Mechanical Engineering Review Materials for Dynamics

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Mechanical Engineering Review Materials for Dynamics

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Michael Day

J. B. Speed School of Engineering

i 0: SYLLABUS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................................................... i

0: SYLLABUS ................................................................................................................................................. ii

1: INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................... 1

2: PARTICLE KINEMATICS ................................................................................................................................ 4

3: CONSTANT ACCELERATION .......................................................................................................................... 7

4: PROBLEM SOLVING .................................................................................................................................. 10

5: VARIABLE ACCELERATION .......................................................................................................................... 11

6: GRAPHICAL SOLUTIONS ............................................................................................................................ 13

7: PATH COORDINATES ................................................................................................................................ 14

8: RECTANGULAR COORDINATES .................................................................................................................... 17

9: POLAR COORDINATES ............................................................................................................................... 20

10: RELATIVE MOTION ................................................................................................................................... 23

11: DEPENDENT MOTION ............................................................................................................................... 25

12: PARTICLE KINEMATICS REVIEW .................................................................................................................. 26

13: PARTICLE KINETICS................................................................................................................................... 27

14: RECTILINEAR EOM .................................................................................................................................. 30

15: FRICTION................................................................................................................................................ 32

16: SPRINGS ................................................................................................................................................. 34

17: CURVILINEAR EOM.................................................................................................................................. 36

18: WORK & KINETIC ENERGY......................................................................................................................... 38

19: POTENTIAL ENERGY.................................................................................................................................. 41

20: IMPULSE & MOMENTUM .......................................................................................................................... 44

21: IMPACT .................................................................................................................................................. 47

22: ANGULAR MOMENTUM............................................................................................................................ 49

23: PARTICLE KINETICS REVIEW ....................................................................................................................... 52

24: RIGID BODY MOTION ............................................................................................................................... 53

25: ROTATION: FIXED AXIS ............................................................................................................................. 56

26: ABSOLUTE ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................................ 58

27: RELATIVE ANALYSIS: VELOCITY ................................................................................................................... 59

28: RELATIVE ANALYSIS: ACCELERATION ........................................................................................................... 61

29: INSTANTANEOUS CENTER .......................................................................................................................... 62

30: RIGID BODY KINEMATICS REVIEW............................................................................................................... 63

31: MOMENTS OF INERTIA ............................................................................................................................. 64

32: TRANSLATIONAL MOTION ......................................................................................................................... 67

33: FIXED AXIS ROTATION .............................................................................................................................. 68

34: GENERAL PLANE MOTION ......................................................................................................................... 69

35: RIGID BODY WORK-ENERGY ...................................................................................................................... 70

36: RIGID BODY IMPULSE-MOMENTUM ........................................................................................................... 72

37: RIGID BODY KINETICS REVIEW ................................................................................................................... 74

ii 0: SYLLABUS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

0: SYLLABUS

INSTRUCTOR

Dr. Michael Day, P.E., Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Associate Dean of Academic Affairs

Office Address: J.B. Speed Building, Room 212; J.B. Speed School of Engineering

Office Phone: 502-852-6195

Email address: day@louisville.edu

INSTRUCTOR AVAILABILITY

The instructor has an open office or appointments can be arranged by email. A Discussion

Board is available through Blackboard for posting general questions or asking for homework

assistance. Fellow students are free to offer assistance, but the instructor will monitor nightly

(typically 9:00 PM Sunday through Thursday). On occasion the instructor may start a DyKnow

session to facilitate discussion.

TABLET PC REQUIREMENT

This section of dynamics requires the daily use of a tablet PC, both in and outside of class.

Tablets should be configured for wireless access to the ulsecure network using either

the client-less built-in feature (PEAP) or the Odyssey client. Detailed configuration

instructions are available at http://louisville.edu/it/services/network/wireless.

The DyKnow Client 5.2 (Vision & Monitor) and DyKnow Writer 5.1 should both be

installed; download from http://dyknow.com/download/. DyKnow is used interactively

in the classroom by connecting to the DyKnow server at dyknow.spd.louisville.edu.

Internet access to the Blackboard Academic Suite is needed and is available at

https://blackboard.louisville.edu/. The Respondus Lockdown Browser is also used for

quizzes and tests taken via Blackboard.

Microsoft OneNote is also used for homework assignments. OneNote and other useful

software can be downloaded from http://louisville.edu/it/services/software/.

Download Microsofts Physics Illustrator for Tablet PC for illustrative examples.

It is recommended to create desktop shortcuts to Blackboard, DyKnow, and OneNote as

they will be used often.

COURSE PREREQUISITES

The prerequisites for this course are ENGR 102 (Engineering Analysis II), PHYS 298 (Introductory

Mechanics), and CE 205 (Mechanics I: Statics). Transfer students should have taken equivalent

courses. This course relies heavily on the use of computer tools and statics.

TEXTBOOK

Day, Michael. ME 206, Mechanics II: Dynamics. Course Notes. University of Louisville. August

2009. The textbook is available free as an eBook in pdf format. It may be downloaded from

Blackboard and read using Adobe Reader or Adobe Digital Editions software. Schaums Outline

of Engineering Mechanics, Fifth Edition is also required for homework problems. The other

sections of ME 206 use Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics (5th Edition) by Bedford & Fowler it

will not be used in this section but could serve as a reference book.

iii 0: SYLLABUS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

ATTENDANCE

Daily attendance in the classroom and preparation are essential. Students are responsible for

all content and assignments (or changes to assignments) presented in class. Be punctual and

participate actively in class activities. Be sure to bring the tablet PC to every class. The

instructors DyKnow session will be made available later in the day via Blackboard however do

not miss class without a valid reason and not use these notes as a substitute for coming to

class.

competition, observance of a religious holiday, or a serious illness or family crisis. Talk to the

instructor ahead of time about planned absences. Provide documentation for any absences you

request to be excused.

ASSIGNMENTS

There is an assignment due every day, the only exceptions being the days after the test review

and the test. The assignment schedule is available from Blackboard. Students are responsible

for adhering to any additional details or requirements/modifications that may be given during

the preceding class. If there is difficulty with completing the assignment, dont hesitate coming

for help or posting to the Discussion Board. These assignments should be prepared according

to any given guidelines and procedures using OneNote and written to DyKnow. The completed

assignment should be submitted at the beginning of the next class meeting via DyKnow.

Assignments not turned in at the beginning of class may be submitted at the next class meeting

with a 25 point decrease. Assignments later than one class are not accepted. The total

homework grade accounts for 25% of the semester grade. The lowest assignment grade is

dropped. Deadline extensions for homework assignments are granted for situations similar to

excused absences. Average time spent outside of class is expected to be about 6 to 7 hours per

week.

QUIZZES

Daily quizzes will be given, typically over the current assignment or the material covered in the

last class. The quizzes are closed-book and closed-notes and will be taken via Blackboard. The

questions are predominantly multiple choice, fill in the blanks, true/false, etc. You must be

present for the entire class in order to receive credit for the quiz. Make-up quizzes are not

given, no matter what the situation. If there is an excused absence, the quiz is also excused.

The lowest quiz grade will be dropped. The total quiz grade is 15% of the semester grade.

TESTS

Four tests and a comprehensive final are given. The tests are closed-book, closed-notes, and

consist of 25 multiple-choice questions (the final exam has 50 similar questions) and will be

taken via Blackboard. Test questions from previous semesters will be made available for

review. Unless agreed upon before the scheduled date, no make-up will be given if a test is

missed. No make-ups are given for poor performance and no test scores are dropped. Each

test is 10% of the semester grade and the final exam is 20%.

iv 0: SYLLABUS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

GRADING SYSTEM

A total of 1000 points may be earned throughout the semester. These come from:

Daily Homework........ 250

Daily Quizzes ............. 150

Hourly Tests .............. 400

Final Exam ................. 200

Total ...................... 1000

The final grade is then assigned according to the total number of points accumulated. There is

no curving of grades.

1000 - 934 A+ 933 - 900 A 899 - 867 A-

866 - 834 B+ 833 - 800 B 799 - 767 B-

766 - 734 C+ 733 - 700 C 699 - 667 C-

666 - 634 D+ 633 - 600 D 599 - 567 D-

566 - 0 F

If the course is being taken Pass/Fail, 567 points are required to pass.

PROJECT

An optional computer project will be assigned about a month into the course, to be due on the

last day of classes. This will require the use of a software package (Excel, Maple, Mathcad, and

MATLAB). The points received on the project are considered to be extra credit. A maximum of

33 points may be added to your semester total. Although the project is optional, everyone is

strongly encouraged to do it as it will raise your grade one level if maximum points are

obtained.

ACADEMIC INTEGRITY

Do not copy or let your work be copied, as neither will be accepted. Although working together

in a group is encouraged, do not even look at another persons work for help. If you wish to

help someone on a homework problem, verbally explain the steps involved do not show or

send the solution. First offense in sharing homework solutions is a zero grade for the

homework to all involved. This includes copying a homework solution from another source

(e.g., work obtained from students in previous classes). Second offense is a failing grade and

dismissal from the course. Obtaining assistance in any manner on quizzes and tests is strictly

prohibited and will result in a failing grade and submission of charges to the Academic Integrity

Review Committee. Academic dishonesty and its consequences are discussed further in the

Universitys Code of Student Rights and Responsibilities.

