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University of Ljubljana

Faculty of mathematics and physics


Department of physics

Primo Vavpeti

SEMINAR

Corrosion in concrete steel

ADVISOR: prof. dr. iga mit

Kamnik, april 2008


Abstract
Reinforced concrete uses steel to provide the tensile properties that are needed in structural
concrete. It prevents the failure of concrete structures which are subjected to tensile and
flexural stresses due to traffic, winds, dead loads, and thermal cycling. However, when
reinforcement corrodes, the formation of rust leads to a loss of bond between the steel and the
concrete and subsequently delamination and spalling. If left unchecked, the integrity of the
structure can be affected. Reduction in the cross sectional area of steel reduces its strength
capacity. This is especially detrimental to the performance of tensioned strands in pre-stressed
concrete.

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Contents
Introduction ...........................................................................................................4
Corrosion in concrete ............................................................................................5
The corrosion mechanism .......................................................................................5
Carbonation..........................................................................................................6
Chloride attack......................................................................................................6
Stress corrosion cracking........................................................................................7
Theoretical background for corrosion...................................................................8
Consequences of steel corrosion.........................................................................10
Corrosion: structural effects................................................................................11
Environmental influence in the corrosion process ..............................................11
Measurements of corrosion in concrete using electrochemical impedance
spectroscopy (EIS)..............................................................................................12
Preventing corrosion ...........................................................................................14
Galvanisation .....................................................................................................14
Cathodic protection ............................................................................................14
Electrochemical chloride migration (Desalination) ...................................................15
Re-alkalisation ...................................................................................................15
Corrosion inhibitor repair techniques .....................................................................15
Conclusion ..........................................................................................................15
References ..........................................................................................................16

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Introduction

Standard terminology defines corrosion as the chemical or electrochemical reaction between


a material, usually a metal, and its environment that produces a deterioration of the material
and its properties. For steel embedded in concrete, corrosion results in the formation of rust
which has two to four times the volume of the original steel and none of the good mechanical
properties. Corrosion also produces pits or holes in the surface of reinforcing steel, reducing
strength capacity as a result of the reduced cross-sectional area.
Reinforced concrete uses steel to provide the tensile properties that are needed in structural
concrete. It prevents the failure of concrete structures which are subjected to tensile and
flexural stresses due to traffic, winds, dead loads, and thermal cycling. However, when
reinforcement corrodes, the formation of rust leads to a loss of bond between the steel and the
concrete and subsequently delamination and spalling. If left unchecked, the integrity of the
structure can be affected. Reduction in the cross sectional area of steel reduces its strength
capacity. This is especially detrimental to the performance of tensioned strands in pre-stressed
concrete.
Steel in concrete is usually in a non-corroding, passive condition. However, steel reinforced
concrete is often used in severe environments where sea water or deicing salts are present.
When chloride moves into the concrete, it disrupts the passive layer protecting the steel,
causing it to rust and pit.
Carbonation of concrete is another cause of steel corrosion. When concrete carbonates to the
level of the steel rebar the normally alkaline environment, which protects steel from
corrosion, is replaced by a more neutral environment. Under these conditions the steel is not
passive and rapid corrosion begins. The rate of corrosion due to carbonated concrete cover is
slower than chloride-induced corrosion.

Figure 1: Pictures of various types of corrosion damage namely localized corrosion (middle)
and general corrosion due to carbonation (left, right) when spalling occured.

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Corrosion in concrete

The mechanism of corrosion in aqueous media is of electrochemical nature. This means that
the oxidation of the metal is counterbalanced by the reduction of another substance in another
region of the metallic surface. Therefore, zones (anodes and cathodes) with different
electrochemical potential, develop.
In the case of concrete the electrolyte is constituted by the pore solution, which is very
alkaline. This pore solution is formed by mainly a mixture of KOH and NaOH presenting pH
values ranging between 12,6-14. The solution is saturated in Ca(OH)2. Steel embedded in
concrete is naturally protected by this high alkalinity and by the barrier effect of the cover
itself.
The two main causes of electrochemical corrosion are carbonation and the presence of
chlorides (Figure 2). Carbonation usually induces a generalized corrosion while chloride will
lead into pitting or localized attack. The corrosion can be easily recognized by the rust
presence on the rebar and by the appearance of cracks running parallel to the rebars. In figure
1 is also identified another particular type of corrosion, the stress corrosion cracking (SCC),
that develops in prestressed wires subjected to special aggressive conditions.

