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a research paper based on FDI

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a research paper based on FDI

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Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol 9(47), DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i47/108657, December 2016 ISSN (Online) : 0974-5645

Mechanical Faults in Induction Motor

Ayaz Ahmed Soomro1*, Imtiaz Hussain Kalwar2, Kamran Kazi2

Sarang Karim Khoso2 and Shahzeb Ansari1

Quaid-e-Awam University College of Engineering, Science and Technology, Nawabshah, Pakistan;

1

ayaz.soomro@quest.edu.pk, shahzeb.ansari@quest.edu.pk

2

Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro, Pakistan;, imtiaz.hussain@faculty.muet.edu.pk,

kamran.kazi@faculty.muet.edu.pk, sarangkarim@hotmail.com

Abstract

The paper aims to engineer an efficient technique for the condition monitoring of induction motor that not only provides

the detection and identification of the faults but also assesses the operational condition of the motor. Induction motors

possess one of the most important roles industrially and commercially. The developing faults in the motors can become

catastrophic, if remain unanalyzed. The paper presents an effective novel solution to diagnose the major mechanical faults

at the early possible stage by utilizing two efficient condition monitoring techniques to effectively deploy the strategies

for the predictive maintenance. Primarily it employs the MCSA (Motor Current Signature Analysis), in which the faults

are located by the spectral analysis of the particular harmonic components in the line current at specific characteristic

frequencies generated by specific faults as the unique rotating flux. Fuzzy logic system has also been utilized, which assesses

severity of the fault and operating condition of machine. The induction machines modular Simulink implementation has

been presented that unlike other approaches provides the access to almost all parameters of the machine for analysis and

control purposes. The mechanical faults specially bearing and eccentricity faults are simulated and successfully detected

and localized in the results along with the severity assessment of the operational condition due to simulated faults.

Keywords: Bearing faults, Condition Monitoring, Eccentricity, Fault Diagnosis, Fuzzy Logic, MCSA

that predictive maintenance strategies can be planned to

Fault diagnosis and Online condition monitoring has tolerate the development of any major failure that would

emerged extensively because of the wide applications of ultimately lead to the substantial cost savings, improved

automation and subsequent depletion in the man machine reliability increased and industrial efficiency.

interfacing to administer the motor drive operation1,2. Condition monitoring of induction motor has been

Induction motors are the Ninety percent of the Electric remained one of the challenging tasks for the researchers.

motors in industry3 and are responsible for forty to fifty In the6,7 model based approach is employed that uses a

percent of the consumption of energy, in an industrialized parallel dynamic model along with the real process but

country4. However, they possess the vulnerability to the major demerit is the requirement of the dynamic

certain faults, which may result the catastrophe if left accurate model and the continuous latter simulation.

unanalyzed and may even lead to the shutdowns and Numerous methods have been introduced over the years

extensive human as well as economic losses. Condition like vibration, temperature, acoustic emission monitoring

monitoring would be the most feasible solution in that but they require additional sensors and can only be used

case as most of these failures do not cause all of a sudden for analysis of specific faults810. Vibrations of the motor

but slowly degrade5. So there is the provision to detect for monitoring the operational condition have been used

A Hybrid Monitoring Technique for Diagnosis of Mechanical Faults in Induction Motor

in3. Vibration has traditionally been used to analyze the Figure 1 illustrates the overview of the designed

mechanical faults of the machine10, however vibrations are system. The hybrid monitoring techniques of MCSA and

from unique electromagnetic forces caused by the specific fuzzy logic have been used where MCSA is employed for

faults are comparatively second order effects as compared the fault detection and localization whereas fuzzy logic

to the current components that are induced directly by system determines the fault severity and operational

the specific rotating flux. In majority of the cases, the condition of the motor.

severity of fault has to be severe before the detection Mechanical faults especially bearing and eccentricity

by vibration4. MCSA has emerged as the most efficient faults possess the major impact and collectively contribute

and reliable method for the induction motors condition more than 50% of all faults8,14. Therefore, these two faults

monitoring and can solely be used to analyze almost all are mainly considered for the analysis. Rough operation

major faults11. It is a non-invasive method, based on the of bearings results the radial motion between the stator

spectral analysis and decomposition of the stator current and rotor, upsetting the torque and speed of the motor5.

