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AS 3600-2009

Concrete Frame

Design Manual

AS 3600-2009

For ETABS 2015

Proudly developed in the United States of America December 2014

Copyright

All rights reserved.

The CSI Logo, SAP2000, ETABS, and SAFE are registered trademarks of

Computers & Structures, Inc. Watch & LearnTM is a trademark of Computers & Structures,

Inc.

The computer programs SAP2000 and ETABS and all associated documentation are

proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers

& Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of documentation in

any form, without prior written authorization from Computers & Structures, Inc., is ex-

plicitly prohibited.

No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means,

or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written permission of

the publisher.

www.csiamerica.com

support@csiamerica.com (for technical support questions)

DISCLAIMER

DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER

ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR

IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY

OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT.

DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC

ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN

ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT

ADDRESSED.

QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST

INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL

RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.

Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction

i

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-09

3.5.1 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surface 3-8

3.5.2 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio 3-11

3.5.3 Design Column Shear Reinforcement 3-16

3.6.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 3-25

3.6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 3-35

3.6.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 3-40

3.7.1 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force 3-45

3.7.2 Determine the Effective Area of Joint 3-46

3.7.3 Check Panel Zone Shear Stress 3-48

3.7.4 Beam-Column Flexural Capacity Ratios 3-48

K-Factors

ii

Contents

References

iii

Chapter 1

Introduction

Initiation of the design process, along with control of various design parameters,

is accomplished using the Design menu.

Automated design at the object level is available for any one of a number of

user-selected design codes, as long as the structures have first been modeled and

analyzed by the program. Model and analysis data, such as material properties

and member forces, are recovered directly from the model database, and no

additional user input is required if the design defaults are acceptable.

the program provides default load combinations for each design code supported.

If the default load combinations are acceptable, no definition of additional load

combinations is required.

In the design of columns, the program calculates the required longitudinal and

shear reinforcement. However, the user may specify the longitudinal steel, in

which case a column capacity ratio is reported. The column capacity ratio gives

an indication of the stress condition with respect to the capacity of the column.

three-dimensional interaction surfaces. It does not use any empirical

1-1

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

action.

configurations. The column configurations may be rectangular, square or

circular, with similar reinforcing patterns. The calculation of moment

magnification factors, unsupported lengths, and strength reduction factors is

automated in the algorithm.

Every beam member is designed for flexure, shear, and torsion at output stations

along the beam span.

For special moment resisting frames (ductile frames), the shear design of the

columns, beams, and joints is based on the probable moment capacities of the

members. Also, the program will produce ratios of the beam moment capacities

with respect to the column moment capacities, to investigate weak beam/strong

column aspects, including the effects of axial force.

Output data can be presented graphically on the model, in tables for both input

and output data, or on the calculation sheet prepared for each member. For each

presentation method, the output is in a format that allows the engineer to quickly

study the stress conditions that exist in the structure and, in the event the member

reinforcing is not adequate, aids the engineer in taking appropriate remedial

measures, including altering the design member without rerunning the entire

analysis.

The program supports a wide range of concrete frame design codes, including

many national building codes. This manual is dedicated to the use of the menu

option "AS 3600-09." This option covers the Australian Standard Concrete

Structure (AS 2009), which is denoted as AS 3600-2009 in this manual.

1.1 Organization

This manual is designed to help users quickly become productive with the

concrete frame design options of AS 3600-2009. Chapter 2 provides detailed

descriptions of the Design Prerequisites used for AS 3600-2009. Chapter 3

provides detailed descriptions of the code-specific process used for AS

1-2 Organization

Chapter 1 - Introduction

manual.

It is strongly recommended that you read this manual and review any applicable

Watch & Learn Series tutorials, which are found on our web site,

http://www.csiamerica.com, before attempting to design a concrete frame using

this program. Additional information can be found in the on-line Help facility

available from within the programs main menu.

Chapter 2

Design Prerequisites

tions, and some of the design parameters that affect the design of concrete

frames.

In writing this manual, it has been assumed that the user has an engineering

background in the general area of structural reinforced concrete design and

familiarity with AS 3600-2009 code.

The design load combinations are used for determining the various combina-

tions of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed/checked. The

load combination factors to be used vary with the selected design code. The load

combination factors are applied to the forces and moments obtained from the

associated load cases and are then summed to obtain the factored design forces

and moments for the load combination.

moving loads and multi-valued combinations (of type enveloping, square-root

of-the-sum-of-the-squares, or absolute) where any correspondence between in-

teracting quantities is lost, the program automatically produces multiple sub

combinations using maxima/minima permutations of interacting quantities.

2-1

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

Separate combinations with negative factors for response spectrum cases are not

required because the program automatically takes the minima to be the negative

of the maxima for response spectrum cases and the previously described per-

mutations generate the required sub combinations.

history or moving load, further options are available. The program has an option

to request that time history combinations produce sub combinations for each

time step of the time history. Also, an option is available to request that moving

load combinations produce sub combinations using maxima and minima of each

design quantity but with corresponding values of interacting quantities.

For normal loading conditions involving static dead load, live load, wind load,

and earthquake load, or dynamic response spectrum earthquake load, the pro-

gram has built-in default loading combinations for each design code. These are

based on the code recommendations and are documented for each code in the

corresponding manuals.

For other loading conditions involving moving load, time history, pattern live

loads, separate consideration of roof live load, snow load, and so on, the user

must define design loading combinations either in lieu of or in addition to the

default design loading combinations.

The default load combinations assume all static load cases declared as dead load

to be additive. Similarly, all cases declared as live load are assumed additive.

However, each static load case declared as wind or earthquake, or response

spectrum cases, is assumed to be non additive with each other and produces

multiple lateral load combinations. Also wind and static earthquake cases

produce separate loading combinations with the sense (positive or negative)

reversed. If these conditions are not correct, the user must provide the

appropriate design combinations.

The default load combinations are included in design if the user requests them to

be included or if no other user-defined combination is available for concrete

design. If any default combination is included in design, all default combinations

will automatically be updated by the program any time the design code is

changed or if static or response spectrum load cases are modified.

Chapter 2 - Design Prerequisites

Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load

case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to

the factored loading.

The user is cautioned that if moving load or time history results are not requested

to be recovered in the analysis for some or all of the frame members, the effects

of those loads will be assumed to be zero in any combination that includes them.

For each load combination, each element is designed or checked at a number of

locations along the length of the element. The locations are based on equally

spaced segments along the clear length of the element. The number of segments

in an element is requested by the user before the analysis is performed. The user

can refine the design along the length of an element by requesting more seg-

ments.

When using the AS 3600-2009 design code, requirements for joint design at the

beam-to-column connections are evaluated at the top most station of each

column. The program also performs a joint shear analysis at the same station to

determine if special considerations are required in any of the joint panel zones.

The ratio of the beam flexural capacities with respect to the column flexural

capacities considering axial force effect associated with the weak-beam/strong-

column aspect of any beam/column intersection is reported.

In the program, all beams and columns are represented as frame elements, but

design of beams and columns requires separate treatment. Identification for a

concrete element is accomplished by specifying the frame section assigned to

the element to be of type beam or column. If any brace element exists in the

frame, the brace element also would be identified as a beam or a column ele-

ment, depending on the section assigned to the brace element.

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

In the design of concrete beams, in general, the program calculates and reports

the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments,

shears, load combination factors, and other criteria, which are described in detail

in the code-specific manuals. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a

user-defined number of stations along the beam span.

All the beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear and torsion only.

Effects due to any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the

beams must be investigated independently by the user.

section of a particular beam, the steps involve the determination of the maximum

factored moments and the determination of the reinforcing steel. The beam

section is designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored

moment envelopes obtained from all of the load combinations. Negative beam

moments produce top steel. In such cases, the beam is always designed as a

Rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. In such

cases, the beam may be designed as a Rectangular beam or a T-beam. For the

design of flexural reinforcement, the beam is first designed as a singly reinforced

beam. If the beam section is not adequate, the required compression reinforce-

ment is calculated.

