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Comparative Table of Provisions

amended by R.A. 10951

BOOK ONE

Title One
FELONIES AND CIRCUMSTANCES
WHICH AFFECT CRIMINAL LIABILITY
Chapter One
FELONIES

Art. Revised Penal Code R.A. No. 10951

9. Grave felonies, less grave felonies Grave felonies, less grave felonies
and light felonies. — and light felonies. —

xxx xxx xxx xxx

Light felonies are those infractions Light felonies are those infractions
of law for the commission of which of law for the commission of which
a penalty of arresto menor or a fine a penalty of arresto menor or a fine
not exceeding 200 pesos or both, not exceeding Forty thousand
is provided. pesos (P40,000) or both, is
provided.

Title Three
PENALTIES
Chapter Two
CLASSIFICATION OF PENALTIES
Art. Revised Penal Code R.A. No. 10951

26. When afflictive, correctional, or light When afflictive, correctional, or light


penalty. — A fine, whether imposed penalty. — A fine, whether imposed
as a single or as an alternative as a single or as an alternative
penalty, shall be considered an penalty, shall be considered an
afflictive penalty, if it exceeds afflictive penalty, if it exceeds one
6,000 pesos; a correctional million two hundred thousand
penalty, if it does not exceed 6,000 pesos (P1,200,000); a correctional
pesos but is not less than 200 penalty, if it does not exceed one
pesos; and a light penalty if it less million two hundred thousand
than 200 pesos. pesos (P1,200,000) but is not less
than forty thousand pesos
(P40,000); and a light penalty if it
less than forty thousand pesos
(P40,000).

BOOK TWO

Title One
CRIMES AGAINST NATIONAL SECURITY AND LAW OF NATIONS
Chapter One
CRIMES AGAINST NATIONAL SECURITY
Section One. — Treason and espionage

Art. Revised Penal Code R.A. No. 10951


Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

114. Treason. — Any Filipino citizen Treason. — Any Filipino citizen who
who levies war against the levies war against the Philippines
Philippines or adheres to her or adheres to her enemies, giving
enemies, giving them aid or them aid or comfort within the
comfort within the Philippine Philippine Islands or elsewhere,
Islands or elsewhere, shall be shall be punished by reclusión
punished by reclusión perpetua to perpetua to death and shall pay a
death and shall pay a fine not to fine not to exceed Four million
exceed P100,000 pesos. pesos (P4,000,000).

xxx xxx

Likewise, an alien, residing in the Likewise, an alien, residing in the


Philippines, who commits acts of Philippines, who commits acts of
treason as defined in paragraph 1 treason as defined in paragraph 1
of this Article shall be punished by of this Article shall be punished by
reclusión temporal to death and reclusión temporal to death and
shall pay a fine not to exceed shall pay a fine not to exceed Four
P100,000 pesos. (As amended by million pesos (P4,000,000).
Sec. 2, R.A. NO. 7659).

115. Conspiracy and proposal to commit Conspiracy and proposal to commit


treason; Penalty. — The conspiracy treason; Penalty. — The conspiracy
or proposal to commit the crime of or proposal to commit the crime of
treason shall be punished treason shall be punished
respectively, by prisión mayor and respectively, by prisión mayor and a
a fine not exceeding 10,000 pesos, fine not exceeding Two million
and by prisión correccional and a pesos (P2,000,000), and by prisión
fine not exceeding 5,000 pesos. correccional and a fine not
exceeding one million pesos
(P1,000,000).

Title Two
CRIMES AGAINST THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF THE STATE
Chapter One
ARBITRARY DETENTION OR EXPULSION, VIOLATION
OF DWELLING, PROHIBITION, INTERRUPTION, AND
DISSOLUTION OF PEACEFUL MEETINGS AND CRIMES
AGAINST RELIGIOUS WORSHIP
Section Two. — Violation of domicile
Art. Revised Penal Code R.A. No. 10951

129. Search warrants maliciously Search warrants maliciously


obtained and abuse in the service of obtained and abuse in the service of
those legally obtained. — In those legally obtained. — In
addition to the liability attaching to addition to the liability attaching to
the offender for the commission of the offender for the commission of
any other offense, the penalty of any other offense, the penalty of
arresto mayor in its maximum arresto mayor in its maximum
period to prisión correccional in its period to prisión correccional in its
minimum period and a fine not minimum period and a fine not
exceeding 1,000 pesos shall be exceeding Two hundred thousand
imposed upon any public officer or pesos (P200,000) shall be imposed
employee who shall procure a upon any public officer or employee
search warrant without just cause, who shall procure a search warrant
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

or, having legally procured the without just cause, or, having
same, shall exceed his authority or legally procured the same, shall
use unnecessary severity in exceed his authority or use
executing the same. unnecessary severity in executing
the same

Title Three
CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC ORDER
Chapter One
REBELLION, SEDITION AND DISLOYALTY
Art. Revised Penal Code R.A. No. 10951

136. Conspiracy and proposal to commit Conspiracy and proposal to commit


coup d'etat, rebellion or insurrection. coup d'etat, rebellion or insurrection.
— The conspiracy and proposal to — The conspiracy and proposal to
commit coup d'etat shall be commit coup d'etat shall be
punished by prisión mayor in its punished by prisión mayor in its
minimum period and a fine which minimum period and a fine which
shall not exceed eight thousand shall not exceed One million pesos
pesos (P8,000.00). (P1,000,000).

The conspiracy and proposal to The conspiracy and proposal to


commit rebellion or insurrection commit rebellion or insurrection
shall be punished respectively, by shall be punished respectively, by
prisión correccional in its maximum prisión correccional in its maximum
period and a fine which shall not period and a fine which shall not
exceed five thousand pesos exceed One million pesos
(P5,000.00) and by prisión (P1,000,000) and by prisión
correccional in its medium period correccional in its medium period
and a fine not exceeding two and a fine not exceeding Four
thousand pesos (P2,000.00). (As hundred thousand pesos
amended by R.A. 6968) (P400,000).

140. Penalty for sedition. — The leader Penalty for sedition. — The leader of
of a sedition shall suffer the a sedition shall suffer the penalty
penalty of prisión mayor in its of prisión mayor in its minimum
minimum period and a fine not period and a fine not exceeding
exceeding 10,000 pesos. Two million pesos (P2,000,000).

Other persons participating therein Other persons participating therein


shall suffer the penalty of prisión shall suffer the penalty of prisión
correccional in its maximum period correccional in its maximum period
and a fine not exceeding 5,000 and a fine not exceeding One
pesos. (Reinstated by E.O. No. 187) million pesos (P1,000,000).

141. Conspiracy to commit sedition. — Conspiracy to commit sedition. —


Persons conspiring to commit the Persons conspiring to commit the
crime of sedition shall be punished crime of sedition shall be punished
by prisión correccional in its by prisión correccional in its
medium period and a fine not medium period and a fine not
exceeding 2,000 pesos. exceeding four hundred thousand
(Reinstated by E.O. No. 187). pesos (P400,000).
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amended by R.A. 10951

142. Inciting to sedition. — The penalty Inciting to sedition. — The penalty


of prisión correccional in its of prisión correccional in its
maximum period and a fine not maximum period and a fine not
exceeding 2,000 pesos shall be exceeding Four hundred thousand
imposed upon any person who, pesos (P400,000) shall be imposed
without taking any direct part in upon any person who, x x x.
the crime of sedition, should incite
others to the accomplishment of
any of the acts which constitute
sedition, by means of speeches,
proclamations, writings, emblems,
cartoons, banners, or other
representations tending to the
same end, or upon any person or
persons who shall utter seditious
words or speeches, write, publish,
or circulate scurrilous libels
against the Government of the
Philippines, or any of the duly
constituted authorities thereof,
which tend to disturb or obstruct
any lawful officer in executing the
functions of his office; or which
tend to instigate others to cabal
and meet together for unlawful
purposes; or which suggest or
incite rebellious conspiracies or
riots; or which lead or tend to stir
up the people against the lawful
authorities; or to disturb the peace
of the community, the safety and
order of the government, or who
shall knowingly conceal such evil
practices.

Title Three
CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC ORDER
Chapter Two
CRIMES AGAINST POPULAR REPRESENTATION
Section One. — Crimes against legislative bodies and similar bodies

Art. Revised Penal Code R.A. No. 10951

143. Acts tending to prevent the meeting Acts tending to prevent the meeting
of the Assembly and similar bodies. of the Assembly and similar bodies.
— The penalty of prisión — The penalty of prisión
correccional or a fine ranging from correccional or a fine ranging from
200 to 2,000 pesos, or both, shall Forty thousand pesos (P40,000)
be imposed upon any person who, to Four hundred thousand pesos
by force or fraud, prevents the (P400,000) or both, shall be
meeting of the Congress or of any imposed upon any person who, x x
of its committees or x.
subcommittees, constitutional
commissions or committees or
divisions thereof, or of any
provincial board or city or
municipal council or board.
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(Reinstated by E.O. No. 187).

144. Disturbance of Proceedings. — The Disturbance of Proceedings. — The


penalty of arresto mayor or a fine penalty of arresto mayor or a fine
from 200 to 1,000 pesos shall be from Forty thousand pesos
imposed upon any person who (P40,000) to Two hundred
disturbs the meeting of the thousand pesos (P200,000) shall
Congress or of any of its be imposed upon any person who
committees or subcommittees, disturbs the meetings of Congress
constitutional commissions or or of any of its committees x x x.
committees or divisions thereof, or
of any provincial board or city or
municipal council or board, or in
the presence of such bodies should
behave in such manner as to
interrupt its proceeding or to
impair the respect due to it.
(Reinstated by E.O. No. 187).

Title Three
CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC ORDER
Chapter Three
ILLEGAL ASSEMBLIES AND ASSOCIATIONS

Art. Revised Penal Code R.A. No. 10951

147. Illegal Associations. — The penalty Illegal Associations. — The penalty


of prisión correccional in its of prisión correccional in its
minimum and medium periods and minimum and medium periods and
a fine not exceeding 1,000 pesos a fine not exceeding Two hundred
shall be imposed upon the thousand pesos (P200,000) shall
founders, directors, and presidents be imposed x x x.
of associations totally or partially
organized for the purpose of
committing any of the crimes
punishable under this Code or for
some purpose contrary to public
morals. Mere members of said
associations shall suffer the
penalty of arresto mayor.

Title Three
CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC ORDER
Chapter Four
ASSAULT UPON, AND RESISTANCE AND DISOBEDIENCE TO
PERSONS IN AUTHORITY AND THEIR AGENTS
Art. Revised Penal Code R.A. No. 10951

148. Direct Assaults. — Any person or Direct Assaults. — Any person or


persons who, without a public persons who, x x x shall suffer the
uprising, shall employ force or penalty of prisión correccional in its
intimidation for the attainment of medium and maximum periods and
any of the purposes enumerated in a fine not exceeding Two hundred
defining the crimes of rebellion and thousand pesos (P200,000), when
sedition, or shall attack, employ the assault is committed with a
force or seriously intimidate or weapon or when the offender is a
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

resist any person in authority or public officer or employee, or when


any of his agents, while engaged in the offender lays hands upon a
the performance of official duties, person in authority. If none of
or on occasion of such these circumstances be present,
performance, shall suffer the the penalty of prisión correccional in
penalty of prisión correccional in its its minimum period and a fine not
medium and maximum periods exceeding One hundred thousand
and a fine not exceeding 1,000 pesos (P100,000) shall be
pesos, when the assault is imposed.
committed with a weapon or when
the offender is a public officer or
employee, or when the offender
lays hands upon a person in
authority. If none of these
circumstances be present, the
penalty of prisión correccional in its
minimum period and a fine not
exceeding 500 pesos shall be
imposed.

149. Indirect Assaults. — The penalty of Indirect Assaults. — The penalty of


prisión correccional in its minimum prisión correccional in its minimum
and medium periods and a fine not and medium periods and a fine not
exceeding 500 pesos shall be exceeding One hundred thousand
imposed upon any person who pesos (P100,000) shall be imposed
shall make use of force or upon any person who shall make
intimidation upon any person use of force or intimidation upon
coming to the aid of the authorities any person coming to the aid of the
or their agents on occasion of the authorities or their agents on
commission of any of the crimes occasion of the commission of any
defined in the next preceding of the crimes defined in the next
article. preceding article.

150. Disobedience to Summons Issued Disobedience to Summons Issued by


by Congress, its committees or Congress, its committees or
subcommittees, by the subcommittees, by the
Constitutional Commissions, its Constitutional Commissions, its
committees, subcommittees or committees, subcommittees or
divisions. — The penalty of arresto divisions. — The penalty of arresto
mayor or a fine ranging from 200 mayor or a fine ranging from Forty
to 1,000 pesos, or both such fine thousand (P40,000) to Two
and imprisonment, shall be hundred thousand pesos
imposed upon any person who, (P200,000), x x x .
having been duly summoned to
attend as a witness before
Congress, its special or standing
committees and subcommittees,
the Constitutional Commissions
and its committees,
subcommittees, or divisions, or
before any commission or
committee chairman or member
authorized to summon witnesses,
refuses, without legal excuse, to
obey such summons, or being
present before any such legislative
or constitutional body or official,
refuses to be sworn or placed
under affirmation or to answer any
legal inquiry or to produce any
Comparative Table of Provisions
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books, papers, documents, or


records in his possession, when
required by them to do so in the
exercise of their functions. The
same penalty shall be imposed
upon any person who shall
restrain another from attending as
a witness, or who shall induce
disobedience to a summons or
refusal to be sworn by any such
body or official. (As amended by
Com. Act No. 52)

151. Resistance and Disobedience to a Resistance and Disobedience to a


Person in Authority or the Agents of Person in Authority or the Agents of
Such Person. — The penalty of Such Person. — The penalty of
arresto mayor and a fine not arresto mayor and a fine not
exceeding 500 pesos shall be exceeding One hundred thousand
imposed upon any person who not pesos (P100,000) shall be imposed
being included in the provisions of x x x.
the preceding articles shall resist
or seriously disobey any person in When the disobedience to an agent
authority, or the agents of such of a person in authority is not of a
person, while engaged in the serious nature, the penalty of
performance of official duties. arresto menor or a fine ranging
from Two thousand pesos
When the disobedience to an agent (P2,000) to Twenty thousand
of a person in authority is not of a pesos (P20,000) shall be imposed
serious nature, the penalty of upon the offender.
arresto menor or a fine ranging
from 10 to 100 pesos shall be
imposed upon the offender.

