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Industrial UPS

Application Seminar
October 2008
Matthias Dreier
Technology Manager

1
Agenda
Date Date
09:00 10:30 10:50 12:30

Introduction Power Distribution Schemes


DC / AC UPS Topology, Ratings Load Types
DC System Configurations Inverter Sizing
AC System Configurations Batteries:
UPS Main Components - Technology / Application
Constructional Details - Sizing Considerations
Rectifier Technology - Battery Testing / Monitoring
Harmonics Considerations Man Machine Interface
Generator Sizing System Operation
Inverter Technology / Performance Communication Facilities / Networking
Features and Benefits
Standards / Conformity

10:30 10:50 12:30 13:00


Coffee Break Discussion / Q&A

2
UPS in the Mid-Point Between
Utility & Critical Load
Alternating Voltage or
Power Station Utility Network UPS Direct Voltage (Current)

Critical Load

- Computers
High Mains - Control Systems
Alternating Voltage Quality - Safety Systems

Local Emergency Local Power Non-Critical


Diesel Generator Distribution Load

- Motors
Poor Mains Quality
- Heaters
- General Lighting

3
Industrial versus Commercial UPS
Industrial Engineering Documentation Service
(Process & Power) Customized solutions Customized layout Comprehensive
Flexible specifications Approval procedure 20 years life
FAT / Type Testing Project related Spare parts
Many options Upgrade packages
Upgradeable
Harsh environment

Commercial Standard solutions Standard Limited


(IT) Fixed specifications Limited 10 years life
Limited testing Limited spare parts
Limited options
No engineering
Office environment
No options

4
Industrial versus Commercial UPS
Industrial
Electrical Design
(Process & Power)
Full Inverter output performance over wide load power factor range
Galvanic isolation between Input, DC branch and output
Different DC levels (battery voltage) available
Individually scalable modules (rectifier, inverter, bypass)
Mechanical Design
Segregated disconnect- and incomer panel
Front access for major components
Commercial Electrical Design
(IT) Full Inverter output performance limited to certain load power factor
No- or only limited galvanic isolation
DC level typically 400 VDC center tap or 2 x 400 VDC
Given module sizes
Mechanical Design
Integrated disconnect- and incomer section
Limited front access to major components

5
Typical Mains Disturbances
3% of failures are related to direct power failures.
The rest is mainly due to fluctuations.

TRANSIENT MOMENTARY
VOLTAGE SAG INTERRUPTION
SURGE

NOISE SWELL LONG-TERM


INTERRUPTION

NOTCHES UNDER- FREQUENCY


VOLTAGE VARIATION

VOLTAGE OVER-
DISTORTION VOLTAGE

6
DC UPS Systems

Mains DC Voltage
Consumers / Load
3 Phase AC Input

RECTIFIER
AC / DC Converter

3 Phase Input BATTERY


Voltage 3x200... 3x690 VAC Energy Storage
Frequency 50 or 60 Hz 5 Standard DC
6-pulse thyristor-controlled Rectifier Voltages:
Option: 12 pulse thyr.-contr. Rectifier 24, 48, 110, 125 or
Option: oversized for higher charging 220 VDC
current Lead Acid Type
Float- / Boost- and Initial charge Nickel Cadmium Type

Online System
7
System Ratings

DC UPS Systems
Battery Voltage
(VDC) 24 48 110 125 220

Output Current 200 100 50 50 25


(A)
- - - - -
1200 1200 1200 1200 1200

6 pulse configuration up to 1000 ADC

12 pulse configuration for ratings up


to 1000A is optional

Higher ratings and other voltages available on request.


8
Traditional AC UPS Systems

Mains DC Voltage AC Voltage


AC Input
Consumers / Load
3 phase

RECTIFIER INVERTER
AC / DC Converter DC / AC Converter

3 Phase Input
BATTERY
Energy Storage
Voltage: 3x200... 3x690 VAC
Frequency: 50 or 60 Hz
6-pulse thyristor-controlled Rectifier 4 Standard
DC Voltages: 1- or 3-Phase Output
Option: 12 pulse thyr.-contr. Rectifier 110, 125, 220 or 400 IGBT-PWM controlled Inverter
Option: oversized for higher charging VDC Short-circuit proof
current or DC-load Lead Acid Type Option: oversized Inverter Module to
Float- and Boost charge Nickel Cadmium Type interrupt bigger fuses

Online Double Conversion System


9
Inverter Systems

DC Voltage AC Voltage
DC Bus
Consumers / Load

INVERTER
DC / AC Converter

BATTERY
Energy Storage

1- or 3-Phase Output IGBT-PWM


controlled Inverter
Short-circuit proof Inverter
4 Standard DC Voltages:
110, 125, 220 or 400 Opt.: oversized for Inverter
VDC module to interrupt bigger fuses