In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular set of

loading combinations at a particular station due to the beam major shear, the

steps involve the determination of the factored shear force, the determination of

the shear force that can be resisted by concrete, and the determination of the

reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.

Special considerations for seismic design are incorporated into the program for

the AS 3600-2009 code.

In the design of the columns, the program calculates the required longitudinal

steel, or if the longitudinal steel is specified, the column stress condition is

reported in terms of a column capacity ratio, which is a factor that gives an

indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of

Chapter 2 - Design Prerequisites

the column. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the

structure involves the following steps:

different concrete section types in the model.

Check the capacity of each column for the factored axial force and bending

moments obtained from each loading combination at each end of the col-

umn. This step also is used to calculate the required reinforcement (if none

was specified) that will produce a capacity ratio of 1.0.

The generation of the interaction surface is based on the assumed strain and

stress distributions and some other simplifying assumptions. These stress and

strain distributions and the assumptions are documented in Chapter 3.

The shear reinforcement design procedure for columns is very similar to that for

beams, except that the effect of the axial force on the concrete shear capacity

must be considered.

For certain special seismic cases, the design of columns for shear is based on the

capacity shear. The capacity shear force in a particular direction is calculated

from the moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial

force acting on the column. For each load combination, the factored axial load is

calculated using the analysis load cases and the corresponding load combination

factors. Then, the moment capacity of the column in a particular direction under

the influence of the axial force is calculated, using the uniaxial interaction dia-

gram in the corresponding direction, as documented in Chapter 3.

To ensure that the beam-column joint of special moment resisting frames pos-

sesses adequate shear strength, the program performs a rational analysis of the

beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in the

joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.

Only joints that have a column below the joint are designed. The material

properties of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the column below

the joint. The joint analysis is performed in the major and the minor directions of

the column. The joint design procedure involves the following steps:

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

The program design process requires that the analysis results include P-Delta

effects. The P-Delta effects are considered differently for braced or

non-sway and unbraced or sway components of moments in columns or

frames. For the braced moments in columns, the effect of P-Delta is limited to

individual member stability. For unbraced components, lateral drift effects

should be considered in addition to individual member stability effect. The

program assumes that braced or non-sway moments are contributed from

the dead or live loads, whereas, unbraced or sway moments are con-

tributed from all other types of loads.

For the individual member stability effects, the moments are magnified with

moment magnification factors, as documented in Chapter 3 of this manual.

For lateral drift effects, the program assumes that the P-Delta analysis is

performed and that the amplification is already included in the results. The

moments and forces obtained from P-Delta analysis are amplified further for

individual column stability effect if required by the governing code, as in the AS

3600-2009 code.

Users of the program should be aware that the default analysis option is that

P-Delta effects are not included. The user can include P-delta analysis and set

the maximum number of iterations for the analysis. The default number of

iterations for P-Delta analysis is 1. Further details about P-Delta analysis are

provided in Appendix A of this design manual.

To account for column slenderness effects, the column unsupported lengths are

required. The two unsupported lengths are l33 and l22. These are the lengths

Chapter 2 - Design Prerequisites

length l33 corresponds to instability about the 3-3 axis (major axis), and l22 cor-

responds to instability about the 2-2 axis (minor axis).

Normally, the unsupported element length is equal to the length of the element,

i.e., the distance between END-I and END-J of the element. The program,

however, allows users to assign several elements to be treated as a single

member for design. This can be accomplished differently for major and minor

bending, as documented in Appendix B of this design manual.

The program has options to specify the unsupported lengths of the elements on

an element-by-element basis.

English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The codes are

based on a specific system of units. All equations and descriptions presented in

the subsequent chapters correspond to that specific system of units unless oth-

erwise noted. For example, the AS 3600-2009 code is published in New-

ton-millimeter-second units. By default, all equations and descriptions presented

in Chapter 3 Design Process correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units.

However, any system of units can be used to define and design a structure in the

program.

Chapter 3

Design Process

in the design of concrete frames when the AS 3600-09 code has been selected

on the Preferences form including Amendment No. 1 to AS 3600-2009. For

simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to

Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

3.1 Notation

The various notations used in this chapter are described herein:

Ag Gross area of concrete, mm2

Ast Area of tension reinforcement, mm2

Asc Area of compression reinforcement, mm2

As(required) Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, mm2

Ast Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, mm2

Asv Area of shear reinforcement, mm2

3-1

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

mm2/mm

Asw /s Area of shear reinforcement per unit length of the member of

closed ties, mm2/mm

Ec The mean value of the modulus of elasticity of concrete at 28 days,

MPa

Es Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 2105 MPa

I Moment of inertia of the gross concrete section about the

centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement, mm4

Ise Moment of inertia of reinforcement about the centroidal axis of the

member cross-section, mm4

L Clear unsupported length, mm

M1* Smaller factored end moment in a column, N-mm

M2* Larger factored end moment in a column, N-mm

Mc Factored moment to be used in design, N-mm

M* Factored moment at a section, N-mm

M*2 Factored moment at a section about the 2-axis, N-mm

M*3 Factored moment at a section about the 3-axis, N-mm

Mub Ultimate strength in bending when kuo= 0.003/(0.003 + fs /Es),

N-mm

Mud Reduce ultimate strength in bending without axial force, N-mm

Muo Ultimate strength in bending without axial force, N-mm

Nub Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions, N

Nc Critical buckling strength of column, N

Nmax Maximum axial load strength allowed, N

Nub Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity, N

Nuo Ultimate in comression without bending, of an axially loaded

cross-section, N

3-2 Notation

Chapter 3 - Design Process

cross-section, N

N* Factored axial load at a section, N

Vuc Shear force resisted by concrete, N

VE Shear force caused by earthquake loads, N

VD+L Shear force from span loading, N

Vu.max Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section, N

Vp Shear force computed from probable moment capacity, N

Vus Shear force resisted by steel, N

V* Factored shear force at a section, N

a Depth of compression block, mm

ab Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm

amax Maximum allowed depth of compression block, mm

b Width of member, mm

bf Effective width of flange (T-beam section), mm

bw Width of web (T-beam section), mm

c Depth to neutral axis, mm

cb Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, mm

d Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm

dsc Concrete cover to center of reinforcing, mm

ds Thickness of slab (T-beam section), mm

of fsy used in design calculation is limited to a torsional longitu-

dinal reinforcement of 500 MPa for both tension and compression

(AS 6.2.1).

h Overall depth of a column section, in

Notation 3-3

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

ku The neutral axis parametersratio of the depth of the neutral axis

from extreme compression fiber to d

km Coefficient, dependent upon column curvature, used to calculate

moment magnification factor

Reinforcing steel overstrength factor

maximum factored axial total load

s Moment magnification factor for unbraced frames

c Strain in concrete

fiber (0.003 mm/mm)

s Strain in reinforcing steel

The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed

load cases for which the structure is to be checked. The program creates a

number of default design load combinations for concrete frame design. Users

can add their own design load combinations as well as modify or delete the

program default design load combinations. An unlimited number of design load

combinations can be specified.

To define a design load combination, simply specify one or more load cases,

each with its own scale factor. The scale factors are applied to the forces and

moments from the load cases to form the factored design forces and moments for

each design load combination. There is one exception to the preceding. For

spectral analysis modal combinations, any correspondence between the signs of

the moments and axial loads is lost. The program uses eight design load

Chapter 3 - Design Process

combinations for each such loading combination specified, reversing the sign of

axial loads and moments in major and minor directions.

the AS 3600-2009 design check may need one design load combination only,

namely, 1.2D + 1.5L. However, if the structure is subjected to wind, earthquake,

or other loads, numerous additional design load combinations may be required.

