,1 "089 54 2 0 9{1 3 0 44 126,766


1 9 642.591 210.",'7 7 02'1 I 2 0 37 3 62
603¢ 0 10 ,481
1 0 506,152 192 i1 'l80 7 23 0 ~o 1 3>9 00. ¢ 3016 102,993
1,519,6 182 0050 7 02~) "B¢ 3090 1 2)224
10~O,63
1,472, 43
158,2 "
172,122
1000
9,,2
5" 0
036
'7 0 96
"
2
35
31,,9¢ 3 18
26,,7¢ 2 0 29
0 60,213
-4 ,430
1 0 563,174 145,850 7085 7 08 0 25 90 ¢ 2.7 55~6 0
1,1l2 g S7'" 139&'123 006 ,,24 32 34 09'1 2 0 "18 5"'p703
1 0 30'1,097 163 p429 7.08 2,,91 24 Mo ¢ ,,'2 15~l>008
1 0 120,2 1 150,36-; 7019 088 "7 4001'1 30 93,eM
1 0178, 67 645~6 3 6 30 0 4 83 0 22 4On9¢ 3 031 9 ,8 9
I p 103,776 p626 40~U ,,07 30 41 0 5¢ 3",53 _12 ~5 0
992,831 4. 25 6,,'12 5 001 30 530"1\1 2 069 66,700
1 p 05'1,698 1 1,'149 508A. t1-052 6 42 06'1 3 018 99 9 690
986 026'i' 131,278 6098 ·1,,,22 22 36.,8¢ ".77 86.150
1,030,833 109,662 .,'12 15 35 a ? 3036 4 9 800
915~32" 126,480 006 2.4 4l1 0 1¢ 3., 1 10 ,318
9 2,166 117, '19 3098 19 ~. tI 3 0 85 U .. 9 513
887,916 12 ~018 3",66 24 3506¢ 2 6 52 85 9 0 0
8 2,319 104~'l25 085 9 3'lo3¢ 3 0 82 0 334
87 803 112 ,461 2 0'7 19 31 0 'l¢ 2 0 6 1 ~450
606.153 82 900 015 17 45 01¢ 3 30 12'1,560
0

59-4»0.12 '16,503 .. 17 14 41 06¢ 3 025 llr.,9 "i'


504,238 .. ,4 4 '..o2? 11 3406\1 3 075 76,'1 0
31'1,913 ,2 1 1 017 1.2S7 9rJ 0 4047 184,4 0
232,956 30,793 ,,70 8 40 9'1 0 3 9 13fi/140
0

1dge 1,187 9 581 134, 1 ,,68 28 29 06¢ 2 0 62 52 v 600


1 9 238,174 156,0 . .,2'7 38 29.5¢ 2 03 Se,200
993,828 1 1/'1 1 00 60 23 30 0 ¢ 2011 5 9418
92 984'7
.814 9 533
116 9 7 8
96 9 922
r. ,,87
I!", 65
18 32 09¢
19 3406¢ 2 0

2,,9
6°1
51 l ,7 5
5 ,J.63
714 9 845 91,071 . 003 17 3509¢ 2.,64 50,990
821,225 98 0 527 4 073 8 27 .. 2tj 2 2";
0 4'7,280
701\1531 96 0078 096 15 32 8'1 0 2 4:0
0 8,190
4 2,522 6. ,6?15 099 10 2 09¢ 2,,06 6'1 9 9,0
362,912 9,279 '0 5 11 33 02¢ 2 44
0 51,100
380,071 4~D 21 3 022 8 3208¢ 2 52 0 38/130
2S? ,fi9'! 2,55'1 1071 "l 2502¢ 070 ,433
6'16,143 8'7,022 001 14 26 1¢ 2"O'i!'
0 ,050
6'18,35'1 78,606 099 10 2303¢ 20 1 31 r,690
55 pOOl 60 8 573 2 0 93 a 21 09¢ 2 000 4- »350
379 p 3 52,569 01'1 8 18 0 rii¢ 1.34 22 D2 1
331 9 085 46,66 '04~ a 2300, 064 3O~680
291 9 7 .5 » 9 L98 6 23"S¢ 1 072 35,13'1
2'1'1 9226 39 9 258 1 0'14 6 35 0 4rJ 2 0 50 56 p 12
2 6~ 1 28,491 2 0 94 ? 1505¢ 1016 11,(.()0
145 s 6 4 28 575 1 002 5
430~1 ~ 0
99
TOTALS~ $15098790251449033,02315,966925' 1 29 ,,90 1213028
.-
10M 35,,3\1 1$2068_
1 74· p 958
28
:1 3.183 316,500 28
IP