The University of Louisville is committed to providing access to programs and services for

qualified students with disabilities. If a student has a disability and requires accommodation to

participate and complete requirements for this class, notify the instructor immediately and

contact the Disability Resource Center (Robbins Hall, 852-6938) for verification of eligibility and

determination of specific accommodations.

v 0: SYLLABUS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

CLASS SCHEDULE

Class meetings: MWF 8:00 8:50, Sackett Hall 208

1: Introduction 2: Particle Kinematics 3: Constant Acceleration

August 31 September 2 September 4

4: Problem Solving 5: Variable Acceleration 6: Graphical Solutions

September 7 September 9 September 11

LABOR DAY HOLIDAY 7: Path Coordinates 8:Rectangular Coordinates

September 14 September 16 September 18

9: Polar Coordinates 10: Relative Motion 11: Dependent Motion

September 21 September 23 September 25

12: Part. Kinematics Review TEST #1 13: Particle Kinetics

September 28 September 30 October 2

14: Rectilinear EOM 15: Friction 16: Springs

October 5 October 7 October 9

17: Curvilinear EOM 18: Work & Kinetic Energy 19: Potential Energy

October 12 October 14 October 16

MID-TERM BREAK 20: Impulse & Momentum 21: Impact

October 19 October 21 October 23

22: Angular Momentum 23: Part. Kinetics Review TEST #2

October 26 October 28 October 30

24: Rigid Body Motion 25: Rotational Motion 26: Absolute Analysis

November 2 November 4 November 6

27: Relative Velocity 28: Relative Acceleration 29: Instantaneous Center

November 9 November 11 November 13

30: RB Kinematics Review TEST #3 31: Moment of Inertia

November 16 November 18 November 20

32: Translational Motion 33: Fixed Axis Rotation 34: General Plane Motion

November 23 November 25 November 27

35: RB Work & Energy THANKSGIVING BREAK THANKSGIVING BREAK

November 30 December 2 December 4

36: RB Impulse Momentum 37: RB Kinetics Review TEST #4

December 7 December 15 (Tuesday)

Summary & Evaluation FINAL EXAM 8:00-10:30

1 1: INTRODUCTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

1: INTRODUCTION

MECHANICS

As indicated by the course title, Dynamics is just one of several areas of Mechanics, which is a

branch of physics dealing with the behavior of systems subjected to forces.

SYSTEMS

Structural systems may be modeled as:

Particles ...................................... Dimensions unimportant, rotation neglected

Rigid Bodies................................. Do not change shape, rotation considered

Deformable bodies ...................... Change shape

The way a system is modeled does not depend on size, but on the situation. For example:

a tennis ball with no spin can be modeled as a particle,

with spin as a rigid body,

and at impact as a deformable body.

In this course, only particles and rigid bodies are studied.

BEHAVIOR

The behavior of a system is based on Newtons laws of motion (1687):

If in equilibrium, then .....................Resultant force = 0

If in motion, then ............................Resultant force Change in motion

For every action there is an ............Equal and opposite reaction

Behavior is determined if the position of the system is known at all times.

DYNAMICS

The study of mechanics is normally subdivided into two areas:

Statics.............For systems at rest or moving with constant velocity (non-accelerating).

Statics uses Newtons 1st and 3rd laws.

Dynamics .......For systems with accelerated motion.

Dynamics uses Newtons 2nd and 3rd laws.

Dynamics, the study of systems in motion, is then also split into two sections:

Kinematics .....Studies motion without reference to the forces.

The basic kinematic quantities are position, velocity, and acceleration.

Kinetics ...........Studies the relation between the forces and motion.

The three methods commonly used in kinetics are equations of motion,

work energy, and impulse momentum.

2 1: INTRODUCTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

Compared to Statics, the study of Dynamics is relatively recent!

Believed that heavy bodies fell more rapidly than light bodies (which is wrong)!

Studied the equilibrium of levers; beginning of Statics

Studied pendulums and falling bodies; first to understand Dynamics, but was often

criticized for refusing to accept the beliefs of his day (which were still those of

Aristotle).

Guided by the work of Galileo and with the recent invention of accurate timepieces,

he was able to make an accurate formulation of the laws of motion.

Placed limitations on the use of Newtons laws; formulated theory of relativity.

Dynamics is closely related and necessary to the study of other courses:

MECHANICS

TYPE OF MODEL STATICS DYNAMICS

Particles & Rigid Bodies CE 205 (Statics) ME 206 (Dynamics)

Deformable Bodies ME 323 (MOM) ME 421 (Vibrations)

APPLICATIONS

Dynamics is applied in many areas of engineering work:

Astronautics

Biomechanics

Large Structures

Machinery

Sports

Transportation

3 1: INTRODUCTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

COURSE DESCRIPTION

Study of the motions and forces of engineering systems. Kinematics and kinetics of particles

and rigid bodies. Engineering applications using equations of motion and the work-energy and

impulse-momentum methods.

COURSE OUTLINE

This course is divided into 4 sections:

Particle Kinematics

Particle Kinetics

Rigid Body Kinetics

GOALS

The goals of this course are to:

Practice solving engineering problems in a logical and orderly manner.

Understand the basic concepts of moving systems.

Being an ABET accredited program, the Mechanical Engineering Department has a set of eleven

educational objectives which are to be satisfied by the curriculum. This course supports each of

those objectives while emphasizing the following:

FUNDAMENTALS. An ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering in

the field of mechanical engineering.

PROBLEM SOLVING. An ability to identify, formulate and solve problems in the field of

mechanical engineering.

CONTINUING EDUCATION. A recognition of the need for, and an ability to engage in, life-long

learning in the field of mechanical engineering.

ENGINEERING PRACTICE. An ability to use the techniques, skills, and modern tools necessary

for the practice of mechanical engineering.

4 2: PARTICLE KINEMATICS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

2: PARTICLE KINEMATICS

PARTICLE KINEMATICS

In particle dynamics, the dimensions of the body are unimportant since the effects of rotation

are neglected. All bodies are assumed to be modeled as a single point. Kinematics is the study

of geometry with respect to time, without regard to the forces causing the movement.

Therefore, particle kinematics reduces to the investigation of the motion of a point with

respect to time.

ABSOLUTE ANALYSIS

The measured values of a physical quantity depend on the reference frame of the observer.

When the measurements are made from an inertial reference, absolute analysis is being used.

To apply the laws of physics, quantities must be absolute!

An inertial reference frame (also called a Newtonian reference frame) satisfies one of the two

following conditions:

Fixed

Non-rotating and moving with constant velocity

For most problems, a reference frame attached to the earth is considered an inertial frame.

There are three basic kinematic quantities:

Position vector..................

Velocity vector ....................

Acceleration vector ...........

All three are vector quantities, having both magnitude and direction. When representing a

vector, make sure to include an arrowhead over the symbol. A vector can never equal a scalar,

e.g., 3 m/s!

POSITION

The position vector defines the location of the particle as a function of time. Coordinates are

used to describe this location. There are three different sets of coordinates that are used in this

course:

Rectangular (x, y, z)

Useful whenever quantities are given in fixed directions.

Commonly, but not necessarily, the horizontal and vertical directions.

Cylindrical (r, , z) or Polar (r, )

Useful whenever angular quantities are given.

Path (s)

Useful whenever path is known. Use this system whenever possible!

Does not need a reference frame, only a reference point.

5 2: PARTICLE KINEMATICS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

The rectangular and polar coordinates are fixed coordinates. They are independent of

knowledge of the path, but depend on choice of reference frame.

VELOCITY

The velocity vector is defined as the change in the position vector with respect to time:

................................................................................................................. (1a)

Where is a shorthand expression for . The direction of is always tangent to the path

of motion. Its magnitude is referred to as the speed.

ACCELERATION

The acceleration vector is defined as the change in the velocity vector with respect to time:

................................................................................................................. (1b)

The direction of is, in general, not tangent to the path of motion. For a fixed reference

frame, both velocity and acceleration are independent of the origin.

Dimensions are used to describe the physical quantities. The basic dimensions needed in

kinematics are:

Length

Time

All kinematic quantities can be expressed in terms of these two basic dimensions. Make sure

that all terms in an equation have consistent dimensions. This is called dimensional

homogeneity.

Units are specific measures of the dimensions. In this course, both the International System (SI)

and the U.S. Customary System (FPS) are used:

Length (L) Meters (m) Feet (ft)

Time (t) Seconds (s) Seconds (s)

The units of any physical quantity can be changed with the aid of conversion factors. These

conversion factors are numbers that are physically unity. Some useful conversion factors

between the two systems are:

6 2: PARTICLE KINEMATICS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

Length Conversions

1 in = 2.54 cm (Exact) 1 cm = 0.3937~ in

1 ft = 0.3048 m (Exact) 1 m = 3.281~ ft

1 yd = 0.9144 m (Exact) 1 m = 1.094~ yd

1 mi = 1.609344 km (Exact) 1 km = 0.6214~ mi

Velocity Conversions

60 mph = 88 fps (Exact)

1 mph = 0.44704 m/s (Exact) 1 m/s = 2.237~ mph

SIGNIFICANT DIGITS

The significant digits in a number include the left-most, non-zero digits to the right-most digit

written (if there is not a decimal point present, the right-most zeros may or may not be

significant). Answers can be no more significant than the least accurate number in the data.