Figure 2: Types and morphology of the corrosion in concrete: generalized (carbonation),


localized (chlorides) and stress corrosion cracking (in prestressed wires).

The corrosion mechanism


Corrosion of steel reinforcement occurs by an electrochemical process which involves
exchanges of electrons similar to that which occurs in a battery. The important part of the
mechanism is the separation of negatively charged areas of metal or 'anodes' where corrosion
occurs and positively charged areas or 'cathodes' where a harmless charge balancing reaction
occurs (Figure 3). At the anode the iron dissolves and then reacts to form the solid corrosion
product, rust. The rust is formed at the metal/oxide interface, forcing previously formed oxide
away from the steel and compressing the concrete, causing it to spall.

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Figure 3: Exposed steel will corrode in
moist atmospheres due to differences in the
electrical potential on the steel surface
forming anodic and cathodic sites. The metal
oxidises at the anode where corrosion occurs
according to:
Fe (metal) --> Fe2+ (aq.) + 2e-
Simultaneously, reduction occurs at cathodic
sites, typical cathodic processes being:
O2 + H20 + 2e- (metal) 2OH-(aq.)
-

2H+(aq.) + 2e- (metal) H2(gas)


The electrons produced during this process are conducted through the metal whilst the ions
formed are transported via the pore water which acts as the electrolyte.

Carbonation
Atmospheric carbon dioxide reacts with the calcium and alkaline hydroxides and cement
phases, leading in a lowering of the pore solution pH value until values near neutrality. This
process aims into the depassivation of the steel in contact with the carbonated zones.
Carbonation is a diffusion process and therefore, its depth progresses by an exponential
attenuation along the time. The modelling of carbonation is generally made by means of the
simplified expression: x = k(CO2) t , where x is the carbonation depth, t is the time and
k(CO2) is the carbonation factor of the particular concrete. It does not develop if the concrete
is water saturated or in very dry conditions. However, as cycling wet-dry periods are the usual
environmental outdoor conditions, the carbonation front can advance relatively fast.
As the corrosion is generalized, cracks will appear running parallel to the rebars. Usually they
appear not before 20 years life for a cover of 20-25 mm, what means that the corrosion rates
are in general low. Spalling will be produced at later stages.

Chloride attack
The chloride ions may be present in the concrete if they are added in the mix (admixtures,
water or aggregates). However, this is fortunately not common. The most frequent is that
chlorides penetrate from outside, either due to the structure is placed in marine environments
or because deicing salts are used.
Chlorides induce local disruption of steel passive layer dealing into pits or localized attack.
In submerged zones or in fully saturated concrete, chlorides penetrate by diffusion. However,
in aerial zones or when submitted to cycles (deicing salts), capillary absorption may be a
faster mechanism of penetration. In both cases, the penetration is as well dependent of the
square root of time. Therefore, its modelling may be made similarly to the carbonation, by
means of the simplified expression x = k(Cl) t . The chloride ingress is usually modelled by
means of the so called error function equation (see Theoretical background for corrosion
section) which is a particular solution of Ficks second law: Cx= Cs[1 erf( 2x Dt )] where
Cx is the chloride concentration at the depth x, Cs is the surface chloride concentration and D
the chloride diffusion coefficient.

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Depending on how extended or localized is the corrosion, cracks may appear or not. In
submerged zones sometimes the rebar corrodes without any external sign of cover cracking.
Concerning the amount of chlorides needed to induce the onset of corrosion (threshold value),
it depends on several factors not fully quantified. This multiple dependence makes difficult to
fix a single value.
The factors influencing the chloride threshold are:
- Type of cement: finess, amount of gypsum, blending materials etc.
- Water/cement ratio w/c (porosity).
- Curing and compaction (porosity).
- Moisture content and variation.
- Type of steel and surface roughness and condition (pre-rusted or not).
- Oxygen availability (corrosion potential when arriving the chlorides).

Each structure has its threshold which, in an already corroding structure can be verified by
appropiate testing. To predict the threshold in a particular structure is difficult, but if the steel
has depassivated in some areas, the testing of the concrete surrounding the rebar will enable a
more precise knowledge. The threshold may be given as Cl-/OH- of the pore solution of % of
Cl- by weight.
In spite of this difficulty of fixing a reliable and general chloride threshold, all codes limit the
chloride content in the mixing water. In absence of other value, this amount (in general 0.4%
of cement weight) can be taken as reference.