US
II
83
254J)WO
14
1.170 t+l"SI 18 1.. 170 220,0Q8 33

....10
-- 147p06~ ~

S ...... 0 • • • • • • a., S09.Er.JO 84P 1430700 '11.683,049 1114 143 0 700 t.211 IP2,3tO II
.18jl~,gI1 .988

-
NOTEs • ntEeE '~!NI. LO S£ STUDIED ,o~ IMPROYE_NT aN AOUT8NQ. .
C1l
EL£CTRIC BUS (iP[RATION

E8TIUATED co
nt.9 CP£RAVING C~TC, DEPRECI"TH)i'3 AND
fNl'E~l!T BUT EXcLUtm..'ll Q£NERAL AND QA;') TAXES trOll
YARIO'.lD TYPES O'f VEHICLES ON LUIIES TENTATIVELY
LECTED FOR ELECTRIC SUO OPERATIONS "LaO,
MAXIMUM
" 01" ~H ICf,oI8 AEQUIElED INCLUD.NQ C~ QPAR£B AND
ROUTE MILES CHARGEA9L~ TO L;NES

59 PADS. HO. ROUTE MILES «S PAeS. NO. ROUTE MiLES 45 PA8a~ ~o. 35 PASS. NO" 2~ PASS.. NO~
poe.c. VENI- CHARGEA~ ELECTRIC WHI- CHARQEA8L=t Ot.Cl 'IIeH" aa~ VSiS­ QAI "I/EH~ ­
LIN E S CA,IUi eLES
~~-
TO LONE ~8 ~8 TO LG~
- SUlliES . ~ aUKa
- ----
CLEe
$ 3422,104 33 6.681 $333,234 33 6073 $343,647 33 $330,570 36 *414.026 50
,7" 138 22 6 ..265 299,289 24 8.37 3OS!,SOi 24 311,404 30
• 374,870 26 5.804 299,984 26 6.56 306,585 26 313,sr1~ 26 2P7,1Cl8 29.
$J1,5~ 20 508G6 2~,858 20 6,,91 268,285 20 231,m 20 289,371 2·
28911 351 22 ~ ..e5 243,995 2~ 5.11 ztro,74~ 24 270,i.;c zg 327,~5 +i
Z79,535 l~ 5,,029 232,833 22 6,,07 236,6~ 22 234.005 24 27~.688 36
291,223 20 4.730 m,goo 20 6()OO 233;1891
• ZS,tl6O 11 3..957 ZOO,E!03 17 4091 212,$58 1'7 213,216 21 235,038 32
663,440 II loee3 IS,'" H 406' 139.1'409 It IEII,14, IS 180,873 22
942,172
.. !~,+42
12
9
2"J'4
30220
12i,,219
110,337
15
S)
30M
3,,22
123s 804
112,276
15
~
127, .50
116,5ai
19
10
143,IGG
G23,4ig
24
H