Title Three
CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC ORDER
Chapter Five
PUBLIC DISORDERS

Art. Revised Penal Code R.A. No. 10951

153. Tumults and Other Disturbances of Tumults and Other Disturbances of


Public Orders; Tumultuous Public Orders; Tumultuous
Disturbance or Interruption Liable to Disturbance or Interruption Liable to
Cause Disturbance. — The penalty Cause Disturbance. — The penalty
of arresto mayor in its medium of arresto mayor in its medium
period to prisión correccional in its period to prisión correccional in its
minimum period and a fine not minimum period and a fine not
exceeding 1,000 pesos shall be exceeding Two hundred thousand
imposed upon any person who pesos (P200,000) shall be imposed
shall cause any serious upon any person who shall cause
disturbance in a public place, any serious disturbance x x x.
office, or establishment, or shall
interrupt or disturb public xxx xxx xxx
performances, functions or
gatherings, or peaceful meetings, if The penalty of arresto menor and a
the act is not included in the fine not to exceed Forth thousand
provisions of articles 131 and 132. pesos (P40,000) shall be imposed
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

upon those persons who in


The penalty next higher in degree violation of the provisions
shall be imposed upon persons contained in the last clause of
causing any disturbance or article 85 shall bury with pomp the
interruption of a tumultuous body of a person who has been
character. legally executed.

The disturbance or interruption


shall be deemed to be tumultuous
if caused by more than three
persons who are armed or provided
with means of violence.

The penalty of arresto mayor shall


be imposed upon any person who
in any meeting, association, or
public place, shall make any
outcry tending to incite rebellion or
sedition or in such place shall
display placards or emblems which
provoke a disturbance of the public
order.

The penalty of arresto menor and a


fine not to exceed 200 pesos shall
be imposed upon those persons
who in violation of the provisions
contained in the last clause of
article 85 shall bury with pomp the
body of a person who has been
legally executed.

154. Unlawful Use of Means of Unlawful Use of Means of


Publication and Unlawful Publication and Unlawful
Utterances. — The penalty of Utterances. — The penalty of
arresto mayor and a fine ranging arresto mayor and a fine ranging
from 200 to 1,000 pesos shall be from Forty thousand pesos
imposed upon: (P40,000) to Two hundred
thousand pesos (P200,000) shall
1. Any person who by means of be imposed upon: x x x.
printing, lithography, or any other
means of publication, shall
maliciously publish as news any
false news which may endanger the
public order or cause damage to
the interest or credit of the State;

2. Any person who by the same


means, or by words, utterances or
speeches, shall encourage
disobedience to the law or to the
constituted authorities or praise,
justify or extol any act punished by
law;

3. Any person who shall


maliciously publish or cause to be
published any official resolution or
document without proper
authority, or before they have been
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

published officially; or

4. Any person who shall print,


publish, or distribute or cause to
be printed, published, or
distributed books, pamphlets,
periodicals, or leaflets which do not
bear the real printer’s name, or
which are classified as anonymous.
(As amended by Com. Act No. 202)

155. Alarms and Scandals. — The Alarms and Scandals. — The


penalty of arresto menor or fine not penalty of arresto menor or fine not
exceeding 200 pesos shall be exceeding Forty thousand pesos
imposed upon: (P40,000) shall be imposed upon: x
x x.
1. Any person who within any town
or public place, shall discharge any
firearm, rocket, firecracker, or
other explosives calculated to
cause alarm or danger;

2. Any person who shall instigate


or take an active part in any
charivari or other disorderly
meeting offensive to another or
prejudicial to public tranquility;

3. Any person who, while


wandering about at night or while
engaged in any other nocturnal
amusements, shall disturb the
public peace; or

4. Any person who, while


intoxicated or otherwise, shall
cause any disturbance or scandal
in public places, provided that the
circumstances of the case shall not
make the provisions of article 153
applicable.

Title Four
CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC INTEREST
Chapter One
FORGERIES
Section Two. – Counterfeiting Coins
Art. Revised Penal Code R.A. No. 10951

163. Making and Importing and Uttering Making and Importing and Uttering
False Coins. — Any person who False Coins. — Any person who
makes, imports, or utters, false makes, imports, or utters false
coins, in connivance with coins, in connivance with
counterfeiters, or importers, shall counterfeiters or importers, shall
suffer: suffer:

1. Prisión mayor in its minimum 1. Prisión mayor in its minimum


Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

and medium periods and a fine not and medium periods and a fine not
to exceed P10,000 pesos, if the to exceed Four hundred thousand
counterfeited coin be silver coin (P400,000) pesos, if the
of the Philippines or coin of the counterfeited coins be any of the
Central Bank of the Philippines coinage of the Philippines.
of ten centavo denomination or
above. 2. Prisión correccional in its
minimum and a fine of not to
2. Prisión correccional in its exceed Two hundred thousand
minimum and medium periods pesos (P200,000), if the
and a fine of not to exceed counterfeited coin be currency of a
P2,000 pesos, if the foreign country.
counterfeited coins be any of the
minor coinage of the Philippines
or of the Central Bank of the
Philippines below ten-centavo
denomination.

3. Prision correccional in its


minimum period and a fine not to
exceed P1,000 pesos, if the
counterfeited coin be currency of a
foreign country. (As amended by
R.A. No. 4202, approved June 19,
1965).

164. Mutilation of coins; Importation and Mutilation of coins; Importation and


utterance of mutilated coins. — The utterance of mutilated coins. — The
penalty of prisión correccional in its penalty of prisión correccional in its
minimum period and a fine not to minimum period and a fine not to
exceed P2,000 pesos shall be exceed Four hundred thousand
imposed upon any person who pesos (P400,000) shall be imposed
shall mutilate coins of the legal upon any person who shall
currency of the Philippines or mutilate coins of the legal currency
import or utter mutilated current of the Philippines or import or utter
coins, or in connivance with mutilated current coins, or in
mutilators or importers. connivance with mutilators or
importers.

Title Four
CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC INTEREST
Chapter One
FORGERIES
Section Three. — Forging treasury or bank notes,
obligations and securities; importing and
uttering false or forged notes, obligations and securities.

Art. Revised Penal Code R.A. No. 10951

166. Forging treasury or bank notes on Forging treasury or bank notes on


other documents payable to bearer; other documents payable to bearer;
importing, and uttering such false or importing, and uttering such false or
forged notes and documents. — The forged notes and documents. — The
forging or falsification of treasury forging or falsification of treasury
or bank notes or certificates or or bank notes or certificates or
other obligations and securities other obligations and securities
payable to bearer and the payable to bearer and the
Comparative Table of Provisions
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importation and uttering in importation and uttering in


connivance with forgers or connivance with forgers or
importers of such false or forged importers of such false or forged
obligations or notes, shall be obligations or notes, shall be
punished as follows: punished as follows:

1. By reclusión temporal in its 1. By reclusión temporal in its


minimum period and a fine not to minimum period and a fine not to
exceed P10,000 pesos, if the exceed Two million pesos
document which has been falsified, (P2,000,000), if the document
counterfeited, or altered, is an which has been falsified,
obligation or security of the counterfeited, or altered, is an
Philippines. obligation or security of the
Philippines.
The word ―obligation or security of
the Philippines‖ shall be held to The words ―obligation or security of
mean all bonds, certificates of the Philippines‖ shall mean all
indebtedness, national bank notes, bonds, certificates of indebtedness,
coupons, Philippine notes, national bank notes, coupons,
treasury notes, fractional notes, Philippine notes, treasury notes,
certificates of deposit, bills, checks, fractional notes, certificates of
or drafts for money, drawn by or deposit, bills, checks, or drafts for
upon authorized officers of the money, drawn by or upon
Philippines, and other authorized officers of the
representatives of value, of Philippines, and other
whatever denomination, which representatives of value, of
have been or may be issued under whatever denomination, which
any act of the Congress. have been or may be issued under
any act of the Congress.
2. By prisión mayor in its
maximum period and a fine not to 2. By prisión mayor in its
exceed P5,000 pesos, if the maximum period and a fine not to
falsified or altered document is a exceed One million pesos
circulating note issued by any (P1,000,000), if the falsified or
banking association duly altered document is a circulating
authorized by law to issue the note issued by any banking
same. association duly authorized by law
to issue the same.
3. By prisión mayor in its medium
period and a fine not to exceed 3. By prisión mayor in its medium
P5,000 pesos, if the falsified or period and a fine not to exceed One
counterfeited document was issued million pesos (P1,000,000), if the
by a foreign government. falsified or counterfeited document
was issued by a foreign
4. By prisión mayor in its government.
minimum period and a fine not to
exceed P2,000 pesos, when the 4. By prisión mayor in its
forged or altered document is a minimum period and a fine not to
circulating note or bill issued by a exceed Four hundred thousand
foreign bank duly authorized pesos (P400,000), when the forged
therefor. or altered document is a circulating
note or bill issued by a foreign
bank duly authorized therefor.

167. Counterfeiting, importing and Counterfeiting, importing and


uttering instruments not payable to uttering instruments not payable to
bearer. — Any person who shall bearer. — Any person who shall
forge, import or utter, in forge, import or utter, in
connivance with the forgers or connivance with the forgers or
Comparative Table of Provisions
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importers, any instrument payable importers, any instrument payable


to order or other document of to order or other document of credit
credit not payable to bearer, shall not payable to bearer, shall suffer
suffer the penalties of prisión the penalties of prisión correccional
correccional in its medium and in its medium and maximum
maximum periods and a fine not periods and a fine not exceeding
exceeding P6,000 pesos. One million two hundred
thousand (P1,200,000) pesos.

Title Four
CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC INTEREST
Chapter One
FORGERIES
Section Four. — Falsification of legislative, public, commercial, and
Private documents, and wireless, telegraph, and telephone message

Art. Revised Penal Code R.A. No. 10951

170. Falsification of legislative Falsification of legislative


documents. — The penalty of documents. — The penalty of
prisión correccional in its maximum prisión correccional in its maximum
period and a fine not exceeding period and a fine not exceeding
P6,000 pesos shall be imposed One million two hundred
upon any person who, without thousand pesos (P1,200,000)
proper authority therefor alters any shall be imposed upon any person
bill, resolution, or ordinance who, without proper authority
enacted or approved or pending therefor alters any bill, resolution,
approval by either House of the or ordinance enacted or approved
Congress or any provincial board or pending approval by either
or municipal council. House of the Congress or any
provincial board or municipal
council.

171. Falsification by public officer, Falsification by public officer,


employee or notary or ecclesiastic employee or notary or ecclesiastic
minister. — The penalty of prisión minister. — The penalty of prisión
mayor and a fine not to exceed mayor and a fine not to exceed One
P5,000 pesos shall be imposed million pesos (P1,000,000) shall
upon any public officer, employee, be imposed upon any public officer,
or notary who, taking advantage of employee, or notary who, taking
his official position, shall falsify a advantage of his official position,
document by committing any of the shall falsify a document by
following acts: committing any of the following
acts: x x x
1. Counterfeiting or imitating any
handwriting, signature or rubric;

2. Causing it to appear that


persons have participated in any
act or proceeding when they did
not in fact so participate;

3. Attributing to persons who have


participated in an act or
proceeding statements other than
those in fact made by them;
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4. Making untruthful statements in


a narration of facts;

5. Altering true dates;

6. Making any alteration or


intercalation in a genuine
document which changes its
meaning;

7. Issuing in an authenticated form


a document purporting to be a
copy of an original document when
no such original exists, or
including in such a copy a
statement contrary to, or different
from, that of the genuine original;
or

8. Intercalating any instrument or


note relative to the issuance
thereof in a protocol, registry, or
official book.

The same penalty shall be imposed


upon any ecclesiastical minister
who shall commit any of the
offenses enumerated in the
preceding paragraphs of this
article, with respect to any record
or document of such character that
its falsification may affect the civil
status of persons.

172. Falsification by private individual Falsification by private individual


and use of falsified documents. — and use of falsified documents. —
The penalty of prisión correccional The penalty of prisión correccional
in its medium and maximum in its medium and maximum
periods and a fine of not more than periods and a fine of not more than
P5,000 pesos shall be imposed One million pesos (P1,000,000)
upon: shall be imposed upon: x x x.

1. Any private individual who shall


commit any of the falsifications
enumerated in the next preceding
article in any public or official
document or letter of exchange or
any other kind of commercial
document;

2. Any person who, to the damage


of a third party, or with the intent
to cause such damage, shall in any
private document commit any of
the acts of falsification enumerated
in the next preceding article; and

3. Any person who shall knowingly


Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

introduce in evidence in any


judicial proceeding or to the
damage of another or who, with the
intent to cause such damage, shall
use any of the false documents
embraced in the next preceding
article, or in any of the foregoing
subdivisions of this article, shall be
punished by the penalty next lower
in degree.

Title Four
CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC INTEREST
Chapter One
FORGERIES
Section Five. — Falsification of medical certificates,
certificates of merit or services and the like.

Art. Revised Penal Code R.A. No. 10951

174. False medical certificates, false False medical certificates, false


certificates of merits or service, etc.
certificates of merits or service, etc.
— The penalties of arresto mayor in — The penalties of arresto mayor in
its maximum period to prisión its maximum period to prisión
correccional in its minimum period correccional in its minimum period
and a fine not to exceed P1,000 and a fine not to exceed Two
pesos shall be imposed upon: hundred thousand pesos
(P200,000) shall be imposed upon:
1. Any physician or surgeon who, x x x.
in connection, with the practice of
his profession, shall issue a false
certificate; and

2. Any public officer who shall


issue a false certificate of merit of
service, good conduct or similar
circumstances.

