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Miss. Manisha R. Ghunawat P.G. Student, Computer science & Engineering, Everest Educational Society's Group of Institutions, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India.
Abstract— The K-NN is a technique in which objects are classified depends on nearest training examples which is present in the feature query space. The K-NN is the simplest classification method in data mining. In K-NN objects are classified when there is no information about the distribution of the data objects is known. In K-NN performance of classification is depend on K and it can be determined by the choice of K as well as the distance metric of query. The performance of K-NN classification is largely affected by selection of K which is having a suitable neighbourhood size. It is a key issue for classification. This paper proposed a data structure which is for K-NN search, called as RANK COVER TREE to increase the computational cost of K-NN Search. In RCT pruning test involves the comparison of objects similar values relevant to query. In RCT, by assigning ranks to each objects and select objects with respect to their ranks which is relevant to the data query object. It provides much control on the whole execution costs of query. It gives experimental results which is a Non-metric pruning strategies for similarity search .when high dimensional data are used it gives the same result. It returns corrects query execution result in required time that relies on a intrinsic dimensionality of objects of the data set. RCT can exceed the performance of methods involving metric pruning and many selection tests involving distance values having numerical constraints on it.

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AND ENGINEERING TRENDS

DEPENDENCE USING RANK-BASED

SIMILARITY SEARCH

Miss. Manisha R. Ghunawat

P.G. Student, Computer science & Engineering, Everest Educational Society's Group of Institutions, Aurangabad, Maharashtra,

India.

Abstract The K-NN is a technique in which objects are in principal of k-Nearest Neighbour (K-NN) classification. k-

classified depends on nearest training examples which is NN is founder of it. When number of data object classes is too

present in the feature query space. The K-NN is the large then similarity search produces low error rate as compare

simplest classification method in data mining. In K-NN to other methods of analysis. Error rate of Nearest Neighbour

objects are classified when there is no information about classification shows when training set size increased is

the distribution of the data objects is known. In K-NN asymptotically optimal .In similarity search feature vectors of

performance of classification is depend on K and it can data objects attributes are modelled for which similarity

be determined by the choice of K as well as the distance measure is defined. Various application of data mining is

metric of query. The performance of K-NN classification depend on that. Similarity search can accesses an unacceptable

is largely affected by selection of K which is having a huge part of the data object elements, unless the other data can

suitable neighbourhood size. It is a key issue for be distributed having special properties of data elements.

classification. This paper proposed a data structure Various Data mining application which uses common

which is for K-NN search, called as RANK COVER neighbourhood knowledge of data which is useful and having

TREE to increase the computational cost of K-NN great meaning. High data dimensional tends to make this

Search. In RCT pruning test involves the comparison of common information which very costly to gain. In Similarity

objects similar values relevant to query. In RCT, by search indices selection and identification of objects which is

assigning ranks to each objects and select objects with relevant to query objects depend on similarity values of

respect to their ranks which is relevant to the data query information. This can measure the performance of similarity

object. It provides much control on the whole execution search. In distance-based similarity search make use of

costs of query. It gives experimental results which is a numerical constraints of similar values of data objects for

Non-metric pruning strategies for similarity search building pruning and selection of data objects such types

.when high dimensional data are used it gives the same include the triangle inequality and additive distance bounds.

result. It returns corrects query execution result in The use numerical constraints shows large variations in the

required time that relies on a intrinsic dimensionality of numbers of objects that can be examined in the execution of a

objects of the data set. RCT can exceed the performance query, It is difficult to manage the execution costs. To overcome

of methods involving metric pruning and many selection the problem of large variation in objects analysis in execution.

tests involving distance values having numerical We build a new data structure, the Rank Cover Tree (RCT),

constraints on it used for k-NN. This can totally exclude the use of elements of

data objects having numerical constraints. In RCT all internal

Keywords:- K-Nearest neighbour search, intrinsic selections operation are made using the ranks of that objects of

dimensionality, rank-based search, RCT. data according to the query, having strict control of execution of

data query. By using a rank of objects it gives rank-based search

I INTRODUCTION analysis provides best probability of analysis, the RCT gives a

In Data mining there is a various tools of data analysis correct result of query in required time that fully depends on

which can find patterns of objects and relationships among data set intrinsic dimensionality. The RCT is similarity search

the data. These tools make use valid prediction of object method use the ordinal pruning method and provides correct

data. There are various fundamental operations such as analysis of performance of the query result.

cluster analysis, classification, regression, anomaly detection

and similarity search. In all of which the most widely used II LITERATURE SERVEY

method is of similarity search. Similarity search having built

For clustering, various effective and common methods require

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

AND ENGINEERING TRENDS

the finding of neighbourhood sets of data objects which is Construction:

depend on mostly at a required proportion of data set 1. Consider each item x To X, provides x into levels 0,. . . x.

objects[1][2]. Various examples consists such as Height of tree is h, x can follows technique of a geometric

hierarchical (agglomerative) methods like ROCK [3] and distribution with q = jXj-1=h.