TOT A L S D~ •••
• t09I'!~'~

*gA1B4.B40 2;0
.....! i ,,71

5"l.4fII
M&l1
':»';""~l?2!:!
-
~
8
- Z~7

~~~
e9i 2B5

$av~!!\~!~
-e
~~ ~~,e~.e~ ~ ~~9C7~,·""

.....2m~

.....
C7'
!ilA~ ....... ". E..A. 'Qf:L

£8TIUATEO COaT OF OPERAT 'OM PEA YEAR


INCLUO!MG OPItRATIN9 COUTS, DEPRECIATION AND
.NTEA£&T OUT EXCLUDING GENERAL AND QA8 TAXES ~OR
VAfUOU8 TYPES 0" YEH ICL£8 ON LINES TENTATt VELV
SELECTED FOR GAS Bua OPERATIOfo~1 ALSO, MAXHIW ~_U~ea:R
O~ VEHICLES REQUIRED INCl,.UDING 10\l6 SPARta AND ROUTE 'ilLES
CHARGEABLE TO LINES

59 PABS. NO. 45 PA8S. NO. 45 PAst. NOo 35 PASS. NO" 2S PAIS. NCo
.C.Co VEHI- ELI!CTRI C "EN '''' GAO 'lEtH- ClA! wm- QI\1'3 V~!-
.h..1 N ~ S

BROAD'''V
....
'"
CARS

$243,729
~
,e
RUES CUB

.~Sli,073
- 16
&USES AdM _CLEO

"05,816
_____

16
ROUTE IU Lie

6.,2')
- BUIES
(:)t 183,001
-
CLEfS

US
&<.JaE8

$23,,078 22
. -..-.
CLEI

.,. ElI.'D 237~2~ II 176~180 !I ,n,6O' II 5 ..E I 56 ..7&) Ii <:) ~S6, ,n II


85TH 8TRU:7 $ IB:S,29, 9 ..147,378 9 15"0,582 9 4 0 54 (: > 141,665 9 f~., i51 14­
m:eH~aeet A\'~
'" l~,~ .,
~
tOP, ;35 ~ UO,21 i 9 4000 i03,0G5 9 <:> 10l,GN 12
WHeN IlTAEET '27,78B 9 1)7,120 D 99,!504 9 3050 <:> 92,~ o 106,0497 13
109,356 7 7 U> 7 4.12 92,7~6 10 • 110,174
• 1.0,..
~!OH <;J
AVENUE 84,42' 86,073 34
1 84,. 1 86,446 1 1.1. 81,~ 1 (0) 75,830 7
EN~O j NT TROLUIV
NA88AU AVENUE

106..,GS
97,102
= 07..goR
8
.....6
&5,G6~
~.d.1! ..J.
8
-9 206
,",,=~J!Z,Jl8_
8
...!.. ~
5022
1.02
01,093
(:>_53.527
8 <:>
..!
.,oe9
GZpm...!
8

TOT A l S ••••••••••• .'i32l p 317 82 $,,0,2,740 9.i $1$0299 721 fn 36071 $975,828 85 $1,05.,190 !to

SIt.I ... "!HiiS!; LI~5:e AKE CANO.OA1·Ee ttl


ROUTINQ OR ELIM&NATION STUDIE~G

(I) TYPe: oF
ATfON.

~

LINE

01 3), '93 "

T A Q

NO i ' EA E I VE E THESE LU
AS lH£V ARE NOW CJlIERATI "C. 0 CAR •
1.

iXPIJ NATION or ASIS FOR J!STIMATING COSTS


OF THE OPERATION OJ!' VARIOUS TYPE OF vmICL:ES
o Sl'RDE1' AR L IS F THE BROOKLYN AND Q,UEENS
_ _ _,---!fW~lT CORPORATION SYSTEM

CODcre e track, $13.50 p"r doub track:: toot plus $2.50


p r «au 1 tack fo t tor special wor •

t1 .00 x 5280 tt. E3 84,480 per d ub1e track m1l 0

Th beot est toa ava1lable tor overhead e Dst ctlon


1nd1cet tb.8't th~ scan b CODstru ted at not JIlOl"e tha $10,500
per do ~l~ track 11e, 1 clu iug erago feeders and spec1al rk.

Th tUDt or these at1 tee is 95,000 p r


a1~cted
daubl traok:: 11, 1 e udlns tb. track and ove head. (Source ot
informs. 1 1l1, Eng:,neer1ng Dap rtme 'G, B- .T. Corp ratio .)

Be ad n 8.l'erege 20 year 1 fa sis etan erd praotice on


this prop~rty. !

STRUCfL'ORE, FOR ELIDTRIC BUSES


-- ~-

In st-, ion ot ... r10ue estimates 8val1 bl at the


~Jmrica, T sit A oelat10n, d ccord1ng to information received
fro 1111 W s't1nghou e El atr1c & 3.Dufectur1 Com aZl1, the average
invest nt p tno- y rou~e ,110 lies b8t.e~n $13,000 and $15,000
per 1 1 clud11~ n gat1va reeder return~

selects tor thea oa culat10ns is $15,000 per


'wo- 1
2.

DEPRIroIATION OF C,VERHEAD

Based on avera e 2 ~ear life.

The cart per vehicle for each ,ype 1s as follows:

p.e.c. Street ca 59 seats 16,500


El let 10 Bus 45 " 12,500
Ge B 6 45 12,500
" f!I