The penalty of arresto mayor shall


be imposed upon any private
person who shall falsify a
certificate falling within the classes
mentioned in the two (2) preceding
subdivisions.

Title Four
CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC INTEREST
Chapter One
FORGERIES
Section Six. — Manufacturing, importing and possession of instruments or
implements intended for the commission of falsification.

Art. Revised Penal Code R.A. No. 10951


Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

176. Manufacturing and possession of Manufacturing and possession of


instruments or implements for instruments or implements for
falsification. — The penalty of falsification. — The penalty of
prisión correccional in its medium prisión correccional in its medium
and maximum periods and a fine and maximum periods and a fine
not to exceed P10,000 pesos shall not to exceed One million pesos
be imposed upon any person who (P1,000,000) x x x.
shall make or introduce into the
Philippines any stamps, dies,
marks, or other instruments or
implements intended to be used in
the commission of the offenses of
counterfeiting or falsification
mentioned in the preceding
sections of this Chapter.

Any person who, with the intention


of using them, shall have in his
possession any of the instruments
or implements mentioned in the
preceding paragraphs, shall suffer
the penalty next lower in degree
than that provided therein.

Title Four
CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC INTEREST
Chapter Two
OTHER FALSIFICATIONS
Section One. — Usurpation of authority, rank, title, and
improper use of names, uniforms and insignia.

Art. Revised Penal Code R.A. No. 10951

178. Using fictitious name and Using fictitious name and concealing
concealing true name. — The true name. — The penalty of arresto
penalty of arresto mayor and a fine mayor and a fine not to exceed One
not to exceed 500 pesos shall be hundred thousand pesos
imposed upon any person who (P100,000) shall be imposed upon
shall publicly use a fictitious name any person who shall publicly use
for the purpose of concealing a a fictitious name for the purpose of
crime, evading the execution of a concealing a crime, evading the
judgment or causing damage. execution of a judgment or causing
damage.
Any person who conceals his true
name and other personal Any person who conceals his true
circumstances shall be punished name and other personal
by arresto menor or a fine not to circumstances shall be punished
exceed 200 pesos. by arresto menor or a fine not to
exceed Forty thousand pesos
(P40,000).
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

Title Four
CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC INTEREST
Chapter Two
OTHER FALSIFICATIONS
Section Two. — False testimony

Art. Revised Penal Code R.A. No. 10951

180. False testimony against a False testimony against a


defendant. — Any person who shall defendant. — Any person who shall
give false testimony against the give false testimony against the
defendant in any criminal case defendant in any criminal case
shall suffer: shall suffer:

1. The penalty of reclusión xxx xxx xxx xxx


temporal, if the defendant in said
case shall have been sentenced to In cases provided in subdivisions 3
death; and 4 of this article the offender
shall further suffer a fine not to
2. The penalty of prisión mayor, if exceed Two hundred thousand
the defendant shall have been pesos (P200,000).
sentenced to reclusión temporal or
reclusion perpetua;

3. The penalty of prisión


correccional, if the defendant shall
have been sentenced to any other
afflictive penalty; and

4. The penalty of arresto mayor, if


the defendant shall have been
sentenced to a correctional penalty
or a fine, or shall have been
acquitted.

In cases provided in subdivisions 3


and 4 of this article the offender
shall further suffer a fine not to
exceed 1,000 pesos.

181. False testimony favorable to the False testimony favorable to the


defendants. — Any person who defendants. — Any person who
shall give false testimony in favor shall give false testimony in favor of
of the defendant in a criminal case, the defendant in a criminal case,
shall suffer the penalties of arresto shall suffer the penalties of arresto
mayor in its maximum period to mayor in its maximum period to
prisión correccional in its minimum prisión correccional in its minimum
period a fine not to exceed 1,000 period a fine not to exceed Two
pesos, if the prosecution is for a hundred thousand pesos
felony punishable by an afflictive (P200,000), if the prosecution is
penalty, and the penalty of arresto for a felony punishable by an
mayor in any other case. afflictive penalty, and the penalty of
arresto mayor in any other case.
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

182. False testimony in civil cases. — False testimony in civil cases. —


Any person found guilty of false Any person found guilty of false
testimony in a civil case shall testimony in a civil case shall suffer
suffer the penalty of prisión the penalty of prisión correccional in
correccional in its minimum period its minimum period and a fine not
and a fine not to exceed 6,000 to exceed One million two
pesos, if the amount in controversy hundred thousand pesos
shall exceed 5,000 pesos, and the (P1,200,000), if the amount in
penalty of arresto mayor in its controversy shall exceed One
maximum period to prisión million pesos (P1,000,000), and
correccional in its minimum period the penalty of arresto mayor in its
and a fine not to exceed 1,000 maximum period to prisión
pesos, if the amount in controversy correccional in its minimum period
shall not exceed said amount or and a fine not to exceed Two
cannot be estimated. hundred thousand pesos
(P200,000), if the amount in
controversy shall not exceed said
amount or cannot be estimated.

Title Four
CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC INTEREST
Chapter Three
FRAUDS
Section Two. — Frauds in commerce and industry

Art. Revised Penal Code R.A. No. 10951

187. Importation and disposition of Importation and disposition of


falsely marked articles or falsely marked articles or
merchandise made of gold, silver, or merchandise made of gold, silver, or
other precious metals or their alloys. other precious metals or their alloys.
— The penalty of prisión — The penalty of prisión
correccional or a fine ranging from correccional or a fine ranging from
200 to 1,000 pesos, or both, shall Forty thousand pesos (P40,000)
be imposed on any person who to Two hundred thousand pesos
shall knowingly import or sell or (P200,000), or both, shall be
dispose of any article or imposed on any person who shall
merchandise made of gold, silver, knowingly import x x x.
or other precious metals, or their
alloys, with stamps, brands, or
marks which fail to indicate the
actual fineness or quality of said
metals or alloys.

Any stamp, brand, label, or mark


shall be deemed to fail to indicate
the actual fineness of the article on
which it is engraved, printed,
stamped, labeled or attached,
when the test of the article shows
that the quality or fineness thereof
is less by more than one-half
karat, if made of gold, and less by
more than four one-thousandth, if
made of silver, than what is shown
by said stamp, brand, label or
mark. But in case of watch cases
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

and flatware made of gold, the


actual fineness of such gold shall
not be less by more than three one-
thousandth than the fineness
indicated by said stamp, brand,
label, or mark.

Title Six
CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC MORALS
Chapter Two
OFFENSES AGAINST DECENCY AND GOOD CUSTOMS

Art. Revised Penal Code R.A. No. 10951

201. Immoral doctrines, obscene Immoral doctrines, obscene


publications and exhibitions and publications and exhibitions and
indecent shows. — The penalty of indecent shows. — The penalty of
prisión mayor or a fine ranging prisión mayor or a fine ranging
from six thousand to twelve from Twenty thousand pesos
thousand pesos, or both such (P20,000) to Two hundred
imprisonment and fine, shall be thousand pesos (P200,000), or
imposed upon: both such imprisonment and fine,
shall be imposed upon: x x x.
1. Those who shall publicly
expound or proclaim doctrines
openly contrary to public morals;

2.a. the authors of obscene


literature, published with their
knowledge in any form; the editors
publishing such literature; and the
owners/operators of the
establishment selling the same;

b. Those who, in theaters, fairs,


cinematographs or any other place,
exhibit, indecent or immoral plays,
scenes, acts or shows, whether live
or in film, which are prescribed by
virtue hereof, shall include those
which (1) glorify criminals or
condone crimes; (2) serve no other
purpose but to satisfy the market
for violence, lust or pornography;
(3) offend any race or religion; (4)
tend to abet traffic in and use of
prohibited drugs; and (5) are
contrary to law, public order,
morals, and good customs,
established policies, lawful orders,
decrees and edicts; and

3. Those who shall sell, give away


or exhibit films, prints, engravings,
sculpture or literature which are
offensive to morals. (As amended
by PD Nos. 960 and 969).
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

202. Prostitutes; Penalty. – For the Prostitutes; Penalty. – x x x.


purpose of this article, women
who, for money or profit, habitually Any person found guilty of any of
indulge in sexual intercourse or the offenses covered by this article
lascivious conduct, are deemed to shall be punished by arresto menor
be prostitutes. or a fine not exceeding Twenty
thousand pesos (P20,000), and in
Any person found guilty of any of case of recidivism, by arresto mayor
the offenses covered by this article in its medium period to prisión
shall be punished by arresto menor correctional in its minimum period
or a fine not exceeding 200 pesos, or a fine ranging from Twnety
and in case of recidivism, by thousand pesos (P20,000) to Two
arresto mayor in its medium period hundred thousand pesos
to prisión correctional in its (P200,000), or both, in the
minimum period or a fine ranging discretion of the court.
from 200 to 2,000 pesos, or both,
in the discretion of the court.

Title Seven
CRIMES COMMITTED BY PUBLIC OFFICERS

Chapter Two
MALFEASANCE AND MISFEASANCE IN OFFICE
Section One. — Dereliction of duty
Art. Revised Penal Code R.A. No. 10951

209. Betrayal of trust by an attorney or Betrayal of trust by an attorney or


solicitor. — Revelation of secrets. —solicitor. — Revelation of secrets. —
In addition to the properIn addition to the proper
administrative action, the penalty administrative action, the penalty
of prisión correccional in its of prisión correccional in its
minimum period, or a fine ranging minimum period, or a fine ranging
from 200 to 1,000 pesos, or both, from Forty thousand (P40,000) to
shall be imposed upon any Two hundred thousand
attorney-at-law or solicitor(P200,000), or both, shall be
(procurador judicial) who, by any imposed upon any attorney-at-law
malicious breach of professional or any person duly authorized to
duty or of inexcusable negligence represent and/or assist a party
or ignorance, shall prejudice his to a case who, by any malicious
client, or reveal any of the secrets breach of professional duty or of
of the latter learned by him in his inexcusable negligence or
professional capacity. ignorance, shall prejudice his
client, or reveal any of the secrets
The same penalty shall be imposed of the latter learned by him in his
upon an attorney-at-law or professional capacity.
solicitor (procurador judicial)
who, having undertaken the The same penalty shall be imposed
defense of a client or having upon an attorney-at-law or any
received confidential information person duly authorized to
from said client in a case, shall represent and/or assist a party
undertake the defense of the to a case who, having undertaken
opposing party in the same case, the defense of a client or having
without the consent of his first received confidential information
client. from said client in a case, shall
undertake the defense of the
opposing party in the same case,
without the consent of his first
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

client.

Title Seven
CRIMES COMMITTED BY PUBLIC OFFICERS

Chapter Three
FRAUDS AND ILLEGAL EXACTIONS AND TRANSACTIONS
Art. Revised Penal Code R.A. No. 10951

213. Frauds against the public treasury Frauds against the public treasury
and similar offenses. — The and similar offenses. — The penalty
penalty of prisión correccional in its of prisión correccional in its medium
medium period to prisión mayor in period to prisión mayor in its
its minimum period, or a fine minimum period, or a fine ranging
ranging from 200 to 10,000 pesos, from Forty thousand (P40,000) to
or both, shall be imposed upon any Two million pesos (P2,000,000),
public officer who: or both, shall be imposed upon any
public officer who: x x x.
1. In his official capacity, in dealing
with any person with regard to
furnishing supplies, the making of
contracts, or the adjustment or
settlement of accounts relating to
public property or funds, shall
enter into an agreement with any
interested party or speculator or
make use of any other scheme, to
defraud the Government;

2. Being entrusted with the


collection of taxes, licenses, fees
and other imposts, shall be guilty
of any of the following acts or
omissions:

(a) Demanding, directly, or


indirectly, the payment of sums
different from or larger than those
authorized by law.

(b) Failing voluntarily to issue a


receipt, as provided by law, for any
sum of money collected by him
officially.

(c) Collecting or receiving, directly


or indirectly, by way of payment or
otherwise things or objects of a
nature different from that provided
by law.

When the culprit is an officer or


employee of the Bureau of Internal
Revenue or the Bureau of
Customs, the provisions of the
Administrative Code shall be
applied.
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

215. Prohibited transactions. — The Prohibited transactions. — The


penalty of prisión correccional in its penalty of prisión correccional in its
minimum period or a fine ranging minimum period or a fine ranging
from 200 to 1,000 pesos, or both, from Forty thousand (P40,000) to
shall be imposed upon any Two hundred thousand pesos
appointive public officer who, (P200,000), or both, shall be
during his incumbency, shall imposed upon any appointive
directly or indirectly become public officer who, x x x.
interested in any transaction of
exchange or speculation within the
territory subject to his jurisdiction.

216. Possession of prohibited interest by Possession of prohibited interest by


a public officer. — The penalty of a public officer. — The penalty of
arresto mayor in its medium period arresto mayor in its medium period
to prision correcciónal in its to prisión correccional in its
minimum period, or a fine ranging minimum period, or a fine ranging
from 200 to 1,000 pesos, or both, from Forty thousand (P40,000) to
shall be imposed upon a public Two hundred thousand pesos
officer who directly or indirectly, (P200,000), or both, shall be
shall become interested in any imposed upon a public officer x x x.
contract or business in which it is
his official duty to intervene.

This provisions is applicable to


experts, arbitrators and private
accountants who, in like manner,
shall take part in any contract or
transaction connected with the
estate or property in appraisal,
distribution or adjudication of
which they shall have acted, and to
the guardians and executors with
respect to the property belonging to
their wards or estate.