CURE [4]; another method density-based example as

DBSCAN [5], OPTICS [6], and SNN [7] and also non- 2. A partial RCT can be build by connecting each items in that

agglomerative shared-neighbour clustering [8]. level to an artificial root of tree on the highest level.

A recommender systems and anomaly detection

technique used content based filtering approach [9], k-NN 3. In partial RCT by using approximate nearest neighbors

method also used in normal condition build, by making method which is found in the partial RCT can connect the next

direct use of method k-NN cluster analysis. A another very level of tree.

popular local density-based measure that is method of local

Outlier factor (LOF), totally rely on data set of k-NN whose 4. A RCT can be well-build with very high probability.

computation to obtain the denseness of used data which is

present in the test point of that section [10].

The application totally depend upon similarity

search index can be improve its scalability and

effectiveness. Researchers test practical techniques for

speeding up the calculation of finding neighbourhood

information at level of correctness. For application based on

data mining tools, the methods consists of feature sampling

which is used for used for local outlier detection method

[11], for an k-NN classification method and its having own

right of data sampling technique which is used in clustering

as well as approximate similarity search method. BD-tree is

an best suitable examples of fast approximate similarity

search index method, a most-derivable standard for

Figure 1 RCT Construction

approximate k-NN search; it recognizable use of many rules

To implement Rank Cover Tree it consists of design

of splitting and provides at early or near termination to

features of similarity search SASH and also design feature of

obtain great performance approach of the KD-Tree. One of

Cover Tree. SASH can be used for approximate searching and

the most desirable technique for indexing is as Locality-

cover tree for exact search of objects. both of these make use of

Sensitive Hashing [12], [13], obtain best practical and

a ordinal strategy for pruning of objects and it allows for strict

formal performance of search for range queries methods by

control on query execution cost which is obtained with method

adjusting data object parameters that affect a exchange

of queries of approximate search . At each and every level of

between time and accuracy. The most important technique

the tree structure visited the number of neighbouring nodes can

that is for approximate search is spatial approximation

be restricted, the user also reduces average required execution

sample hierarchy (SASH) similarity search method [14] had

time of that query at the each level of that query accuracy. The

best outcome in speed up the performance of a algorithm

proximity search of Tree-based strategies make use of distance

shared-neighbour clustering [8], for a various data set object

metric method in two ways in which numerical constraint of

types.

objects among three data objects on its the distances as it is

III RANK COVER TREE

examined by the method of triangle inequality, or distance of

We proposed a new data structure which is a probabilistic data candidates from its a reference point of numerical

used for similarity search index; the rank-based search (absolute) value constraint present on it.

means Rank Cover Tree (RCT), in which no involvement of

numerical constraints for selection and pruning of data I OBJECTIVE:

element objects. All internal operation such as selections of 1. The RCT can increase the performance of methods that

objects are made by consider to specified ranks of that involves metric pruning strategy or other type of selection tests

objects element according to that query , having strict having numerical constraints on distance values.

control on query execution costs. A rank-based probabilistic 2. To increase the computational cost of K-NN Search.

method having huge probability, the RCT perform a correct 3. Using RCT user can minimize the average amount of time

result of query execution in specific time that relies on a required for execution .to obtain a great query accuracy.

high portion of the intrinsic dimensionality of that data set.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

AND ENGINEERING TRENDS

4. It provides tighter control on overall execution costs. The algorithm which is work without knowing the

Provides best result for similarity search information of that structure; and the analysis is done according

II. NECESSITY: to the some assumptions. In some algorithm (as in [KL04a] but

1. In RCT Rank thresholds method specifically calculate the not in [KR02]) work can be done without time complexity

number of data objects which is to be selected for pruning it Comparison in terms of expansion constant C and it can be

avoid and reduce a major of variation of data elements subtle .

objects in the overall execution time of query.

2. It improves computational cost of similarity search. II. SPATIAL APPROXIMATION SAMPLE HIERARCHY

(SASH):

IV RELATED WORK The huge amount of data sets objects that used a data

structures providing the better performance for an amount of N

This paper consists of two most important and recently-

data items within given database. The R-Tree plays an efficient

developed approaches that are quite dissimilar from each

role for efficiency of DBSCAN. To handle very massive data

other which is consider to proposed RCT data structure.

sets, use SASH technique. The SASH method can build

The SASH heuristic is used for approximate searching of

minimal number of assumptions about associative objects

similarity, and second approach that is the cover Tree used

queries metric. SASH does not regulate a partition of the query

for exact searching of similarity. RCT can use method of

search space, as the instance of R-Trees can done. For similarity

combinatorial search similarity approach. The SASH also

search of approximation of k-NN (k-ANN) queries present on

used an combinatorial similarity search approach, whereas

the huge data sets, the similarity search SASH can

In the cover tree numerical constraints are used for selection

systematically provide a huge part of k-NNs truth of queries at

and pruning of data objects. Description of SASH and Cover

specific speeds of randomly of two different orders of relative

Tree as given below.