However, rounding off should be done only after the final calculation. In this course, give

answers to at least 3 significant figures.

7 3: CONSTANT ACCELERATION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

3: CONSTANT ACCELERATION

RECTILINEAR MOTION

For rectilinear motion the path (a straight line) is known; therefore, PATH coordinates should

be used. Rectangular or polar coordinates could be used just as well resulting in similar

equations but in this class, path coordinates are used whenever possible.

When using path coordinates, a reference frame is not needed; only a reference point (O) is

required.

The unit vector is tangent to the path, in the direction of increasing s.

For rectilinear motion, the unit vector is constant with respect to time, as it does not change

directions. Therefore, the basic kinematic quantities can be expressed as:

Velocity vector ...............

Acceleration vector ........

However, instead of working with these vectors, their scalar components are used in analysis.

The key in solving kinematic problems is determining the velocity and acceleration

components!

................................................................................................................. (2a)

................................................................................................................. (2b)

The components may be either positive or negative. Using these components, the vectors and

their magnitudes can be easily determined!

......................................................................................... (3a)

......................................................................................... (3a)

The magnitude must always be positive. For rectilinear motion, the subscripts on the

components are often omitted. In such cases, the components and their magnitudes will both

8 3: CONSTANT ACCELERATION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

be represented by the same symbols. Therefore, the symbol | |is typically used to indicate

magnitude.

DISPLACEMENT

The displacement of a particle is a vector defined as the change in the position vector. For

rectilinear motion it has a magnitude of |s|. s is found by subtracting the initial position )

from the final position :

....................................................................................................... (4)

DISTANCE TRAVELED

The distance traveled ) by a particle is the total length of the path, and is always positive.

To determine this distance, it is necessary to determine if the particle changes directions (the

speed will be zero at such a point).

If the particle does not change directions, the distance traveled will be equal to the

magnitude of the displacement.

= -

If the particle changes directions, find out where it changes, and then add together the

length of the segments (a diagram is very useful).

= - + -

AVERAGE VALUES

In some cases, average values (instead of instantaneous values) are of interest. For rectilinear

motion these are:

Average Velocity: ................................................................. (5b)

Average Acceleration: ................................................................. (5c)

Only as t approaches zero do the average velocity and acceleration give values similar to the

instantaneous velocity and acceleration.

9 3: CONSTANT ACCELERATION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

CONSTANT ACCELERATION

If the acceleration is constant (make sure that it does not change with time, position, or

velocity), the two differential relations can be easily integrated (and, if necessary, you should be

able to do it to obtain the equations below). Assuming the initial conditions to be:

The integrations yield two relations (s t and v t); and by use of the chain rule or substitution,

a third relation is found (v s):

v-t relation ................................................................. (6b)

v-s relation ................................................................. (6c)

The t subscript (which stands for tangential, and not time) has been dropped on the velocity

terms (and sometimes it is also dropped on the accelerations). I dont particularly like to do

this, but it is common and convenient. Remember though, that and are still the

tangential components, and are not the magnitudes. Be very careful with signs! If the initial

conditions are at some time , then replace in the equations above with .

NOTE: These equations should be used for all homework problems in which the

acceleration is constant. (That means that you should not be doing the actual

integrations they have already been carried out for us)!

FREE FALL

A common example of constant acceleration occurs when a particle rises or falls freely, the only

force acting on the particle being its own weight (if air resistance is assumed negligible). The

particles acceleration will always be downward and constant (assuming that the distances are

short and g doesnt change):

If up is positive =- g

If down is positive =+g

The local gravitational acceleration, g, is always positive and has a standard value of:

g = 9.8067 m/ = 32.174 ft/

However, for this class we assume were on the planet M2D, where the values of g are:

g = 10.0 m/ for fps units, and g = 32.0 ft/ for SI units.

Unless otherwise stated, these values should be used for all homework and test problems! This

represents less than a 2% difference.

10 4: PROBLEM SOLVING ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

4: PROBLEM SOLVING

GUIDES

Solve each homework problem using the following GUIDES:

deceleration of 3 m/s2. What is the speed after 3 seconds?

Name

ME 206 Problem Number

Date

constants. Also include any values taken from handbooks.

2

= - 3 m/

Include subscripts!

I INITIAL, INTERMEDIATE AND FINAL CONDITIONS In tabular form, list the kinematic

quantities of position and velocity at the given times.

0 1

(s) 0 3

s (m) 0 -

(m/s) 5

D DIAGRAMS The necessary diagrams depend on the type of problem. In general these

are: 1) Reference frame 2) Kinematic diagram 3)Kinetic diagram (FBD)

E EQUATIONS AND EVALUATION Show and underline all basic equations. Evaluate

using at least significant figures. List all assumptions made!

= 5 + (-3) (3) = -4

mathematical symbols. Include units on every answer.

11 5: VARIABLE ACCELERATION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

5: VARIABLE ACCELERATION

VARIABLE ACCELERATION

In many practical cases, the acceleration is not constant and a mathematical relationship has

been developed between two of the four variables listed below:

.............................. Time

.............................. Position

.............................. Velocity

.............................. Acceleration

Differentiation

Integration

DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS

Two differential relationships have already been developed for such cases:

................................................................................................................. (7a)

................................................................................................................. (7b)

Remember, the subscript has been dropped on the velocity terms since velocity is always in

the tangential direction (unlike acceleration in some motions). Since these expressions are

given as time derivatives, the chain rule should be used whenever derivatives of position are

involved. This gives:

................................................................................................................. (7c)

In summary, the differential relations available are listed below. Substitute the given

expression into the proper differential relation (one which contains both variables from the

given expression). This should then tell you whether to differentiate or integrate.

Variables Present

Differential

Equation

12 5: VARIABLE ACCELERATION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

To integrate, use separation of variables. Manipulate the D.E. so that only one variable

appears on each side. Then use definite integrals, making sure to include all 4 limits of

integration. These limits should appear in a kinematic table (which contains , , and ). If a

second integration is to be done, dont put in the final conditions until both integrations are

carried out.

It is very common for the position, velocity, or acceleration to be given explicitly as a function of

time. To determine whether differentiation or integration is necessary, examine the following

diagram:

Differentiate Differentiate

Integrate Integrate

13 6: GRAPHICAL SOLUTIONS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

6: GRAPHICAL SOLUTIONS

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

When data is gathered experimentally, or when the particles path is erratic, it may be more

useful to represent the relations between , , and with graphics, instead of trying to

determine mathematical equations. When working problems graphically, do not write

equations for the kinematic variables!

GRAPHICAL DIFFERENTIATION

The differentiation process can be done graphically by measuring the slope at the point under

consideration:

......................................................................................... (8a)

......................................................................................... (8b)

......................................................................................... (8c)

GRAPHICAL INTEGRATION

The integration process is done graphically by measuring the area under the curve between

specified points:

..................................................... (9a)

..................................................... (9b)

.......................................... (9c)

14 7: PATH COORDINATES ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

7: PATH COORDINATES

CURVILINEAR MOTION

For curvilinear motion, the path a curved line may or may not be known. Therefore,

depending on the situation, the coordinates used should be either:

Path

Rectangular

Polar (Cylindrical)

PATH COORDINATES

Path coordinates ( ) are generally used whenever the path is known. These coordinates do not

use a reference frame, but utilize a stationary reference point.

The unit vectors for path coordinates vary with time (constant magnitude, but changing

direction.)

is tangent to the path in the direction of increasing ,

is normal to the path, always toward the instantaneous center of curvature.

The basic kinematic quantities can be expressed for 2-D motion as:

However, as in rectilinear motion

where:

15 7: PATH COORDINATES ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

where: (from vector analysis, )

and: (geometry) leads to and

PATH COMPONENTS

The velocity and acceleration components for path components can then be written as:

............................................................................................................... (10a)

............................................................................................................... (10b)

............................................................................................................... (10c)

The velocity is always tangent to the path and therefore there is no normal velocity (and the t

subscript is often dropped but be careful since this is sometimes the same symbol used for

speed).

The tangential acceleration can be positive or negative. It represents the time rate of change

in the magnitude of velocity. The normal acceleration is always directed toward the center

of curvature and can never be negative. It represents the change in the direction of velocity.

The vectors and their magnitudes are:

............................................................... (11a)

............................................................... (11a)

RADIUS OF CURVATURE

If the path is expressed as a function , the radius of curvature ( ) at any point

can be found from:

For a straight path...............

16 7: PATH COORDINATES ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

If the tangential acceleration is not an explicit function of time, then the chain rule must be use.

............................................................... (12a)

............................................................... (12b)

Of the two acceleration components, the tangential acceleration is normally the more difficult

one to handle. This is due to it being a differential equation (D.E.), while the normal

acceleration is simply an algebraic equation.

17 8: RECTANGULAR COORDINATES ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

8: RECTANGULAR COORDINATES

RECTANGULAR COORDINATES

Use rectangular coordinates whenever quantities are given in fixed directions (such as the

horizontal and vertical directions).

The unit vectors for rectangular coordinates are constant with respect to time:

is in the direction of increasing ,

is in the direction of increasing ,

is in the direction of increasing .

The basic kinematic quantities can be expressed for 2-D motion as:

Position vector................

Velocity vector ................

Acceleration vector ........

RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS

In this class we work primarily with the scalar form (components). The components of the

position, velocity, and acceleration vectors are:

............................................................................................................... (13a)

............................................................................................................... (13b)

............................................................................................................... (13c)

............................................................................................................... (13d)

18 8: RECTANGULAR COORDINATES ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

If x and y are in the horizontal and vertical directions, the components are referred to as the

horizontal and vertical components. If not, they are simply the x and y velocities and

accelerations.

Once the components are found, the vectors and their magnitudes are easily determined:

............................................................... (14a)

............................................................... (14b)

............................................................... (14c)

The direction of each vector can then be found by dividing the vector by its magnitude. The

direction of the velocity vector will always be tangent to the path. The acceleration vector will

not generally be tangent.

PROJECTILE MOTION

Rectangular coordinates are often used to study projectile motion free flight motion of a

particle (the only force acting on the particle is its weight).

Assume the X-axis to always be horizontal and the Y-axis always vertical and directed upwards.

Since the bodys acceleration will always be downward and constant, the acceleration

components can be written as:

Therefore, using the equations of constant acceleration, the horizontal motion is governed by:

....................................................................................... (15a)

....................................................................................... (15b)

....................................................................................... (15c)

....................................................................................... (15d)

....................................................................................... (15e)

If the axes are not horizontal and vertical, the acceleration components are not constant, and

these equations are not valid!

19 8: RECTANGULAR COORDINATES ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

Several common expressions (derived from the equations above) are used to find maximum

height ( ) and range ( ) from the given firing speed and firing angle (measured from the

horizontal).

The range is the horizontal distance traveled before returning to the same elevation.

Maximum range occurs when = 45.

20 9: POLAR COORDINATES ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

9: POLAR COORDINATES

POLAR COORDINATES

Use polar coordinates whenever angular quantities are given. Polar coordinates are fixed

coordinates: independent of knowledge of the path, but dependent on choice of reference

frame.

The unit vectors for polar coordinates vary with time (constant magnitude, but changing

direction).

is in the direction of increasing Radial direction

is in the direction of increasing and perpendicular to Transverse direction

The basic kinematic quantities can be expressed for 2-D motion as:

Position vector................

extends outward from the origin; is measured from a fixed reference line (X or Y

axis) to the moving radial line (generally CCW to conform to the right-hand rule) and is

used to define the direction of the radial unit vector.

Velocity vector ................

where:

where:

POLAR COMPONENTS

The velocity and acceleration components are then:

21 9: POLAR COORDINATES ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

...................................................................................................... (16a)

...................................................................................................... (16b)

(16c)

...................................................................................................... (16d)

Each of these components (and their individual terms) are referred to by specific names. These

names are listed in the table on the next page.

The vectors and their magnitudes are:

............................................................... (17a)

............................................................... (17b)

CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES

For 3-D problems the z-coordinate (axial direction) is also needed to specify the position:

22 9: POLAR COORDINATES ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

Radial position L m

Radial speed ( ) L/T m/s

Change in radial speed L/T2 m/s2

Radial acceleration L/T2 m/s2

Angular speed ( ) 1/T rad/s

Angular acceleration ( ) 1/T2 rad/s2

Transverse acceleration L/T2 m/s2

z Axial position L m

Axial speed ( ) L/T m/s

Axial acceleration ( ) L/T2 m/s2

Coriolis acceleration L/T2 m/s2

23 10: RELATIVE MOTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

TRANSLATING REFEREENCE FRAME

Up to this point, all observations of a particle P have been made from some fixed point O.

This was absolute analysis. However, in many cases, observations may be made from a point

Q, which is moving relative to the fixed point O. The motion P with respect to the fixed

point can then be found using a translating reference frame. This is a relative analysis.

The position vector can be found from vector algebra; the velocity and acceleration vectors

come from differentiation.

................................................................................................... (18a)

................................................................................................... (18b)

................................................................................................... (18c)

and are absolute velocity vectors; is a relative velocity vector.

and are absolute acceleration vectors; is a relative acceleration vector.

If quantities are given in reference to still air or still water, these are relative quantities. The

absolute (actual) quantities can be determined by vectorially adding the air or water velocity or

acceleration.

24 10: RELATIVE MOTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

1. Show the vector triangle; this should include the magnitudes and directions.

2. Show the fixed reference frame.

3. Write the appropriate relative equation (vector form).

4. Resolve the vectors into rectangular components (scalar form).

On occasion, a purely trigonometric solution is convenient. This type of solution would make

use of the law of sines and cosines.

Law of sines:

Law of cosines:

25 11: DEPENDENT MOTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

DEPENDENT MOTION

In some types of problems the motion of one particle will depend on the motion of another

particle, such as in cable-pulley problems. These problems make use of absolute analysis, in

which the motion of each particle is measured with respect to a fixed point (but not necessarily

the same point).

In solving dependent motion problems, the steps given below should be followed:

1. Measuring from a fixed point, define the position of each particle using path

coordinates. It is not necessary that the same point be used for each particle.

2. In terms of the coordinates, show changes in cable length for each section:

(+) .......if length of section increases

(-) ........if length of section decreases

3. ............... Relate these changes to changes in total cable length (assuming cable to be

inextensible). Write the following equation for each cable:

............................................................................. (19)

L (0) .......if cable length is unchanged

L (+) .......if cable is being unwound

L (-) ........if cable is being unwound

4. Differentiate to find relations for velocity and acceleration.

These results do not depend on the amounts of cable wrapped around the pulleys, so these

portions can be omitted from the analysis.

In some cable-pulley systems, the cable angle may change with position. This problem is

generally solved by setting up a right triangle: consisting of the cable as the hypotenuse, the

coordinate as one side, and a fixed length as the other. The change in cable length can then be

computed as the hypotenuse (written in terms of the coordinate and fixed length) minus the

fixed length.

When carrying out the differentiations to obtain the velocities and accelerations, make sure to

take time derivatives (which will require use of the chain rule).

26 12: PARTICLE KINEMATICS REVIEW ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

BASIC KINEMATIC QUANTITIES

Position vector .......................

Velocity vector .......................

Acceleration vector ................

RECTILINEAR MOTION

Velocity component ...............

Acceleration component .......

AVERAGE VALUES

Average Speed .......................

Average Velocity: ...................

Average Acceleration: ............

CONSTANT ACCELERATION

s-t relation ..............................

v-t relation..............................

v-s relation .............................

GRAPHICAL SOLUTIONS

Differentiation........................

Integration .............................

CURVILINEAR MOTION: PATH

Velocity component ...............

Acceleration components ......

CURVILINEAR MOTION: RECTANGULAR

Velocity components .............

Acceleration components ......

Projectile Motion ...................

Velocity components .............

Acceleration components ......

RELATIVE MOTION

DEPENDENT MOTION

27 13: PARTICLE KINETICS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

PARTICLE KINETICS

Kinetics is the study of forces which influence the motion. There are three methods commonly

used to study kinetics. These are:

Equations of Motion

Work Energy

Impulse Momentum

All three methods are based on Newtons second law of motion for particles.

Of the three methods listed above, directly using the equations of motion is the more basic

method, and is always applicable. This method utilizes the second law of motion in its most

fundamental form:

..................................................................................................... (20)

The equation of motion is a vector equation. It is valid only when the acceleration is measured

with respect to an inertial reference frame. There are several limitations on the use of the

second law:

Relativity (Einstein) .....................................High speeds (speed of light)

Quantum Mechanics (Schrodinger) ............Atomic distances

Under these conditions, certain modifications need to be made to the second law.

In addition to length and time (the dimensions needed for kinematics), the other basic

dimensions needed for kinetics are:

Mass

Force

In the SI system of units, mass is taken as the base dimension (force is a derived dimension).

This is referred to as an absolute system. In the U.S. system of units, force is taken as the base

dimension (mass is a derived dimension). This is referred to as a gravitational system.

28 13: PARTICLE KINETICS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

The units commonly used in kinetics are:

Force [F] Newton (N) pound (lbf)

Mass [M] kilogram (kg) slug

Mass Conversions

1 lbm = 0.45359237 kg (Exact) 1 kg = 2.205~ lbm

1 slug = 32.17~ lbm = 14.59~ kg

Force Conversions

1 lbf = 4.448~ N 1 N = 0.2248~ lbf

1 lbf = 1 slugft/s2 (Exact) 1 N = 1 kgm/s2 (Exact)

1 lbf = 32.17~ lbmft/s2 (Exact)

Any two particles have a mutually attractive force between them. Newtons law of gravitation

gives this force as:

..................................................................................................... (21)

The force of the earths gravitational attraction (weight) on a body of mass is:

= 6.67E-11 = 3.44E-8

= 5.98E24 kg = 4.10E23 slug

= 6.38E6 m = 2.09E7 ft = 3960 mile

Therefore, the standard acceleration due to gravity at the earths surface is taken as:

= 9.81 = 32.2

29 2: PARTICLE KINEMATICS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

not a force! Weight is a gravitational force.

..................................................................................................... (22)

By definition the standard value of is defined as exactly 9.80665 (32.174~ ). The value of

actually varies from approximately 9.78 (32.1 ) at the equator to 9.83 (32.2 ) at the

poles.

NOTES

Unless instructed differently, in this class the following will be assumed in order to simplify

calculations:

For problems using FPS units:

Use the standard value of value of = 32.2 .