Title Seven
CRIMES COMMITTED BY PUBLIC OFFICERS

Chapter Four
MALVERSATION OF PUBLIC FUNDS OR PROPERTY

217. Malversation of public funds or Malversation of public funds or


property; Presumption of property; Presumption of
malversation. — Any public officer malversation. — Any public officer
who, by reason of the duties of his who, by reason of the duties of his
office, is accountable for public office, is accountable for public
funds or property, shall funds or property, shall appropriate
appropriate the same, or shall take the same, or shall take or
or misappropriate or shall consent, misappropriate or shall consent,
through abandonment or through abandonment or
negligence, shall permit any other negligence, shall permit any other
person to take such public funds, person to take such public funds or
or property, wholly or partially, or property, wholly or partially, or
shall otherwise be guilty of the shall otherwise be guilty of the
misappropriation or malversation misappropriation or malversation
of such funds or property, shall of such funds or property, shall
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

suffer: suffer:

1. The penalty of prisión 1. The penalty of prisión


correccional in its medium and correccional in its medium and
maximum periods, if the amount maximum periods, if the amount
involved in the misappropriation or involved in the misappropriation or
malversation does not exceed two malversation does not exceed Forty
hundred pesos. thousand pesos (P40,000).

2. The penalty of prisión mayor in 2. The penalty of prisión mayor in


its minimum and medium periods, its minimum and medium periods,
if the amount involved is more if the amount involved is more than
than two hundred pesos but does Forty thousand pesos (P40,000)
not exceed six thousand pesos. but does not exceed One million
two hundred thousand pesos
3. The penalty of prisión mayor in (P1,200,000).
its maximum period to reclusión
temporal in its minimum period, if 3. The penalty of prisión mayor in
the amount involved is more than its maximum period to reclusión
six thousand pesos but is less temporal in its minimum period, if
than twelve thousand pesos. the amount involved is more than
One million two hundred
4. The penalty of reclusion thousand pesos (P1,200,000) but
temporal, in its medium and is less than Two million four
maximum periods, if the amount hundred thousand pesos
involved is more than twelve (P2,400,000).
thousand pesos but is less than
twenty-two thousand pesos. If 4. The penalty of reclusion
the amount exceeds the latter, the temporal, in its medium and
penalty shall be reclusion temporal maximum periods, if the amount
in its maximum period to reclusión involved is more than Two million
perpetua. four hundred thousand pesos
(P2,400,000) but does not exceed
In all cases, persons guilty of Four million four hundred
malversation shall also suffer the thousand pesos (P4,400,000). If
penalty of perpetual special the amount exceeds the latter, the
disqualification and a fine equal to penalty shall be reclusion temporal
the amount of the funds malversed in its maximum period to reclusión
or equal to the total value of the perpetua.
property embezzled.
5. The penalty of reclusion
The failure of a public officer to temporal in the maximum
have duly forthcoming any public period, if the amount involved is
funds or property with which he is more than Four million four
chargeable, upon demand by any hundred thousand pesos
duly authorized officer, shall be (P4,400,000) but does not exceed
prima facie evidence that he has Eight million eight hundred
put such missing funds or property thousand pesos (P8,800,000). If
to personal use. the amount exceeds the latter,
the penalty shall be reclusion
perpetua.

In all cases, persons guilty of


malversation shall also suffer the
penalty of perpetual special
disqualification and a fine equal to
the amount of the funds malversed
or equal to the total value of the
property embezzled.
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

The failure of a public officer to


have duly forthcoming any public
funds or property with which he is
chargeable, upon demand by any
duly authorized officer, shall be
prima facie evidence that he has
put such missing funds or property
to personal uses.

218. Failure of accountable officer to Failure of accountable officer to


render accounts. — Any public render accounts. — Any public
officer, whether in the service or officer, whether in the service or
separated therefrom by resignation separated therefrom by resignation
or any other cause, who is required or any other cause, who is required
by law or regulation to render by law or regulation to render
account to the Insular Auditor, or account to the Commission on
to a provincial auditor and who Audit, or to a provincial auditor
fails to do so for a period of two and who fails to do so for a period
months after such accounts should of two months after such accounts
be rendered, shall be punished by should be rendered, shall be
prisión correccional in its minimum punished by prisión correccional in
period, or by a fine ranging from its minimum period, or by a fine
200 to 6,000 pesos, or both. ranging from Forty thousand
pesos (P40,000) to One million
two hundred thousand pesos
(1,200,000), or both.

219. Failure of a responsible public Failure of a responsible public


officer to render accounts before officer to render accounts before
leaving the country. — Any public leaving the country. — Any public
officer who unlawfully leaves or officer who unlawfully leaves or
attempts to leave the Philippine attempts to leave the Philippine
Islands without securing a Islands without securing a
certificate from the Insular certificate from the Commission
Auditor showing that his accounts on Audit showing that his
have been finally settled, shall be accounts have been finally settled,
punished by arresto mayor, or a shall be punished by arresto
fine ranging from 200 to 1,000 mayor, or a fine ranging from Forty
pesos or both. thousand (P40,000) to Two
hundred thousand (P200,000)
pesos or both.

221. Failure to make delivery of public Failure to make delivery of public


funds or property. — Any public funds or property. — x x x x x x.
officer under obligation to make
payment from Government funds The fine shall be graduated in such
in his possession, who shall fail to case by the value of the thing,
make such payment, shall be provided that it shall not less than
punished by arresto mayor and a Ten thousand pesos (P10,000).
fine from 5 to 25 per cent of the
sum which he failed to pay.

This provision shall apply to any


public officer who, being ordered
by competent authority to deliver
any property in his custody or
under his administration, shall
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

refuse to make such delivery.

The fine shall be graduated in such


case by the value of the thing,
provided that it shall not less than
50 pesos.

Title Seven
CRIMES COMMITTED BY PUBLIC OFFICERS

Chapter Five
INFIDELITY OF PUBLIC OFFICERS
Section Two. — Infidelity in the custody of document

226. Removal, concealment or Removal, concealment or destruction


destruction of documents. — Any of documents. — Any public officer
public officer who shall remove, who shall remove, destroy or
destroy or conceal documents or conceal documents or papers
papers officially entrusted to him, officially entrusted to him, shall
shall suffer: suffer:

1. The penalty of prisión mayor and 1. The penalty of prisión mayor and
a fine not exceeding 1,000 pesos, a fine not exceeding two hundred
whenever serious damage shall thousand pesos (P200,000),
have been caused thereby to a whenever serious damage shall
third party or to the public have been caused thereby to a
interest. third party or to the public interest.

2. The penalty of prisión 2. The penalty of prisión


correccional in its minimum and correccional in its minimum and
medium period and a fine not medium period and a fine not
exceeding 1,000 pesos, whenever exceeding two hundred thousand
the damage to a third party or to pesos (P200,000), whenever the
the public interest shall not have damage to a third party or to the
been serious. public interest shall not have been
serious.
In either case, the additional
penalty of temporary special In either case, the additional
disqualification in its maximum penalty of temporary special
period to perpetual disqualification disqualification in its maximum
shall be imposed. period to perpetual disqualification
shall be imposed.

227. Officer breaking seal. — Any public Officer breaking seal. — Any public
officer charged with the custody of officer charged with the custody of
papers or property sealed by papers or property sealed by proper
proper authority, who shall break authority, who shall break the
the seals or permit them to be seals or permit them to be broken,
broken, shall suffer the penalties of shall suffer the penalties of prisión
prisión correccional in its minimum correccional in its minimum and
and medium periods, temporary medium periods, temporary special
special disqualification and a fine disqualification and a fine not
not exceeding 2,000 pesos. exceeding Four hundred thousand
pesos (P400,000).
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

228. Opening of closed documents. — Opening of closed documents. —


Any public officer not included in Any public officer not included in
the provisions of the next the provisions of the next preceding
preceding article who, without article who, without proper
proper authority, shall open or authority, shall open or shall
shall permit to be opened any permit to be opened any closed
closed papers, documents or papers, documents or objects
objects entrusted to his custody, entrusted to his custody, shall
shall suffer the penalties or arresto suffer the penalties or arresto
mayor, temporary special mayor, temporary special
disqualification and a fine of not disqualification and a fine of not
exceeding 2,000 pesos. exceeding Four hundred thousand
pesos (P400,000).

Title Seven
CRIMES COMMITTED BY PUBLIC OFFICERS

Chapter Five
INFIDELITY OF PUBLIC OFFICERS
Section Three. — Revelation of secrets

229. Revelation of secrets by an officer. Revelation of secrets by an officer.


— Any public officer who shall — Any public officer who shall
reveal any secret known to him by reveal any secret known to him by
reason of his official capacity, or reason of his official capacity, or
shall wrongfully deliver papers or shall wrongfully deliver papers or
copies of papers of which he may copies of papers of which he may
have charge and which should not have charge and which should not
be published, shall suffer the be published, shall suffer the
penalties of prisión correccional in penalties of prisión correccional in
its medium and maximum periods, its medium and maximum periods,
perpetual special disqualification perpetual special disqualification
and a fine not exceeding 2,000 and a fine not exceeding Four
pesos if the revelation of such hundred thousand pesos
secrets or the delivery of such (P400,000) if the revelation of such
papers shall have caused serious secrets or the delivery of such
damage to the public interest; papers shall have caused serious
otherwise, the penalties of prisión damage to the public interest;
correccional in its minimum period, otherwise, the penalties of prisión
temporary special disqualification correccional in its minimum period,
and a fine not exceeding 500 pesos temporary special disqualification
shall be imposed. and a fine not exceeding One
hundred thousand pesos
(P100,000) shall be imposed.

230. Public officer revealing secrets of Public officer revealing secrets of


private individual. — Any public private individual. — Any public
officer to whom the secrets of any officer to whom the secrets of any
private individual shall become private individual shall become
known by reason of his office who known by reason of his office who
shall reveal such secrets, shall shall reveal such secrets, shall
suffer the penalties of arresto suffer the penalties of arresto
mayor and a fine not exceeding mayor and a fine not exceeding two
two hundred thousand pesos hundred thousand pesos
(P200,000). (P200,000).
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

Title Seven
CRIMES COMMITTED BY PUBLIC OFFICERS

Chapter Six
OTHER OFFENSES OR IRREGULARITIES BY PUBLIC OFFICERS
Section One. — Disobedience, Refusal of Assistance and
Maltreatment of Prisoners.

231. Open disobedience. — Any judicial Open disobedience. — Any judicial


or executive officer who shall or executive officer who shall
openly refuse to execute the openly refuse to execute the
judgment, decision or order of any judgment, decision or order of any
superior authority made within the superior authority made within the
scope of the jurisdiction of the scope of the jurisdiction of the
latter and issued with all the legal latter and issued with all the legal
formalities, shall suffer the formalities, shall suffer the
penalties of arresto mayor in its penalties of arresto mayor in its
medium period to prisión medium period to prisión
correccional in its minimum period, correccional in its minimum period,
temporary special disqualification temporary special disqualification
in its maximum period and a fine in its maximum period and a fine
not exceeding 1,000 pesos. not exceeding Two hundred
thousand pesos (P200,000).

233. Refusal of assistance. — The Refusal of assistance. — The


penalties of arresto mayor in its penalties of arresto mayor in its
medium period to prisión medium period to prisión
correccional in its minimum period, correccional in its minimum period,
perpetual special disqualification perpetual special disqualification
and a fine not exceeding 1,000 and a fine not exceeding Two
pesos, shall be imposed upon a hundred thousand pesos
public officer who, upon demand (P200,000), shall be imposed upon
from competent authority, shall fail a public officer who, upon demand
to lend his cooperation towards the from competent authority, shall fail
administration of justice or other to lend his cooperation towards the
public service, if such failure shall administration of justice or other
result in serious damage to the public service, if such failure shall
public interest, or to a third party; result in serious damage to the
otherwise, arresto mayor in its public interest, or to a third party;
medium and maximum periods otherwise, arresto mayor in its
and a fine not exceeding 500 pesos medium and maximum periods and
shall be imposed. a fine not exceeding One hundred
thousand pesos (P100,000) shall
be imposed.

234. Refusal to discharge elective office. Refusal to discharge elective office.


— The penalty of arresto mayor or — The penalty of arresto mayor or a
a fine not exceeding 1,000 pesos, fine not exceeding Two hundred
or both, shall be imposed upon any thousand pesos (P200,000), or
person who, having been elected by both, shall be imposed upon any
popular election to a public office, person who, having been elected by
shall refuse without legal motive to popular election to a public office,
be sworn in or to discharge the shall refuse without legal motive to
duties of said office. be sworn in or to discharge the
duties of said office.
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

235. Maltreatment of prisoners. — The Maltreatment of prisoners. — The


penalty of prisión correccional in its penalty of prisión correccional in its
medium period to prisión medium period to prisión
correccional in its minimum period, correccional in its minimum period,
in addition to his liability for the in addition to his liability for the
physical injuries or damage physical injuries or damage
caused, shall be imposed upon any caused, shall be imposed upon any
public officer or employee who public officer or employee who shall
shall overdo himself in the overdo himself in the correction or
correction or handling of a prisoner handling of a prisoner or detention
or detention prisoner under his prisoner under his charge, by the
charge, by the imposition of imposition of punishments not
punishments not authorized by the authorized by the regulations, or by
regulations, or by inflicting such inflicting such punishments in a
punishments in a cruel and cruel and humiliating manner.
humiliating manner.
If the purpose of the maltreatment
If the purpose of the maltreatment is to extort a confession, or to
is to extort a confession, or to obtain some information from the
obtain some information from the prisoner, the offender shall be
prisoner, the offender shall be punished by prisión mayor in its
punished by prisión mayor in its minimum period, temporary special
minimum period, temporary disqualification and a fine not
special disqualification and a fine exceeding One hundred thousand
not exceeding six thousand pesos (P100,000), in addition to
(P6,000), in addition to his liability his liability for the physical injuries
for the physical injuries or damage or damage caused.
caused.

Title Seven
CRIMES COMMITTED BY PUBLIC OFFICERS

Chapter Six
OTHER OFFENSES OR IRREGULARITIES BY PUBLIC OFFICERS
Section Two. — Anticipation, prolongation and abandonment of
the duties and powers of public office.