that is acquired using simple measurement tools and Eccentricity is the misalignment of the rotor and stator

under normal machine operation. MCSA can even detect axis that is caused due to of unbalanced load, elliptical

the developing faults can at early possible stage2. One of stator inner cross-section, wrong placement bearing

the greater advantages of MCSA is the processing of an etc. The consequences are the unbalanced magnetic pull

electric signal that possesses the current components and radial forces and change in the air gap flux density

that are the direct by-products of faults unique rotating distribution14.

flux components and it also curtails the usage of cost and

maintenance of additional sensors and thereby empowers

stability in the system.

2. Proposed Methodology

Fuzzy logic has also been proven to be an efficient

2.1 Induction Motor Modeling

approach for the condition monitoring and prediction

Paper presents the modular approach for simulation of the

of complex, vague and nonlinear systems3. Fuzzy logic

dynamic performance of induction motor model whose

is also attractive because of its capability to diagnose

variables of rotor and stator are referred to an arbitrary

problems even in the absence of mathematical models12.

reference frame. In modular approach, each block solving

The paper applies fuzzy logic for induction motor

one of the model equations, provides almost all of major

monitoring depending on the amplitude features of stator

machine for verification and control purposes. Figure 2

currents. A hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy technique has also been

presents the dq equivalent circuit of the induction motor

used previously13, but it can only be limited to analyze

in arbitrary reference frame15. One of the most efficient

specific faults and would not be efficient to analyze the

models derived from this circuit is krasues model in16.

mechanical faults directly from the motor current. The

The flux linkage equations for this model are as

presented approach using the combination of MCSA and

follows:

Fuzzy logic can analyze almost all major induction motor

faults.

2 Vol 9 (47) | December 2016 | www.indjst.org Indian Journal of Science and Technology

Ayaz Ahmed Soomro, Imtiaz Hussain Kalwar, Kamran Kazi, Sarang Karim Khoso and Shahzeb Ansari

Where, and

(1)

The electromagnetic torque and rotor speed equations

would be written as:

(9)

(2)

(10)

(3)

voltages have been transferred to a synchronously rotating

reference frame in the two phases by implementing the

following three Equations

(11)

(4)

(12)

(13)

Where, (14)

(a)

Finally, the values of the rotor currents and stator

currents in three phase system are then calculated from

the dq axis using the following transformation

(15)

(16)

(17)

(b)

Figure 2. Dynamic dq equivalent circuit of induction

machine. (a) d axis. (b) q axis.

Simulink implementation of the presented induction

motor model is shown in the Figure 5.

The current Equations of the circuit based on the flux

Where, , , , : dq stator and rotor

linkages would be as under:

currents. : dq stator voltage. F: flux linkage.

(5)

, , , : stator and rotor resistance and reactance,

, , : motor angular electrical base frequency,

stator angular electrical frequency, rotor angular electrical

(6)

speed,

(7)

(8)

Vol 9 (47) | December 2016 | www.indjst.org Indian Journal of Science and Technology 3

A Hybrid Monitoring Technique for Diagnosis of Mechanical Faults in Induction Motor

2.2 F

ault Diagnosis and Condition (20)

Monitoring Techniques Where, fi and fo are the inner and outer raceway fault

MCSA has proved to be one of the most efficient techniques frequencies while Nb is number of rolling elements and fr

over the years for the detection and identification of the is the mechanical rotor frequency.

faults. However, it lacks to assess the overall operational For the eccentricity fault indicators, the simplified

condition of the motor. Therefore, Fuzzy Logic is used in equation can be represented as the rotor frequency

conjunction with MCSA to assess the operational state of sidebands of the supply frequency14:

the motor and to determine the overall damage caused by (21)

the occurred faults.

