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# Fall 2009

## ME 206 - Mechanics II: Dynamics

Michael Day
J. B. Speed School of Engineering
i 0: SYLLABUS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

0: SYLLABUS ................................................................................................................................................. ii
1: INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................... 1
2: PARTICLE KINEMATICS ................................................................................................................................ 4
3: CONSTANT ACCELERATION .......................................................................................................................... 7
4: PROBLEM SOLVING .................................................................................................................................. 10
5: VARIABLE ACCELERATION .......................................................................................................................... 11
6: GRAPHICAL SOLUTIONS ............................................................................................................................ 13
7: PATH COORDINATES ................................................................................................................................ 14
8: RECTANGULAR COORDINATES .................................................................................................................... 17
9: POLAR COORDINATES ............................................................................................................................... 20
10: RELATIVE MOTION ................................................................................................................................... 23
11: DEPENDENT MOTION ............................................................................................................................... 25
12: PARTICLE KINEMATICS REVIEW .................................................................................................................. 26
13: PARTICLE KINETICS................................................................................................................................... 27
14: RECTILINEAR EOM .................................................................................................................................. 30
15: FRICTION................................................................................................................................................ 32
16: SPRINGS ................................................................................................................................................. 34
17: CURVILINEAR EOM.................................................................................................................................. 36
18: WORK & KINETIC ENERGY......................................................................................................................... 38
19: POTENTIAL ENERGY.................................................................................................................................. 41
20: IMPULSE & MOMENTUM .......................................................................................................................... 44
21: IMPACT .................................................................................................................................................. 47
22: ANGULAR MOMENTUM............................................................................................................................ 49
23: PARTICLE KINETICS REVIEW ....................................................................................................................... 52
24: RIGID BODY MOTION ............................................................................................................................... 53
25: ROTATION: FIXED AXIS ............................................................................................................................. 56
26: ABSOLUTE ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................................ 58
27: RELATIVE ANALYSIS: VELOCITY ................................................................................................................... 59
28: RELATIVE ANALYSIS: ACCELERATION ........................................................................................................... 61
29: INSTANTANEOUS CENTER .......................................................................................................................... 62
30: RIGID BODY KINEMATICS REVIEW............................................................................................................... 63
31: MOMENTS OF INERTIA ............................................................................................................................. 64
32: TRANSLATIONAL MOTION ......................................................................................................................... 67
33: FIXED AXIS ROTATION .............................................................................................................................. 68
34: GENERAL PLANE MOTION ......................................................................................................................... 69
35: RIGID BODY WORK-ENERGY ...................................................................................................................... 70
36: RIGID BODY IMPULSE-MOMENTUM ........................................................................................................... 72
37: RIGID BODY KINETICS REVIEW ................................................................................................................... 74
ii 0: SYLLABUS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

0: SYLLABUS
INSTRUCTOR
Dr. Michael Day, P.E., Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Associate Dean of Academic Affairs
Office Address: J.B. Speed Building, Room 212; J.B. Speed School of Engineering
Office Phone: 502-852-6195

INSTRUCTOR AVAILABILITY
The instructor has an open office or appointments can be arranged by email. A Discussion
Board is available through Blackboard for posting general questions or asking for homework
assistance. Fellow students are free to offer assistance, but the instructor will monitor nightly
(typically 9:00 PM Sunday through Thursday). On occasion the instructor may start a DyKnow
session to facilitate discussion.

TABLET PC REQUIREMENT
This section of dynamics requires the daily use of a tablet PC, both in and outside of class.
Tablets should be configured for wireless access to the ulsecure network using either
the client-less built-in feature (PEAP) or the Odyssey client. Detailed configuration
instructions are available at http://louisville.edu/it/services/network/wireless.
The DyKnow Client 5.2 (Vision & Monitor) and DyKnow Writer 5.1 should both be
in the classroom by connecting to the DyKnow server at dyknow.spd.louisville.edu.
https://blackboard.louisville.edu/. The Respondus Lockdown Browser is also used for
quizzes and tests taken via Blackboard.
Microsoft OneNote is also used for homework assignments. OneNote and other useful
It is recommended to create desktop shortcuts to Blackboard, DyKnow, and OneNote as
they will be used often.

COURSE PREREQUISITES
The prerequisites for this course are ENGR 102 (Engineering Analysis II), PHYS 298 (Introductory
Mechanics), and CE 205 (Mechanics I: Statics). Transfer students should have taken equivalent
courses. This course relies heavily on the use of computer tools and statics.

TEXTBOOK
Day, Michael. ME 206, Mechanics II: Dynamics. Course Notes. University of Louisville. August
2009. The textbook is available free as an eBook in pdf format. It may be downloaded from
of Engineering Mechanics, Fifth Edition is also required for homework problems. The other
sections of ME 206 use Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics (5th Edition) by Bedford & Fowler it
will not be used in this section but could serve as a reference book.
iii 0: SYLLABUS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

ATTENDANCE
Daily attendance in the classroom and preparation are essential. Students are responsible for
all content and assignments (or changes to assignments) presented in class. Be punctual and
participate actively in class activities. Be sure to bring the tablet PC to every class. The
instructors DyKnow session will be made available later in the day via Blackboard however do
not miss class without a valid reason and not use these notes as a substitute for coming to
class.