Stress Corrosion Cracking


The SCC is a specialized type of corrosion which is produced when mechanical stresses act
simultaneously to some specific aggressive agents. This type of corrosion may then develop
in prestressed or postensioned wires. The mechanism of this type of corrosion is not yet well
understood and several theories exist in the literature. The phenomenon may occur
accompanied by an embritlement of the steel due to the penetration in the steel of hydrogen
gas produced by a corrosion reaction. The three conditions necessary to develop the
phenomenon are:
1) a type of steel susceptible to suffer this type of corrosion,
2) the steel has to be stressed beyond a minimum threshold below which the process
is very slow, and
3) a specific aggressive media (producing or not hydrogen gas)
When the three conditions are found simultaneously the process develops in three steps:
1) one or several microcracks are generated at the surface of the steel,
2) these cracks grow until they reach a certain depth and then they propagate very
quickly until
3) it aims into the brittle failure of the wire. This failure may be enhanced by hydrogen
embritlement.
The phenomenon may then be slow during the generation of the crack and later it propagates
very quickly leading to a sudden unexpected failure (Figure 4).
The corrosion during the first step cannot be noticed by means of measuring the corrosion
rate, as the loss of metal is negligible and the corrosion potential measured at the concrete
surface may not indicate the developing of the process. Therefore, this type of corrosion
cannot be electrochemically measured during its occurrence. Only the risk of its appearance
may be approached by the traditional electrochemical techniques.
The identification of the nature of the failure is not an easy task after being produced. It has to
be detected by microscopical observation of the fractured surface when it is fresh, and not

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corroded or contaminated. In the case of having occurred SCC or H2 embritlement, the
fractography enables the identification by the brittle aspect of the steel fractured surface.

Figure 4: Start of stress corrosion cracking.

This type of phenomenon has not to be mistaken with the failure induced by chlorides in
prestressed wires. The ions inducing localized corrosion may also aim into a failure, but of
simple reduction (localized attack) of the cross section produced by the electrochemical
process. The SCC may not be of electrochemical nature and then its rates of propagation
differ from those of normal localized corrosion.
Typical contaminants promoting SCC are sulphides, sulphates or tiocyanides, while chlorides
are less linked to this type of failure.

Theoretical background for corrosion


The corrosion rate is controlled by many factors such as total chloride ion content of the pore
solution, pH level, availability of oxygen, water content, temperature etc.
In corrosion decay of steel in concrete several processes may be combined, making it difficult
to identify a single mechanism. One of the mechanisms for surface penetration is intrusion of
chloride-bearing water into capillary pores of unsaturated (dry) concrete by capillary action.
Alternate wetting and drying can lead to buildup of chloride ions through absorption. If a
structure is not dried to a high degree for prolonged period of time, chloride penetration into
concrete by absorption and capillary suction is basically restricted to a small depth below the
surface. If there is a differential head of chloride bearing water, permeability will also
influence the ingress of chlorides for which higher permeability coefficient will permit higher
rate of flow.
The other dominant mechanism of the chloride ion transport is the diffusion which takes place
under a concentration gradient. If outside concentration is higher than the inside of concrete,
the migration of chloride ions through pore water in concrete will take place by diffusion.
The relative importance of the two major mechanisms of chloride transport, namely diffusion
and absorption, depend on the moisture content of concrete. Absorption may be dominant if a
dry concrete with significant loss of pore water is wetted with chloride-bearing water,
whereas for a reasonably moist concrete (sufficient level of pore water exists) diffusion
process will prevail. However, researchers tend to agree that in most cases diffusion can be
assumed to be the basic transport mechanism of chloride ions for reasonably moist structures.
As part of the chloride in concrete is chemically bound due to reaction of chloride ions with
constituents of cement, the free chloride concentration is of importance for corrosion
initiation.

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The chloride penetration can be modeled by Ficks diffusion law without the reaction
component when the pores are wide enough, so that the solid bodies around the pores (traps)
may be neglected. The diffusion through the pores takes place only through the tortuous pores
of concrete. As the pores are not straight, the diffusion effectively takes place over longer
distance than it would be in homogenious medium. Also, the solids being impermeable,
diffusion occurs over a smaller cross sectional area than that available in a homogenious
material.
The effects of the longer diffusion path and smaller areas can be lumped together in the
definition of the effective diffusion coefficient.