Two types of live load are used in the program, i.e., Live (L) and Reduced Live

(LR). Live loads are non-reducible and this load should be used for defining

sustained loadings, such as storage, car parking, mechanical plant, and the like,

and Reduced Live should be used for transient live loads.

The program allows live load reduction factors to be applied to the member

forces of the reducible live load case on a member-by-member basis to reduce

the contribution of the live load to the factored responses.

The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for

which the structure needs to be checked. For this code, if a structure is subjected

to dead load (D), live load (L), pattern live load (PL), and wind (W) and

earthquake (E) load, and considering that wind and earthquake forces are

reversible, the following load combinations may need to be defined (AS 2.4.2,

AS/NZS 1170.0-02):

1.2D 1.0W (AS 1170.0-02, 4.2.2(d))

1.2D + 0.6L + 0.4LR 1.0W (AS 1170.0-02, 4.2.2(d))

1.0D + 0.6L + 0.3LR 1.0E (AS 1170.0-02, 4.2.2(f))

These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever the

AS 3600-2009 code is used. The user should use other appropriate design load

combinations if roof live load is separately treated, or if other types of loads are

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

present. PLL is the live load multiplied by the Pattern Live Load Factor. The

Pattern Live Load Factor can be specified in the Preferences.

Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load

analysis on a member-by-member basis to reduce the contribution of the live

load to the factored loading.

When using the AS 3600-2009 code, the program design assumes that a P-Delta

analysis has been performed.

The upper and lower limits of f' c are 100 MPa and 20 MPa, respectively, for all

framing types (AS 3.1.1.1(b)).

The upper limit of fsy is 500 MPa for all frames (AS 3.2.1, Table 3.2.1).

When the compression strength of concrete used in design is beyond the given

limits or when the yield strength of steel used in design exceeds the given limits,

the code does not cover such cases. The code allows use of f c and fsy beyond the

given limits, provided special care is taken regarding the detailing and ductility

(AS 3.1.1, 3.2.1, 17.2.1.1).

The program does not enforce any of these limits for column P-M-M interaction

checks or design and flexure design of beams. The specified strengths are used

for design. The user is responsible for using the proper strength values while

defining the materials.

The strength reduction factor, , is defined as shown in the table that follows

(AS 2.2.2(ii), Table 2.2.2):

Chapter 3 - Design Process

(a) Axial force without bending

(i) Tension 0.8

(ii) Compression 0.6

(b) Bending without axial tension or compression where:

(i) for members with Class N reinforcement only 0.6 (1.19 13kuo/12) 0.8

(ii) for members with Class L reinforcement only 0.6 (1.19 13kuo/12) 0.64

(c) Bending with axial tension +[(0.8 )(Nu/Nuot)]

is obtained from(b)

(d) Bending with axial compression where: 0.6

(i) Nu Nub 0.6+ [( 0.6)(1 Nu/Nub)]

(ii) Nu < Nub is obtained from(b)

(e) Shear 0.7

(f) Torsion 0.7

0.36, and tensile force has been reduced to balance the reduced compressive forces (AS

8.1.5).

The program can be used to check column capacity or to design columns. If the

geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section

has been defined, the program will check the column capacity. Alternatively, the

program can calculate the amount of reinforcing required to design the column

based on provided reinforcing bar configuration. The reinforcement require-

ments are calculated or checked at a user-defined number of check/design

stations along the column span. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete

columns of the structure involves the following steps:

different concrete section types of the model. A typical biaxial interacting

diagram is shown in Figure 3-1. For reinforcement to be designed, the

program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable

reinforcement: 1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Intermediate Moment

Resisting frames (AS 10.7.1) and 1 to 6 percent for Special Moment

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

3101).

Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored

axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each

loading combination at each station of the column. The target capacity ratio

is taken as the Utilization Factor Limit when calculating the required rein-

forcing area.

Design the column shear reinforcement.

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

this process.

The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of

discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure

surface. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending, the formulation

allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. A typical interaction

surface is shown in Figure 3-1.

+Nuo

Nuo

Chapter 3 - Design Process

The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain

in three dimensions on the section of the column, as shown in Figure 3-2.

The linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain, c, at the

extremity of the section, to 0.003 (AS 10.6.1(d)).

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

strength design (AS 10.6.2).

The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel

modulus of elasticity, sEs, and is limited to the yield stress of the steel, fy (AS

10.6.1(c), 3.2.3). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be

placed at the actual location of the center of the bar, and the algorithm does not

assume any further simplification with respect to distributing the area of steel

over the cross-section of the column, as shown in Figure 3-2.

value of 2 f' c (AS 8.1.3(b)), as shown in Figure 3-3. The interaction algorithm

provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the

reinforcement in the compression zone. The depth of the equivalent rectangular

block, a, is taken as:

and,

=

2 1.0 0.003 f 'c where, 0.67 2 0.85 (AS Eqn. 10.6.2.5(1))

3 - 10 Column Design

Chapter 3 - Design Process

= (AS Eqn. 10.6.2.5 (2))

The effect of the strength reduction factor, , included in the generation of the

interaction surface varies as follows:

0.6 = (1.19 13kuo/12) 0.8 for members with Class N reinforcement only

0.6 = (1.19 13kuo/12) 0.64 for members with Class L reinforcement only

= 0.6 for Nu Nub

= 0.6 + [( 0.6)(1 Nu/Nub)] for Nu < Nub

Default values for for various actions are provided by the program, but those

values can be overwritten using the Preferences.

=

1 1.0 0.003 f c where, 0.72 1 0.85 (AS 10.6.2.2)

where = 0.60 for axial compression without bending (AS 2.2.2(ii), Table

2.2.2).

The column capacity ratio is calculated for each design load combination at each

output station of each column. The following steps are involved in calculating

the capacity ratio of a particular column for a particular design load combination

at a particular location:

Determine the factored moments and forces from the load cases and the

specified load combination factors to give N*, M*2, and M*3.

Column Design 3 - 11

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

mine if the point, defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set,

lies within the interaction volume.

identification of the individual column as unbraced or braced.

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

this process.

The loads for a particular design load combination are obtained by applying the

corresponding factors to all of the load cases, giving N*, M*2, and M*3. The

factored moments are further increased, if required, to obtain minimum

eccentricities of 0.05D mm, where D is the dimension of the column in the

corresponding direction (AS 10.1.2). The minimum eccentricity is applied in

only one direction at a time.

The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for unbraced

(overall stability effect), and for braced (individual column stability effect).

Also, the moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are, in

general, different.

The program assumes that P- analysis has been performed and, therefore,

moment magnification factors for moment causing sidesway are taken as unity

(AS 6.3). For more information about P- analysis, refer to Appendix A.

1.2D + 1.5L. See also White and Hajjar (1991).

The additional computed moments are amplified for individual column stability

effect (AS 10.4.2) by the non-sway moment magnification factor, b, as follows:

Mc = b M

3 - 12 Column Design

Chapter 3 - Design Process

minor direction of the column is given by (AS 10.4.2)

km

=

b 1.0 where (AS 10.4.2)

N*

1

Nc

M 1*

km =+

0.6 0.4 * 0.4 (AS 10.4.2)

M2

M 1* and M 2* are the moments at the ends of the column, and M 2* is numerically

larger than M 1* . M 1* / M 2* is positive for single curvature bending and negative

for double curvature bending. The preceding expression of km is valid if there is

no transverse load applied between the supports. If transverse load is present on

the span, or the length is overwritten, km = 1. The user can overwrite km on an

object-by-object basis.