2.2.2 Fuzzy Inference System

2.2.1 Motor Current Signature Analysis Fuzzy inference system uses inferential engines on the

linguistic variables and employs fuzzy if-then rules to

Implementation of a suitable signal analysis algorithm

build the data bases19. Magnitudes of the stator currents

can provide feasibility to inquire the signals changes

have been employed as the inputs to the fuzzy system.

produced by faulty components. FFT is used for the signal

The operating condition of the motor, condition is set

processing that provides more insight regarding the

as the fuzzy output. All the inputs and output are defined

components of signal and is efficient for decomposition of

by the Fuzzy set theory. Stator currents (ia, ib and ic) are

the signal into the harmonic components, thus presents

represented linguistically as t(Q) = {very-small, small,

productive frequency spectrum of the stator current

medium, big}. Similarly, the set t(condition) represents the

of the motor that leads to the accurate motor current

motor operational condition linguistically as t(condition)

signature analysis2,11. The fact which must be taken into

= {good, damaged, severely-damaged}.

account here is that the load conditions of the motors are

The input current values are categorized by the

not the same always; this may also alter the characteristics

membership functions using the linguistics forms as

of fault signature as well1,11. The main objective of the

shown in Figure 3(a), where the horizontal axis presents

technique described in this paper, is the identification

the numerical value that are related with the categories,

of the frequency components associated with the types

i.e., very small, small, medium and large and vertical

of failures, independently from the motors operating

axis presents the degree of truth between 0 and 1. Similar

conditions. Therefore, to overcome this phenomenon and

procedure is utilized for the configuration of the output

the masking effect, Hanning window has been used with

condition membership function. The membership

the FFT to reduce the discontinuity.

functions for the condition output in linguistic forms are

Each specific fault results the harmonics at a specific

Good, Damaged and Severely Damaged as seen Figure

characteristic frequencies in the stator current. Those

3(b).

frequencies are the functions of motors characteristics

Finally, the if-then rules shown in Figure 4 have been

data and operating conditions and represent the signatures

implemented to cover all the faulty and healthy cases of

of specific fault.

motor.

The frequency for the bearing fault signatures in the

stator current can be given by17,18:

(18)

characteristic frequency and k = 1,2,3

For most of the bearings having rolling elements

between 6 and 12, these frequencies can also be

approximated as17 :

(19) (a)

4 Vol 9 (47) | December 2016 | www.indjst.org Indian Journal of Science and Technology

Ayaz Ahmed Soomro, Imtiaz Hussain Kalwar, Kamran Kazi, Sarang Karim Khoso and Shahzeb Ansari

3. Simulation

Figure 5 shows the complete system model simulated in

the SIMULINK. The motor that is simulated is a 30 kW

three phase squirrel cage induction motor, operating at

220 V, 50 Hz supply. Table 1 presents the parameters for

the selected motor. The overall operation of the system is

(b) graphically described by the flow chart shown in Figure 6.

Figure 3. Fuzzy membership functions. (a) Stator

currents. (b) Stator condition. 3.1 Simulation of faults

One of the most challenging tasks is to introduce the

Vol 9 (47) | December 2016 | www.indjst.org Indian Journal of Science and Technology 5

A Hybrid Monitoring Technique for Diagnosis of Mechanical Faults in Induction Motor

mechanical faults in the simulation model as these Table 1. Parameters of Induction motor

faults are the mainly the functions of the mechanical Parameter Value

characteristics of the motor that are difficult to simulate. Rotor resistance 0.40

The presented model presents the versatility to simulate Stator resistance 0.20

the bearing and eccentricity faults. It has been analytically Rotor inductance 0.60 mH

and experimentally validated that inductances of the Stator inductance 0.21 mH

induction motor are directly affected by the eccentricity Mutual Inductance 4 mH

faults20. Bearing faults causes the load torque oscillations

Number of poles 4

and have the direct impact on the torque of the machine17,18.

Moment of inertia 0.0226 kgm2

Therefore, these faults are simulated by means of the load

torque variations and mutual inductance of the machine

presented in the proposed model.