Online System
10
System Ratings
Traditional AC UPS Systems (XXW)
Inverters (WXW)
Battery 110 125 220 400
Voltage (VDC)
UPS Rating 5 5 5 120
(kVA)
- - - -
Single Phase
PEW 40 40 100 200

UPS Rating 10 10 10 120


(kVA) - - - -
Three Phase
PDW 80 80 160 220

6 pulse rectifier configuration


for all ratings

12 pulse rectifier
configuration is optional

Higher ratings and other voltages available on request


11
PFC AC UPS Systems

Mains DC Voltage AC Voltage


AC Input
Consumers / Load
3 phase

RECTIFIER INVERTER
AC / DC Converter DC / AC Converter

3 Phase Input
BATTERY
Energy Storage
Voltage: 3x190... 3x690 VAC
Frequency: 41 - 70 Hz
PFC Rectifier (Power Factor Correction)
DC Voltage: 1- or 3-Phase Output
MOSFET Technology 400 VDC IGBT-PWM controlled Inverter
Input PF > 0.96 / THDi < 5% Range: 335 540 VDC Short-circuit proof
Float- / Boost- / Initial charge Lead Acid Type Transformerless-Design possible
Low battery ripple current Nickel Cadmium Type

Online Double Conversion System


12
System Ratings
PFC AC UPS Systems (PXP)
Battery 400
Voltage (VDC)
UPS Rating 5
(kVA)
-
Single Phase
PXP 1000 160

UPS Rating 5
(kVA) -
Three Phase
PXP 3000 160

Transformerless PFC rectifier


design for all ratings

Fully integrated isolation


transformers are optional

13
DC Single Unit Configuration

Rectifier Normal Operation


Battery Operation
Rectifier Input

Secured Load Bus


Battery

14
DC Redundant System Configuration

Rectifier Module B
50 %
Rectifier Input
Module B

Secured Load Bus


Rectifier Module A
50 %
Rectifier Input
Module A

15
DC UPS Systems Redundant
Common Battery

Q001 T001 Q003

Distribution

RECTIFIER 1 Load
AC / DC Converter
Active communication between RECT 1
and RECT 2 with active load sharing

Q001 T001 Q003


Battery voltage is always
same as distribution voltage

Controlling of battery charge-


RECTIFIER 2 or discharge current is possible
AC / DC Converter
Load sharing of +/- 5%
with output voltage control

16
DC UPS Systems Redundant
Individual Battery

Q001 T001
Q003

RECTIFIER 1 Distribution
AC / DC Converter
Active communication between RECT 1 Load
and RECT 2 with active load sharing Battery 1

Q001 T001
Q003

Controlling of battery charge-


RECTIFIER 2 or discharge current is possible
AC / DC Converter
Output voltage is always controlled
Battery 2 = battery voltage - 0.7V for diode

17
DC UPS Systems Redundant
Battery Charging

Q001 T001 Boost charge battery 1 Q003

Q003 open

RECTIFIER 1 Distribution
AC / DC Converter
Active communication between RECT 1 Load
and RECT 2 Battery 1

Q001 T001
Q003

Q003 closed

RECTIFIER 2
AC / DC Converter

Battery 2
Float charge battery 2
18
DC UPS Systems Voltage Window

Q001 T001 Q003

Distribution
5V 17V

Voltage Window:
RECTIFIER Load
AC / DC Converter 195-230V

Selected battery: OPzS


BATTERY
Energy Storage 105 Cells
220 VDC Umin = 195V/105C = 1.86V/C

Lead Acid Type Ufloat = 105C x 2.23V/C = 234.15V


>15 Year Life time
Load 200A Uboost = 105C x 2.4V/C = 252.0V
Backup time 2h
Recharge time <10h
19
DC UPS Systems Float Charge Mode

Q001 T001 Q003

Distribution
5V 17V

Voltage Window:
RECTIFIER Load
AC / DC Converter 195-230V

Selected battery: OPzS


BATTERY
Energy Storage 105 Cells
220 VDC
Lead Acid Type Ufloat = 105C x 2.23V/C = 234.15V
>15 Year Life time
Load 200A
Backup time 2h
Recharge time <10h
20
DC UPS Systems Boost Charge Mode

Q001 T001 Q003

Distribution
5V 17V

Voltage Window:
RECTIFIER Load
AC / DC Converter 195-230V

Selected battery: OPzS


BATTERY
Energy Storage 105 Cells
220 VDC
Lead Acid Type
>15 Year Life time
Load 200A Uboost = 105C x 2.4V/C = 252.0V
Backup time 2h
Recharge time <10h
21
DC UPS Battery Operation Mode