Therefore a block with a mass of 100 lbm will weigh 100 lbf.

For problems using SI units:

Use a value of = 10.0 .

Therefore a block with a mass of 100 kg will weigh 1000 N.

30 14: RECTILINEAR EOM ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

TYPES OF PROBLEMS

Two types of problems occur in the study of dynamics:

Forces known

Position, velocity, or acceleration to be determined

Position, velocity, or acceleration known

Forces to be determined

DIAGRAMS NEEDED

The diagrams to be always shown are:

Kinematic diagrams

Outlined shape of the body

Reference frame or point

Coordinates

Unit vectors

Kinetic diagrams (Free Body Diagrams FBDs)

Outlined shape of the body, isolating it from its surroundings

All forces that act on the body

Active forces.........Weight and applied

Reactive forces .....Constraints and supports

Labels for all forces (numerical values if know, appropriate symbols if not )

Necessary angles

EVALUATION NEEDED

The evaluation normally includes both:

Kinematics

Kinetics

Use kinetics first!

Write down the equations of motion (EOM) in component form. Substitute the

force components (determined from the FBD) into these equations. Solve for

the acceleration.

Then use kinematics!

If necessary, solve for velocity and position.

Use kinematics first!

Evaluate the acceleration components from the given information.

Then use kinetics!

31 14: RECTILINEAR EOM ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

Write down the equations of motion in component form. Substitute into these

equations the force components (determined from the FBD) and the

acceleration components (determined in the kinematics section).

RECTILINEAR MOTION

Kinematics

The kinematic relations for rectilinear motion have already been developed. If the acceleration

(or forces) is constant then use the constant acceleration equations:

s-t relation

v-t relation

v-s relation

If the acceleration is variable, than the general differential equations must be used:

Acceleration components ......

Kinetics

For rectilinear motion, the equations of motion are written in path coordinates. Always write

down the vector equation, and then (right below it) show the scalar component equations.

If there is more than one particle, also indicate the particle for which the equations are being

written.

Cables are assumed to be inextensible and mass less. They can only be in tension. (Tensile

forces always point away from the body). Assuming massless and frictionless pulleys, the

tension is the same at any point along the cable. However, different cables have different

tensions!

In order to relate the tensions of two cables connected to a pulley, a FBD of the pulley must be

drawn and an equation of motion be written.

32 15: FRICTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

15: FRICTION

TYPES OF FRICTION

Friction is a resistance force which inhibits or prevents slipping between bodies. It always acts

tangent to the surfaces of contact. When the surfaces have no film or fluid separating them,

dry (or Coulomb) friction occurs. This should be in the form of:

.............................. Static friction No relative motion between the bodies

.............................. Kinetic friction Bodies moving relative to each other

The maximum value of the frictional force is:

..................................................................................................... (23)

where is the static coefficient of friction. Hardly ever is this the actual friction force occurring

between the two surfaces. The actual force depends on the particular situation.

The friction forces between surfaces at rest, with respect to each other, must be less

than the maximum frictional force:

The direction of this force is unknown and must be determined from the equations of

motion. (Assume a direction and then check the sign).

At the instant relative motion is starting, the actual friction force is equal to the

maximum:

The force must be shown in its proper direction, opposing the impeding relative motion.

Relative Motion................ )

After relative motion is started, the frictional forces are less than the maximum:

..................................................................................................... (24)

where is the kinetic coefficient of friction, with < . The frictional force on each

body is in a direction opposite to its motion relative to the other body.

33 15: FRICTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

For cases in which it is not known what type of motion the system is undergoing, assume no

relative motion! Then solve for the friction force and compare to .

If ....... Impending motion

If ....... Assumption incorrect Relative motion

Rework using

34 16: SPRINGS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

16: SPRINGS

VIBRATIONS

Vibrations is the study of oscillatory motion. The vibration may be either free or forced.

.............................. Free Vibrations Motion is maintained by weight or spring

forces

.............................. Forced Vibrations Motion is caused by external forces.

.............................. Undamped Frictional forces are neglected; vibration can

continue indefinitely

.............................. Damped Frictional forces are present; oscillations decay

Free, undamped vibrations will be studied in this section, and the solutions will only involve

velocity and position (relations involving time requires solving a 2nd order D.E.)

HOOKES LAW

Springs are assumed to be massless and linear. They can either be in tension (causing

elongation) or compression (causing contraction). In either case, the force and deflection are

related by Hookes Law:

..................................................................................................... (25)

where:

........Spring force (Tension or Compression)

.........Spring stiffness (Force/Length)

.........Total spring deflection

Even though Hookes Law is a static equation, it can be used in dynamics since the springs mass

is negligible.

SPRING DEFLECTION

The length of a spring at any time can be written as:

............................................................................................................... (26a)

............................................................................................................... (26b)

where:

.......Initial length of the spring (free length)

..........Displacement variable, measured from equilibrium

contraction (-) is being measured. The coordinate ( ) is measured along the same line as the

spring.

35 16: SPRINGS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

EQUATION OF MOTION

By defining the displacement variable ( ) to be zero at equilibrium, rather than at the position

of zero deflection, the equation of motion for a spring-mass system becomes:

with:

(The weight of the mass and the initial spring force cancel each other.) Using this expression for

acceleration (instead of using the time derivative) allows the use of separation of variables to

find a position velocity relation.

36 17: CURVILINEAR EOM ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

CURVILINEAR EOM

Curvilinear motion poses no special problems! Simply split the vector equation of motion

into component form. However, be careful with signs once the assignment of

reference axes is made, the expressions for both the forces and the accelerations must be

consistent with that assignment.

RECTANGULAR COORDINATES

Rectangular coordinates are commonly used when the path is given in the form: or

for problems involving projectile motion. Remember, in this case, choose the X-axis to be

horizontal and the Y-axis to be vertical.

Kinematics Kinetics

POLAR COORDINATES

Polar coordinates are used when the path is given in the form: . Due to the nature of

the kinematic relations, these coordinates are generally the most complex to use. However, for

circular paths, the equations greatly simplify (although path coordinates would still be the

choice). In such cases, the radial direction is positive away from the center.

Kinematics Kinetics

PATH COORDINATES

Path coordinates are the coordinates of choice whenever the path is known. Remember that

the normal direction always points toward the center of curvature. This can be somewhat

tricky for 3-D type problems (conical pendulum) just make sure that the center of curvature is

in the plane of motion.

Kinematics Kinetics

37 17: CURVILINEAR EOM ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

GENERAL NOTES

If a change in speed is to be found, the equations of motion must be integrated. To do

this properly, the equations must be written as a function of position (requiring that the

FBD be drawn at an arbitrary position). If the conditions at a given speed are desired,

the equations of motion may be written at the specific point.

If there is loss of contact with a surface or when in a zero-g environment (apparent

weightlessness), the normal force is zero.

For 3-D type problems (a car on a banked track), be careful with the normal force it

may not necessarily be in the normal direction

38 18: WORK & KINETIC ENERGY ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

GENERAL PRINCIPLE

A work energy principle is very useful in relating changes in speed to changes in position. In

order to apply the principle, the forces must be either constant or a function of position. The

method cannot be used if the forces are written in terms of time or velocity!

Kinetics ...........

Kinematics ......

KINETIC ENERGY

Kinetic energy ( ) is the particles energy (capacity to do work) due to its motion. It is

defined as:

................................................................................................... (27a)

Kinetic energy is a scalar quantity and is always positive. The change in kinetic energy ( )

from its initial position to its final position is given as:

WORK

The work ( ) done by a force in moving a particle from its initial position to its final position is:

................................................................................................... (27b)

The initial position is the lower limit, and the final position the upper limit. Work is also a scalar

quantity. The work done by a system of forces is equal to the scalar sum of the work done by

each force. Several points to consider in the determination of the work are:

If force and displacement are in the same direction .......... = +

If force is applied at a fixed point ....................................... = 0

If force is normal to the direction of motion ...................... = 0

If force is constant...............................................................

If a curve is given ..................................................... = Area under curve

39 18: WORK & KINETIC ENERGY ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

The general principle can be rewritten as:

................................................................................................... (27c)

This is a scalar equation; it replaces only the tangential equation of motion (the normal

equation may still have to be used). This equation can also be applied to systems of particles

one equation can be written for the entire system (work done by internal forces sum to zero).

However, this equation cannot be used when there are energy losses due to heat, noise,

deformation, vibration, etc. When these are accounted for, the principle of work and energy is

equivalent to the 1st Law of Thermodynamics.

Diagram

Show a free body diagram at an arbitrary position.

Table

Include a coordinate for each force which does work.

The magnitude for velocity is used, and not its components.

The table cannot contain more than one unknown.

0 1

Equations

Always write the following equations:

Evaluation

Simply substitute known values directly into the main equation.

POWER

The capability of a machine is measured by the amount of work it can do per unit time. This is

referred to as power (P).

................................................................................................... (28a)

40 18: WORK & KINETIC ENERGY ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

By using the definitions of work and velocity, power can also be measured in terms of the

particles speed:

................................................................................................... (28b)

EFFICIENCY

The ratio of the work done by a machine (output) to the work done on a machine (input) is

called the mechanical efficiency ( ) of the machine.