De = D (1)

where
- is the total porosity of the material
- is the tortuosity factor, which accounts for the sinuosity of the pores along the path
of diffusion
- D is the diffusion coefficient of NaCl in water 1,26 105 cm2/s at the specific
temperature of 19 C.

Ionic diffusion in a porous media is governed by Ficks first law, which deals with the mass
flux due to a concentration gradient,

C
J = De (2)
x

where
- J is the mass flux
- De is the effective diffusion coefficient
- C is the concentration
- x is the distance
C
- is the concentration gradient in one dimension.
x

For unsteady state in one dimensional diffusion, Ficks second law is

C J
= . (3)
t x

Substituting for J from (2)

C 2C
= De 2 (4)
t x

where De has been assumed to be constant.

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The applicable boundary conditions for the solution of this differential equations for semi-
infinite domain are:

Cx = Ci, at t = 0 when 0 < x <


Cx = Ci, at x = 0 when 0 < t <
Cx = Ci, at x = when 0 < t <

By combination of variables, the solution for Eq.(4) is

C x Ci x
= 1 erf
C s Ci 2 De t
where
- Ci is the initial chloride concentration
- Cx is the chloride concentration at a depth x
- Cs is the surface chloride concentration
- erf is error function
- De is the effective diffusion coefficient
- t is the time elapsed

Using the above solution, when the initial chloride concentration Ci, the surface chloride
concentration Cs and the effective diffusion coefficient De at a time t are known the chloride
concentration Cx at a particular depth x can be determined.

Consequences of steel corrosion


In the case of reinforcement corrosion, the most simple and descriptive model for service life
is shown in Figure 5.
This well known model considers:
- An initiation period which consists of the time from the erection of the structure until
the aggressive agent (either chlorides or the carbonation front) reaches the rebar and
depassivates the steel.
- A propagation period from the steel depassivation until a certain unacceptable level of
deterioration is developed in the structure.

Figure 5: Service life model for reinforcement corrosion (T is temperature, RH is relative


humidity).

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Corrosion: structural effects
In the case of non prestressed reinforcements, the first direct effect of the reinforcement
corrosion is its section decrease due to the corroding process. Iron oxides (rust) resulting from
the corrosion process have a larger volume than the original steel, in the case of reinforced
concrete structures, and this effect induces internal stresses in the concrete which may lead to
cracking or even spalling of concrete cover.
Corrosion also may reduce the steel elongation at maximum load, affecting subsequently the
structure ductility.
On the other hand, the composite action of concrete and steel in a reinforced concrete
structure is based on the bond between them, and this is also affected by corrosion through
several mechanisms: a) increasing of hoop stresses due to pressure of rust, producing concrete
cracking, b) change of properties of the interface concrete-steel, and c) the corrosion of
stirrups.

Accordingly, reduction of structural capacity of reinforced concrete elements affected by


rebar corrosion is mainly due to the following three main phenomena, which are direct
consequence of corrosion:
- reduction of rebar section due to corrosion
- reduction of bond strength
- loss of concrete integrity due to cover cracking and/or spalling
The rate of developing of these phenomena is function of different parameters as corrosion
current (Ionic current in Figure 3), type of aggressive, time since propagation period was
initiated, and reinforcement or structural detailing. In the case of SCC, the main difference
lies in the fact that rust may not be generated and therefore the cracking of the cover is not
produced. The main concrete characteristics affected are the ductility of the bars and their
reduction in cross sectional area. When partial failure is produced, the reduction in structural
ductility and the collapse of the main other parts, can be immediately achieved.

Environmental influence in the corrosion process


The reinforcement corrosion is the consequence of the ageing of the concrete in a particular
environment. Then, the environmental actions are the aggressive which may shorten the
concrete durability. The main influencing parameter on the corrosion among the
environmental conditions is the moisture content of the concrete, which is dependent on the
external temperature and humidity. The concrete moisture controls the penetration of gases
such as CO2 and O2. Thus, when the material is water saturated the carbonation is delayed and
the access of O2 is limited. On the opposite, chlorides penetrate quicker if the material is
saturated. Regarding the corrosion process, the concrete moisture content will influence the
electrical resistivity (porosity).
All these effects are not uniform in the concrete mass, but a gradient of moisture is produced
from the concrete surface towards the interior. It will depend on the rebar position (cover
depth) how the climatic cycling will influence the corrosion process.
Temperature will influence as well the corrosion process. It produces also two opposite
effects: acceleration or retardation of the reaction. When temperature rises, evaporation of
pore water is induced and oxygen is removed from the pore solution. Therefore, although the
corrosion process is stimulated by the rise in temperature, this may be counterbalanced by the
increase in resistivity (evaporation) and the removal of oxygen (smaller solubility at higher
temperatures). An opposite effect is induced by a lowering of temperature in semi-dry
concretes as condensation is induced.