Q001 T001 Q003

Distribution
5V 17V

Voltage Window:
RECTIFIER Load
AC / DC Converter 195-230V

Selected battery: OPzS


BATTERY
Energy Storage 105 Cells
220 VDC Umin = 195V/105C=1.86V/C

Lead Acid Type


>15 Year Life time
Load 200A
Backup time 2h
Recharge time <10h
22
DC UPS Systems Redundant
Load Voltage control
Q001 T001
Q003

RECTIFIER 1 Distribution
AC / DC Converter
Load
Battery 1

Q001 T001
Q003

The output voltage can be different


RECTIFIER 2
AC / DC Converter because of the diodes voltage drop
tolerances.
Battery 2 Therefore load sharing at this point
is not really possible.

23
DC UPS Systems Redundant
Load Voltage control
Q001 T001 Q003
Distribution

Load

RECTIFIER 1
AC / DC Converter
Battery 1

Q001 T001 Q003 This is the preferred solution

RECTIFIER 2
AC / DC Converter

Battery 2

24
AC Single Unit Configuration

Bypass Input
Manual Bypass Switch

Rectifier Inverter Bypass Operation


Normal Operation
Battery Operation
Rectifier Input
Secured Load Bus
Battery

Double Conversion UPS System with PWM Inverter

25
AC Redundant System Configuration

Bypass Input

UPS Module B

50 %
Rectifier Input Secured Load Bus
Module B

UPS Module A
50 %
Rectifier Input
Module A

26
Features & Benefits
Parallel / Redundant System
Features Benefits
No master/slave system All systems can work as masters. Possible to
switch individual units OFF for service.
Bus system for communication Two control links between each unit
Priority control The system will stay in the highest possible
operational mode. The system will save battery
capacity as long as enough energy can be taken
from the mains.
Active load sharing Each unit takes the same percentage of the
actual load
Up to four units can be switched in parallel For redundancy or power increase
Masterlogic for parallel coordination Disabling of parallel communication if one unit is
disconnected / coupling switch open

Independent batteries for each unit Avoids the danger of a single battery acting as a
common failure point

27
AC Full Dual System Configuration

Bypass Input
Module B
UPS Module B

Rectifier Input Secured Load Bus B


Module B

Bypass Input
Module A
UPS Module A

Rectifier Input Secured Load Bus A


Module A

28
DC System with Stand-alone Inverter

AC Secured Load Bus


Bypass Input
Manual Bypass Switch
Rectifier Module
Rectifier Input

DC Secured
Inverter Module

Load Bus
Inverter

Static Switch
Battery

DC Loads

29
DC Detailed Single Line Wiring
Diagram
Q004
Rectifier X002
B+, B-

A030
T001 L001 Q003
X001 Q001 F026 V015 X004

Mains Load
L1, L2, L3 L+, L-
PE

U I IDC + UDC IBatt


CB02
A003 A002
RFI /
Rectifier A004 A005

Isolation
Fuse Fuse Fuse
Fuse

Transformer
E001...
Fan
Control
A050... Speed monitored heavy duty fans

PSU AC
A071 INTERFACE / PSU PSU DC

Redundant internal Power Supplies


A070 CCU (Charger Control unit)
A025 A077 A073
EXTERNAL RELAY FRONT PANEL = Option
CONNECTION BOARD BOARD LCD
OPERATING
OPERATION STATUS LED ALARM
DISPLAY
INDICATION

30
Traditional UPS Detailed Single Line
Bypass
Wiring Diagram
Isolation Battery Choke
Inverter
Transformer

Static
Switch

Rectifier
Isolation Rectifier Inverter
Transformer Isolation
Transformer

31
Traditional UPS detailed Single Line
Wiring Diagram
Segregated Bypass Panel

Manual 3 Position Bypass Switch

Redundant internal Power Supplies

Speed monitored heavy duty fans

32
Constructional Details

Control electronics on hinged panel

Direct access to all power modules

Individual component identification

Fan replacement with system on

Halogen free wiring and components

Fully segregated manual bypass section

Segregated incomer section

33
PFC UPS Detailed Single Line Wiring
Diagram
Option:
Bypass
Isolation
Transformer

Option:
Input Static
Isolation Switch
Transformer
Option:
Inverter
Isolation
Transformer

PFC
Rectifier &
PWM
Inverter
Modules
34
PFC UPS Constructional Details
Modular, pluggable 20kVA power modules