35 " 1 .150
" " 25 'I 7,800

Source or 1 formation, ~meriean Transit Ass elation.


Westinghouse Elect 10 & Man factur1ng Company, General El ctr1
C pany, and Bus Division ot the Brooklyn & Queens Transit Cor­
pora"1oD..

No Inv,at ants in shops and yards are used In these


8stimat 8 as it 8 onc1uded that theseWo d be approximately
qual in all cas,s.

DEPRIroIJI..TION OF CLES

2
S ··oe Cars 15 years 6~ per cent
El ct 1c Buses 10 " 10 " "
Ga 5 Bllsas 8 .. 12~ It
"
The 15 y r period for ,.treet cera 1s 1e s than usually
considered, but laS selected to allow for possible obsolescenoe.
3.

The 10 year and 8 year basis tor electric b ses and


g s bUS3S are th longest generally considered at pre8ent~ due
to greater wear char oteristics of vehicles operating ever the
inequalities of stre t pavame t, and duo to a relatively high
rate of obaol scence.

COST F INVESTM TS

The COft of investment haa been calculated on the


basia a 6 per c n on the verage in eatment, the average
investment being one=half ot thE! orig nal eoat.

S1x (6) per cent on investments is a high charge for


money at present.

OPERAT ~G COSTS

ft'ENAl~E OF WAY • STRUCTURE

STREET CARS

It has been agread, gene.ally, that the maintenance of


track and overhe d aes not follo a at 19h~ line relation w1 h
car ml es operat d. 'rhe exact re1n ion 1a n t known» but der
discu slol1 wi h hOBS tam1liar with track: matntensnce, it VI a
greed that this cost could be estimated partly on the number ot
car miles OpOXC.:i1:i d. a d part y on he basis t a per year charge
against the tree!: 11 s used by a line.

The ba is used 1n these lculations provides that


one=hal! of ~he nnu 1 cost ot this malntena~ce would be charged
on a track l1e basis, and the remainder on a car mile basis.

The amo t spent on the Brooklyn & Qu ens Transit Cor­


poration Syst 1!!. for rack maintenance during tb,3 fiscal year end­
ing .Tuly 1, 1 39, was $952,000, which is approximately the same
amount 6 was sp nt 1 each of the two previous years.
.2.5_~, 000 ~ $4~ 6 J 0

$476,000
- '1,111 x 2 = 2,222 per ouble track
428.55 Single Track mUe.

~~76 00
44,571, Car Hiles ~ 1.07 cents per car mile.

The trE,C miles chargeable to a 11ne~ as used in these


stlmates, 1s allot the track used 1 dlvldually by the I1ne plus
a ahare of tho tack mileage used jointly Ith other 11nes, dlvl ed
n a percentage of se baais.

'Khen p 1 r.r calculations indicated tnat certain Ines

hould be operated Ith free-wheel ~ehlclesp a recalc latlon as

ecess8,l'1' for other lin,eEl operated over this joint t k.

llAlNl'mANCE OF OVERHEAD
ELEPTR!C BU~

Th ma.nt nance of overhead tor e ectric bus s also 1s


divided on the basi t ne-halt the cost b 108 on the bus mlle
and one balt tb cost on the route mile.

The emu t spent 0 the Cortelyou Road line ot> the


Brooklyn & Q,ueeno 'l'ransi t Corporation during the past two (2) years,
as shown. 1 spec~.al accounting tor that line, was $2,937 f 1938
and "~, 219 tor ..93 •
This l;.ne is 2.9 mUes 1n length.

Using ~; e 1939 figure we find one-halt the cost per route


mile per year to be approx tely $555.00, and the remaining cost