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All this means that the effect of daily and seasonal variations of RH (relative humidity) and T
(temperature) on the corrosion of rebars, cannot be directly deduced and quantified.
The experimental evidence shows that the humidity content of the concrete varies depending
upon the external RH and the direct exposition to rain. Raining events dramatically affect the
saturation degree of the concrete. The saturation degree is the most relevant parameter linked
to the resistivity and the corrosion rate values.
The exposition of concrete to outdoor conditions will induce a saturation degree related to the
particular climate. External moisture and temperature cycles will be followed by parallel
changes in the concrete moisture content, which in consequence induce an evolution in the
corrosion rate following dayly and seasonal cycles.

Measurements of corrosion in concrete using electrochemical


impedance spectroscopy (EIS)
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is relatively new method for testing corrosion
and its evolution. With this method we can determine the main corrosion mechanism from the
measured impedance spectrum and thus evaluate basic values of corrosion parameters. Its
main feature is electrical stimulation of corrosion system with known sinus signal with small
voltage amplitude in particular frequency range. While the system is being stimulated the
current response is measured. For further details see References section.
The acquired spectrum is then modeled with relatively simple theoretical models constituating
basic electrical components such as capacitors, resistors etc.
From the modeled spectrum we can characterize start of corrosion process and degree of
corrosion and its evolution.

7,0E+03

6,0E+03

5,0E+03
-Im ag (O hm )

4,0E+03

3,0E+03

2,0E+03

1,0E+03

0,0E+00
0,0E+00 2,0E+03 4,0E+03 6,0E+03 8,0E+03 1,0E+04 1,2E+04 1,4E+04
Real (Ohm)

Figure 6: Nyquist diagram of measured impedance spectrum of steel rebars in fresh concrete
(dots) and its electrical model (line) with impedance equation. The spectrum has real
and imaginary impedance on x and -y axis respectively. This spectrum represents
basic state of steel rebars in concrete where steel is still in its passive state and
corrosion has not started yet. Electrical model (Rs stands for solution resistance, Cdl
stands for double layer capacity (passive film) and Rp is for polarization resistance
(passive film)). Sign is angular frequency.

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5,0E+02

4,5E+02

4,0E+02

3,5E+02
-Im ag (O hm )

3,0E+02

2,5E+02

2,0E+02

1,5E+02

0
1,0E+02

5,0E+01
2,0E+02 4,0E+02 6,0E+02 8,0E+02 1,0E+03 1,2E+03 1,4E+03 1,6E+03 1,8E+03 2,0E+03 2,2E+03
Real (Ohm)

Figure 7: Nyquist diagram of measured impedance spectrum of steel in carbonated concrete,


wetted in 3,5 % NaCl solution and its electrical model with impedance equations.
This spectrum represents that corrosion of steel is present and already evolved to a
great extent in concrete sample. Electrical model ( Rs stands for solution resistance,
Cdl is for double layer capacity (passive film still present in some areas), Rct stands
for charge transfer resistance (rust layer) and w is Warburg impedance (diffusion
impedance in rust layer). F is Faraday constant, A is rebar cross section, D is
diffusion coefficient, n is number of particles (ions), T is temperature, CR/O is
concentration of oxidants and reducents at infinity, is angular frequency and R is
gas constant).

Figure 8: Concrete sample before exposing in various solutions took place and steel rods
when breaking the sample after last measurement in 3,5 % NaCl solution. Corrosion
products on steel rods are well visible.

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Preventing corrosion
There are a variety of methods for preventing corrosion or at least to slow down the corrosion
process. The most common are listed below.

Galvanisation
Galvanized reinforcing steel is effectively and economically used in concrete where
unprotected reinforcement will not have adequate durability. The susceptibility of concrete
structures to the intrusion of chlorides is the primary incentive for using galvanized steel
reinforcement. Galvanized reinforcing steel is especially useful when the reinforcement will
be exposed to the weather before construction begins. Galvanizing provides visible assurance
that the steel has not rusted and requires no on-site repair, unlike most other coatings.
Galvanized reinforcing steel can withstand exposure to chloride ion concentrations several
times higher (at least 4 to 5 times) than the chloride level that causes corrosion in black steel
reinforcement. While black steel in concrete typically depassivates below a pH of 11.5,
galvanized reinforcement can remain passivated at a lower pH, thereby offering substantial
protection against the effects of concrete carbonation.