Pluggable controller box

Individual component identification

Fan replacement with system on

Halogen free wiring and components

Fully segregated manual bypass section

Segregated incomer section

Small footprint

35
Rectifier 6-Pulse Configuration

+
o
0 30o
DC-Load/Inverter
+
Mains

Mains current
distortion ~28% -

Characteristics:
Input isolation transformer with 30 phase shift
Full wave 6-pulse thyristor bridge
LC smoothing filter
uP driven control loop
36
Rectifier 6-Pulse Harmonics
Order of Harm. Current
Harmonics % of total load 6-pulse Thyristor Controlled
1 100
3 0
5 20 30
7 13.5
9 0 25
11 7.7 % of full load
13 6.2 20
17 4.5
19 3.9 15
23 3
25 2.7 10
29 2.2
31 2 5
35 1.6
37 1.4 0
41 1.2

THD
3
5
7
9
11
13
17
19
23
25
29
31
35
37
41
43
47
49
43 1.1
47 1
49 0.9 Harmonics
THD 27.4

37
Rectifier 6-Pulse Harmonics

Voltage L1 to L2

Current L1

Current L2

Current L3

Mains current THD distortion ~28%

Check Generator rating:

approx. 3 x Rectifier rating

38
Rectifier 6-Pulse
Diesel Generator Sizing
Load factor vs distortion for 6-pulse loads

18
40%
16
%
n 35%
14 tio
V o lta g e d isto rtio n %

tor
is
12 n td 30%
r re
10 Cu 25%

8 20%
6
5%
4
2
0
0 +/- 30% 50 100
Generator load % 39
Rectifier 12-Pulse Configuration
+

+ DC-Load

o Inverter
0
o
0
-
Mains
o
30
Mains current
distortion ~12% +

Characteristics:
Input isolation transformer with 0 and 30 phase shift
2 x full wave 6-pulse thyristor bridges coupled with 30 phase shift
LC smoothing filter
uP driven control loop with active load sharing 40
Rectifier 12-Pulse Harmonics
Order of Harm. Current
Harmonics % of total load 12-pulse Thyristor Controlled
1 100
3 0
5 3 14
7 2
9 0 12
11 7,7 % of total current
13 6,2
10
17 0,3 8
19 0,2
23 3 6
25 2,7
29 0,1 4
31 0,1
2
35 1,6
37 1,4 0
41 0
3
5
7
9
11
13
17
19
23
25
29
31
35
37
41
43
47
49
THD
43 0
47 1
49 0,9 Harmonics
THD 11,6

41
Rectifier 12-Pulse Harmonics

Voltage L1 to L2

Current L1

Current L2

Current L3

Mains current THD distortion ~12%

Check Generator rating:

1,5 - 2,0 x Rectifier rating

Preferred Solution for harmonic current reduction


42
Rectifier 12-Pulse
Diesel Generator Sizing
Load factor vs distortion for 12-pulse loads
16
25%

14

%
20%

n
12

tio
Voltage distortion %

or
ist
td
10 15%

n
rre
8 Cu
10%
6
5%
4

0
0 50 +/- 70% 100
Generator load %
43
How can the Harmonic Current
be reduced ?

6-Pulse to 12-Pulse Rectifier

from 28% down to 10 -12%

additional filter for the 11th


and 13th harmonics
(12-pulse rectifier) Down to ~5%

additional active harmonic


filters or
Down below 5 %
Power Factor Corrected
Rectifiers (PFC) with IGBT Transistors
44
PWM IGBT Inverter
+

DC Input from
Rectifier
and/or Battery
+ Output

-
Characteristics:
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) with >2kHz carrier frequency
IGBT Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor switching-bridges
Linear inverter isolation transformer with connected sine wave filter
Fast control loop and digital monitoring
45
Inverter Performance

Inverter Loadprofile

120
100
80
kVA [%]

60 kVA [%]
40 Full rating
20
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
lagging leading
Powerfactor (cos )

46
Inverter Performance

Inverter I/U Diagram


with short circuit

120
Outputvoltage [%]

100
80
Inverter

60 Constant
U [%]
40 Current
20
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
Inverter Output Current [%]

47
Inverter Performance

3ph. Inverter I/U Diagram


with single phase short circuit

120
Outputvoltage [%]

100
80
Inverter

60 U [%]
40
20
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
Inverter Outputcurrent [%]

48
PFC UPS Topology

Characteristics:
20kVA Power Modules for Rectifier- and Inverter Part
Battery Charger with very low voltage ripple

49
PFC UPS Topology

Normal Operation

PFC Rectifier BatCharger Step-up Inverter

Battery Operation
1 x 400VDC

Characteristics:
Power Factor Correction (PFC) rectifier with THDi < 5% and PF > 0.96
High efficiency with transformerless topology
Full Digital Signal Processing (DSP)
50
Upstream Supply Set-up