6 Vol 9 (47) | December 2016 | www.indjst.org Indian Journal of Science and Technology

Ayaz Ahmed Soomro, Imtiaz Hussain Kalwar, Kamran Kazi, Sarang Karim Khoso and Shahzeb Ansari

(18) to (20). Figures 9 show the location of the bearing

Figure 7 is representing the MCSA of the healthy faults in the spectrum of stator.

machine, with no side bands across the supply frequency

component. Introduction of any fault causes the variation

in the spectrum of the stator current. Experiments have

been performed by simulating the faults for analysis of

the designed system. Eccentricity faults generate the

characteristic components at 25 Hz and 75Hz as the

supply frequency sidebands, corresponding to Equation

(21). Figures 8 show the location of the eccentricity faults

in the stator current spectrum.

(a)

(b)

Figure 9. Bearing faults.

condition of motor and the severity of the occurred fault.

Figure 10 (a) employs the rule 10 of the fuzzy inference.

All the three currents lie in the medium member function

and the condition of the motor lie within the good

operational condition. The fuzzy controller output of this

(a) condition is shown in figure 10 (b). Initially the fuzzy

value is high due to the high starting currents and then

settles at low value of 0.132.

(b)

Figure 8. (a), (b) Eccentricity faults.

Bearing faults generates the characteristic components (a)

Vol 9 (47) | December 2016 | www.indjst.org Indian Journal of Science and Technology 7

A Hybrid Monitoring Technique for Diagnosis of Mechanical Faults in Induction Motor

fuzzy rules 1, 2 and 3. The three currents lie in very small

member function and the condition of motor lie within

the severely damaged operational condition with the high

severity of the occurred fault. The fuzzy controller output

of this condition is shown in Figure 11 (b) where the

fuzzy value is 0.87, the high value represent the severely

damaged condition of the motor.

5. Conclusion

(b)

Figure 10. Healthy motor. (a) Fuzzy rule viewer. (b) Fuzzy

The paper has presented the hybrid condition monitoring

controller output. approach for analysis of the mechanical faults (Bearing

and Eccentricity) of the induction motor. The proposed

Figure 11 (a) represents the faulty case, employing the approach offers the potential for not only detecting

fuzzy rules 1, 2 and 3. The three currents lie in very small and locating the faults at an early stage but also the

member function and the condition of motor lie within assessment of the motor condition and severity of fault.

the severely damaged operational condition with the high It conjunctives the features of both MCSA and fuzzy

severity of the occurred fault. The fuzzy controller output logic, where MCSA identifies the faults and fuzzy logic

of this condition is shown in Figure 11 (b) where the monitors the severity of the fault and to assesses the

fuzzy value is 0.87, the high value represent the severely operating condition of the motor. Proposed approach

damaged condition of the motor. can also be used to analyze almost all major motor faults.

Hence, the approach provides more features than most

of the available techniques. The presented results also

successfully demonstrate the potential of the idea.

6. References

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chine faults detection using stator current parametric spec-

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2. Choi S, Akin B, Rahimian MM, Toliyat HA. Implementa-

tion of a fault-diagnosis algorithm for induction machines

(a) based on advanced digital-signal-processing techniques.

IEEE Trans Ind Electron. 2011; 58(3):93748.

3. Janier JB, Zaharia MF. condition monitoring system for

induction motor using fuzzy logic tool. Proc of first IEEE

Int Conf Informatics and Computational Intelligence (ICI);

Bandung, Indonesia. 2011. p. 37.

4. Thomson WT, Gilmore RJ. Motor current signature analy-

sis to detect faults in induction motor drives-fundamentals,

data interpretation, and industrial case histories. Proc of

32rd Turbomachinery Symposium; Texas, A&M Universi-

ty, USA. 2003. p. 45156.

5. Frosini L, Bassi E. Stator current and motor efficiency as

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(b) 6. Huang S, Yu H. Intelligent fault monitoring and diagnosis

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Figure 11. Severely damaged Motor. (a) Fuzzy rule viewer.

(b) Fuzzy controller output.

8 Vol 9 (47) | December 2016 | www.indjst.org Indian Journal of Science and Technology

Ayaz Ahmed Soomro, Imtiaz Hussain Kalwar, Kamran Kazi, Sarang Karim Khoso and Shahzeb Ansari

7. Szabo L, Biro KA, Fodor D, Kovasc E. Improved condition eccentricity fault diagnosis in induction motors using finite

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Vol 9 (47) | December 2016 | www.indjst.org Indian Journal of Science and Technology 9

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