2 M ub

N c = 2 182d o , where (AS 10.4.4)

Le 1 + d

do is the distance from the extreme compression fiber of the concrete to the

centroid of the outermost layer of tensile reinforcement,

Mub is the design strength in bending of the cross-section when kuo = 0.545

and = 0.6,

d = , where d is taken as zero

maximum factored axial total load

when Le /r 40 and N* M*/2D.

The moment magnifier () for an unbraced column shall be taken as the larger

value of b or s where

Column Design 3 - 13

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

Mc = M

suming that the column is braced; and

1 1 1.5

N

= (AS 10.4.3a)

Nc

s

where the summation includes all columns within the story and Nc is calculated

for each column in accordance with AS 10.4.4.

If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member, the user

can explicitly specify values of b and s.

As a measure of the stress condition of the column, a capacity ratio is calculated.

The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress

condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column.

Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity, the

moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain N*,

M*2, and M*3. The point (N*, M*2, M*3) is then placed in the interaction space

shown as point L in Figure 3-4. If the point lies within the interaction volume,

the column capacity is adequate. However, if the point lies outside the

interaction volume, the column is overstressed.

This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the

location of point C. Point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended

outwards) will intersect the failure surface. This point is determined by

three-dimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure

surface, as shown in Figure 3-4. The capacity ratio, CR, is given by the ratio

OL/OC.

If OL = OC (or CR = 1), the point lies on the interaction surface and the

column is stressed to capacity.

3 - 14 Column Design

Chapter 3 - Design Process

If OL < OC (or CR < 1), the point lies within the interaction volume and

the column capacity is adequate.

If OL > OC (or CR > 1), the point lies outside the interaction volume and

the column is overstressed.

The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each design load

combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the

controlling N*, M*2, and M*3 set and associated design load combination name.

Column Design 3 - 15

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

If the reinforcing area is not defined, the program computes the reinforcement

that will give a column capacity ratio equal to the Utilization Factor Limit,

which is set to 0.95 by default.

The shear reinforcement is designed for each design combination in the major

and minor directions of the column. The following steps are involved in

designing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular design

load combination resulting from shear forces in a particular direction:

Determine the factored forces acting on the section, N* and V*. Note that N*

is needed for the calculation of Vuc.

Determine the shear force, Vuc, which can be resisted by concrete alone.

For Special and Intermediate Moment Resisting frames (Ductile frames), the

shear design of the columns is also based on the maximum probable moment

strengths and the nominal moment strengths of the members, respectively, in

addition to the factored shear forces (AS Appendix C and NZS 3101-06).

Currently the program uses the capacity design principle provided by ACI

318-02M instead of using the NZS 3101-06 code.

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

this process.

In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary Moment

Resisting concrete frame, the forces for a particular design load combina-

tion, namely, the column axial force, N*, and the column shear force, V*, in

a particular direction are obtained by factoring the load cases with the cor-

responding design load combination factors.

3 - 16 Column Design

Chapter 3 - Design Process

design), the shear capacity of the column is checked for capacity shear in

addition to the requirement for the Ordinary Moment Resisting frames. The

capacity shear force in the column, V*, is determined from consideration of

the maximum forces that can be generated at the column. Two different

capacity shears are calculated for each direction (major and minor). The first

is based on the probable moment strength of the column, while the second is

computed from the probable moment strengths of the beams framing into

the column. The design strength is taken as the minimum of these two val-

ues, but never less than the factored shear obtained from the design load

combination.

Column Design 3 - 17

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

where

maximum flexural strengths of the two ends of the column.

moment strengths of the beams framing into the column.

probable flexural strength at the two ends of the column is calculated for

the existing factored axial load. Clockwise rotation of the joint at one end

and the associated counterclockwise rotation of the other joint produces

one shear force. The reverse situation produces another capacity shear

force, and both of these situations are checked, with the maximum of the

two values taken as the Vec .

For each design load combination, the factored axial load, N*, is

calculated. Then, the maximum probable positive and negative moment

+

capacities, M pr and M pr , of the column in a particular direction under the

influence of the axial force N* are calculated using the uniaxial interaction

diagram in the corresponding direction. Then the capacity shear force is

obtained by applying the calculated maximum probable ultimate moment

capacities at the two ends of the column acting in two opposite directions.

Therefore, Vec is the maximum of Vec1 and Vec2 ,

{

Vec = max Vec1 ,Vec2 } (ACI 21.4.5.1, R21.4.5.1, Fig. 21.3.4)

where,

M I + M J+

Vec1 = , (ACI 21.4.5.1, Fig. R21.3.4)

L

M I+ + M J

Vec2 = , (ACI 21.4.5.1, Fig. R21.3.4)

L

3 - 18 Column Design

Chapter 3 - Design Process

(

capacities M p+ , M p ) at end I of the column using a

steel yield stress value of fy and no reduction factor

( = 1.0),

( )

capacities M p+ , M p at end J of the column using a

steel yield stress value of fy and no reduction factor

( = 1 .0), and

factor of 1.0 and the reinforcing steel stress equal to fy, where is set

equal to 1.25 (ACI 2.1, 21.4.5.1, Fig. R21.3.4, R21.4.5.1). If the column

section was identified as a section to be checked, the user-specified

reinforcing is used for the interaction curve. If the column section was

identified as a section to be designed, the reinforcing area envelope is

calculated after completing the flexural (P-M-M) design of the column.

This envelope of reinforcing area is used for the interaction curve.

sections at the two ends are used, along with the user-specified reinforcing

or the envelope of reinforcing for check or design sections, as appropriate.

If the user overwrites the length factor, the full span length is used.

However, if the length factor is not overwritten by the user, the clear span

length will be used. In the latter case, the maximum of the negative and

positive moment capacities will be used for both the positive and negative

moment capacities in determining the capacity shear.

strength of the beams framing into it, Veb , the program calculates the

maximum probable positive and negative moment capacities of each beam

framing into the top joint of the column. Then the sum of the beam

moments is calculated as a resistance to joint rotation. Both clockwise and

counterclockwise rotations are considered separately, as well as the

rotation of the joint in both the major and minor axis directions of the

column. The shear force in the column is determined assuming that the

Column Design 3 - 19

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

point of inflection occurs at mid-span of the columns above and below the

joint. The effects of load reversals are investigated and the design is based

on the maximum of the joint shears obtained from the two cases.

{

Veb = max Veb1 ,Veb2 } (ACI 21.4.5.1)

where,

rotation,

M r1

V b e1 = .

H

are taken at midway between actual lateral support points for the

columns, and H is taken as the mean of the two column heights. If

there is no column at the top of the joint, H is taken to be equal to

one-half of the height of the column below the joint.

Mr2

V be2 = ,

H

rotations,

joint rotations, and

the mean height of the columns above and below the

joint. If there is no column at the top of the joint, the

distance is taken as one-half of the height of the column at

the bottom of the joint.

3 - 20 Column Design

Chapter 3 - Design Process

M uL + M uR

V b e1 =

H

The expression for Veb is applicable for the determination of both the major

and minor direction shear forces. The calculated shear force is used for the

design of the column below the joint. When beams are not oriented along the

major and minor axes of the column, appropriate components of the flexural

capacities are used. If the beam is oriented at an angle with the column

major axis, appropriate component, Mpr cos or Mpr sin, of the beam

capacity is used in calculating Mr1 and Mr2. Also the positive and negative

moment capacities are used appropriately based on the orientation of the

beam with respect to the column local axis.

shall not be less than 0.5bwS / fsy (AS C4.2.2(c)).