d1v1 d on a bus mile basis ounts to .48 cents.

lnve on of t 1s cost in the" 11s1s of Electric


Bus Operatl B tor 1938" at the American Transit Association,
1ndlcat 8, tr R ber ot reprasentat ve 0 erat10ns G tl~t these
costs are approx: tely $532 00 per route mi e nd.53 cents per
5.

bus milo t including uper1ntendence.

The latter figures are used in these calculations.

MAINI'ENANCE OF EgUIP1II!Nr
STR,!E1' CARS.

The co~t of the street car maintenance on the Br oklyn


& Queens Transit Corporation System for the first 81x (6) man be of
the f1scal year eg1nnlng Ju 1, 1939, was as allows:

Superintend(nc~ ot Equipment = • 39,800 ~18 C op.m.


Re irs 01' h.saenger at Combination Cars 351,200 1.62 "
" " Service Cars 5,800 .03 "
" " L~ectrloal EqUipment at Cars 1'17,900 .82 "
" ,. ~bop Machinery- & Tools 11.900 .05 "
Shop Expena .s 53,400 .25 "
R irs 01' Other VehiCles 13,700 .0 "
1,0. EqUip e. t Expense 200

653,900 ~c.p. .
Do b11ng this amount gives 1,307,800 for a full year.

(Thls au t closely parallels the ama lD:ts apent 1n each 01'


the thr e precsd~. rs. )

1v1dlng his estimated annual exp nditure by the an usl


mileage ot 43,43w,O miles (6 month 11eaga x ) gaTe a pe 0 r mile
c st 01' 3.01 cen s.
6.

J4AIN'rENANCE OF JlR,UIPM1N!"
EI"ooTRIC BUSES

Electric bus operation on the Brao !yn & Queens Tran­

it Co~ oration System consists ot a single line. (Cortelyou

cad line). h1~ 1 small, and therefore difficult to eBtlmate.

The follo ing costs were obtai ed fram actual operation, fram paral­
lel 98tUn~tes on 8a buses. r street cars. d by verifications
th reports tr~l t e Amerioan Trans1t Association 1938 Repor on
Electric Bus Op l~tlon.

Superlntendonc at Equipment .18

Repair ot B se Including All Iabor & tertsl­


Repairs to Serv1ce Equipment & Other Vau1clos
1.4:3

.03 ..

Shop eh1nur1 Tools •05 "

Shop Ii', pen os .25 "

Tl- Ii Tub IS 2 2

!.:.§! c .p.m.

INr1!NANCE 0; EQ.U~
GAS BUSP3

Invest gatlon of the shop expenses in oonnection with


maintenana of b ses show certain costa of au erv1s1ng. on a per
mil baa!s, to bo considerably high r t 8~ tor street ear shop
XPense • Thl ~ probably due to a smaller number or vehicles 1n
the bUB fleet as co pared to the street oar fleet. he efore. adjust­
ments h va een os e r duel these to the str at car shop basis,
thereby reduc1 th estimated coat pe mil considerably balow re-
B ts of ~ctU81 )peration OD this Syst m.

The cow;; sed are as rollo 6:


45 aS8" 35 Pasa. 25 Pass.
Bus_a. BUB Bus
Superintendence f Equ pment .18 .18 .18 c.p. •
Repairs of P senger Buses InCluding
All tabo.. a d Material 3.42 3 13 2.84 "
Repairs to Se!."Vl e Equipment and
Other e 1e es .19 .19 .19 tI

Shop. 14 chine 1 D,(l. Tools .08 .08 .08 "


Shop Expenses .25 .25 .25 "
Tires and Tub '8 ...:.,72 ~ .49 "
4.84 ~ 4.03 c.p.mo
7.

Street car and gas bUB transportation superintendence


pe car and bus lle 1s based cost during the first six (6)
months of operation 0_ fiscal year beginning July 1 1939 9 eDd
verified by similar a co· tlng 0 or the prev10uB thre yearB.

Elsotr!c 6 perlntendence of tr Deportation esttmated