## Excused absences include those due to participation in a university-sponsored activity or

competition, observance of a religious holiday, or a serious illness or family crisis. Talk to the
instructor ahead of time about planned absences. Provide documentation for any absences you
request to be excused.

ASSIGNMENTS
There is an assignment due every day, the only exceptions being the days after the test review
and the test. The assignment schedule is available from Blackboard. Students are responsible
for adhering to any additional details or requirements/modifications that may be given during
the preceding class. If there is difficulty with completing the assignment, dont hesitate coming
for help or posting to the Discussion Board. These assignments should be prepared according
to any given guidelines and procedures using OneNote and written to DyKnow. The completed
assignment should be submitted at the beginning of the next class meeting via DyKnow.
Assignments not turned in at the beginning of class may be submitted at the next class meeting
with a 25 point decrease. Assignments later than one class are not accepted. The total
dropped. Deadline extensions for homework assignments are granted for situations similar to
excused absences. Average time spent outside of class is expected to be about 6 to 7 hours per
week.

QUIZZES
Daily quizzes will be given, typically over the current assignment or the material covered in the
last class. The quizzes are closed-book and closed-notes and will be taken via Blackboard. The
questions are predominantly multiple choice, fill in the blanks, true/false, etc. You must be
present for the entire class in order to receive credit for the quiz. Make-up quizzes are not
given, no matter what the situation. If there is an excused absence, the quiz is also excused.
The lowest quiz grade will be dropped. The total quiz grade is 15% of the semester grade.

TESTS
Four tests and a comprehensive final are given. The tests are closed-book, closed-notes, and
consist of 25 multiple-choice questions (the final exam has 50 similar questions) and will be
taken via Blackboard. Test questions from previous semesters will be made available for
review. Unless agreed upon before the scheduled date, no make-up will be given if a test is
missed. No make-ups are given for poor performance and no test scores are dropped. Each
test is 10% of the semester grade and the final exam is 20%.
iv 0: SYLLABUS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

A total of 1000 points may be earned throughout the semester. These come from:
Daily Homework........ 250
Daily Quizzes ............. 150
Hourly Tests .............. 400
Final Exam ................. 200
Total ...................... 1000

The final grade is then assigned according to the total number of points accumulated. There is
1000 - 934 A+ 933 - 900 A 899 - 867 A-
866 - 834 B+ 833 - 800 B 799 - 767 B-
766 - 734 C+ 733 - 700 C 699 - 667 C-
666 - 634 D+ 633 - 600 D 599 - 567 D-
566 - 0 F
If the course is being taken Pass/Fail, 567 points are required to pass.

PROJECT
An optional computer project will be assigned about a month into the course, to be due on the
last day of classes. This will require the use of a software package (Excel, Maple, Mathcad, and
MATLAB). The points received on the project are considered to be extra credit. A maximum of
33 points may be added to your semester total. Although the project is optional, everyone is
strongly encouraged to do it as it will raise your grade one level if maximum points are
obtained.

Do not copy or let your work be copied, as neither will be accepted. Although working together
in a group is encouraged, do not even look at another persons work for help. If you wish to
help someone on a homework problem, verbally explain the steps involved do not show or
send the solution. First offense in sharing homework solutions is a zero grade for the
homework to all involved. This includes copying a homework solution from another source
(e.g., work obtained from students in previous classes). Second offense is a failing grade and
dismissal from the course. Obtaining assistance in any manner on quizzes and tests is strictly
prohibited and will result in a failing grade and submission of charges to the Academic Integrity
Review Committee. Academic dishonesty and its consequences are discussed further in the
Universitys Code of Student Rights and Responsibilities.

## DISABILITIES OR CONDITIONS THAT MAY AFFECT YOUR PARTICIPATION

The University of Louisville is committed to providing access to programs and services for
qualified students with disabilities. If a student has a disability and requires accommodation to
participate and complete requirements for this class, notify the instructor immediately and
contact the Disability Resource Center (Robbins Hall, 852-6938) for verification of eligibility and
determination of specific accommodations.
v 0: SYLLABUS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