Given the design force set N* and V*, the shear force carried by the concrete,

Vuc, is calculated as follows:

13

A

Vuc = 123bw d o f 'cv st (AS 8.2.7.1)

bw d o

where,

= ( f 'c ) 4MPa

1/3

f 'cv (AS 8.2.7.1)

2 = 1; or

= 1 (N*/3.5Ag) 0 for members subject to significant axial tension; or

= 1 + (N*/14Ag) for members subject to significant axial compression

3 = 1

For Special Moment Resisting concrete frame design, if the factored axial

(

compressive force, N*, including the earthquake effect, is small N * < f c Ag 20 , )

Column Design 3 - 21

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

if the shear force contribution from earthquake, VE , is more than half of the total

factored maximum shear force V * (VE 0.5V *) over the length of the member,

and if the station is within a distance lo from the face of the joint, then the

concrete capacity Vuc is taken as zero (ACI 21.4.5.2). Note that for capacity

shear design, Ve is considered to be contributed solely by earthquakes, so the

second condition is automatically satisfied. The length lo is taken as the section

width, one-sixth the clear span of the column, or 18 in, whichever is larger (ACI

21.4.5.2; 21.4.4.4).

Given V* and Vc, the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or ties

within a spacing, s, is given for rectangular and circular columns by the

following:

be given by

The ultimate shear strength of a beam provided with minimum shear rein-

forcement shall be taken as:

= Vuc + 0.6bd o

Vu .min (AS 8.2.9)

follows:

If V * Vuc 2,

Av

= 0, except for d 750 mm, Asv.min shall be provided; (AS 8.2.5)

s

3 - 22 Column Design

Chapter 3 - Design Process

Av (V * Vuc )

= , (AS 8.2.10)

s fsy d oCot v

Av

s

(

max 0.35b/f sy ) (AS 8.2.8)

the column, d is the effective depth of the column, and Acv is the effective

shear area, which is equal to bw d. For a circular section, bw is replaced with

D, which is the external diameter of the column, and d is replaced with 0.8D,

D2

and Acv is replaced with the gross area .

4

default as 0.7 for non-seismic cases (AS 2.2, Table 2.2.2), and as 0.60 for

seismic cases (ACI 9.3.4.a). However, those values can be overwritten by

the user, if so desired.

size should be increased (AS 8.2.6).

The maximum of all the calculated Av s values, obtained from each design

load combination, are reported for the major and minor directions of the

column, along with the controlling combination name.

based purely on shear strength consideration. Any minimum stirrup

requirements to satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement

volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the

program by the user.

Column Design 3 - 23

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

d' d

DIRECTION

OF SHEAR

FORCE A cv b

RECTANGULAR

d' d

DIRECTION

OF SHEAR A cv b

FORCE

d' d

DIRECTION

OF SHEAR A cv

FORCE

CIRCULAR

In the design of concrete beams, the program calculates and reports the required

areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments, shear forces,

torsions, design load combination factors, and other criteria described in the text

that follows. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user-defined

number of check/design stations along the beam span.

3 - 24 Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design Process

All beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear and torsion only.

Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may

exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.

The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations

along the beam span. The following steps are involved in designing the flexural

reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam for a particular

section:

In the design of flexural reinforcement of Special, Intermediate, or Ordinary

Moment Resisting concrete frame beams, the factored moments for each design

load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the

corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding design

load combination factors.

The beam section is then designed for the factored moments obtained from all of

the design load combinations. Positive moments produce bottom steel. In such

cases, the beam may be designed as a Rectangular beam or a T-beam. Negative

moments produce top steel. In such cases, the beam is always designed as a

Rectangular section.

Beam Design 3 - 25

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the

tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added

when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a

singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding the compression

reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the grade of

concrete.

shown in Figure 3-7 (AS 8.1.2.2).

The design procedure used by the program for both rectangular and flanged

sections (T-beams) is summarized in the following subsections. It is assumed

that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed ( Asc f sy > 0.15 N ) (AS

10.7.1a); hence, all of the beams are designed ignoring axial force.

3 - 26 Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design Process

In designing for a factored negative or positive moment, M* (i.e., designing top

or bottom steel), the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure

3-7), where,

2 M*

a =

d d 2

(AS 8.1.3)

2 f 'c b

where, the value is taken as 0.80 by default (AS 2.2.2) in the preceding, and the

following assumptions are used for the stressed block used to compute the

flexural bending capacity of rectangular sections (AS 8.1.2).

The maximum strain in the extreme compression fiber is taken as 0.003 (AS

8.1.3(a)).

8.1.3(b)) bounded by

A line parallel to the neutral axis at the strength limit under the considered

loading and located at a distance kud from the extreme compressive fiber

where

=

2 1.0 0.003 f 'c where, 0.67 2 0.85 (AS 8.1.3(1))

= (AS 8.1.3(2))

and ku 0.36.

given by

amax =

ku d where ku 0.36 (AS 8.1.5)

M*

As =

a

fsy d

2

Beam Design 3 - 27

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

negative.

If a > amax , i.e., ku > 0.36, compression reinforcement is required (AS 8.1.5)

and is calculated as follows:

a

Muc =C d max .

2

as follows:

Mud

= 0.8 0.6

Muo

cross-section in bending when ku = 0.36 and tensile forces have been

reduced to balance the reduced compressive force (AS 8.1.5a).

M=

us M * M uc .

Mus

Asc = , where

f s ( d d )

c d

=f s 0.003Es fy. (AS 8.1.2.1, 3.2.2)

c

3 - 28 Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design Process

Muc

As1 = , and

a

fsy d max

2

Mus

As 2 =

(

fsy d d ' )

Therefore, the total tensile reinforcement is As = As1 + As2, and the total

compression reinforcement is As. As is to be placed at the bottom and As is

to be placed at the top if M* is positive, and As is to be placed at the bottom

and As is to be placed at the top if M* is negative.

In designing a T-beam, a simplified stress block, as shown in Figure 3-7, is

assumed if the flange is under compression, i.e., if the moment is positive. If the

moment is negative, the flange comes under tension, and the flange is ignored. In

that case, a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 3-8 is assumed

on the compression side (AS 8.1.5).

Beam Design 3 - 29

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

In designing for a factored negative moment, M* (i.e., designing top steel), the

calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as described for a rectangular

beam, i.e., no T-beam data is used.

2M*

a =

d d2

2 f 'c b f

where, the value of is taken as that for a tension controlled section, which is

0.80 by default (AS 2.2.2) in the preceding and the following equations.

given by

amax =

ku d where ku 0.36 (AS 8.1.5)

If a ds, the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previ-

ously defined for the Rectangular section design. However, in that case, the

width of the beam is taken as bf, as shown in Figure 3-8. Compression re-

inforcement is required if a > amax.

If a > ds, the calculation for As has two parts. The first part is for balancing

the compressive force from the flange, Cf, and the second part is for

balancing the compressive force from the web, Cw, as shown in Figure 3-8.

Cf is given by

= ( )

C f 2 f c b f bw * min ( d s , amax ) (AS 8.1.3(b))

Cf

Therefore, As1 = and the portion of M* that is resisted by the flange is

f sy

given by

min ( d s , amax )

M uf =

C f d

2

3 - 30 Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design Process

Again, the value for is 0.80 by default. Therefore, the balance of the

moment, M*, to be carried by the web is given by

M=

uw M * M uf

design depth of the compression block is recalculated as

2 Muw

a1 =

d d2

2 f c bw

Muw

As 2 = , and

a1

fsy d

2

=

As As1 + As 2

lows:

Cw = 2 f 'c bw amax .

Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tensile steel is

a

Muc =

C d max , and

2

=

M us M uw M uc .

Beam Design 3 - 31

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

Mus

Asc = , where

( f s 2 f c )( d d )

c d

=f s 0.003Es max fy.

cmax

Muc

As 2 = , and

amax

fsy d

2

M us

As 3 = .

f sy ( d d )

compression reinforcement is As . As is to be placed at the bottom, and As

is to be placed at the top.