Source 1 Source 2

Tie-up
Bus 1 Bus 2

UPS Rectifier Input UPS Bypass Input

UPS

51
Downstream Distribution Set-up

UPS 1 UPS 2

Tie-up

Safe Bus 1 Safe Bus 2

Single Input Load Single Input Load

Dual Input Load

52
UPS Load Types

Linear Loads
- Sinusoidal input current / no harmonics feed-back
- Traditional loads and power factor corrected (PFC) SMPS loads
- Single- or dual inputs

PFC

AC Input 1
PFC Linear Load with dual inputs
AC Input 2

53
UPS Load Types

Non-linear Loads
- Distorted input current with high crest factor
- Non power factor corrected SMPS loads
- Single- or dual inputs

Current Crest Factor


Peak value
Switched
x3 - 5
+
HF Converter
Mode
Peak value
AC Input
Power RMS value
x1,41
Supply
90

54
UPS Load Types - Sizing

Power Factor:
The power factor PF is the ratio
between the active power P and the PF = P (W) / S (VA)
apparent power S

cosine :
The cosine is the displacement factor
between the line voltage and the current.

The PF and the cosine are only equal with a pure Sine wave
55
UPS Load Types - Calculation
Specification:
Input voltage = 230 VAC
Input current = 3,8 A
Output power = 400 W PWM
Efficiency = 0,77
Crest factor = 3.5
Inrush current = 24 A

Calculation:
Apparent input power: S = 230V x 3,8A = 874 VA
Real input power: P = 400W / 0,77 = 520 W
Power Factor: PF = P / S = 520W / 874VA = 0,6
Peak input current = 3,8A x 3,5 = 13,3 A

56
UPS Load Types - Calculation

Input voltage = 230Vac RMS

Peak value = 5,4 A RMS

Input current = 3,8 A RMS

90 270

Displacement 0,6

This is not the right approach !


57
UPS Load Types - Calculation

Input voltage = 230 Vac RMS

Input current = 13,3 A PEAK

Input current = 3,8 A RMS

90 270

Displacement = 0
cosphi = 1

This is the reality !


58
UPS Calculation De-rating
Available UPS output Power in relation to load cosine

Typical UPS inverters are rated for load cosine = 0.8


59
Single versus Three Phase Inverters
Single Phase Three Phase

Typical Applications Single phase loads Three-and single phase loads

Advantages Higher short circuit current Total power shared by 3 phases


Commercial, for ratings up to 30kVA Commercial, rating above 40 kVA
Same cross section, Phase and
Neutral Conductors
Better availability through less components
No consideration concerning balancing the
load on three phases required

Disadvantages Big conductor sizes Balancing of single phase loads


on all three phases
Increased Neutral current in
connection with single phase
SMPS Loads

Short circuit capabilities Example: Example:


30kVA / 230VAC 30kVA / 3x400/230VAC
Nominal current 130 AAC 3x44 AAC
Single Ph-N short circuit current.. 260 AAC 152 AAC
Three Ph short circuit current.. 3x88 AAC

60
Batteries

Sealed Lead Acid Batteries Vented Lead Acid Batteries

l Medium Lifetime l Long Lifetime


l No topping up l Topping up required
l Low Maintenance l Low / Normal Maintenance
Electrolyte (filled in liquid) for Lead Acid Batteries is Sulphuric Acid (caustic)
Each cell has a nominal voltage of 2,0 VDC
Cells must be connected in Series to achieve the required DC Level

61
Batteries

Vented Nickel Cadmium (Ni-Cd) Batteries


l Long Lifetime
l High Performance
l Low / Normal Maintenance
The storage space is specified by the Specific
Capacity

Example: Capacity = 1000 Ah (Ampre Hours)


The battery can supply 100Amp. for 10 Hours

The alkaline Electrolyte for Ni-Cd Batteries is a solution of Potassium Hydroxide


(KOH) and Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH) and is highly caustic
Each cell has a nominal voltage of 1,2 VDC
Cells must be connected in Series to achieve the required DC Level

62
Batteries
Battery Installation

1 2 108

+ - + - + -
String 1

+ - + - + -
String 2

2 x 108cells x 2.0 V/cell = 216 VDC

Capacity: 2 Strings x 1000Ah = 2000Ah

Installation on Racks or in Battery Cubicles

63
DC-Voltage Range
& applicable number of cells
UPS Voltage Range Battery Type
for standard Ni-CD Lead-Acid Sealed
Battery applications
Nominal with AC output
Voltage (VDC) voltage in max.V/c max. V/c max. V/c
tolerance +/-1% 1.6 2.4 2.33
(minimum values)

Possible numbers of cells

110 (120) 93..145 86..90 54..60 54..62


220 187..280 170..176 108..120 108..124
400 316..495 288..300 180..204 180..210

The voltage is limited on the downside due to end-discharge voltage:


1.1V/c for Ni-Cd & 1.75V/c for Lead Acid.
The voltage is limited on the upside due to max. voltage range & boost charging:
1.6V/c (1.7V/c) for Ni-Cd & 2.4V/c for Lead-Acid.
64
Battery Design Life

Battery design life is based on positive grid corrosion when floating


at the recommended float voltage at a constant 20C

The rate of corrosion is affected by operating temperature, hence


there can be a substantial difference between design life and
operating life

Temperature problems are usually associated with VRLA


batteries which are often used in harsh environments or cabinets

65
Batteries
Temperature Compensation

Valve Regulated Lead Acid Batteries


(sealed) are very sensitive to temperature

Temperature compensated
charging helps to minimise the
negative impact of elevated
temperatures

66
Capacity of Lead-Acid / NiCd-Batteries
in relationship to the temperature

NiCd-Batteries do have a higher


capacity at lower temperatures in
comparison to Lead-Acid batteries

At higher temperatures, the capacity


of NiCd-Batteries will decrease, and
will also be lower than compared to
Lead-Acid batteries

67
Batteries Key factors
The nominal capacity is defined as follows:

For lead acid batteries = At 10 hours discharge time, a discharge end voltage of 1.80V/cell and at 20C
For NiCd batteries = At 5 hours discharge time, a discharge end voltage of 1.00V/cell and at 20C

The battery capacity cannot be recalculated linear over the respective discharging time.
If the discharging time is lower, then the capacity to be drawn from a battery is also lower.
If the discharge end voltage is lower, then the capacity to be drawn from a battery is higher.
Higher temperatures on lead acid batteries will result in higher capacities to be available from the
battery, but will significantly reduce their lifetime.

The available capacity and the aging of a lead acid battery are mainly influenced by the battery temperature.
Generally, the lifetime reduces by 50% if the battery temperature of sealed lead acid batteries increases by 10C
(taken from the reference temperature of 20C).

For lead acid batteries, the tested capacity must be at least 95% of the nominal capacity for the 1st cycle test and
must be 100% after a maximum number of 5 cycle tests.

For NiCd batteries, the tested capacity must be 95% of the nominal capacity after the 5th cycle test.
The factory test procedures are given in the applicable standards IEC60896 for lead acid batteries, and IEC60623
for NiCd batteries.

68
Batteries Standards

Lead acid batteries are also specified in BS 6290


BS 6290 Part 2 : GroE batteries (Plante)
BS 6290 Part 3 : Batteries with pos. and negative grid plates (grid, pasted plate)
BS 6290 Part 4: Valve regulated batteries (sealed, VRLA)
Tests for vented lead acid batteries are specified in IEC 60896 part 1
Tests for valve regulated lead acid batteries are specified in IEC 60896 part 2

Sizing of batteries according to:


IEEE 1115 for Nickel Cadmium batteries
IEEE 485 for Lead Acid batteries

Safety requirements for battery rooms acc. to VDE 0510 part 2 or EN 50272-2

69
Battery Configurations
Common Batteries

Mains +
Load

Short-circuit in the DC-


circuit in one unit has an
influence in the DC-circuit
of the second unit

Mains Load
+

Short-circuit

70
Battery Configurations
Individual Batteries

Mains +
Load

Short-circuit in the DC-


circuit in one unit has no
influence in the DC-circuit
of the second unit

Mains Load
+

Short-circuit

71
Built in Battery Capacity Test
Features:
UBAT Full discharge cycle
Rectifier is kept on stand-by for safety
Boost Charge Voltage Level
Automatic recharge (float- or boost charge)

Float Charge Voltage Level

Nominal Battery Voltage Level

Discharge End Voltage Level

Time
Recharge Time on Boost
Battery Backup Time
Recharge Time on Float Charge

72
Built in Battery Monitoring and
Testing Advanced Battery Monitor
UBAT
= Expected discharge curves
Features:
Monitored discharge with reference data
VBAT at 25% of Displaying actual backup time
expected Battery back-
Ex. 2 Ex. 1 up time
Automated periodical partial battery test
VBAT at 50% of expected
Battery back-up time

VBAT at 75% of expected


Battery back-up time

At 10% load
At 10% load

Expected battery
Load = 100% 90% 75% 50% 10% back-up time

Example 1.: Battery weak: VBAT falls below VBAT 25% time before 25% of the time is reached
Example 2.: Battery defective: VBAT falls below VBAT 50% time before 25% of the time is reached
73
Single Cell Battery Management
System GBMS
Features:
Single Cell Voltage / Resistance Monitoring and Recording
WEB Based Front End for remote monitoring
Single Cell Equalize Charging
Monitored Discharge Testing

74
Features & Benefits Rectifier

FEATURES BENEFITS

Rectifier with adjustable battery Any type of lead-acid, lead-calcium &


current limitation. Different voltage nickel-cadmium battery can be used
levels over a wide range
Manual or automatic boost charge Faster battery recharge
Equalise charging