..................................................................................................... (29)

Since frictional forces will always be developed within the machine, extra power is needed to

overcome these forces. Therefore the mechanical efficiency is always less than one.

The dimensions of work and all energy terms are: [ ] [ ].

The corresponding SI and English units for work, energy, and power are given below:

Work, Energy Joule (J) foot-pound

Power Watt (W) horsepower (hp)

Work, Energy Power

1 J = 1 N-m 1 W = 1 J/s

1 Btu = 778 ftlbf 1 hp = 550 ftlbf/s

1 Btu = 1055 J 1 hp = 746 W

41 19: POTENTIAL ENERGY ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

NON-CONSERVATIVE FORCES

Forces can be classified as either conservative or non-conservative, depending on whether the

work done by the force depends only on the particles net displacement or on the path taken.

Conservative .................Work done is independent of path

Weight and spring force

Non-conservative .........Work done is dependent on path

Applied forces, friction, etc. (all forces except weight & spring)

The ability of a conservative force to do work can be measured by its change in potential

energy (PE):

Negative work ............Energy gained

The work and kinetic energy principle can be modified to include potential energy, by taking the

previous principle and subdividing the work into conservative and non-conservative:

....................................................................................... (30a)

This is the most useful form of the work energy principles and is the one commonly

employed.

Note: Some books use different symbols for work ( ), kinetic energy ( ), and potential energy

( ) and therefore write the equation above as:

....................................................................................... (30a)

POTENTIAL ENERGY

The potential energies due to weight and spring force can be found by determining the work

done by these forces.

42 19: POTENTIAL ENERGY ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

Weight

The potential energy due to a constant weight is:

....................................................................................... (30b)

where is the elevation above an arbitrary datum (positive if above, negative if below).

The datum must be horizontal.

Spring Force

The potential energy stored in a spring is determined by:

....................................................................................... (30c)

In all the forces acting on the system are conservative, then = 0. This leads to the

simplification:

......................................................................................... (31)

This means that the sum of kinetic and potential must remain constant (or conserved). This is

usually referred to as Conservation of Mechanical Energy.

Diagram

Show and mark the datum.

Show initial and final positions.

Show a free body diagram at an intermediate position.

Pt. 1

mg

Datum

Pt. 0

43 19: POTENTIAL ENERGY ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

Table

Include a coordinate for each force which does work.

The magnitude of velocity is used, and not the components

The table cannot contain more than one unknown.

0 1

Equations

Always write the following equations:

Evaluation

Simply substitute known values directly into the main equation.

44 20: IMPULSE & MOMENTUM ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

GENERAL PRINCIPLE

The impulse momentum principle is very useful in relating changes in speed to changes in

time. In order to apply the principle, the forces must be either constant or a function of time.

The method cannot be used if the forces are written in terms of position or velocity!

Kinetics ...........

Kinematics ......

LINEAR MOMENTUM

The linear momentum ( ) of a particle is defined as:

............................................................................................................... (32a)

Linear momentum is a vector quantity. The change in linear momentum ( ) from its initial

position to its final position is given as:

LINEAR IMPULSE

The linear impulse ( ) acting on a particle from its initial position to its final position is:

................................................................................................... (32b)

The initial time is the lower limit, and the final time the upper limit. Impulse is also a vector

quantity. The total impulse caused by a system of forces is equal to the vector sum of the

impulse caused by each force. Several points to consider in the determination of the impulse

are:

................................................... If a F t curve is given

.........................................................

45 20: IMPULSE & MOMENTUM ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

The general principle can be rewritten as:

................................................................................................... (32c)

This is a vector equation. However, in an analysis this equation is split into scalar equations.

Only rectangular coordinates should be used (they remain constant with respect to time)! The

unit vectors for the other coordinates change with time, making the integration of forces with

respect to time very difficult.

DIFFERENTIAL FORM

The impulse momentum principle can also be written in differential form as:

..................................................................................................... (33)

This means that the sum of forces acting on a particle is equivalent to the change in linear

momentum.

For systems involving two particles, the total linear impulse is often zero (due to equal but

opposite forces). In this case, the linear momentum of the system is constant, leading to the

simplification:

=0 ..................................................................................................... (34)

applies, examine the FBDs of both particles.

Note: Some books use a different symbol for linear momentum ( ) and therefore write the

equation above as:

=0 ..................................................................................................... (34)

The dimensions of impulse and momentum are: [ ] [ ].

The corresponding SI and English units for impulse and momentum are given below:

Impulse, Momentum Ns lbfs

46 20: IMPULSE & MOMENTUM ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

Diagram

Include x y unit vectors or directions.

Show free body diagrams of one or both particles at an arbitrary position.

Table

The velocity components must be used, being very careful with signs.

If two particles are involved, two tables should be used.

0 1

Equations

Always write the following equations:

Evaluation

Simply substitute known rectangular components directly into the two scalar

equations

47 21: IMPACT ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

21: IMPACT

TYPES OF IMPACT

Impact occurs when two bodies collide during a very short time period, causing large impulsive

forces. Non-impulsive forces (such as weight) are commonly neglected during an impact

analysis.

The line connecting the mass centers and the point of contact is called the line of impact. If all

three points lie on the same line, this is called central impact. If the points are not on the same

line, eccentric impact occurs and must be studied by rigid body dynamics.

Central impacts can be classified based on whether the velocity vectors lie along the line of

impact or at an angle to the impact line. These different types are:

Direct Impact ..........motion is a long line of impact

Oblique Impact .......motion at an angle to the impact line

COEFFICIENT OF RESTITUTION

The coefficient of restitution ( ) is a measure of the deformation process, being a ratio of the

restoration impulse to deformation impulse. Letting the x-axis lie along the line impact, the

coefficient is defined as:

................................................................................................... (35a)

................................................................................................... (35b)

= 0 .............Perfectly plastic impact: maximum loss of mechanical energy

= 1 .............Perfectly elastic impact: mechanical energy is conserved.

Mechanical energy ( ) is lost during all but a perfectly elastic impact. The energy is

transferred to heat, sound, and deformation energy.

48 21: IMPACT ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

IMPACT ANALYSIS

The equations which can be used in impact analysis come from:

Direct Impact

Use if impact line known

Use for A+B

Oblique Impact

Use if impact line known

Use for A+B

Use for A

Use for B

For a stationary mass, the mass is considered infinite and its velocity after impact is considered

zero. However, its change in momentum is not zero and cannot be neglected.

49 22: ANGULAR MOMENTUM ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

GENERAL PRINCIPLE

Use the angular impulse and momentum principle when the particle is rotating about an axis.

This principle involves taking the moments of the vector equation of motion about the fixed

point O:

Kinetics ...........

Kinematics ......

Moments ........

and the cross product of parallel vectors is zero.)

ANGULAR MOMENTUM

The angular momentum ( ) of a particle is defined as:

................................................................................................... (36a)

momentum. If a particle is moving along a curve in the x-y plane, a scalar formulation is usually

more convenient. The magnitude of the angular momentum is then given by:

where is the moment arm of the momentum vector (perpendicular distance from point O

to the line of action of the velocity vector). The proper sign is determined from the right hand

rule.

ANGULAR IMPULSE

The angular impulse ( ) is also a vector quantity, and is defined as:

................................................................................................... (36b)

50 22: ANGULAR MOMENTUM ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

For 2-D motion (x-y plane), the scalar form is again used. This gives the same equation as above

(except for the vector symbols removed), with all terms being computed about the z- axis.

The general angular impulse and momentum principle can be rewritten as:

................................................................................................... (36c)

This is a vector equation. However, in 2-D analysis (x-y plane) this equation is used only in the

z-direction.

DIFFERENTIAL FORM

The angular momentum principle can also be written in differential form as:

..................................................................................................... (37)

This means that the sum of moments (about a point O) is equivalent to the change in angular

momentum (about the point O).

When the total angular impulse is zero, the angular momentum of the system is conserved,

leading to the simplification:

..................................................................................................... (38)

This is referred to as the Conservation of Angular Momentum. For example, this occurs when

a particle is subjected only to central forces (forces always directed toward point O). In this

case, angular momentum is conserved, but linear momentum is not!

The dimensions of angular impulse and momentum are:

The corresponding SI and English units for angular impulse and momentum are given below:

Angular Impulse,

Js ftlbfs

Angular Momentum

51 22: ANGULAR MOMENTUM ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

Diagram

Include X-Y reference frame, be careful with the placement of the origin.

Show free body diagram at an arbitrary position.

Table

The magnitude of velocity is used along with the proper moment arm.

If more than one particle is being considered in the system, use another table.

0 1

Equations

Always write the following equations:

Evaluation

Simply substitute known values directly into the scalar equation in the z-direction.

52 23: PARTICLE KINETICS REVIEW ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

MASS AND WEIGHT

Newtons Law of Gravitation .

Weight-Mass Relation ............

Conversions ............................1 N = 1 kg m/s2 1 lbf = 1 slugft/s2 = 32.17~ lbmft/s2

FRICTIONAL FORCE

Maximum friction force .........

No relative motion ( ; Impending ( ); Relative motion ( )

SPRING FORCE

Hookes Law ...........................

Spring deflection ( ; Spring length ( )

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

Newtons Second Law ............

WORK & ENERGY

Work Kinetic Energy ............ 0 1

Work Potential Energy ........

Work.......................................