The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given

by the following limit (AS 8.1.6.1):

D f ct , f

2

Ast .min = b bd , where (AS 8.1.6.1(2))

d f sy

1/4

bf D bf

=

b 0.20 + 1 0.4 s 0.18 0.20 , (AS8.1.6.1(2))

bw D bw

3 - 32 Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design Process

2/3

bf D bf

=

b 0.20 + 1 0.25 s 0.08 0.20 , (AS8.1.6.1(2))

bw D bw

An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension

reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed as follows:

As

0.04bw d T-Beam

0.04bd Rectangular Beam

As

0.04bw d T-Beam

For Special Moment Resisting concrete frames (seismic design), the beam

design satisfies the following additional conditions (AS Appendix C, ACI

Chapter 21) (see also Table 3-1):

Ordinary Intermediate Special

Type of

Moment Resisting Moment Resisting Moment Resisting

Check/

Frames Frames Frames

Design

(Non-Seismic) (Seismic) (Seismic)

Specified Specified Specified

Combinations Combinations Combinations

Column Design (interaction)

Specified Specified Specified

Combinations Combinations Combinations

1% < < 8% 1% < < 8% 1% < < 6%

= 1.0

Column Shears

Specified Specified Specified

Combinations Combinations Combinations

Column shear capacity

= 1.0 and = 1.25

Vc = 0 (conditional)

Beam Design 3 - 33

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

Ordinary Intermediate Special

Type of

Moment Resisting Moment Resisting Moment Resisting

Check/

Frames Frames Frames

Design

(Non-Seismic) (Seismic) (Seismic)

Specified Specified Specified

Combinations Combinations Combinations

As,min b ( D / d ) f cf / f sy bd 3 f c

As,min b ( D / d ) f cf / f sy bd

2 2 200

As (min) max bwd and bwd

f sy f sy

No Requirement

M u+end M u+ M

1 1

M uend end 2 uend

3

1

5

{

M u+span max M u+ ,M u

end

} M u+span max M u+ ,M u

1

4 end

{ }

1 +

M uspan max M u ,M u

5

{

max

} M uspan max M u+ ,M u

1

4 end

{ }

Beam Design Shear

Specified Specified Specified

Combinations Combinations Combinations

with = 1.0

and = 1.25 plus VD+L

Vc = 0 (conditional)

Joint Design

No Requirement No Requirement Checked for shear

No Requirement No Requirement Checked

and bottom. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than

As(min) (ACI 21.3.2.1) for Special Moment Resisting Frame.

3 f c 200

As (min) max bw d and bw d or (ACI 21.3.2.1, 10.5.1)

f sy f sy

3 - 34 Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design Process

4

As (min) As (required) . (ACI 21.3.2.1, 10.5.3)

3

At any end (support) of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity (i.e.,

associated with the bottom steel) would not be less that 1/2 of the beam

negative moment capacity (i.e., associated with the top steel) at that end

(ACI 21.3.2.2).

Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at

any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the maximum

of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support)

stations (ACI 21.3.2.2).

For Intermediate Moment Resisting concrete frames (i.e., seismic design), the

beam design would satisfy the following conditions:

At any support of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity would not

be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end (AS

A12.3.2.1, ACI 21.12.4.1).

Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at

any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the maximum

of the positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end

(support) stations (AS A12.3.2.1, ACI 21.12.4.1).

The shear reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at a

user-defined number of stations along the beam span. The following steps are

involved in designing the shear reinforcement for a particular station because of

beam major shear:

Determine the shear force, Vuc, that can be resisted by the concrete.

Beam Design 3 - 35

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

For Special and Intermediate Moment frames (ductile frames), the shear design

of the beams also is based on the maximum probable moment strengths and the

nominal moment strengths of the members, respectively, in addition to the

factored design. Effects of axial forces on the beam shear design are neglected.

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with

this process.

In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary Moment Re-

sisting concrete frame, the shear forces and moments for a particular design

load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the

associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding design load

combination factors.

design), the shear capacity of the beam also is checked for the capacity shear

resulting from the maximum probable moment capacities at the ends along

with the factored gravity load. This check is performed in addition to the

design check required for Ordinary Moment Resisting frames. The capacity

shear force, Vp, is calculated from the maximum probable moment capacities

of each end of the beam and the gravity shear forces. The procedure for

calculating the design shear force in a beam from the maximum probable

moment capacity is the same as that described for a column earlier in this

chapter. See Table 3-1 for a summary.

maximum probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams

acting in two opposite directions. Therefore, Vp is the maximum of Vp1 and

Vp2, where

3 - 36 Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design Process

M I + M J+

V p1 = , and

L

M I+ + M J

Vp 2 = , where

L

steel yield stress value of fy and no reduction factors

( = 1.0).

a steel yield stress value of fy and no reduction factors

( = 1.0).

a steel yield stress value of fy and no reduction factors

( = 1.0).

steel yield stress value of fy and no reduction factors

( = 1.0).

1.0 and the reinforcing steel stress equal to fy, where is equal to 1.25

(ACI 2.1, R21.3.4.1). If the reinforcement area has not been overwritten for

ductile beams, the value of the reinforcing area envelope is calculated after

completing the flexural design of the beam for all the design load

combinations. Then this enveloping reinforcing area is used in calculating

the moment capacity of the beam. If the reinforcing area has been

overwritten for ductile beams, this area is used in calculating the moment

capacity of the beam. If the beam section is a variable cross-section, the

cross-sections at the two ends are used along with the user-specified

reinforcing or the envelope of reinforcing, as appropriate. If the user

overwrites the major direction length factor, the full span length is used.

However, if the length factor is not overwritten, the clear length will be used.

In the latter case, the maximum of the negative and positive moment

Beam Design 3 - 37

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

capacities will be used for both the negative and positive moment capacities

in determining the capacity shear.

VD+L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity

loads with the assumption that the ends are simply supported.

For Intermediate Moment Resisting frames, the shear reinforcement Asv shall

not be less than 0.5bwS / fsyf (AS A12.3.2.2(b)).

Given the design force set N* and V*, the shear force carried by the concrete, Vuc,

is calculated as follows:

13

A

Vuc = 123bv d o f 'cv st where (AS 8.2.7.1)

bw d o

= ( f 'c ) 4MPa

1/3

f 'cv (AS 8.2.7.1)

1 =

2 = 1; or

= 1 (N*/3.5Ag) 0 for members subject to significant axial tension; or

= 1 + (N*/14Ag) for members subject to significant axial compression

3 = 1

Given V* and Vuc, the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or ties

within a spacing, s, is given by the following:

be given by

3 - 38 Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design Process

The ultimate shear strength of a beam provided with minimum shear rein-

forcement shall be taken as:

= Vuc + 0.6bd o

Vu .min (AS 8.2.9)

follows:

If V * Vuc 2,

Av

= 0, except for d 750 mm, Asv.min shall be provided; (AS 8.2.5)

s

Av

= 0, for bv > 2D; (AS 8.2.5(c)(i))

s

Av (V * Vuc )

= , (AS 8.2.10)

s fsy d o cot v

Av

s

(

max 0.35b/f sy ) (AS 8.2.8)

size should be increased (AS 8.2.6).

The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values, obtained from each design

load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and

associated design load combination name.

The beam shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based

purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to

Beam Design 3 - 39

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

dently of the program by the user.

The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at a

user-defined number of stations along the beam span. The following steps are

involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular

station because of beam torsion:

Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion

in the Preferences.

In the design of torsion reinforcement of any beam, the factored torsions for each

design load combination at a particular design station are obtained by factoring

the corresponding torsion for different load cases with the corresponding design

load combination factors.

moment in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon

cracking, the design T* is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code

(AS 8.3.2). However, the program does not try to redistribute the internal forces

and to reduce T*. If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional

DOF in the structural model.

For torsion design, special section properties such as At, Jt, and ut are calculated.

These properties are described as follows (AS 8.3).