236. Anticipation of duties of a public Anticipation of duties of a public


office. — Any person who shall office. — Any person who shall
assume the performance of the assume the performance of the
duties and powers of any public duties and powers of any public
officer or employment without first officer or employment without first
being sworn in or having given the being sworn in or having given the
bond required by law, shall be bond required by law, shall be
suspended from such office or suspended from such office or
employment until he shall have employment until he shall have
complied with the respective complied with the respective
formalities and shall be fined from formalities and shall be fined from
200 to 500 pesos. Forty thousand pesos (P40,000)
to One hundred thousand pesos
(P100,000).

237. Prolonging performance of duties Prolonging performance of duties


and powers. — Any public officer and powers. — Any public officer
shall continue to exercise the shall continue to exercise the
duties and powers of his office, duties and powers of his office,
employment or commission, employment or commission,
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

beyond the period provided by law, beyond the period provided by law,
regulation or special provisions regulation or special provisions
applicable to the case, shall suffer applicable to the case, shall suffer
the penalties of prisióón the penalties of prisióón
correccional in its minimum period, correccional in its minimum period,
special temporary disqualification special temporary disqualification
in its minimum period and a fine in its minimum period and a fine
not exceeding 500 pesos. not exceeding One hundred
thousand pesos (P100,000).

Title Seven
CRIMES COMMITTED BY PUBLIC OFFICERS

Chapter Six
OTHER OFFENSES OR IRREGULARITIES BY PUBLIC OFFICERS
Section Three. — Usurpation of Powers and Unlawful Appointments.

239. Usurpation of legislative powers. — Usurpation of legislative powers. —


The penalties of prisión correccional The penalties of prisión correccional
in its minimum period, temporary in its minimum period, temporary
special disqualification and a fine special disqualification and a fine
not exceeding 1,000 pesos, shall not exceeding Two hundred
be imposed upon any public officer thousand pesos (P200,000), shall
who shall encroach upon the be imposed upon any public officer
powers of the legislative branch of who shall encroach upon the
the Government, either by making powers of the legislative branch of
general rules or regulations beyond the Government, either by making
the scope of his authority, or by general rules or regulations beyond
attempting to repeal a law or the scope of his authority, or by
suspending the execution thereof. attempting to repeal a law or
suspending the execution thereof.

242. Disobeying request for Disobeying request for


disqualification. — Any public disqualification. — Any public
officer who, before the question of officer who, before the question of
jurisdiction is decided, shall jurisdiction is decided, shall
continue any proceeding after continue any proceeding after
having been lawfully required to having been lawfully required to
refrain from so doing, shall be refrain from so doing, shall be
punished by arresto mayor and a punished by arresto mayor and a
fine not exceeding 500 pesos. fine not exceeding One hundred
thousand pesos (P100,000).

243. Orders or requests by executive Orders or requests by executive


officers to any judicial authority. — officers to any judicial authority. —
Any executive officer who shall Any executive officer who shall
address any order or suggestion to address any order or suggestion to
any judicial authority with respect any judicial authority with respect
to any case or business coming to any case or business coming
within the exclusive jurisdiction of within the exclusive jurisdiction of
the courts of justice shall suffer the the courts of justice shall suffer the
penalty of arresto mayor and a fine penalty of arresto mayor and a fine
not exceeding 500 pesos. not exceeding One hundred
thousand pesos (P100,000).
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

244. Unlawful appointments. — Any Unlawful appointments. — Any


public officer who shall knowingly public officer who shall knowingly
nominate or appoint to any public nominate or appoint to any public
office any person lacking the legal office any person lacking the legal
qualifications therefor, shall suffer qualifications therefor, shall suffer
the penalty of arresto mayor and a the penalty of arresto mayor and a
fine not exceeding 1,000 pesos. fine not exceeding Two hundred
thousand pesos (P200,000).

Title Eight
CRIMES AGAINST PERSONS
Chapter One
DESTRUCTION OF LIFE
Section Two. — Infanticide and abortion.

259. Abortion practiced by a physician or Abortion practiced by a physician or


midwife and dispensing of midwife and dispensing of
abortives. — The penalties provided abortives. — The penalties provided
in Article 256 shall be imposed in in Article 256 shall be imposed in
its maximum period, respectively, its maximum period, respectively,
upon any physician or midwife upon any physician or midwife
who, taking advantage of their who, taking advantage of their
scientific knowledge or skill, shall scientific knowledge or skill, shall
cause an abortion or assist in cause an abortion or assist in
causing the same. causing the same.

Any pharmacist who, without the Any pharmacist who, without the
proper prescription from a proper prescription from a
physician, shall dispense any physician, shall dispense any
abortive shall suffer arresto mayor abortive shall suffer arresto mayor
and a fine not exceeding 1,000 and a fine not exceeding One
pesos. hundred thousand pesos
(P100,000).

Title Eight
CRIMES AGAINST PERSONS
Chapter Two
PHYSICAL INJURIES

265. Less serious physical injuries. — Less serious physical injuries. —


Any person who shall inflict upon Any person who shall inflict upon
another physical injuries not another physical injuries not
described in the preceding articles, described in the preceding articles,
but which shall incapacitate the but which shall incapacitate the
offended party for labor for ten offended party for labor for ten
days or more, or shall require days or more, or shall require
medical assistance for the same medical assistance for the same
period, shall be guilty of less period, shall be guilty of less
serious physical injuries and shall serious physical injuries and shall
suffer the penalty of arresto mayor. suffer the penalty of arresto mayor.

Whenever less serious physical Whenever less serious physical


injuries shall have been inflicted injuries shall have been inflicted
with the manifest intent to insult with the manifest intent to insult or
or offend the injured person, or offend the injured person, or under
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

under circumstances adding circumstances adding ignominy to


ignominy to the offense, in addition the offense, in addition to the
to the penalty of arresto mayor, a penalty of arresto mayor, a fine not
fine not exceeding 500 pesos shall exceeding Fifty thousand pesos
be imposed. shall be imposed.

Any less serious physical injuries Any less serious physical injuries
inflicted upon the offender's inflicted upon the offender's
parents, ascendants, guardians, parents, x x x.
curators, teachers, or persons of
rank, or persons in authority, shall
be punished by prisión correccional
in its minimum and medium
periods: Provided, That in the case
of persons in authority, the deed
does not constitute the crime of
assault upon such person.

266. Slight physical injuries and Slight physical injuries and


maltreatment. — The crime of slight maltreatment. — The crime of slight
physical injuries shall be physical injuries shall be punished:
punished:
1. By arresto menor when the
1. By arresto menor when the offender has inflicted physical
offender has inflicted physical injuries which shall incapacitate
injuries which shall incapacitate the offended party for labor from
the offended party for labor from one (1) to nine (9) days, or shall
one to nine days, or shall require require medical attendance during
medical attendance during the the same period.
same period.
2. By arresto menor or a fine not
2. By arresto menor or a fine not exceeding Forty thousand pesos
exceeding 200 pesos and censure (P40,000) and censure when the
when the offender has caused offender has caused physical
physical injuries which do not injuries which do not prevent the
prevent the offended party from offended party from engaging in his
engaging in his habitual work nor habitual work nor require medical
require medical assistance. assistance.

3. By arresto menor in its minimum 3. By arresto menor in its minimum


period or a fine not exceeding 50 period or a fine not exceeding Five
pesos when the offender shall ill- thousand pesos (P5,000) when the
treat another by deed without offender shall ill-treat another by
causing any injury. deed without causing any injury.

Title Nine
CRIMES AGAINST PERSONAL LIBERTY AND SECURITY
Chapter One
CRIMES AGAINST LIBERTY
Section One. — Illegal Detention.

269. Unlawful arrest. — The penalty of Unlawful arrest. — The penalty of


arresto mayor and a fine not arresto mayor and a fine not
exceeding 500 pesos shall be exceeding One hundred thousand
imposed upon any person who, in pesos (P100,000) shall be imposed
any case other than those upon any person who, in any case
authorized by law, or without other than those authorized by law,
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

reasonable ground therefor, shall or without reasonable ground


arrest or detain another for the therefor, shall arrest or detain
purpose of delivering him to the another for the purpose of
proper authorities. delivering him to the proper
authorities.

Title Nine
CRIMES AGAINST PERSONAL LIBERTY AND SECURITY
Chapter One
CRIMES AGAINST LIBERTY
Section Two. — Kidnapping of minors.

271. Inducing a minor to abandon his Inducing a minor to abandon his


home. — The penalty of prisión home. — The penalty of prisión
correccional and a fine not correccional and a fine not
exceeding seven hundred pesos exceeding One hundred pesos
shall be imposed upon anyone who (P100,000) shall be imposed upon
shall induce a minor to abandon anyone who shall induce a minor to
the home of his parents or abandon the home of his parents or
guardians or the persons entrusted guardians or the persons entrusted
with his custody. with his custody.

If the person committing any of the


crimes covered by the two (2)
preceding articles shall be the
father or the mother of the minor,
the penalty shall be arresto mayor
or a fine not exceeding Forty
thousand pesos (P40,000), or
both.

Title Nine
CRIMES AGAINST PERSONAL LIBERTY AND SECURITY
Chapter Two
CRIMES AGAINST SECURITY
Section One. – Abandonment of Helpless Persons and Exploitation of Minors.

276. Abandoning a minor. — The penalty Abandoning a minor. — The penalty


of arresto mayor and a fine not of arresto mayor and a fine not
exceeding 500 pesos shall be exceeding One hundred thousand
imposed upon any one who shall pesos (P100,000) shall be imposed
abandon a child under seven (7) upon any one who shall abandon a
years of age, the custody of which child under seven (7) years of age,
is incumbent upon him. the custody of which is incumbent
upon him.
When the death of the minor shall
result from such abandonment, xxx xxx
the culprit shall be punished by
prisión correccional in its medium
and maximum periods; but if the
life of the minor shall have been in
danger only, the penalty shall be
prisión correccional in its minimum
and medium periods.

The provisions contained in the


Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

two preceding paragraphs shall not


prevent the imposition of the
penalty provided for the act
committed, when the same shall
constitute a more serious offense.

277. Abandonment of minor by person Abandonment of minor by person


entrusted with his custody; entrusted with his custody;
Indifference of parents. — The Indifference of parents. — The
penalty of arresto mayor and a fine penalty of arresto mayor and a fine
not exceeding 500 pesos shall be not exceeding one hundred
imposed upon anyone who, having thousand pesos (P100,000) shall
charge of the rearing or education be imposed upon anyone who,
of a minor, shall deliver said minor having charge of the rearing or
to a public institution or other education of a minor, shall deliver
persons, without the consent of the said minor to a public institution or
one who entrusted such child to other persons, without the consent
his care or in the absence of the of the one who entrusted such
latter, without the consent of the child to his care or in the absence
proper authorities. of the latter, without the consent of
the proper authorities.
The same penalty shall be imposed
upon the parents who shall neglect The same penalty shall be imposed
their children by not giving them upon the parents x x x.
the education which their station
in life requires and financial
conditions permits.

278. Exploitation of Minors. — The Exploitation of Minors. — The


penalty of prisión correccional in its penalty of prisión correccional in its
minimum and medium periods and minimum and medium periods and
a fine not exceeding 500 pesos a fine not exceeding One hundred
shall be imposed upon: thousand pesos (P100,000) shall
be imposed upon:
1. Any person who shall cause any
boy or girl under sixteen (16) years 1. Any person who shall cause any
of age to perform any dangerous boy or girl under sixteen (16) years
feat of balancing, physical strength of age to perform any dangerous
or contortion. feat of balancing, physical strength
or contortion.
2. Any person who, being an
acrobat, gymnast, rope-walker, xxx xxx xxx
diver, wild-animal tamer or circus
manager or engaged in a similar
calling, shall employ in exhibitions
of these kinds of children under
sixteen (16) years of age who are
not his children or descendants.

3. Any person engaged in any of


the callings enumerated in the next
preceding paragraph who shall
employ any descendant of his
under twelve years of age in such
dangerous exhibitions.

4. Any ascendant, guardian,


Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

teacher or person entrusted in any


capacity with the care of a child
under sixteen (16) years of age,
who shall deliver such child
gratuitously to any person
following any of the callings
enumerated in paragraph 2 hereof,
or to any habitual vagrant or
beggar.

If the delivery shall have been


made in consideration of any price,
compensation, or promise, the
penalty shall in every case be
imposed in its maximum period.

In either case, the guardian or


curator convicted shall also be
removed from office as guardian or
curator; and in the case of the
parents of the child, they may be
deprived, temporarily or
perpetually, in the discretion of the
court, of their parental authority.

5. Any person who shall induce


any child under sixteen (16) years
of age to abandon the home of its
ascendants, guardians, curators or
teachers to follow any person
engaged in any of the callings
mentioned in paragraph 2 hereof,
or to accompany any habitual
vagrant or beggar.

Title Nine
CRIMES AGAINST PERSONAL LIBERTY AND SECURITY
Chapter One
CRIMES AGAINST LIBERTY
Section Two. — Trespass to dwelling.

280. Qualified trespass to dwelling. - Qualified trespass to dwelling. -


Any private person who shall enter Any private person who shall enter
the dwelling of another against the the dwelling of another against the
latter’s will, shall be punished by latter’s will, shall be punished by
arresto mayor and a fine not arresto mayor and a fine not
exceeding 1,000 pesos. exceeding Two hundred thousand
pesos (P200,000).
If the offense be committed by
means of violence or intimidation, If the offense be committed by
the penalty shall be prisión means of violence or intimidation,
correccional in its medium and the penalty shall be prisión
maximum periods and a fine not correccional in its medium and
exceeding 1,000 pesos. maximum periods and a fine not
exceeding Two hundred thousand
The provisions of this article shall pesos (P200,000).
not be applicable to any person
who shall enter another’s dwelling The provisions of this article shall
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

for the purpose of preventing some not be applicable to any person


serious harm to himself, the who shall enter another’s dwelling
occupants of the dwelling or a third for the purpose of preventing some
person, nor shall it be applicable to serious harm to himself, x x x .
any person who shall enter a
dwelling for the purpose of
rendering some service to
humanity or justice, nor to anyone
who shall enter cafés, taverns, inns
and other public houses, while the
same are open.

