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Control Engineering

Chapter 3:
Modeling in the Time Domain

Jin Bae Park, Professor


School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea

EEE 3310, Control Engineering


Fall 2017
Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

Classical and Modern Control


Classical Control
Frequency domain
Only for linear, time-invariant system
Easy understanding (graphical analysis possible)
Both zeros and poles obtainable
Difficult prediction of the behavior of higher orders poles (usually for up
to second-order poles)
Modern control
Time domain (or state-space domain)
Unified method
Extended to nonlinear, time-varying system
Multi-input, multi-output systems
Easy computer installation
It may be sensitive to parameter changes
(no direct specification of closed-loop zeros)

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Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

General State-Space Representation

Linearly independent
state variables
where : state vector
: time derivative of x
: output vector
: input vector
: system matrix and input coupling matrix
: output matrix and feedforward matrix
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Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

Example: RL network with initial condition


Differential equation:
Taking LT:
Injecting a unit step:
Output:

By PFE

ILT

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Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

From (1)

State equation
Dynamic eqation
Output equations

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Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

Example : Serial RLC circuit


Since

For order of system, write simultaneous, first-order differential


L R
equation
Since the system is second-order

C
V(t)

i (t )
In matrix form

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Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

In matrix form

and should be linearly independent, but for vR Ri , is not


chosen because the set is linearly dependent.
Rule
Choose the minimum number (or minimal set) of state variables (the
same as the number of independent energy storage elements.)
Choose linearly independent state variables.

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Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

General State-Space Representation

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Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

Output equation

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Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

Example : Given the transfer function


Since

Assuming zero initial conditions and taking ILT yields

Phase variable form


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Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

Figure

Transfer funtion form

Block diagram form 11


Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

Converting a transfer function with polynomial in


numerator when

Taking LT with zero initial condition yields

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Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

The state equation has the same form as the previous one

0
0

0

. r
.

0
1

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Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

Example : Converting a transfer function with polynomial in


numerator
The state equation is

but
Hence,

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Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

Figure

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Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

Converting from State Space to a Transfer Function

Taking the LT with zero initial condition yields

where is the identity matrix

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Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

Example : Find

First find

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Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

Chapter 4.10
Solving the state equations via the LT
(with initial condition)

Substituting (1) (2) yields


Y (s) C(sI A)1 ( x(0) BU (s)) DU (s)
When
Y (s) (C(sI A)1 B D)U (s)
Then, the Transfer function
Y ( s)
T ( s) C ( sI A) 1 B D
U (s)
Y (s) adj ( sI A)
or T ( s) C BD
det( sI A)
U ( s) 18
Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

Example :

Find and
s 6
s 5 6 1 s 5
1 adj ( sI A)
sI A ( sI A )
1 s det( sI A) s ( s 5) 6
s 6 1
0 1 0
1 s 5 1
T ( s ) C ( sI A) 1 B
s 2 5s 6 ( s 2)( s 3)

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