3 - 40 Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design Process

at the corner of the cross-section

Jt = Torsion Modulus

Asw,l /S, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost

closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 30 mm. This is equivalent to

25-mm clear cover and a 10-mm-diameter stirrup placement. For torsion design

of T-beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange

area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion

reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tuc

calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a Rectangular beam

section are given as follows:

At = ( b 2c )( h 2c ) , (AS 8.3.5)

ut = 2 ( b 2c ) + 2 ( h 2c ) , (AS 8.3.6)

where, the section dimensions b, h and c are shown in Figure 3-9. Similarly, the

special section properties for a T-beam section are given as follows:

At = ( bw 2c )( h 2c ) , (AS 8.3.5)

ut = 2 ( h 2c ) + 2 ( bw 2c ) , (AS 8.3.6)

where the section dimensions bf, bw, h, ds and c for a T-beam are shown in

Figure 3-9.

The critical torsion limits, Tcr, for which the torsion in the section can be ignored,

are calculated as follows:

where,

Beam Design 3 - 41

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

c b 2c c bf

c c

ds

h 2c h h h 2c

c c

b bw 2c

bw

Rectangular Beam T-Beam Section

Figure 3-9 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design

in the previous section, is the strength reduction factor for torsion, which is

equal to 0.7 by default (AS 2.3(c), Table 2.3), and f c is the specified concrete

strength. Torsion reinforcement also may be ignored if either of the following is

satisfied:

T* V*

+ 0.5 (AS 8.3.4(a)(ii))

Tuc Vuc

T* V*

+ 1 and D max(250 mm, b/2) (AS 8.3.4(a)(iii))

Tuc Vuc

If the factored torsion T* is less than the threshold limit, Tcr, torsion can be safely

ignored (AS 8.3.4). In that case, the program reports that no torsion is required.

3 - 42 Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design Process

However, if T* exceeds the threshold limit, Tcr, it is assumed that the torsional

resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (AS 8.3).

If, T* > Tcr, the required longitudinal rebar area is calculated as follows:

A

0.5 f sy sw ut cot 2 t

Al = s (AS 8.3.6(a))

f sy

and the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, Asw /s, is calculated as

follows:

Asw T * tan t

= (AS 8.3.5(b))

s 2 f sy , f At

where,

t = the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the

longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30

when T*=Tuc to 45 when T*= Tu,max

Asw,min 0.35bv

= (AS 8.2.8)

s f sy

The following equation also shall be satisfied for combined shear and torsion by

adding additional shear stirrups.

T* V*

+ 1.0 (AS 8.3.4(b))

Tus Vus

T*

Tus = (AS 8.3.4(b))

V*

1

Vus

Beam Design 3 - 43

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section

also is checked using the following equation.

T* V*

+ 1.0 (AS 8.3.3)

Tu,max Vu,max

where,

exceeds this limit, a failure message is declared. In that case, the concrete section

should be increased in size.

When torsional reinforcement is required (T* > Tcr), the area of transverse closed

stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups satisfy the following limit.

Av Asw 0.35bs

s +2 s f (AS 8.3.7, 8.2.8)

sy

If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av s and Asw s ,

Av s is increased to satisfy this condition. In that case, Av s does not need to

satisfy AS Section 8.2.8 independently.

The maximum of all the calculated Al and Asw s values obtained from each

design load combination is reported along with the controlling combination

names.

The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based

purely on strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements and

longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be

investigated independently of the program by the user.

3 - 44 Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design Process

To ensure that the beam-column joint of Special Moment Resisting frames

possesses adequate shear strength, the program performs a rational analysis of

the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in

the joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.

Only joints having a column below the joint are checked. The material properties

of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the column below the joint.

The joint analysis is completed in the major and the minor directions of the

column. The joint design procedure involves the following steps:

The algorithms associated with these three steps are described in detail in the

following three sections.

Figure 3-10 illustrates the free body stress condition of a typical beam-column

intersection for a column direction, major or minor.

The force Vuh is the horizontal panel zone shear force that is to be calculated.

The forces that act on the joint are N*, V*, M *L , and M *R . The forces N* and

V* are axial force and shear force, respectively, from the column framing into

the top of the joint. The moments M *L and M *R are obtained from the beams

framing into the joint. The program calculates the joint shear force Vuh by

resolving the moments into C and T forces. Noting that TL = CL and TR = CR,

Vuh = TL + TR V *

magnitude of C or T forces is conservatively determined using basic principles

of ultimate strength theory (ACI 10.2).

Joint Design 3 - 45

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

The program resolves the moments and the C and T forces from beams that

frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor

directions of the column along the direction that is being investigated, thereby

contributing force components to the analysis. Also, the program calculates the

C and T for the positive and negative moments, considering the fact that the

concrete cover may be different for the direction of moment.

In the design of Special Moment Resisting concrete frames, the evaluation of the

design shear force is based on the moment capacities (with reinforcing steel

overstrength factor, , where, = 1.25 and no factors) of the beams framing

into the joint (ACI 21.5.1.1). The C and T force are based on these moment

capacities. The program calculates the column shear force Vu from the beam

moment capacities, as follows (see Figure 3-5):

M uL + M uR

Vu = .

H

It should be noted that the points of inflection shown on Figure 3-5 are taken as

midway between actual lateral support points for the columns. If no column

exists at the top of the joint, the shear force from the top of the column is taken as

zero.

The effects of load reversals, as illustrated in Case 1 and Case 2 of Figure 3-10,

are investigated and the design is based on the maximum of the joint shears

obtained from the two cases.

The joint area that resists the shear forces is assumed always to be rectangular in

plan view. The dimensions of the rectangle correspond to the major and minor

dimensions of the column below the joint, except if the beam framing into the

joint is very narrow. The effective width of the joint area to be used in the

calculation is limited to the width of the beam plus the depth of the column. The

area of the joint is assumed not to exceed the area of the column below.

The joint area for joint shear along the major and minor directions is calculated

separately (ACI R21.5.3).

3 - 46 Joint Design

Chapter 3 - Design Process

Joint Design 3 - 47

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

It should be noted that if the beam frames into the joint eccentrically, the

preceding assumptions may not be conservative and the user should investigate

the acceptability of the particular joint.

The panel zone shear stress is evaluated by dividing the shear force by the

effective area of the joint and comparing it with the following design shear

strengths (ACI 21.5.3).

v 15 f c

= for joints confined on three faces or on two opposite faces,

12 f c for all other joints.

(ACI 21.5.1.2, 9.3.4).

A beam that frames into a face of a column at the joint is considered in this

program to provide confinement to the joint if at least three-quarters of the face

of the joint is covered by the framing member (ACI 21.5.3.1).

For light-weight aggregate concrete, the design shear strength of the joint is

reduced in the program to at least three-quarters of that of the normal weight

concrete by replacing the f c' with

3

min f cs ,factor f c f c (ACI 21.5.3.1, 21.5.3.2)

4

where the fcs factor is the shear strength reduction factor as defined by the user.

For joint design, the program reports the joint shear, the joint shear stress, the

allowable joint shear stress, and a capacity ratio.

The program calculates the ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to

the sum of the column moment capacities. For Special Moment Resisting

3 - 48 Joint Design

Chapter 3 - Design Process

(ACI 21.4.2.2):

M M

6

nc nb (ACI 21.4.2.2)

5

the joint, evaluated at the faces of the joint. Individual

column flexural strength is calculated for the associated

factored axial force.

into the joint, evaluated at the faces of the joint.

and with no factors ( = 1.0). The beam capacities are calculated for reversed

situations (Cases 1 and 2) as illustrated in Figure 3-10 and the maximum

summation obtained is used.

The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not

parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along the

direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are added to the

summation.