per mil on same basi as ga buses.

rowm
5THEEl' CARS

Cost of pow r 1s baaed on actual c arge for power over


the first six (6/ 04ths of 1aoa1 year beginn1ng July 1 9 1939.
and was chacke Egai.nat prec dina :Ioors.

}l:LEX:;TRlC B\JSES

Cost of operation is based on per us mile power oon­


sumptl0 88 metered. ult1pl1ed by the rete per K.W.H. on the
Syste •

Gaaol1 e.nd lubricants. Based on gas consumpt10n per


bUB mll S 8st1nated by Bus Equi lent D1v1s10n. aDd multiplied by
cost.

INJURIES TO PERSONS AND PROPERrY

Investigation of acoident reoord s verity showe that f


t e total cost or street cer accid nta, approximatel 70 er cent
1 tor ac~1dents which relate to t e number ot miles operated~ and
30 p r cent 1e r lated to the number 0 passengers carried. On
buse this relation is 55 per cent end 45 per c nt.

The dlstrlbu 10n ot c sts f r acciden"s haa bean made


as tollcl a:

str at Car-a

70%, Mileage Baais • 1.86 cents p r Car Mile.


30%, G 088 R enue Basis • 2023% of Gross Ravenua.

55%9 Mil age Basis = 1.18 cents per Car 11e.


45%, Groas R0venue Baais m ~.14~ at Gross Revenue.

These aoets re baaed on actU8l costs over past six (6)


mont s.

OPmATORS' WAGES

Operat ra' wages a a based on the actual present


schedule cost per mile tor the ind.vidual lines plus p rcentage
to var.lOllS pa~ r 11 charges due t vacations, sick leave. hollda
s cial aeour1ty and unemployment lnsu nca.

Annua costs for these details on the Brooklyn & Quoens


Transit Corporat10n Tstem, excluding buses, are as t l10ws:

c.·u (4) Holidays t 41,000


V. cations 163,700
.nim l1age 3
stck Leave 14.60

, 219.600
9.

Approxlmate annual pay roll tor Brooklyn & Queens Transit


CorporaUo Illotol'D'1e » based on f1rst six (6) months of the fiscal
year beg1 ning J\11 1, 1939, was $4,26 ,400.

i 219.6 Jl
$4,265,4 0 x 100 5.15;t
:;

Sta e Un mployment Tax &II 3. %


'at10n 1 .. oc la1 Securi ty " ~
" ~nemploym nt . '"
'"
I"
.3 %
Per Cf!lnt to be dded to Pay Roll Rate ~
9.45%

In~ stlga,1 n ot bus 00 ts indicate t at the same percentage


revail, •

G-ENERAL ACCOUNTS

It 1s en rally oonoluded that the general costa ot a


company are not pr erl]' chargeable to individual lines on a car
mile ba,a! • Therefore., e. general distribution of these costs on
a per cent ot g~ 88 revenue baais a chosen.

The pe entages used are those found . hrough using the


total g:oas r Va u s of both compa les with the sum of the general
costs tor bo h c~mp nies.

------
GENERAL TAX ACCQ'LlNl'

Taxes (Ittransit companies are on a percentage of gross


reven e basis. ax s were n t included in the final calculation
tor these lines S ot e tect1ve r City operation.
10.
f DAylQ! FIGURES FOR ROUE COST ANALYlf]

~J~S.4 45 PAS ';':::;'..:.,Q:~ 1:5 PA$~ Z5 PAS .~


P
STREET ELEC'TRI C ASO IHE GASOLIN GASOLI E
fiXED I _ CARL BUSE BUSES BUSE BUSES
$95,000 $15.

~T PER

OF' Nt tUAL TOTAL CE.C &20'11 ~531


3.0t~ 2..601 04 84¢ 40431 ~0031i!
Z.92t 25s,' 2.55, 2 .. 2055;­
091# 3 SOl 2. 2..23" '.fi6jt
a«»~ ...!.::JY ...hJ!" ...!.:J! ..LtlY
OPERATt '0.,'12; ".411 10039 9. ,.

2PEBATORS' JAGg§. (SCtEIlULl::O c.. P..... i URE D)


