Anda di halaman 1dari 19

# Control Engineering

Chapter 3:
Modeling in the Time Domain

## Jin Bae Park, Professor

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea

## EEE 3310, Control Engineering

Fall 2017
Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

## Classical and Modern Control

Classical Control
Frequency domain
Only for linear, time-invariant system
Easy understanding (graphical analysis possible)
Both zeros and poles obtainable
Difficult prediction of the behavior of higher orders poles (usually for up
to second-order poles)
Modern control
Time domain (or state-space domain)
Unified method
Extended to nonlinear, time-varying system
Multi-input, multi-output systems
Easy computer installation
It may be sensitive to parameter changes
(no direct specification of closed-loop zeros)

2
Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

## General State-Space Representation

Linearly independent
state variables
where : state vector
: time derivative of x
: output vector
: input vector
: system matrix and input coupling matrix
: output matrix and feedforward matrix
3
Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

## Example: RL network with initial condition

Differential equation:
Taking LT:
Injecting a unit step:
Output:

By PFE

ILT

4
Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

From (1)

State equation
Dynamic eqation
Output equations

5
Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

Since

## For order of system, write simultaneous, first-order differential

L R
equation
Since the system is second-order

C
V(t)

i (t )
In matrix form

6
Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

In matrix form

## and should be linearly independent, but for vR Ri , is not

chosen because the set is linearly dependent.
Rule
Choose the minimum number (or minimal set) of state variables (the
same as the number of independent energy storage elements.)
Choose linearly independent state variables.

7
Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

## General State-Space Representation

8
Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

Output equation

9
Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

Since

## Phase variable form

10
Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

Figure

## Block diagram form 11

Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

numerator when

## Taking LT with zero initial condition yields

12
Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

The state equation has the same form as the previous one

0
0

0

. r
.

0
1

13
Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

## Example : Converting a transfer function with polynomial in

numerator
The state equation is

but
Hence,

14
Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

Figure

15
Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

## where is the identity matrix

16
Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

Example : Find

First find

17
Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

Chapter 4.10
Solving the state equations via the LT
(with initial condition)

## Substituting (1) (2) yields

Y (s) C(sI A)1 ( x(0) BU (s)) DU (s)
When
Y (s) (C(sI A)1 B D)U (s)
Then, the Transfer function
Y ( s)
T ( s) C ( sI A) 1 B D
U (s)
Y (s) adj ( sI A)
or T ( s) C BD
det( sI A)
U ( s) 18
Chap.3 Modeling in the Time Domain

Example :

Find and
s 6
s 5 6 1 s 5