size which is faster than regular sequential search method. For

I. COVER TREE: clustering method and navigation of very huge , very large

In Cover Tree the intrinsic dimensionality

Dimensional text, image sets of data on which The

performance can be analyzed by a common search method

SASH can perform successfully . The SASH internally can

for determining nearest neighbourhood data queries

make use of a k-NN query on very small data sets elements. the

example. In this approach, a randomized structure can found

SASH probably having a multi-level structure which is to be

like to be skip list which can be used to recognized pre-

recursively constructed. In SASH building on random sample of

determined samples of data elements which is surrounding

half-sized data set S'S .the data object element set S, by

points object of interest. By performing same procedure by

connecting each and every object which is remaining present

shifting the sample focus to sample data elements which is

outside S' to the many of its nearest neighbourhood which is

closest to the query object element and discovering new set

approximate of object from at an intervals S'. Many types of

of samples which is present in the surrounding points of

queries can be processed by its initial method by establishing

interest. The rate of expansion of sample element S which is

approximate neighbours of objects at specific intervals of

to be having minimum value of as required condition

sample S', so that pre-established connections can be used to

holds above, it is subjected to the various alternate of

find various neighbours of objects at specific intervals of the

minimum ball element set size a.

information can be gain data set.

The similarity search method Cover Tree

gives a answer for exact similarity search of queries using an V RESEARCH WORK

approach of early termination. In analysis of some algorithm

basically focus is on expansion constant, it provides the We can overcome the drawback of operations involves an

results for exact nearest neighbour queries. Consider the S numerical constraints like the triangle inequality method or

having the expansion constant C, following explicitly distance ranges in that data objects count actually proceed or

dependence on expansion rate C: examined having very high variation of objects, because of it

Cover Tree Nav. Net [KR02] the overall or complete time required for execution cannot be

Constr. Space O(n) C^o(1)n C^o(1)n ln easily determined or predicted. Using RCT we can easily

n predict execution time. To increase the scalability and

Constr. Time O(c^6n ln C^o(1)n ln C^o(1)n ln efficiency of data mining applications that fully rely on

n) n n similarity search values. Finding the best methods for efficiently

Insert/Remove O(c^6 ln n) C^o(1) ln n C^o(1) ln n speed up the computational power of nearest neighbourhood

Query O(c^12 ln C^o(1)) ln n C^o(1) ln n information at the great expense of accuracy.

n)

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AND ENGINEERING TRENDS

VI CONCLUSION high dimensional data, in Proc. 3rd SIAM Int. Conf. Data

Mining, 2003, p. 1.

We have developed rank-based search that is Rank Cover [8] M. E. Houle, The relevant set correlation model for data

Tree which is a new data structure for k-NN search. In clustering, Statist. Anal. Data Mining, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 157

which ordinal pruning approach is used that involves direct 176,2008.

distance values of data objects comparisons. The RCT [9] V. Chandola, A. Banerjee, and V. Kumar, Anomaly

construction is independent on the representational high detection: A survey, ACM Comput. Surv., vol. 41, no. 3, pp.

dimension of the data. but it can be probabilistically 158, 2009.

analyzed in the form of approach a measure values of [10] M. M. Breunig, H.-P. Kriegel, R. T. Ng, and J. Sander,

intrinsic dimensionality. The RCT can be build by using two LOF: Identifying density-based local outliers, SIGMOD Rec.,

main methods that means the cover Tree and SASH vol. 29, no. 2,pp. 93104, 2000.

structures techniques. [11] T. de Vries, S. Chawla, and M. E. Houle, Finding local

anomalies in very high dimensional space, in Proc. IEEE Int.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Conf. Data Mining,2010, pp. 128137.

[12] A. Gionis, P. Indyk, and R. Motwani, Similarity search in

It is my great pleasure in expressing sincere and deep high dimensions via hashing, in Proc. 25th Int. Conf. Very

gratitude towards my guide Prof.Yogesh R.Nagargoje. I am Large Data Bases, 1999, pp. 518529.

also thankful to Head of Department of Computer Science [13] P. Indyk, and R. Motwani, Approximate nearest

and Engineering, Prof. Rajesh. A. Auti for providing me neighbors: Towards removing the curse of dimensionality, in

various resources and infrastructure facilities. I also offer Proc. 30th ACM Symp. Theory Comput., 1998, pp. 604613.

my most sincere thanks to Principal of Everest College of [14] M. E. Houle and J. Sakuma, Fast approximate similarity

Engineering, Aurangabad, my colleagues and staff members search in extremely high-dimensional data sets, in Proc. 21st

of computer science and Engineering department, Everest Intern. Conf. Data Eng., 2005, pp. 619630.

college of Engineering, Aurangabad for cooperation [15] M. E. Houle and M. Nett, Rank cover trees for nearest

provided by them in many ways. neighbor search, in Proc. Int. Conf. Similarity Search Appl.,

2013,pp. 1629.

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2006. [1] J. Han, and M. Kamber, Data Mining: Concepts

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[3] S. Guha, R. Rastogi, and K. Shim, ROCK: A robust

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[4] S. Guha, R. Rastogi, and K. Shim, CURE: An efficient

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