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Second Semester 2006/2007

BEMfgE/06S/11 BEng (Hons) Manufacturing Saturday

Engineering 26 May 2007
Level 4


May 2007 Reliability and Maintenance 9:30 11:30 Hours

[MECH 4066(5)]

This paper contains FIVE (5) Questions. Candidates are required to answer
ANY FOUR (4) Questions.

Figure 1 for Question 2 is attached.

Question 1

(a) A System has been designed such that its reliability at ten hours should be at
least 99.5%. The System consists of a number, k, of identical sub-systems
connected in parallel. Each sub-system has three components A, B and C
connected in series.

The components fail randomly with the following failure rate, :

Component Failure rate,

A 0.01
B 0.02
C 0.03

Find the value of k.

[11 marks]

(b) A particular plant manufacturing chemicals consists of two similar production

lines. Each production line makes 50 % of the required total production and
consists of three stages A, B and C in series. The reliability of the stages A,
B and C are 0.70, 0.90 and 0.95 respectively.

(i) Illustrate the above process using block diagrams. [2 marks]

(ii) Calculate the reliability of the process to achieve 100% production.

[4 marks]

(iii) To improve the reliability of the process, a new stage, D, was

introduced. This new stage has a reliability of 0.95 and is in parallel to
stage A of both production lines. Stage D can replace either stage A of
the first production line or stage A of the second production line but
cannot replace both of them at the same time.

Modify the block diagram of section b(i) to include stage D.

Calculate the new reliability of the process.

[8 marks]

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Question 2

Refer to the Gas Leak Detection System (GLDS) of Figure 1.

In normal operation, when there is no leak, the isolation valves are opened and the
blowdown valve is closed.

In case of a leak, the detectors will register the leak and the computer will trigger the
alarm and trip the relay, causing the relay contacts to open. On hearing the alarm, the
operator will activate the push button, which will open the push button contacts.

When either the relay contacts or the push button contacts are opened, the isolation
valves will close, preventing further gas from entering the piping, and at the same
time the blowdown valve will open, evacuating remaining gas from the piping.

Note: 1. Only one detector signal is required for the computer to trigger the
alarm and trip the relay.

2. The GLDS is considered failed when it is not able to close the isolation
valves and open the blowdown valve simultaneously in case of a leak.

The Components Failure Mode and their respective Code are given below:

Component Failure Mode Code

Isolation valve 1 fails to close V1
Isolation valve 2 fails to close V2
Blowdown valve 3 fails to open V3
Operator Unavailable OP
Computer fails to trigger alarm and trip the relay COMP
Alarm fails to sound AL
Relay contacts stuck closed CONT
Concentration detector fails to register leak CD1
Sonic detector fails to register leak SD1
Push Button contacts stuck closed PB

(a) Construct the fault tree for the Top Event GLDS fails. [20 marks]

(b) Evaluate the complete list of minimal cut sets. [5 marks]

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Question 3

You have been appointed as the Maintenance Manager of a Textile Plant. Following
your first audit of the department, you noticed the following:
The actual maintenance policy is to operate to failure requiring a large
standby crew.
There is no preventive maintenance programme.
There are no Maintenance Management Systems.

(a) Based on the audit, describe in detail how you will proceed to develop a cost
effective maintenance strategy for the plant, and to determine the required
amount of resources to carry out the strategy.
[19 marks]

(b) What are the maintenance management systems required to carry out the
maintenance schedule? Give a brief explanation of each system.
[6 marks]

Question 4

(a) (i) With the help of a flow diagram, describe the different steps of
Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM).
[9 marks]

(ii) In which industries do you recommend RCM as maintenance strategy?

[1 mark]

(b) Describe three popular methods for condition monitoring. What are the
instruments used for each method and give two examples of application of
each method?
[15 marks]

Question 5

An aircraft company has been having a lot of problems with the oleo-seal of the two
main landing gears of one of its aircraft (each landing gear having one oleo seal).

The oleo-seals wear out with time and whenever they are worn out, a fault message is
received in the aircraft cockpit and their replacement is required before next flight.

The aircraft manufacturer has been informed of the problem, who advised that they
are designing a new seal, but the latter will only be available after 6 years because of a
lengthy process. They also advised that the actual oleo-seal has a life of 600 100

(continued next page)

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Question 5 (continued)

On average the aircraft does two landings daily and the following maintenance
windows are available:
6 hours weekly
24 hours monthly (the monthly window includes the 6 hours of the weekly,
that is the monthly coincides with the weekly)
2 weeks every 16 months (for turnaround of the aircraft)

Outside the window, whenever the aircraft is stopped for maintenance, there is high
cost of lost output.

The present maintenance policy is Condition Based Maintenance (CBM), with a

monthly inspection of the seals. Part the landing gear has to be removed for
inspection purposes and the total time for the inspection of one seal is 18 hours.

A planned replacement of one oleo-seal takes 26 hours and an unplanned replacement

following a fault message takes 32 hours.

Cost characteristics of the oleo-seal replacement is as follows:

Production loss per hour of downtime $ 3 000
Labour cost per hour for an unexpected failure (for one seal) $ 600
Labour cost per hour for a planned replacement (for one seal) $ 400
Labour cost per hour for inspection (for one seal) $ 100
Cost of an oleo-seal $ 5 000

Note: Both seals are always replaced at the same time (even if only one of them
has failed, when using breakdown maintenance).
Both seals are inspected at the same time.
The aircraft just came out of a turnaround where both oleo-seals have been

(a) Explain why fixed time maintenance can be used for the oleo-seal? [2 marks]

(b) For the next six years of operation after which the seal will be replaced by the
new seal being designed, calculate the following:
(i) Cost of using the actual maintenance policy, which is Condition Based
Maintenance (CBM). [8 marks]
(ii) Cost of using Breakdown Maintenance Policy. [5 marks]
(iii) Cost of using Fix Time Maintenance (FTM), with replacement at
500 landings. [8 marks]

(c) Explain why there is a reduction in cost from CBM to FTM policy, even though
there are more replacements when FTM is used? [2 marks]



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