Title Nine
CRIMES AGAINST PERSONAL LIBERTY AND SECURITY
Chapter One
CRIMES AGAINST LIBERTY
Section Three. – Threats and Coercion

282. Grave Threats. — Any person who Grave Threats. — Any person who
shall threaten another with the shall threaten another with the
infliction upon the person, honor infliction upon the person, honor or
or property of the latter or of his property of the latter or of his
family of any wrong amounting to a family of any wrong amounting to a
crime, shall suffer: crime, shall suffer:

1. The penalty next lower in degree xxx xxx


than that prescribed by law for the
crime he threatened to commit, if 2. The penalty of arresto mayor and
the offender shall have made the a fine not exceeding One hundred
threat demanding money or thousand pesos (P100,000), if the
imposing any other condition, even threat shall not have been made
though not unlawful, and said subject to a condition.
offender shall have attained his
purpose. If the offender shall not
have attained his purpose, the
penalty lower by two degrees shall
be imposed.

If the threat be made in writing or


through a middleman, the penalty
shall be imposed in its maximum
period.

2. The penalty of arresto mayor and


a fine not exceeding 500 pesos, if
the threat shall not have been
made subject to a condition.

285. Other Light Threats. — The penalty Other Light Threats. — The penalty
of arresto menor in its minimum of arresto menor in its minimum
period or a fine not exceeding 200 period or a fine not exceeding
pesos shall be imposed upon: Forty thousand pesos (P40,000)
shall be imposed upon:
1. Any person who, without being
included in the provisions of the 1. Any person who, without being
next preceding article, shall included in the provisions of the
threaten another with a weapon, or next preceding article, shall
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

draw such weapon in a quarrel, threaten another with a weapon, or


unless it be in lawful self-defense. draw such weapon in a quarrel,
unless it be in lawful self-defense.
2. Any person who, in the heat of
anger, shall orally threaten another 2. Any person who, in the heat of
with some harm not constituting a anger, shall orally threaten another
crime, and who by subsequent acts with some harm not constituting a
shows that he did not persist in crime, and who by subsequent acts
the idea involved in his threat: shows that he did not persist in the
Provided, That the circumstances idea involved in his threat:
of the offense shall not bring it Provided, That the circumstances
within the provisions of article 282 of the offense shall not bring it
of this Code. within the provisions of article 282
of this Code.
3. Any person who shall orally
threaten to do another any harm 3. Any person who shall orally
not constituting a felony. threaten to do another any harm
not constituting a felony.

286. Grave Coercions. — The penalty of Grave Coercions. — The penalty of


prision correccional and a fine not prision correccional and a fine not
exceeding Six thousand pesos exceeding One hundred thousand
shall be imposed upon any person pesos (P100,000) shall be imposed
who, without authority of law, upon any person who, without
shall, by means of violence, authority of law, shall, by means of
threats, or intimidation, prevent violence, threats, or intimidation,
another from doing something not prevent another from doing
prohibited by law, or compel him to something not prohibited by law, or
do something against his will, compel him to do something
whether it be right or wrong. against his will, whether it be right
or wrong.
If the coercion be committed in
violation of the exercise of the right If the coercion be committed in
of suffrage, or for the purpose of violation of the exercise of the right
compelling another to perform any of suffrage, x x x.
religious act or to prevent him from
exercising such right or from doing
such act, the penalty next higher
in degree shall be imposed.

287. Light Coercions. — Any person Light Coercions. — Any person who,
who, by means of violence, shall by means of violence, shall seize
seize anything belonging to his anything belonging to his debtor for
debtor for the purpose of applying the purpose of applying the same to
the same to the payment of the the payment of the debt, shall
debt, shall suffer the penalty of suffer the penalty of arresto mayor
arresto mayor in its minimum in its minimum period and a fine
period and a fine equivalent to the equivalent to the value of the thing,
value of the thing, but in no case but in no case less than Fifteen
less than 75 pesos. thousand pesos (P15,000).

Any other coercions or unjust Any other coercions or unjust


vexations shall be punished by vexations shall be punished by
arresto menor or a fine ranging arresto menor or a fine ranging
from 5 to 200 pesos, or both. from One thousand pesos
(P1,000) to not more than Forty
thousand pesos (40,000), or both.
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

288. Other Similar Coercions;Other Similar Coercions;


(Compulsory Purchase of(Compulsory Purchase of
Merchandise and Payment of Merchandise and Payment of Wages
Wages by Means of Tokens). — The by Means of Tokens). — The
penalty of arresto mayor or a fine penalty of arresto mayor or a fine
ranging from 200 to 500 pesos, or ranging from Forty Thousand
both, shall be imposed upon any pesos (P40,000) to One hundred
person, agent or officer of any thousand pesos (P100,000), or
association or corporation who both, shall be imposed upon any
shall force or compel, directly or person, agent or officer of any
indirectly, or shall knowingly association or corporation who
permit any laborer or employee shall force or compel, directly or
employed by him or by such firm indirectly, or shall knowingly
or corporation to be forced or permit any laborer or employee
compelled, to purchase employed by him or by such firm or
merchandise or commodities of any corporation to be forced or
kind. compelled, to purchase
merchandise or commodities of any
The same penalties shall be kind.
imposed upon any person who
shall pay the wages due a laborer The same penalties shall be
or employee employed by him, by imposed upon any person who
means of tokens or objects other shall pay x x x.
than the legal tender currency of
the Philippines, unless expressly
requested by the laborer or
employee.

289. Formation, Maintenance and Formation, Maintenance and


Prohibition of Combination of Prohibition of Combination of
Capital or Labor Through Violence Capital or Labor Through Violence or
or Threats. — The penalty of Threats. — The penalty of arresto
arresto mayor and a fine not mayor and a fine not exceeding
exceeding 300 pesos shall be Sixty Thousand Pesos (P60,000)
imposed upon any person who, for shall be imposed upon any person
the purpose of organizing, who, for the purpose of organizing,
maintaining or preventing maintaining or preventing
coalitions of capital or labor, strike coalitions of capital or labor, strike
of laborers or lock-out of of laborers or lock-out of
employees, shall employ violence or employees, shall employ violence or
threats in such a degree as to threats in such a degree as to
compel or force the laborers or compel or force the laborers or
employees in the free and legal employees in the free and legal
exercise of their industry or work, exercise of their industry or work, if
if the act shall not constitute a the act shall not constitute a more
more serious offense in accordance serious offense in accordance with
with the provisions of this Code. the provisions of this Code.

Title Nine
CRIMES AGAINST PERSONAL LIBERTY AND SECURITY
Chapter Three
DISCOVERY AND REVELATION OF SECRETS

290. Discovering Secrets Through Seizure Discovering Secrets Through Seizure


of Correspondence. — The penalty of Correspondence. — The penalty
of prisión correccional in its of prisión correccional in its
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

minimum and medium periods and minimum and medium periods and
a fine not exceeding 500 pesos a fine not exceeding One hundred
shall be imposed upon any private thousand pesos (P100,000) shall
individual who in order to discover be imposed upon any private
secrets of another, shall seize his individual who in order to discover
papers or letters and reveal the secrets of another, shall seize his
contents thereof. papers or letters and reveal the
contents thereof.
If the offender shall not reveal such
secrets, the penalty shall be arresto If the offender shall not reveal such
mayor and a fine not exceeding secrets, the penalty shall be arresto
500 pesos. mayor and a fine not exceeding
One hundred thousand pesos
This provision shall not be (P100,000).
applicable to parents, guardians,
or persons entrusted with the This provision shall not be
custody of minors with respect to applicable to parents, guardians, or
the papers or letters of the children x x x.
or minors placed under their care
or custody, nor to spouses with
respect to the papers or letters of
either of them.

291. Revealing Secrets With Abuse of Revealing Secrets With Abuse of


Office. — The penalty of arresto Office. — The penalty of arresto
mayor and a fine not exceeding mayor and a fine not exceeding
500 pesos shall be imposed upon One hundred thousand pesos
any manager, employee, or servant (P100,000) shall be imposed upon
who, in such capacity, shall learn any manager, employee, or servant
the secrets of his principal or who, in such capacity, shall learn
master and shall reveal such the secrets of his principal or
secrets. master and shall reveal such
secrets.

292. Revelation of Industrial Secrets. — Revelation of Industrial Secrets. —


The penalty of prisión correccional The penalty of prisión correccional
in its minimum and medium in its minimum and medium
periods and a fine not exceeding periods and a fine not exceeding
500 pesos shall be imposed upon One hundred thousand pesos
the person in charge, employee or (P100,000) shall be imposed upon
workman of any manufacturing or the person in charge, employee or
industrial establishment who, to workman of any manufacturing or
the prejudice of the owner thereof, industrial establishment who, to
shall reveal the secrets of the the prejudice of the owner thereof,
industry of the latter. shall reveal the secrets of the
industry of the latter.

Title Ten
CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY
Chapter One
ROBBERY IN GENERAL
Section Two. – Robbery by the Use of Force Upon Things

299. Robbery in an Inhabited House or Robbery in an Inhabited House or


Public Building or Edifice Devoted to Public Building or Edifice Devoted to
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

Worship. — Any armed person who Worship. — Any armed person who
shall commit robbery in an shall commit robbery in an
inhabited house or public building inhabited house or public building
or edifice devoted to religious or edifice devoted to religious
worship, shall be punished by worship, shall be punished by
reclusión temporal, if the value of reclusión temporal, if the value of
the property taken shall exceed the property taken shall exceed
250 pesos, and if — Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000),
and if —
(a) The malefactors shall enter the
house or building in which the xxx xxx
robbery was committed, by any of
the following means: (b) The robbery be committed
under any of the following
1. Through an opening not circumstances:
intended for entrance or egress;
1. By the breaking of doors,
2. By breaking any wall, roof, or wardrobes, chests, or any other
floor or breaking any door or kind of locked or sealed furniture
window; or receptacle;

3. By using false keys, picklocks or 2. By taking such furniture or


similar tools; objects away to be broken or forced
open outside the place of the
4. By using any fictitious name or robbery.
pretending the exercise of public
authority; When the offenders do not carry
arms, and the value of the property
or if — taken exceeds Fifty thousand
pesos (P50,000), the penalty next
(b) The robbery be committed lower in degree shall be imposed.
under any of the following
circumstances: The same rule shall be applied
when the offenders are armed, but
1. By the breaking of doors, the value of the property taken
wardrobes, chests, or any other does not exceed Fifty thousand
kind of locked or sealed furniture pesos (P50,000).
or receptacle;
When said offenders do not carry
2. By taking such furniture or arms and the value of the property
objects away to be broken or forced taken does not exceed Fifty
open outside the place of the thousand pesos (P50,000), they
robbery. shall suffer the penalty prescribed
in the two (2) next preceding
When the offenders do not carry paragraphs, in its minimum period.
arms, and the value of the property
taken exceeds 250 pesos, the If the robbery be committed in one
penalty next lower in degree shall of the dependencies x x x.
be imposed.

The same rule shall be applied


when the offenders are armed, but
the value of the property taken
does not exceed 250 pesos.

When said offenders do not carry


arms and the value of the property
taken does not exceed 250 pesos,
they shall suffer the penalty
prescribed in the two (2) next
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

preceding paragraphs, in its


minimum period.

If the robbery be committed in one


of the dependencies of an inhabited
house, public building, or building
dedicated to religious worship, the
penalties next lower in degree than
those prescribed in this article
shall be imposed.

302. Robbery in an Uninhabited Place or Robbery in an Uninhabited Place or


in a Private Building. — Any in a Private Building. — Any
robbery committed in an robbery committed in an
uninhabited place or in a building uninhabited place or in a building
other than those mentioned in the other than those mentioned in the
first paragraph of article 299, if the first paragraph of article 299, if the
value of the property taken exceeds value of the property taken exceeds
250 pesos, shall be punished by Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000),
prisión correccional in its medium shall be punished by prisión
and maximum periods provided correccional in its medium and
that any of the following maximum periods provided that
circumstances is present: any of the following circumstances
is present:
1. If the entrance has been effected
through any opening not intended 1. If the entrance has been effected
for entrance or egress. through any opening not intended
for entrance or egress.
2. If any wall, roof, floor or outside
door or window has been broken. xxx xxx
When the value of the property
3. If the entrance has been effected taken does not exceed Fifty
through the use of false keys, thousand pesos (P50,000), the
picklocks or other similar tools. penalty next lower in degree shall
be imposed.
4. If any door, wardrobe, chest, or
any sealed or closed furniture or In the cases specified in articles
receptacle has been broken. 294, 295, 297, 299, 300, and 302
of this Code, when the property
5. If any closed or sealed taken is mail matter or x x x.
receptacle, as mentioned in the
preceding paragraph, has been
removed, even if the same be
broken open elsewhere.

When the value of the property


taken does not exceed 250 pesos,
the penalty next lower in degree
shall be imposed.

In the cases specified in articles


294, 295, 297, 299, 300, and 302
of this Code, when the property
taken is mail matter or large cattle,
the offender shall suffer the
penalties next higher in degree
than those provided in said
articles.
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

Title Ten
CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY
Chapter Three
THEFT

309. Penalties. — Any person guilty of Penalties. — Any person guilty of


theft shall be punished by: theft shall be punished by:

1. The penalty of prisión mayor in 1. The penalty of prisión mayor in


its minimum and medium periods, its minimum and medium periods,
if the value of the thing stolen is if the value of the thing stolen is
more than 12,000 pesos but does more than One million two
not exceed 22,000 pesos; but if hundred thousand pesos
the value of the thing stolen (P1,200,000) but does not exceed
exceeds the latter amount, the Two million two hundred
penalty shall be the maximum thousand pesos (P2,200,000); but
period of the one prescribed in this if the value of the thing stolen
paragraph, and one year for each exceeds the latter amount, the
additional ten thousand pesos, penalty shall be the maximum
but the total of the penalty which period of the one prescribed in this
may be imposed shall not exceed paragraph, and one year for each
twenty (20) years. In such cases, additional One million pesos
and in connection with the (P1,000,00), but the total of the
accessory penalties which may be penalty which may be imposed
imposed and for the purpose of the shall not exceed twenty (20) years.
other provisions of this Code, the In such cases, and in connection
penalty shall be termed prisión with the accessory penalties which
mayor or reclusión temporal, as the may be imposed and for the
case may be. purpose of the other provisions of
this Code, the penalty shall be
2. The penalty of prisión termed prisión mayor or reclusión
correccional in its medium and temporal, as the case may be.
maximum periods, if the value of
the thing stolen is more than 2. The penalty of prisión
6,000 pesos but does not exceed correccional in its medium and
12,000 pesos. maximum periods, if the value of
the thing stolen is more than Six
3. The penalty of prisión hundred thousand pesos
correccional in its minimum and (P600,000) but does not exceed
medium periods, if the value of the One million two hundred
property stolen is more than 200 thousand pesos (P1,200,00).
pesos but does not exceed 6,000
pesos. 3. The penalty of prisión
correccional in its minimum and
4. Arresto mayor in its medium medium periods, if the value of the
period to prisión correccional in its property stolen is more than
minimum period, if the value of the Twenty thousand pesos (P20,000)
property stolen is over 50 pesos but does not exceed Six hundred
but does not exceed 200 pesos. thousand pesos (P600,000).