PLU. 9o....'POF SCHEOULE C.P" ..
FOR or R PAYA L EXP I TURE8

M1'S.OF I. s. (~ O'F L TOTAL. TCEo e T)


* 11
222 ~532

UAb .'!Q.l!!,E_REV UE

­
1~'I .

.~ ..02; ..~ . .
~ 5o~ 50 5 .. 5048'"
a (30% ~L, ~ ~ ~ ~

"
TV CA USES)

TO TAL .. q . . 7.. 7~ 8.~ 8.~ 6.64. 6

R I.; .TP.X ACCTS. BASED

.TAT F E T X AP I TAL STOCK .Otijt .Ol~ .01 .01'1£


TAX I)r~ L .~ .20.' .2 . .~

TAX OM I \l2 Ifr •0' ..~ o04S' o~ • ~


TAXOMCDPlIlO VI Til!. I" I ... I .. ~ 1" I.~

IlY PER6 ..~ o~ o~ o04f,# 004-'

e TY CAR LI . "fiE TAX .U"


-0 TI TA .~ .3 ..33;$ . ~ .,3

TATE FRANCHI ,ms ., .~ ( . ~ o~

SPEC I L CITY S E MING8 20 2o~ 5 .. ~ eo: 0 50 ,

.. 2 ..~
SATE PU liC UTILITV TAX 2 .. 00]S 2. 2 .. 20001G

en" TAX :::A IN I" ~

TOT A L • • .. .. 7,,7 7.63.' 9o~ . 90 II

EST I R EHI $16.500 $12,500 !2,,5OO $10,150 7.800

EST' ATEO L'TE 8 8 e

~~ - • TAX ACCO riNG I AS ELIMINATE FRmA l'lfESE CALCULATIONS.


11.
/
WORK. t'lHEBr
ROUTE COSTS ---ANALYSES
.- ~

r------t----t--.---.,.----I"-----­
59 Pass. 45 Pass. ~5 Pass. 35 Pass. p5 Pass.:.
P.C.C.

srR1!.'EI' EL:Er.TRIC GASOLINE GASOLINE GA.30LINE

ROU1'E
Total In-as. 1n T;Ck. &.
Ovol"hd.­ -- CARS BUSES
--
BUSES BUSES BUSES
----
trov.bleTrack)
~--:----~~~:"'::"'::;';:':'::-":;"::':"':::'::~---II----+-_._--+---+----+--__ --J
I
Total Invee. In Veb1clas
Hax. No. or' Vab. R-q-u-l::-r-e--::d~(-=P-:-lu-s--:l:-::O:-::l%·
Spares)

,..-t-----t­
:
I
Annual RotLte Rev.(1939 Plus % Inc,)

~u-a-l-V'e·~b:-.-..14;;-;:1-::1-e-s-O:::-p-e-!"-H-:-·t-a-,;'d-·rtl:-:9::-::3;-;:9~J--+-·_---+-----+-----+-----+-
Route 1.411__8 Char~e ble +.0 Line

OPERATING COST ]sl'. ONcosT


, Ol~ OPERATION _
PEl~ MltE~:::
_ ~=~=7=tJ~'F=1=O~
'::1 1
11.41~ 7~.
=;===4
o.m~.
9:~
Oper~co8ts lx Veb. llas....Q1?era tedl [ ....----j1r---.....,--'---- .
OPEAATORS 9 ;''{AGES (Cost per :l.1lle-n
!
I
Plus 9 .45% {X Ve h1El 1Illes 02 er • l.l-.---+-----+----+-.---t-------f
Mntce. Cost Chargeable per Double Trek.
H 18 for Track & Overhd. (St. Gar $2222)
(J!~leoBus $532)
ruCOOE PLATE TAX oCl $10 per BUS
Gm.Ac(fr§~=ON ~ O.F=ANNyAL H.·-.OU~T~E~:n::-:.'E:Y':::. :-".+ - - - - t - - - - - ; - - - - ; ­
(~ of Rte. Rev:T ?,?3JJ 6.64'" 8>64~ 8,,64" R 1'.oS:t.
1::.......;:;Gen~~==A=cC=..t;;:~6=o==(X"'="~==O,;.,f=R=0==ut=e=R=e=v=.=) ==:::::~:~~:~--=-=::~=l£=:r~~....;=:II.!=a=~=F~---=-:::=::;::.=~=::::-t

Annual ost Excl. Depreciation. I


lntr, ~ Gen. Taxes

GENERAL TAX ACCTS. ON PER CENT OJ"

ROUTE RI:, rENU f" ? ( ?4%


I ? 6:3'p 9,58%
General Taxes (X %of Route rev,)
Annual Costs Excldg. D prec1at1on
t,. Interest
I-------··-·--~---...;;;~~.:::;..:..;:::.:;.;:c--+_---.-+_--.-t_.--__;I_--
-~-.-_t

A AL OP.;RA'I'ING C STS EXCLOO.


DEPRJr,;:ATION &. INTEREST
=-~;;;;;.;:.;..;.;:..=;"-'--'=-~...;;;..;.;;.;~~=------:--~--_.-.-_ .. - ---+-.--+----+----__l
DeDrec1at1on on Fixed Invest. ~ 5~
lnt on Flxad Iz:.ve.,t· ': ~ on Avr .
11~e8tment
Denreclation on Veh1cles
~=:.=.::=..=... ::.=--==--,,~=~=---------I-----+----+-.
~. on. Voh. @~.:n A7rg.lnvest, =J~_-.-+- .. __ - - - I

GR.AN:J TarAL '0 ••

REJ4\RKS .
NO~!:.. * All" 6xr.:ept license plate taxes w re
oliminated rrom lIne calculat1ons.