The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column

below the joint. For each load combination, the axial force, N*, in each of the

columns is calculated from the program design load combinations. For each

design load combination, the moment capacity of each column under the

influence of the corresponding axial load is then determined separately for the

major and minor directions of the column, using the uniaxial column interaction

diagram; see Figure 3-11. The moment capacities of the two columns are added

to give the capacity summation for the corresponding design load combination.

The maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the design load

combinations is used for the beam-column capacity ratio.

when the following conditions are met:

Joint Design 3 - 49

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

all of the beams framing into the column are concrete beams

nb nc

only for Special Moment Resisting frames involving seismic design load

combinations. If this ratio is greater than 5/6, a warning message is

printed in the output. The ratio is also reported in the form of

( )

6

5 nc nb

M M and M nc M nb .

3 - 50 Joint Design

APPENDICES

Appendix A

Second Order P-Delta Effects

Typically, design codes require that second order P-Delta effects be considered

when designing concrete frames. They are the global lateral translation of the

frame and the local deformation of members within the frame.

Consider the frame object shown in Figure A-1, which is extracted from a story

level of a larger structure. The overall global translation of this frame object is

indicated by . The local deformation of the member is shown as . The total

second order P-Delta effects on this frame object are those caused by both

and .

The program has an option to consider P-Delta effects in the analysis. When

P-Delta effects are considered in the analysis, the program does a good job of

capturing the effect due to the deformation shown in Figure A-1, but it does

not typically capture the effect of the deformation (unless, in the model, the

frame object is broken into multiple elements over its length).

A-1

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

frame element caused by both and

Consideration of the second order P-Delta effects is generally achieved by

computing the flexural design capacity using a formula similar to that shown in

the following equation.

Mnt = Required flexural capacity of the member assuming there is no

joint translation of the frame (i.e., associated with the defor-

mation in Figure A-1)

Mlt = Required flexural capacity of the member as a result of lateral

translation of the frame only (i.e., associated with the defor-

mation in Figure A-1)

a = Unitless factor multiplying Mnt

b = Unitless factor multiplying Mlt (assumed equal to 1 by the program;

see the following text)

When the program performs concrete frame design, it assumes that the factor b

is equal to 1 and calculates the factor a. That b = 1 assumes that P-delta effects

have been considered in the analysis, as previously described. Thus, in general,

when performing concrete frame design in this program, consider P-delta

effects in the analysis before running the program.

A-2 Appendix A

Appendix B

Member Unsupported Lengths and

Computation of K-Factors

The column unsupported lengths are required to account for column slenderness

effects. The program automatically determines the unsupported length ratios,

which are specified as a fraction of the frame object length. Those ratios times

the frame object length give the unbraced lengths for the members. Those ratios

also can be overwritten by the user on a member-by-member basis, if desired,

using the overwrite option.

There are two unsupported lengths to consider. They are L33 and L22, as shown in

Figure B-1. These are the lengths between support points of the member in the

corresponding directions. The length L33 corresponds to instability about the 3-3

axis (major axis), and L22 corresponds to instability about the 2-2 axis (minor

axis).

In determining the values for L22 and L33 of the members, the program recognizes

various aspects of the structure that have an effect on those lengths, such as

member connectivity, diaphragm constraints, and support points. The program

automatically locates the member support points and evaluates the

corresponding unsupported length.

program as greater than the corresponding member length. For example, assume

B-1

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

a column has a beam framing into it in one direction, but not the other, at a floor

level. In that case, the column is assumed to be supported in one direction only at

that story level, and its unsupported length in the other direction will exceed the

story height.

Appendix C

Concrete Frame Design Preferences

The Concrete Frame Design Preferences are basic assignments that apply to all

of the concrete frame members. Table C-1 lists the Concrete Frame Design

Preferences for the AS 3600-09 code. Default values are provided for all

preference items. Thus, it is not necessary to specify or change any of the

preferences. However, at least review the default values to ensure they are

acceptable. Some of the preference items also are available as member specific

overwrite items. The Overwrites are described in Appendix D. Overwritten

values take precedence over the preferences.

Possible Default

Item Description

Values Value

Toggle for design load combinations that

include a time history designed for the

envelope of the time history, or designed

step-by-step for the entire time history. If a

Time History Envelopes,

Envelopes single design load combination has more

Design Step-by-Step

than one time history case in it, that design

load combination is designed for the

envelopes of the time histories, regardless

of what is specified here.

C-1

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

Possible Default

Item Description

Values Value

Number of equally spaced interaction

curves used to create a full 360 degree

Number Multiple of 4

24 interaction surface (this item should be a

Interaction Curves 4

multiple of four). We recommend 24 for this

item.

Number 11

5 curve in a concrete frame; should be odd.

Minimum No, Yes Yes should be considered in design.

Eccentricity

(Tension >0 0.8 controlled sections.

Controlled)

(Compression >0 0.6 compression controlled sections with spiral

Controlled) reinforcement.

>0 0.7

(Shear)

structures that rely on special moment

Phi

>0 0.60 resisting frames or special reinforced

(Shear - Seismic)

concrete structural walls to resist

earthquake effects.

Phi (Joint Shear) >0 0.7

torsion.

structures that rely on special moment

Phi (Pattern Live

0 0.60 resisting frames or special reinforced

Load Factor)

concrete structural walls to resist

earthquake effects.

>0 0.95

Limit this value are considered acceptable.

C-2 Appendix C

Appendix D

Concrete Frame Overwrites

The concrete frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to

those elements to which they are assigned. Table D-1 lists concrete frame design

overwrites for AS 3600-09. Default values are provided for all overwrite

items. Thus, it is not necessary to specify or change any of the overwrites.

However, at least review the default values to ensure they are acceptable. When

changes are made to overwrite items, the program applies the changes only to

the elements to which they are specifically assigned. Click the F1 key to access

the Help topic explaining how to change the overwrites. Concrete Frame Design

Overwrites are shown in Table D-1.

Possible Default

Item Description

Values Value

The design section for the selected frame

Current Any defined objects. When this overwrite is applied, any

Analysis

Design concrete previous auto select section assigned to the

section

Section section frame object is removed.

D-1

Concrete Frame Design AS 3600-2009

Possible Default

Item Description

Values Value

Sway Frame type per moment frame definition given

Special, Sway in AS A12.4, ACI 21.1. The Framing Type is

Element Intermediate, From used for ductility considerations in the design.

Type Sway Ordinary Sway Special The program default value is Sway Special.

NonSway

Live Load load is multiplied by this factor to obtain the

Reduction 0 Calculated reduced live load for the frame object.

Factor Specifying 0 means the value is program

determined.

Unbraced length factor for buckling about the

frame object major axis. This item is specified

Unbraced as a fraction of the frame object length.

Length Ratio 0 Calculated Multiplying this factor times the frame object

(Major) length gives the unbraced length for the

object. Specifying 0 means the value is

program determined.

Unbraced length factor for buckling about the

frame object minor axis. Multiplying this factor

Unbraced times the frame object length gives the

Length Ratio 0 0.60 unbraced length for the object. Specifying 0

(Minor) means the value is program determined. This

factor also is used in determining the length for

lateral-torsional buckling.

See ACI 10.12, 10.13 and Figure R10.12.1.

Effective Effective length factor for buckling about the

Length Factor >0 Calculated frame object major axis. This item is specified

(K Major) as a fraction of the frame object length.

D-2 Appendix D

References

ACI, 2005. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-05)

and Commentary (ACI 318R-05), American Concrete Institute, P.O. Box

9094, Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA.

International Ltd, GPO Box 5420, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia.

ards Australia International Ltd, GPO Box 5420, Sydney, NSW 2001,

Australia.

CSI, 2008. CSI Analysis Reference Manual, Computers and Structures, Inc.,

Berkeley, California.

Analysis in LRFD: Research to Practice, Engineering Journal, American

Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Vol. 28, No. 4.

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