Kinetic Energy ........................

Potential Energy .....................

Power .....................................

Mechanical efficiency ............

IMPULSE & MOMENTUM

Impulse Momentum ........... 0 1

Impulse...................................

Momentum ............................

Differential form ....................

IMPACT

Coefficient of Restitution .......

ANGULAR IMPULSE & MOMENTUM

Angular Impulse Momentum 0 1

Angular Impulse .....................

Angular Momentum...............

Differential form ....................

53 24: RIGID BODY MOTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

RIGID BODY KINEMATICS

A rigid body does not change shape. It is a system of particles for which the distances between

the particles remain constant.

Steel bar ..................Rigid body (if deformation is neglected)

In rigid body kinematics, the same relations used for particles are needed, but the rotational

motion must also be accounted for. Therefore, both linear and angular quantities are involved.

TYPES OF MOTION

For plane motion, the path of each point on the rigid boy lies in one plane (planes for all points

are parallel). There are four main types of plane motion:

Rectilinear Translation:

Direction of body axes: constant

Origin: moves in a straight line

Curvilinear Translation:

Direction of body axes: constant

Origin: moves in a curved line

Direction of body axes: changes

Origin: fixed

Direction of body axes: changes

Origin: moves

54 24: RIGID BODY MOTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

GENERAL MOTION

General motion is a superposition of:

Translational motion

Rotational motion

Different points on a rigid body in general motion have different velocities and accelerations.

The velocities and accelerations of any two points on the same rigid body can be compared by

using the relative equations:

................................................................................................... (39a)

................................................................................................... (39b)

................................................................................................... (39c)

The relative velocities and accelerations (with respect to point B) are determined by assuming

point B to be stationary (pinned).

TRANSLATION

For rigid bodies, the magnitude of is constant (distance between particles does not

change); however, the direction may or may not change. If in translation, the direction does

not change.

=0 =

=0 =

All points on a rigid body in translation move with the same velocities and accelerations.

Therefore, particle kinematics may be used to study this type of motion.

55 24: RIGID BODY MOTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

ROTATION

The rotation of a rigid body is described by its angular motion. All lines in a rigid body in plane

motion have the same angular displacement ( ), angular speed ( ), and angular acceleration

( ). The equations relating these angular kinematic variables are similar to those previously

given for the translational variables simply replace ( , , and with , , and :

The positive directions (rad/s) and (rad/s2) are the same as that chosen for (rad). The

corresponding table for use in rotational problems is:

0 1

The techniques used in solving the angular equations are the same as those used for

translation. For example, if the angular acceleration is variable, the differential equations

shown above must be used. If a graph is given, graphical solutions are generally used.

If the angular acceleration is constant, the equations above can be integrated to yield:

-t relation ............................................................... (41b)

-s relation ............................................................... (41c)

56 25: ROTATION: FIXED AXIS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

ROTATION ABOUT A FIXED AXIS

When a rigid body rotates about a fixed axis, all other points move in concentric circles about

the fixed axis. Therefore, the position of any point P on the rigid body can be written in terms

of its angular position, , which is always measured (in radians) from a fixed reference line to

the moving radial line:

Dropping the subscripts and substituting and for the angular speed and acceleration, the

equations for a rigid body rotating about a fixed axis become:

............................................................................................................... (42a)

............................................................................................................... (42b)

............................................................................................................... (42c)

These equations are valid only for rotation about a fixed axis (the axis may not be moving) and

the distance is measured from the fixed axis to the point of interest. In using these equations,

the directions of and most correspond. The velocity will be directed perpendicular to a

line drawn from the fixed point to the point under consideration in the direction of . Similarly

with and . The normal component is always directed inward.

57 25: ROTATION: FIXED AXIS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

VECTOR ANALYSIS

In most cases the velocity and the two acceleration components can be determined from the

scalar equations. However, if the geometry is difficult to visualize (e.g., 3-D), the following

vector equations should be used:

....................................................................................... (43a)

....................................................................................... (43b)

also that, the order in which the vectors appear in the cross product is significant.

For 2-D motion, the angular velocity and acceleration are simply: and , where

and are both measured positive in the CCW direction (using the right-hand rule). Also, the

triple cross product can be expressed as:

NO SLIP CONDITION

If two bodies contact one another without slipping, and the points in contact move along

different paths (e.g., gears), the velocities and the tangential acceleration accelerations are

the same, but the normal accelerations are not.

................................................... (44a)

................................................... (44b)

58 26: ABSOLUTE ANALYSIS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

GENERAL PLANE MOTION

In the analysis of problems undergoing general plane motion, two methods are available:

Absolute analysis

Relative analysis

Absolute analysis is straight-forward to use if the geometry is not overly complex. However,

for more complex problems, relative analysis is almost always used.

ABSOLUTE ANALYSIS

In an absolute analysis, the motion is described only with respect to a set of fixed axes and

involves the use of time derivatives. The procedure for such an analysis is:

Choose a set of fixed axes

Relate the position ( ) of a point to the angular position ( )

Take the first time derivative to get a relation

Take the second time derivative to get an relation

GEOMETRIC CONSTRAINTS

Occasionally, conditions are put on the systems motion by the geometry of the design. For

example, in the diagram below, the velocity and acceleration of point A must be vertical,

whereas the velocity and acceleration of point B must be horizontal.

MECHANICAL LINKAGES

Points which coincide at a pin have identical paths and therefore have the same velocities and

accelerations. This is illustrated in the diagram by examining point B, which is common to

both links.

59 27: RELATIVE ANALYSIS: VELOCITY ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

RELATIVE MOTION

For simple geometries, absolute analysis may be used to study general plane motion. However,

for more complex geometries, relative analysis is necessary. In relative analysis, two sets of

axes are used. One set is fixed (inertial reference frame) and is used to measure the absolute

quantities. The other set translates with the body and is used for relative values. The

translating reference frame is also assumed to be non-rotating.

General plane motion is simply a superposition of translation and rotation. This concept is

shown below, arbitrarily choosing point B as the reference point for the attachment of the

translating reference frame.

A A A

B

B

B

To the non-rotating observer attached to B, the body appears to undergo fixed-axis rotation

about B. The diagram above can be represented mathematically by the relative velocity

equation.

................................................................................................... (45a)

Two procedures are commonly used in a relative analysis one uses the scalar components,

the other uses the vectors themselves. For 2-D motion, the scalars are more convenient; for

3-D motion, the vector analysis is necessary. The procedure for a relative velocity analysis using

scalars is:

Choose a set of fixed reference axes

Draw a kinematic diagram showing absolute velocities

Draw a kinematic diagram showing relative velocities

Write the relative velocity equation

Underneath this equation, write the X- and Y- components

60 27: RELATIVE ANALYSIS: VELOCITY ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

POINTS TO CONSIDER

The relative velocity equation can be applied to any two points on the same rigid

body.

The relative velocities (wrt B) are determined by assuming B to be pinned and then

using:

....................................................................................... (45b)

Points which coincide at a pin have the same velocities.

Conditions put on the systems motion by the geometrical design should be included

in the absolute diagram (e.g., the directions of the velocities of certain points may be

known).

61 28: RELATIVE ANALYSIS: ACCELERATION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

RELATIVE ACCELERATION ANALYSIS

Relative acceleration analysis is similar to relative velocity analysis. It assumes that general

plane motion is simply a superposition of translation and rotation. This concept is shown

below, arbitrarily choosing point A as the reference point for the attachment of the translating

reference frame.

A

A A

B

B

B

To the non-rotating observer attached to B, the body appears to undergo fixed-axis rotation

about B. The diagram above can be represented mathematically by the relative velocity

equation.

................................................................................................... (46a)

Two procedures are commonly used in a relative analysis one uses the scalar components,

the other uses the vectors themselves. For 2-D motion, the scalars are more convenient; the

3-D motion, the vector analysis is necessary. The procedure for a relative velocity analysis using

scalars is:

Choose a set of fixed reference axes

Draw a kinematic diagram showing absolute accelerations

Draw a kinematic diagram showing relative accelerations

Write the relative acceleration equation

Underneath this equation, write the X- and Y- components

POINTS TO CONSIDER

The relative acceleration equation can be applied to any two points on the same rigid

body.

The relative accelerations (wrt B) are determined by assuming B to be pinned and

then using:

....................................... (46b)

Points which coincide at a pin have the same accelerations.

Conditions put on the systems motion by the geometrical design should be included

in the absolute diagram (e.g., the directions of certain accelerations may be known.)

62 29: INSTANTANEOUS CENTER ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

INSTANTANEOUS CENTER OF ZERO VELOCITY

The instantaneous center (IC) is a point (on or off the body) which has zero velocity at the

instant under consideration. The body can be thought of as rotating about the IC at the

particular instant. This simplifies the velocity equations by selecting the IC as the base point,

since = 0 at this point in time.

...................................................................................... (47a)

....................................................................................... (47b)

........................................................................................ (48)

The IC may change with time. It is used only for computing velocity, and is not used for

acceleration calculations since it is not actually a fixed point.

LOCATION OF THE IC

The IC is generally located by a graphical means. There are 3 common cases:

Draw a line perpendicular to the know velocity at the corresponding point. Distance

to IC equals .

If the directions of two non-parallel velocities are known:

Draw perpendicular lines to the velocities at the respective points. IC is located at

their intersection.