Figure 9: Galvanized rebar can be treated exactly like black rebar when it is being installed
and is always protected from corrosion by the hot-dip galvanized coating.

Cathodic protection (CP)


In this process the anodes, power supply and control systems are permanent, and a range of
anodes can be used. The aggressive anodic reaction is isolated to a corrosion resistant anode
while the harmless cathodic reaction occurs at the surface of the steel reinforcement. This
process creates additional hydroxyl ions, rebuilds the passive alkaline layer and repels
chloride ions.
CP has been used on hundreds of reinforced concrete structures around the world and has
potential for the conservation of historic brick and stone masonry, terracotta and statuary
where steel and iron has been used to provide reinforcement or a structural frame

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Electrochemical chloride migration (Desalination)

This process uses a temporary anode, power supply and monitoring system to apply 50 volts
direct current to the steel. The positive charge repels the negatively charged chloride ions and
rebuilds the passive layer over a period of four to six weeks.The technique has been used to
successfully treat more than 50 structures in the UK, continental Europe and North America.

Re-alkalisation
This system is the equivalent of desalination for carbonated structures. It relies on the
principle that the hydroxyl ions produced at the cathode re-alkalise the concrete from the
reinforcement outwards. This is linked with a wet anode at the surface that contains calcium
carbonate, which moves under electro-osmotic pressure and re-alkalises the concrete from the
surface inwards

Corrosion inhibitor repair techniques


A recent development is the impregnation with chemical corrosion inhibitors which are
widely used in the power generation, chemical and manufacturing industries. Recently,
attempts have been made to introduce these chemicals into hardened concrete. If successful,
then these could be good, relatively simple methods of increasing the life span, reducing
maintenance and providing a 'minimum intervention' method of slowing or stopping
corrosion.
One of the most effective corrosion inhibiting systems is also one of the simplest. An
inorganic admixture made with calcium nitrate, which is added to the concrete before casting,
performes equally well or better than more complicated systems that include sealers applied to
the concrete or coatings on the steel bars.

Conclusion
Corrosion of steel in concrete can be seen to be a significant problem for many reinforced
concrete structures if moisture is present. If there is no salt to cause corrosion in the short
term, carbonation will affect most structures over the centuries. If the structure cannot be kept
dry then there is a range of techniques that can be used depending on the structure, its
condition and the cause and extent of the problem.
Repairing damage caused by corrosion is a multi-billion problem. Observations of numerous
structures show that corrosion of reinforcing steel is either a prime factor, or at least an
important factor, contributing to staining, cracking and/or spalling of concrete structures. The
effects of corrosion often require costly repairs and continued maintenance during the life of
the structure.

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References
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electrochemistry, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1985)

2. Robert Cottis, Stephen Turgoose: Electrochemical impedance and noise, NACE


International, Houston (1999)

3. Leopold Vehovar: Korozija kovin in korozijsko preskuanje, Ljubljana (1991)

4. Dr. Milenko V. ui: Osnovi elektrohemije i elektrohemijske analize, Beograd (1980)

5. J. R. Macdonald, Ed.: Impedance Spectroscopy Emphasizing Solid Materials and


Systems, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1987)

6. V. D. Jovic, Determination of the correct value of Cdl from the impedance results fitted
by the commercially available software (2003), http://www.gamry.com

7. Equivalent Circuit Modeling Using the Gamry CMS300 Electrochemical Impedance


Spectroscopy Software, Instruction manual, GAMRY Instruments

8. Milena Turinik Deutsch: Vpliv aminskega inhibitorja na korozijo armiranega betona,


Magistrsko delo, Fakulteta za kemijo in kemijsko tehnologijo, Ljubljana (2001)

9. Primo Vavpeti: tudij korozijskih procesov v betonskem jeklu z elektrokemijsko


impedanno spektroskopijo, Diplomsko delo, Ljubljana (2005)

10. http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/highlights/2008/0803bridges_e.html

11. http://www.cadman.com/section.asp?catid=1235&subid=1238&pageid=3162

12. http://www.galvanizeit.org/showContent,278,322.cfm#top

13. http://www.concretenetwork.com/concrete/concrete_admixtures/corrosion_protection.htm

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