5. Arresto mayor to its full extent, if 4. Arresto mayor in its medium


such value is over 5 pesos but period to prisión correccional in its
does not exceed 50 pesos. minimum period, if the value of the
property stolen is over Five
6. Arresto mayor in its minimum thousand pesos (P5,000) but does
and medium periods, if such value not exceed Twenty thousand
does not exceed 5 pesos. pesos (P20,000).
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

7. Arresto menor or a fine not 5. Arresto mayor to its full extent, if


exceeding 200 pesos, if the theft is such value is over Five hundred
committed under the pesos (P500) but does not exceed
circumstances enumerated in Five thousand pesos (P5,000).
paragraph 3 of the next preceding
article and the value of the thing 6. Arresto mayor in its minimum
stolen does not exceed 5 pesos. If and medium periods, if such value
such value exceeds said amount, does not exceed Five hundred
the provisions of any of the five pesos (P500).
preceding subdivisions shall be
made applicable. 7. Arresto menor or a fine not
exceeding Twenty thousand pesos
8. Arresto menor in its minimum (P20,000), if the theft is committed
period or a fine not exceeding 50 under the circumstances
pesos, when the value of the thing enumerated in paragraph 3 of the
stolen is not over 5 pesos, and the next preceding article and the value
offender shall have acted under the of the thing stolen does not exceed
impulse of hunger, poverty, or the Five hundred pesos (P500). If
difficulty of earning a livelihood for such value exceeds said amount,
the support of himself or his the provisions of any of the five
family. preceding subdivisions shall be
made applicable.

8. Arresto menor in its minimum


period or a fine not exceeding Five
thousand pesos (P5,000), when
the value of the thing stolen is not
over Five hundred pesos (P500),
and the offender shall have acted
under the impulse of hunger,
poverty, or the difficulty of earning
a livelihood for the support of
himself or his family.

311. Theft of the Property of the National Theft of the Property of the National
Library and National Museum. — If Library and National Museum. — If
the property stolen be any property the property stolen be any property
of the National Library or of the of the National Library or of the
National Museum, the penalty National Museum, the penalty shall
shall be arresto mayor or a fine be arresto mayor or a fine ranging
ranging from 200 to 500 pesos, or from Forty thousand pesos
both, unless a higher penalty (P40,000) to One hundred
should be provided under other thousand pesos (P100,000), or
provisions of this Code, in which both, unless a higher penalty
case, the offender shall be should be provided under other
punished by such higher penalty. provisions of this Code, in which
case, the offender shall be
punished by such higher penalty.

Title Ten
CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY
Chapter Four
USURPATION

312. Occupation of Real Property or Occupation of Real Property or


Usurpation of Real Rights in Usurpation of Real Rights in
Property. — Any person who, by Property. — Any person who, by
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

means of violence against or means of violence against or


intimidation of persons, shall take intimidation of persons, shall take
possession of any real property or possession of any real property or
shall usurp any real rights in shall usurp any real rights in
property belonging to another, in property belonging to another, in
addition to the penalty incurred for addition to the penalty incurred for
the acts of violence executed by the acts of violence executed by
him, shall be punished by a fine of him, shall be punished by a fine of
from fifty (50) to one hundred (100) from fifty (50) to one hundred (100)
per centum of the gain which he per centum of the gain which he
shall have obtained, but not less shall have obtained, but not less
than 75 pesos. than Fifteen thousand (P15,000)
pesos.
If the value of the gain cannot be
ascertained, a fine of from 200 to If the value of the gain cannot be
500 pesos shall be imposed. ascertained, a fine of from Forty
thousand pesos (P40,000) to One
hundred thousand pesos
(P100,000) shall be imposed.

313. Altering Boundaries or Landmarks. Altering Boundaries or Landmarks.


— Any person who shall alter the — Any person who shall alter the
boundary marks or monuments of boundary marks or monuments of
towns, provinces, or estates, or any towns, provinces, or estates, or any
other marks intended to designate other marks intended to designate
the boundaries of the same, shall the boundaries of the same, shall
be punished by arresto menor or a be punished by arresto menor or a
fine not exceeding 100 pesos, or fine not exceeding Twenty
both. thousand (P20,000)pesos, or both.

Title Ten
CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY
Chapter Six
SWINDLING AND OTHER DECEITS

315. Swindling (Estafa). — Any person Swindling (Estafa). — Any person


who shall defraud another by any who shall defraud another by any
of the means mentioned of the means mentioned
hereinbelow shall be punished by: hereinbelow shall be punished by:

1st. The penalty of prisión 1st. The penalty of prisión


correccional in its maximum period correccional in its maximum period
to prisión mayor in its minimum to prisión mayor in its minimum
period, if the amount of the fraud period, if the amount of the fraud is
is over 12,000 pesos but does not over Two million four hundred
exceed 22,000 pesos, and if such thousand pesos (P2,400,000) but
amount exceeds the latter sum, the does not exceed Four million four
penalty provided in this paragraph hundred thousand pesos
shall be imposed in its maximum (P4,400,000), and if such amount
period, adding one year for each exceeds the latter sum, the penalty
additional 10,000 pesos; but the provided in this paragraph shall be
total penalty which may be imposed in its maximum period,
imposed shall not exceed twenty adding one year for each additional
years. In such cases, and in Two million pesos (P2,000,00);
connection with the accessory but the total penalty which may be
penalties which may be imposed imposed shall not exceed twenty
and for the purpose of the other years. In such cases, and in
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

provisions of this Code, the penaltyconnection with the accessory


shall be termed prisión mayor or penalties which may be imposed
reclusión temporal, as the case may and for the purpose of the other
be. provisions of this Code, the penalty
shall be termed prisión mayor or
2nd. The penalty of prisión reclusión temporal, as the case may
correccional in its minimum and be.
medium periods, if the amount of
the fraud is over 6,000 pesos but 2nd. The penalty of prisión
does not exceed 12,000 pesos. correccional in its minimum and
medium periods, if the amount of
3rd. The penalty of arresto mayor the fraud is over One million two
in its maximum period to prisión hundred thousand pesos
correccional in its minimum period, (P1,200,000) but does not exceed
if such amount is over 200 pesos Two million four hundred
but does not exceed 6,000 pesos; thousand pesos (P2,400,000).
and
3rd. The penalty of arresto mayor
4th. By arresto mayor in its in its maximum period to prisión
medium and maximum periods, if correccional in its minimum period,
such amount does not exceed 200 if such amount is over Forty
pesos, provided that in the four thousand pesos (P40,000) but
cases mentioned, the fraud be does not exceed One million two
committed by any of the following hundred thousand pesos
means: (P1,200,000); and

1. With unfaithfulness or abuse of 4th. By arresto mayor in its


confidence, namely: medium and maximum periods, if
such amount does not exceed
(a) By altering the substance, Forty thousand pesos (P40,000),
quantity, or quality of anything of provided that in the four cases
value which the offender shall mentioned, the fraud be committed
deliver by virtue of an obligation to by any of the following means:
do so, even though such obligation
be based on an immoral or illegal 1. With unfaithfulness or abuse of
consideration. confidence, namely:

(b) By misappropriating or (a) By altering the substance,


converting, to the prejudice of quantity, or quality of anything of
another, money, goods, or any value which the offender shall
other personal property received by deliver by virtue of an obligation to
the offender in trust or on do so, even though such obligation
commission, or for administration, be based on an immoral or illegal
or under any other obligation consideration.
involving the duty to make delivery
of or to return the same, even (b) By misappropriating or
though such obligation be totally converting, to the prejudice of
or partially guaranteed by a bond; another, money, goods, or any
or by denying having received such other personal property received by
money, goods, or other property. the offender in trust or on
commission, or for administration,
(c) By taking undue advantage of or under any other obligation
the signature of the offended party involving the duty to make delivery
in blank, and by writing any of or to return the same, even
document above such signature in though such obligation be totally or
blank, to the prejudice of the partially guaranteed by a bond; or
offended party or any third person. by denying having received such
money, goods, or other property.
2. By means of any of the following
false pretenses or fraudulent acts (c) By taking undue advantage of
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

executed prior to or simultaneously the signature of the offended party


with the commission of the fraud: in blank, and by writing any
document above such signature in
(a) By using fictitious name, or blank, to the prejudice of the
falsely pretending to possess offended party or any third person.
power, influence, qualifications,
property, credit, agency, business 2. By means of any of the following
or imaginary transactions, or by false pretenses or fraudulent acts
means of other similar deceits. executed prior to or simultaneously
with the commission of the fraud:
(b) By altering the quality, fineness
or weight of anything pertaining to (a) By using fictitious name, or
his art or business. falsely pretending to possess
power, influence, qualifications,
(c) By pretending to have bribed property, credit, agency, business
any Government employee, without or imaginary transactions, or by
prejudice to the action for calumny means of other similar deceits.
which the offended party may
deem proper to bring against the (b) By altering the quality, fineness
offender. In this case, the offender or weight of anything pertaining to
shall be punished by the maximum his art or business.
period of the penalty.
(c) By pretending to have bribed
(d) By post-dating a check, or any Government employee, without
issuing such check in payment of prejudice to the action for calumny
an obligation, when the offender which the offended party may deem
had no funds in the bank, or his proper to bring against the
funds deposited therein were not offender. In this case, the offender
sufficient to cover the amount of shall be punished by the maximum
the check. The failure of the period of the penalty.
drawer of the check to deposit the
amount necessary to cover his (d) By post-dating a check, or
check within three (3) days from issuing such check in payment of
receipt of notice from the bank an obligation, when the offender
and/or payee or holder that said had no funds in the bank, or his
check has been dishonored for lack funds deposited therein were not
or insufficiency of funds shall be sufficient to cover the amount of
prima facie evidence of deceit the check. The failure of the
constituting false pretense or drawer of the check to deposit the
fraudulent act. amount necessary to cover his
check within three (3) days from
(e) By obtaining any food, receipt of notice from the bank
refreshment or accommodation and/or payee or holder that said
at a hotel, inn, restaurant, check has been dishonored for lack
boarding house, lodging house, or insufficiency of funds shall be
or apartment house and the like prima facie evidence of deceit
without paying therefor, with constituting false pretense or
intent to defraud the proprietor fraudulent act.
or manager thereof, or by
obtaining credit at a hotel, inn, Any person who shall defraud
restaurant, boarding house, another by means of false
lodging house, or apartment pretenses or fraudulent acts as
house by the use of any false defined in paragraph 2(d) hereof
pretense, or by abandoning or shall be punished by:
surreptitiously removing any
part of his baggage from a hotel, 1st. The penalty of reclusión
inn, restaurant, boarding house, temporal in its maximum, if the
lodging house, or apartment amount of fraud is over Four
house after obtaining credit, million four hundred thousand
food, refreshment, or pesos (P4,400,000) but does not
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

accommodation therein without exceed Eight million eight


paying for his food, refreshment, hundred thousand pesos
or accommodation. (P8,800,000). If the amount
exceeds the latter, the penalty
3. Through any of the following shall be reclusión perpetua.
fraudulent means:
2nd. The penalty of reclusión
(a) By inducing another, by means temporal in its minimum and
of deceit, to sign any document. medium periods, if the amount
of fraud is over Two million four
(b) By resorting to some fraudulent hundred thousand (P2,400,000)
practice to insure success in a but does not exceed Four million
gambling game. four hundred thousand pesos
(P4,400,000).
(c) By removing, concealing or
destroying, in whole or in part, any 3rd. The penalty of prisión
court record, office files, document mayor in its maximum period, if
or any other papers. the amount of fraud is over One
million two hundred thousand
pesos (P1,200,000) but does not
exceed Two million four hundred
thousand pesos (P2,400,00).

4th. The penalty of prisión


mayor in its medium period, if
such amount is over Forty
thousand pesos (P40,000) but
does not exceed One million two
hundred thousand pesos
(P1,200,000).

5th. By prisión mayor in its


minimum period, if such amount
does not exceed Forty thousand
pesos (P40,000).

3. Through any of the following


fraudulent means:

(a) By inducing another, by means


of deceit, to sign any document.

(b) By resorting to some fraudulent


practice to insure success in a
gambling game.

(c) By removing, concealing or


destroying, in whole or in part, any
court record, office files, document
or any other papers.

318. Other Deceits. — The penalty of Other Deceits. — The penalty of


arresto mayor and a fine of not less arresto mayor and a fine of not less
than the amount of the damage than the amount of the damage
caused and not more than twice caused and not more than twice
such amount shall be imposed such amount shall be imposed
upon any person who shall defraud upon any person who shall defraud
or damage another by any other or damage another by any other
deceit not mentioned in the deceit not mentioned in the
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

preceding articles of this Chapter. preceding articles of this Chapter.