If magnitudes and directions of two parallel velocities are known:

The IC is determined from proportional triangles.

63 30: RIGID BODY KINEMATICS REVIEW ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

TYPES OF MOTION

Rectilinear Translation

Curvilinear Translation

Rotation about a Fixed Axis

General Plane Motion

ROTATIONAL MOTION: DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS

Angular speed ........................

Angular acceleration ..............

CONSTANT ANGULAR ACCELERATION 0 1

-t relation ............................ (s)

-t relation ........................... (rad)

-s relation ........................... (rad/s)

TRANSLATION

All points have some velocities and accelerations

ROTATION ABOUT A FIXED AXIS

Velocity ..................................

Normal Acceleration ..............

Tangential acceleration..........

Vector form ............................

No slip condition ....................

GENERAL PLANE MOTION - ABSOLUTE ANALYSIS

Relate the position ( ) of a point to the angular position ( ) & differentiate wrt time

GENERAL PLANE MOTION - RELATIVE ANALYSIS

Relative velocity equation .....

Relative accel. equation .........

INSTANTANEOUS CENTER

For 2-D analysis: .....................

64 31: MOMENTS OF INERTIA ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

A rigid body may undergo both translation and rotation. A force equation is written to study

the translational effects and a moment equation for the rotational motion.

................................................................................................... (49a)

................................................................................................... (49b)

Notice that the acceleration is the acceleration of point (the mass center) there is no

exception to this. The moments and the mass moment of inertia are also about the

mass center this is always valid, but in the case of rotation about a fixed axis, the fixed point

may also be used.

MASS CENTER

Mass is a measure of resistance to acceleration. If the body has a constant mass density, the

center of mass is located at its centroid. For a composite body (one which is constructed of

several simple shapes), the mass center can be found by summing up the first mass moments

and dividing by the total mass :

................................................................................................... (50a)

................................................................................................... (50b)

................................................................................................... (50c)

In statics, area moments of inertia were used, with dimensions of [Length]4 and units of

(inches4) or (meters4). In dynamics, mass moments of inertia are used, with dimensions of

[Mass][Length]2 and units of (slugin2) or (kgm2). The mass moment of inertia is a measure of

the resistance to angular acceleration.

..................................................................................................... (51)

65 31: MOMENTS OF INERTIA ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

Notes:

For a body of uniform density, the mass moment of inertia can be found from the area

moment of inertia by multiplying by: .

If the moment of inertia is known about the mass center , the moment of inertia

about any parallel axis can be found by using the parallel axis theorem:

......................................................................................... (52)

where is the perpendicular distance between the two parallel axes.

In some handbooks the radius of gyration is given and is used to calculate the

moment of inertia:

....................................................................................... (53)

For a composite body, the moment of inertia about any axis can be found by

algebraically adding the individual moments of inertia about the same axis. This

requires use of the parallel axis theorem:

66 31: MOMENTS OF INERTIA ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

Values of mass moments of inertia about the mass center for common geometries are given in

the following table:

Name Figure

y

a

Rectangular

Parallelepiped b z x

c

y

L

Slender Rod ---

z x

y

Right Circular L

Cylinder z x

y

R

Thin Circular

Disk x

z

y

R

Sphere

x

z

67 32: TRANSLATIONAL MOTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

TRANSLATIONAL MOTION (RECTILINEAR AND CURVILINEAR)

For a rigid body in translation, all points have the same acceleration, so actually the

acceleration of any point could be used. However, since there is no rotation, and .

This simplifies the rotational equation, but the moments must still be taken about the mass

center no other point is valid.

................................................................................................... (54a)

................................................................................................... (54b)

If possible, path coordinates are generally used as they are the most convenient.

A common application of these equations concerns the impending tipping problem. When it

is not known whether an object is tipping or not, assume no tipping and check for the location

of the normal force.

68 33: FIXED AXIS ROTATION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

ROTATION ABOUT A FIXED AXIS

If a rigid body is pinned at point O and point O in not moving, either the mass center or the

fixed point can be used in the rotational equation of motion. Normally, using the fixed point is

the most convenient, since the unknown pin forces go through this point. Only if the mass

center is the fixed point, will the accelerations in the equations of motion be zero.

In summary, the equations of motion for a rigid body rotating about a fixed axis are:

................................................................................................... (55a)

................................................................................................... (55b)

For the translational equations, path coordinates are used to find the acceleration of the mass

center.

69 34: GENERAL PLANE MOTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

GENERAL PLANE MOTION

For rigid bodies in general plane motion, the mass center must be used in both the rotational

and translational equations of motion. In summary, the equations of motion for a rigid body in

general plane motion are:

................................................................................................... (56a)

................................................................................................... (56b)

Normally it is most convenient to use rectangular coordinates for the force equations.

A common application of general plane motion is rolling of a disk or cylinder on a rough surface.

There are several different situations which may occur.

If NO SLIP occurs:

The direction of the friction force may be assumed in either direction. The magnitude of

the friction is solved from the EOM. Make sure that the positive directions of the

translational and angular accelerations correspond.

If SLIP occurs:

The direction of the friction force must oppose relative motion. The translational and

angular accelerations are unrelated.

Assume NO SLIP and solve for the friction force.

If : Assumption correct No slip

If : Assumption incorrect Slipping

70 35: RIGID BODY WORK-ENERGY ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

PRINCIPLE OF WORK AND ENERGY

The principle of work and energy was developed for particles as:

....................................................................................... (30a)

The same equation is also valid for rigid bodies as long as certain additions are made. This

principle involves force, velocity, and displacement and may be applied to the entire system or

to individual members.

KINETIC ENERGY ( ):

Kinetic energy is a scalar quantity, always positive. The total kinetic energy for a rigid body

consists of the sum of the bodys translational and rotational kinetic energies. For a system

of connected rigid bodies, the total kinetic energy is found by adding the of all moving

parts. The for each type of motion can be expressed as follows:

....................................................................................... (57a)

Translational Motion:

Since

....................................................................................... (57b)

....................................................................................... (57c)

WORK ( ):

The work due to force has already been covered during the treatment of particle kinetics. The

same expression holds for rigid bodies. In addition, there may now be work due to a couple.

Again, work is a scalar quantity with its sign depending on whether the force or couple is in the

same direction as the displacement or rotation. The work expressions are summarized below:

71 35: RIGID BODY WORK-ENERGY ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

................................................................................................... (58a)

If force is a constant:

Reactions at fixed supports ( )

Forces perpendicular to s ( )

Friction during rolling with no slip ( )

................................................................................................... (58b)

POTENTIAL ENERGY ( ):

Only conservative forces have potential energy. This includes the weight and spring forces.

Both of these have already been discussed and are the same as before, with the exception that

the height must be measured vertically from the datum to the mass center.

PE due to a Weight:

................................................................................................... (59a)

PE due to a Spring:

................................................................................................... (59b)

Use the same procedure for analysis that was presented for work-energy for particles.

72 36: RIGID BODY IMPULSE-MOMENTUM ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

PRINCIPLE OF IMPLUSE AND MOMENTUM

The principle of linear impulse and momentum was used for particles in the form of:

................................................................................................... (60a)

This equation is also valid for rigid bodies, and as before, should be broken down into X and Y

components. For rigid bodies, the principle of angular impulse and momentum is also used:

................................................................................................... (60b)

If there is rotation about a fixed axis (through point 0), then the above equation can be

replaced by:

................................................................................................... (60c)

The angular momentum and impulse (like the linear momentum and impulse) are vectors.

However, for plane motion, only their z-components are of interest.

LINEAR MOMENTUM ( ):

For rigid bodies, the velocity of the mass center must be used:

................................................................................................... (61a)

ANGULAR MOMENTUM ( ):

The angular momentum is also known as the moment of momentum as it is defined as:

................................................................................................... (61b)

General plane motion ........................

Translation .........................................

Rotation about fixed axis ...................

LINEAR IMPULSE ( ):

The linear impulse is defined as before:

..................................................................................................... (62)

73 36: RIGID BODY IMPULSE-MOMENTUM ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

ANGULAR IMPULSE ( )

The angular impulse is defined similarly:

................................................................................................... (63a)

................................................................................................... (63b)

Use the same procedure for analysis that was presented for impulse-momentum for particles.

74 37: RIGID BODY KINETICS REVIEW ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

MOMENTS OF INERTIA

Mass .......................................

Mass Center ...........................

Mass Moment of Inertia ........

Parallel Axis Theorem ............

Radius of Gyration .................

TRANSLATIONAL MOTION

Translation .............................

No rotation .............................

ROTATION ABOUT FIXED AXIS

Translation .............................

Rotation..................................

GENERAL PLANE MOTION

Translation .............................

Rotation..................................

RIGID BODY WORK-ENERGY

Work-Energy Principle ...........

General Plane Motion ............

Translational Motion..............

Rotation about Fixed Axis ......

Work due to a Force ..............

Work due to a Couple ............

PE due to a Weight.................

PE due to a Spring ..................

RIGID BODY IMPULSE-MOMENTUM

Linear Impulse-Momentum ...

Angular Impulse-Momentum or if rotation about fixed point

Linear Momentum .................

Angular Momentum...............

(for general plane motion)

(for translation)

(for rotation about fixed axis)

Linear Impulse ........................

Angular Impulse

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