Temperature-compensated charge Battery lifetime optimisation


voltage regulation

Additional battery choke for single Reduction of the AC ripple-current


phase systems or dedicated charger into the battery

75
Traditional Man Machine Interface
OPERATING STATUS
INDICATION OPERATION DISPLAY UNIT

normal operation
ON ON
OFF OFF GUTOR load power 50%

7 8 9
ON
OFF
SYSTEM MAINS
VOLTAGE
BATTERY
VOLTAGE
OUTPUT
VOLTAGE
ON
4 5 6
MAINS BATTERY OUTPUT
CURRENT CURRENT CURRENT
OFF
1 2 3
INVERTER OUTPUT
EA EN CURRENT FREQ.
LAMP
ON
TEST 0
OFF

RECT. MAINS FAULT BATTERY OPERATION INVERTER FAULT BYPASS MAINS FAULT OVERTEMPERATURE OPTION

RECT. FAILURE BATTERY DISCHARGED OVERLOAD INV/BYPASS MANUAL BYPASS ON FAN FAILURE OPTION

DC OUT OF TOLERANCE BATTERY DISCONNECTED INVERTER FUSE BLOWN EN INHIBITED POWER SUPPLY FAULT OPTION

OPTION OPTION ASYNCHRONOUS EA INHIBITED OPTION OPTION

ALARM INDICATION

76
Operator Access

"OPERATIONAL" SECTION

1 2 0 0
INVERTER
CURRENT

PASS-WORD
protected "ALARM" "LOG-ALARM
"OPERATIONAL SECTION SECTION
PARAMETER"
SECTION List of present Event Logger
"CALIBRATION "GENES
SECTION SECTION alarms with
User menu
Time Stamps
Factory settings Settings

77
PFC UPS Man Machine Interface
Normal operation
No r ma l O p er at i on ESC
Battery operation F lo a t c ha rg e
L o ad 8 0 % C hr g 90 % ?
Bypass operation
4 1 0V i n 4 01 V ou t 5 0H z
Common Alarm

ON OFF

Rectifier Inverter
Mains
Output
Input
Q001 T001 T101 T301 T401 K402 Q611

SBS
Q601
Q401

Float charge

Battery Boost charge


Initial charge Q201

Q691

Bypass
Input
Q501 T501 Q502

Mains out of tolerance Battery discharged Rectifier fault

Bypass out of tolerance Battery not connected Inverter fault

Output overloaded Battery earth fault Static bypass switch fault

Inverter asynchronous Option 2 Fan failure

Option 1 Option 3 Overtemperature

78
PFC UPS Operator Access
"OPERATIONAL" SECTION SERVICE-PORT" SECTION

79
Networking / Remote Monitoring

Web/SNMP Management Card

UPS System

Ethernet, TCP/IP Network (10/100M, RJ45)

Browser
Network Client
with WEB Browser
80
UPS - Communication Facilities

Port / Protocol Application


RS232 with UPS Specific Protocol Local monitoring / Stack download
RS485 with UPS Specific Protocol DCS integration with special interpreter
RS485 with Modbus Protocol (Slave) Remote monitoring with Modbus (Master)
device through RS485 network
Profibus DP (Slave) Remote monitoring with Profibus DP
(Master) device through Profibus network
Webcard (RJ 45) with TCP / IP Protocol Local- or remote monitoring through WEB-
browser with IP address
IEC 61850 (New Standard) Communication Networks and Systems in
Substations

81
Features & Benefits
Traditional UPS System
FEATURES BENEFITS
High Inverter overload capability 1.5 x Inom for 60 s
1.25 x Inom for 10 min
Optionally up to 30 min
Short-circuit: 200% for 100 ms
100% asymmetric load capability for 3-phase Unbalanced loading acceptable
systems
Sustained short-circuit proof No internal damage in case of a fault in the
downstream distribution
Galvanic isolation between Input / DC branch / Throughout galvanic isolation for a high
Output degree of safety and immunity
Static switch without bridging contactors Fast transfer / No tear and wear
Flexible sizing of power modules Rectifier: for higher charge current / DC loads
Inverter: for interruption of bigger fuses
N+1 two speed cooling fans with RPM Each fan has its own built-in monitoring
monitoring circuit.
Manual Bypass Switch with 3 positions Possibility to isolate & test the UPS system for
(make-before-break) service without disturbing the Load

82
Features & Benefits
Traditional UPS System
FEATURES BENEFITS
Digital processing and setting of all parameters Transparent system operation, better control
via keypad on the front panel. over system functions.
Password protected access Long-term stability
Monitoring of all parameters on the front Precise fault diagnosis
panel display and / or via interface with Remote monitoring
MODBUS- or WEB Protocol WEB Solution: No additional SW required
Alarm- and event logger, with a date and time- Precise fault diagnosis
stamped event log memory 250 events capacity for AC Units
Redundant internal power supply units for the Secures UPS availability in the case of an
control electronics internal power supply failure.
One power supply is supplied from mains and
one is supplied from DC (battery).
Advanced Battery Monitoring & test Battery test with the actual load but with
reference to original discharge data
Battery capacity test Controlled discharge of battery.