Any person who, for profit or gain, Any person who, for profit or gain,
shall interpret dreams, make shall interpret dreams, make
forecasts, tell fortunes, or take forecasts, tell fortunes, or take
advantage of the credulity of the advantage of the credulity of the
public in any other similar public in any other similar manner,
manner, shall suffer the penalty of shall suffer the penalty of arresto
arresto menor or a fine not mayor or a fine not exceeding
exceeding 200 pesos. Forty thousand pesos (P40,000).

Title Ten
CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY
Chapter Nine
MALICIOUS MISCHIEF

328. Special Cases of Malicious Mischief. Special Cases of Malicious Mischief.


— Any person who shall cause — Any person who shall cause
damage to obstruct the damage to obstruct the
performance of public functions, or performance of public functions, or
using any poisonous or corrosive using any poisonous or corrosive
substance; or spreading any substance; or spreading any
infection or contagion among infection or contagion among cattle;
cattle; or who causes damage to or who causes damage to the
the property of the National property of the National Museum or
Museum or National Library, or to National Library, or to any archive
any archive or registry, or registry, waterworks, road,
waterworks, road, promenade, or promenade, or any other thing
any other thing used in common used in common by the public,
by the public, shall be punished: shall be punished:

1. By prisión correccional in its 1. By prisión correccional in its


minimum and medium periods, if minimum and medium periods, if
the value of the damage caused the value of the damage caused
exceeds 1,000 pesos; exceeds Two hundred thousand
pesos (P200,000);
2. By arresto mayor, if such value
does not exceed the 2. By arresto mayor, if such value
abovementioned amount but is does not exceed the
over 200 pesos; and abovementioned amount but is
over Forty thousand pesos
3. By arresto menor, if such value (P40,000); and
does not exceed 200 pesos.
3. By arresto menor, if such value
does not exceed Forty thousand
pesos (P40,000).

329. Other Mischiefs. — The mischiefs Other Mischiefs. — The mischiefs


not included in the next preceding not included in the next preceding
article shall be punished: article shall be punished:

1. By arresto mayor in its medium 1. By arresto mayor in its medium


and maximum periods, if the value and maximum periods, if the value
of the damage caused exceeds of the damage caused exceeds Two
1,000 pesos; hundred thousand pesos
(P200,000);
2. By arresto mayor in its
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

minimum and medium periods, if 2. By arresto mayor in its minimum


such value is over 200 pesos but and medium periods, if such value
does not exceed 1,000 pesos; and is over Forty thousand pesos
(P40,000) but does not exceed Two
3. By arresto menor or fine of not hundred thousand pesos
less than the value of the damage (P200,000); and
caused and not more than 200
pesos, if the amount involved does 3. By arresto menor or fine of not
not exceed 200 pesos or cannot be less than the value of the damage
estimated. caused and not more than Forty
thousand pesos (P40,000), if the
amount involved does not exceed
Forty thousand pesos (P40,000)
or cannot be estimated.

331. Destroying or Damaging Statues, Destroying or Damaging Statues,


Public Monuments or Paintings. — Public Monuments or Paintings. —
Any person who shall destroy or Any person who shall destroy or
damage statues or any other useful damage statues or any other useful
or ornamental public monument, or ornamental public monument,
shall suffer the penalty of arresto shall suffer the penalty of arresto
mayor in its medium period to mayor in its medium period to
prisión correccional in its minimum prisión correccional in its minimum
period. period.

Any person who shall destroy or Any person who shall destroy or
damage any useful or ornamental damage any useful or ornamental
painting of a public nature shall painting of a public nature shall
suffer the penalty of arresto menor suffer the penalty of arresto menor
or a fine not exceeding 200 pesos, or a fine not exceeding Forty
or both such fine and thousand pesos (P40,000), or both
imprisonment, in the discretion of such fine and imprisonment, in the
the court. discretion of the court.

Title Twelve
CRIMES AGAINST THE CIVIL STATUS OF PERSONS
Chapter One
SIMULATION OF BIRTHS AND USURPATION OF CIVIL STATUS

347. Simulation of Births, Substitution of Simulation of Births, Substitution of


One Child for Another and One Child for Another and
Concealment or Abandonment of a Concealment or Abandonment of a
Legitimate Child. — The simulation Legitimate Child. — The simulation
of births and the substitution of of births and the substitution of
one child for another shall be one child for another shall be
punished by prisión mayor and a punished by prisión mayor and a
fine of not exceeding 1,000 pesos. fine of not exceeding Two hundred
thousand pesos (P200,000).
The same penalties shall be
imposed upon any person who The same penalties shall be
shall conceal or abandon any imposed upon any person who
legitimate child with intent to shall conceal or abandon any
cause such child to lose its civil legitimate child with intent to cause
status. such child to lose its civil status.

Any physician or surgeon or public Any physician or surgeon or public


officer who, in violation of the officer who, in violation of the
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

duties of his profession or office, duties of his profession or office,


shall cooperate in the execution of shall cooperate in the execution of
any of the crimes mentioned in the any of the crimes mentioned in the
two (2) next preceding paragraphs, two (2) next preceding paragraphs,
shall suffer the penalties therein shall suffer the penalties therein
prescribed and also the penalty of prescribed and also the penalty of
temporary special disqualification. temporary special disqualification.

Title Thirteen
CRIMES AGAINST HONOR
Chapter One
LIBEL
Section One. – Definitions, Forms and Punishment of this Crime

355. Libel by Means of Writing or Similar Libel by Means of Writing or Similar


Means. — A libel committed by Means. — A libel committed by
means of writing, printing, means of writing, printing,
lithography, engraving, radio, lithography, engraving, radio,
phonograph, painting, theatrical phonograph, painting, theatrical
exhibition, cinematographic exhibition, cinematographic
exhibition, or any similar means, exhibition, or any similar means,
shall be punished by prisión shall be punished by prisión
correccional in its minimum and correccional in its minimum and
medium periods or a fine ranging medium periods or a fine ranging
from 200 to 6,000 pesos, or both, from Forty thousand pesos
in addition to the civil action which (P40,000) to One million two
may be brought by the offended hundred thousand pesos
party. (P1,200,000), or both, in addition
to the civil action which may be
brought by the offended party.

356. Threatening to Publish and Offer to Threatening to Publish and Offer to


Prevent Such Publication for a Prevent Such Publication for a
Compensation. — The penalty of Compensation. — The penalty of
arresto mayor or a fine of from 200 arresto mayor or a fine of from
to 2,000 pesos, or both, shall be Forty thousand pesos (P40,000)
imposed upon any person who to Four hundred thousand pesos
threatens another to publish a libel (P400,000), or both, shall be
concerning him or the parents, imposed upon any person who
spouse, child, or other members of threatens another to publish a libel
the family of the latter, or upon concerning him or the parents,
anyone who shall offer to prevent spouse, child, or other members of
the publication of such libel for a the family of the latter, or upon
compensation or money anyone who shall offer to prevent
consideration. the publication of such libel for a
compensation or money
consideration.

357. Prohibited Publication of Acts Prohibited Publication of Acts


Referred to in the Course of Official Referred to in the Course of Official
Proceedings. — The penalty of Proceedings. — The penalty of
arresto mayor or a fine of from 200 arresto mayor or a fine of from
to 2,000 pesos, or both, shall be Forty thousand pesos (P40,000)
imposed upon any reporter, editor to Two hundred thousand pesos
or manager of a newspaper, daily (P200,000), or both, shall be
or magazine, who shall publish imposed upon any reporter, editor
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

facts connected with the private life or manager of a newspaper, daily


of another and offensive to the or magazine, who shall publish
honor, virtue and reputation of facts connected with the private life
said person, even though said of another and offensive to the
publication be made in connection honor, virtue and reputation of said
with or under the pretext that it is person, even though said
necessary in the narration of any publication be made in connection
judicial or administrative with or under the pretext that it is
proceedings wherein such facts necessary in the narration of any
have been mentioned. judicial or administrative
proceedings wherein such facts
have been mentioned.

358. Slander. — Oral defamation shall Slander. — Oral defamation shall


be punished by arresto mayor in its be punished by arresto mayor in its
maximum period to prisión maximum period to prisión
correccional in its minimum period correccional in its minimum period
if it is of a serious and insulting if it is of a serious and insulting
nature; otherwise the penalty shall nature; otherwise the penalty shall
be arresto menor or a fine not be arresto menor or a fine not
exceeding 200 pesos. exceeding Twenty thousand
pesos.

359. Slander by Deed. — The penalty of Slander by Deed. — The penalty of


arresto mayor in its maximum arresto mayor in its maximum
period to prisión correccional in its period to prisión correccional in its
minimum period or a fine ranging minimum period or a fine ranging
from 200 to 1,000 pesos shall be from Twenty thousand pesos
imposed upon any person who (P20,000) to One hundred
shall perform any act not included thousand pesos (P100,000) shall
and punished in this title, which be imposed upon any person who
shall cast dishonor, discredit or shall perform any act not included
contempt upon another person. If and punished in this title, which
said act is not of a serious nature, shall cast dishonor, discredit or
the penalty shall be arresto menor contempt upon another person. If
or a fine not exceeding 200 pesos. said act is not of a serious nature,
the penalty shall be arresto menor
or a fine not exceeding Twenty
thousand pesos (P20,000).

Title Thirteen
CRIMES AGAINST HONOR
Chapter Two
INCRIMINATORY MACHINATIONS

364. Intriguing Against Honor. — The Intriguing Against Honor. — The


penalty of arresto menor or fine not penalty of arresto menor or fine not
exceeding 200 pesos shall be exceeding Twenty thousand
imposed for any intrigue which has pesos (P20,000) shall be imposed
for its principal purpose to blemish for any intrigue which has for its
the honor or reputation of a principal purpose to blemish the
person. honor or reputation of a person.
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

Title Fourteen
QUASI OFFENSES

Sole Chapter
CRIMINAL NEGLIGENCE

365. Imprudence and Negligence. — Any Imprudence and Negligence. — Any


person who, by reckless person who, by reckless
imprudence, shall commit any act imprudence, shall commit any act
which, had it been intentional, which, had it been intentional,
would constitute a grave felony, would constitute a grave felony,
shall suffer the penalty of arresto shall suffer the penalty of arresto
mayor in its maximum period to mayor in its maximum period to
prisión correccional in its medium prisión correccional in its medium
period; if it would have constituted period; if it would have constituted
a less grave felony, the penalty of a less grave felony, the penalty of
arresto mayor in its minimum and arresto mayor in its minimum and
medium periods shall be imposed. medium periods shall be imposed.

Any person who, by simple Any person who, by simple


imprudence or negligence, shall imprudence or negligence, shall
commit an act which would commit an act which would
otherwise constitute a grave felony, otherwise constitute a grave felony,
shall suffer the penalty of arresto shall suffer the penalty of arresto
mayor in its medium and mayor in its medium and
maximum periods; if it would have maximum periods; if it would have
constituted a less serious felony, constituted a less serious felony,
the penalty of arresto mayor in its the penalty of arresto mayor in its
minimum period shall be imposed. minimum period shall be imposed.

When the execution of the act When the execution of the act
covered by this article shall have covered by this article shall have
only resulted in damage to the only resulted in damage to the
property of another, the offender property of another, the offender
shall be punished by a fine ranging shall be punished by a fine ranging
from an amount equal to the value from an amount equal to the value
of said damages to three (3) times of said damages to three (3) times
such value, but which shall in no such value, but which shall in no
case be less than 25 pesos. case be less than Five thousand
pesos (P5,000).
A fine not exceeding 200 pesos
and censure shall be imposed A fine not exceeding Forty
upon any person who, by simple thousand pesos (P40,000) and
imprudence or negligence, shall censure shall be imposed upon any
cause some wrong which, if done person who, by simple imprudence
maliciously, would have or negligence, shall cause some
constituted a light felony. wrong which, if done maliciously,
would have constituted a light
In the imposition of these felony.
penalties, the court shall exercise
their sound discretion, without In the imposition of these penalties,
regard to the rules prescribed in the court shall exercise their sound
article 64. discretion, without regard to the
rules prescribed in article 64.
The provisions contained in this
article shall not be applicable: The provisions contained in this
article shall not be applicable:
1. When the penalty provided for
the offense is equal to or lower 1. When the penalty provided for
Comparative Table of Provisions
amended by R.A. 10951

than those provided in the first two the offense is equal to or lower than
(2) paragraphs of this article, in those provided in the first two (2)
which case the court shall impose paragraphs of this article, in which
the penalty next lower in degree case the court shall impose the
than that which should be penalty next lower in degree than
imposed, in the period which they that which should be imposed, in
may deem proper to apply. the period which they may deem
proper to apply.
2. When, by imprudence or
negligence and with violation of the 2. When, by imprudence or
Automobile Law, the death of a negligence and with violation of the
person shall be caused, in which Automobile Law, the death of a
case the defendant shall be person shall be caused, in which
punished by prisión correccional in case the defendant shall be
its medium and maximum periods. punished by prisión correccional in
its medium and maximum periods.
Reckless imprudence consists in
voluntary, but without malice, Reckless imprudence consists in
doing or falling to do an act from voluntary, but without malice,
which material damage results by doing or falling to do an act from
reason of inexcusable lack of which material damage results by
precaution on the part of the reason of inexcusable lack of
person performing or failing to precaution on the part of the
perform such act, taking into person performing or failing to
consideration his employment or perform such act, taking into
occupation, degree of intelligence, consideration his employment or
physical condition and other occupation, degree of intelligence,
circumstances regarding persons, physical condition and other
time and place. circumstances regarding persons,
time and place.
Simple imprudence consists in the
lack of precaution displayed in Simple imprudence consists in the
those cases in which the damage lack of precaution displayed in
impending to be caused is not those cases in which the damage
immediate nor the danger clearly impending to be caused is not
manifest. immediate nor the danger clearly
manifest.
The penalty next higher in degree
to those provided for in this article The penalty next higher in degree
shall be imposed upon the offender to those provided for in this article
who fails to lend on the spot to the shall be imposed upon the offender
injured parties such help as may who fails to lend on the spot to the
be in his hands to give. injured parties such help as may
be in his hands to give.