83
Features & Benefits
PFC UPS System
FEATURES BENEFITS
PFC Rectifier topology Sinusoidal input current & power factor > 0.96
High Inverter overload capability 1.5 x Inom for 60 s
1.25 x Inom for 10 min
Short-circuit: 230% for 60 ms
100% asymmetric load capability for 3-phase Unbalanced loading acceptable
systems
Sustained short-circuit proof No internal damage in case of a fault in the
downstream distribution
Galvanic isolation between Input / DC branch / Throughout galvanic isolation for a high
Output with optional integrated transformers degree of safety and immunity
Standardised 20kVA pluggable Power Reduced spare parts stock
Modules for rectifier & inverter function Excellent interchange-ability
N+1 two-speed cooling fans with RPM Each fan has its own built-in monitoring
monitoring circuit.
Manual Bypass Switch with 3 positions Possibility to isolate & test the UPS system for
(make-before-break) service without disturbing the Load

84
Features & Benefits
PFC UPS System
FEATURES BENEFITS
Full Digital Signal Processing (DSP) Long-term stability
Controlled system monitoring & configuration Transparent system operation, better control
through Service Port over system functions & configuration
Monitoring of all parameters on the front Precise fault diagnosis
panel display and / or via interface with Remote monitoring
MODBUS- or WEB Protocol WEB Solution: No additional SW required
Alarm- and event logger, with a date and time- Precise fault diagnosis
stamped event log memory

Distributed internal power supply units for the Secures UPS availability in the case of an
control electronics internal power supply failure
Advanced Battery Monitoring & test Battery test with the actual load but with
reference to original discharge data
Battery capacity test Controlled discharge of battery

85
Features & Benefits
Enclosures
FEATURES BENEFITS
Steel cabinet, standard IP20 outside Triple-hinged doors
IP20 with open doors Safe operation with the front doors open
Option of up to IP52 Protection against dropping water from top
and against dust.
Safety connection panel for total electrical The UPS-part can be totally isolated for safe
isolation of the UPS section maintenance

86
Standards
ISO 9001 Quality System

IEC 62040 - 1 Uninterruptible Power Systems (UPS)


General and safety requirements
IEC 62040 - 2 Uninterruptible Power Systems (UPS)
EMC Requirements
IEC 62040 - 3 Uninterruptible Power Systems (UPS)
Method of specifying the performance and test
requirements
IEC 60146 Semiconductor Convertors
IEC 60529 Degrees of Protection provided by Enclosures
(IP Code)
IEC 60269 Low-Voltage Fuses
IEC 60076 Power Transformers
IEC 60950 Safety of Information Technology Equipment
IEC 60439 Low-Voltage Switchgear and Controlgear Assemblies
IEC 60617 Graphical Symbols for Diagrams

87
Standards for Industrial UPS UL / FCC
UL 1778 Uninterruptible Power Supply Equipment
- UPS
- Inverter
- Battery Protection
- (Rectifier)

UL 1012 Power Units Other Than Class 2


- Rectifier

UL 67 Panelboards
- AC & DC Distribution

FCC Part 15 Subpart B Class A


- EMC Limits UPS / Rectifier

88
Standards for Industrial UPS
IEEE / NEMA
IEEE 519 Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic
Control in Electrical Power Systems

IEEE 315 Graphics Symbols for Electrical and Electronics Diagrams

NEMA PE1 Uninterruptible Power Systems


- UPS
Edition 2003 adopted to IEC 62040-3

Edition 1992: Input current total harmonic distortion


-> 0 - 20kVA 30% THD
-> 20 - 200kVA 15% THD
-> >200kVA 10% THD

NEMA PE5 Utility Type Battery Chargers

NEMA ST20 Dry Type Transformers for General Applications

NEMA 250 Enclosures for Electrical Equipment

89
Conformity

ISO 9001 Quality System

EN 62040 - 1 Uninterruptible Power Systems (UPS)


General and safety requirements
CE Label
EN 50091 - 2 Uninterruptible Power Systems (UPS)
EMC Requirements
CE Label

IEC 62040 - 3 Uninterruptible Power Systems (UPS)


Method of specifying the performance and test
requirements
Performance Code VFI-SS-111

90
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