CLASS SCHEDULE
Class meetings: MWF 8:00 8:50, Sackett Hall 208

## August 24 August 26 August 28

1: Introduction 2: Particle Kinematics 3: Constant Acceleration
August 31 September 2 September 4
4: Problem Solving 5: Variable Acceleration 6: Graphical Solutions
September 7 September 9 September 11
LABOR DAY HOLIDAY 7: Path Coordinates 8:Rectangular Coordinates
September 14 September 16 September 18
9: Polar Coordinates 10: Relative Motion 11: Dependent Motion
September 21 September 23 September 25
12: Part. Kinematics Review TEST #1 13: Particle Kinetics
September 28 September 30 October 2
14: Rectilinear EOM 15: Friction 16: Springs
October 5 October 7 October 9
17: Curvilinear EOM 18: Work & Kinetic Energy 19: Potential Energy
October 12 October 14 October 16
MID-TERM BREAK 20: Impulse & Momentum 21: Impact
October 19 October 21 October 23
22: Angular Momentum 23: Part. Kinetics Review TEST #2
October 26 October 28 October 30
24: Rigid Body Motion 25: Rotational Motion 26: Absolute Analysis
November 2 November 4 November 6
27: Relative Velocity 28: Relative Acceleration 29: Instantaneous Center
November 9 November 11 November 13
30: RB Kinematics Review TEST #3 31: Moment of Inertia
November 16 November 18 November 20
32: Translational Motion 33: Fixed Axis Rotation 34: General Plane Motion
November 23 November 25 November 27
35: RB Work & Energy THANKSGIVING BREAK THANKSGIVING BREAK
November 30 December 2 December 4
36: RB Impulse Momentum 37: RB Kinetics Review TEST #4
December 7 December 15 (Tuesday)
Summary & Evaluation FINAL EXAM 8:00-10:30
1 1: INTRODUCTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

1: INTRODUCTION
MECHANICS
As indicated by the course title, Dynamics is just one of several areas of Mechanics, which is a
branch of physics dealing with the behavior of systems subjected to forces.

SYSTEMS
Structural systems may be modeled as:
Particles ...................................... Dimensions unimportant, rotation neglected
Rigid Bodies................................. Do not change shape, rotation considered
Deformable bodies ...................... Change shape
The way a system is modeled does not depend on size, but on the situation. For example:
a tennis ball with no spin can be modeled as a particle,
with spin as a rigid body,
and at impact as a deformable body.
In this course, only particles and rigid bodies are studied.

BEHAVIOR
The behavior of a system is based on Newtons laws of motion (1687):
If in equilibrium, then .....................Resultant force = 0
If in motion, then ............................Resultant force Change in motion
For every action there is an ............Equal and opposite reaction
Behavior is determined if the position of the system is known at all times.

DYNAMICS
The study of mechanics is normally subdivided into two areas:
Statics.............For systems at rest or moving with constant velocity (non-accelerating).
Statics uses Newtons 1st and 3rd laws.
Dynamics .......For systems with accelerated motion.
Dynamics uses Newtons 2nd and 3rd laws.

Dynamics, the study of systems in motion, is then also split into two sections:
Kinematics .....Studies motion without reference to the forces.
The basic kinematic quantities are position, velocity, and acceleration.
Kinetics ...........Studies the relation between the forces and motion.
The three methods commonly used in kinetics are equations of motion,
work energy, and impulse momentum.
2 1: INTRODUCTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT
Compared to Statics, the study of Dynamics is relatively recent!

## Aristotle (384 322 BC)

Believed that heavy bodies fell more rapidly than light bodies (which is wrong)!

## Archimedes (287 212 BC)

Studied the equilibrium of levers; beginning of Statics

## Galileo (1564 1642)

Studied pendulums and falling bodies; first to understand Dynamics, but was often
criticized for refusing to accept the beliefs of his day (which were still those of
Aristotle).

## Newton (1642 1727)

Guided by the work of Galileo and with the recent invention of accurate timepieces,
he was able to make an accurate formulation of the laws of motion.

## Einstein (1878 1955)

Placed limitations on the use of Newtons laws; formulated theory of relativity.

## RELATION TO OTHER COURSES

Dynamics is closely related and necessary to the study of other courses:

MECHANICS
TYPE OF MODEL STATICS DYNAMICS
Particles & Rigid Bodies CE 205 (Statics) ME 206 (Dynamics)
Deformable Bodies ME 323 (MOM) ME 421 (Vibrations)

APPLICATIONS
Dynamics is applied in many areas of engineering work:
Astronautics
Biomechanics
Large Structures
Machinery
Sports
Transportation
3 1: INTRODUCTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

COURSE DESCRIPTION
Study of the motions and forces of engineering systems. Kinematics and kinetics of particles
and rigid bodies. Engineering applications using equations of motion and the work-energy and
impulse-momentum methods.

COURSE OUTLINE
This course is divided into 4 sections:

Particle Kinematics
Particle Kinetics

## Rigid Body Kinematics

Rigid Body Kinetics

GOALS
The goals of this course are to:
Practice solving engineering problems in a logical and orderly manner.
Understand the basic concepts of moving systems.

## ABET EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES

Being an ABET accredited program, the Mechanical Engineering Department has a set of eleven
educational objectives which are to be satisfied by the curriculum. This course supports each of
those objectives while emphasizing the following:
FUNDAMENTALS. An ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering in
the field of mechanical engineering.
PROBLEM SOLVING. An ability to identify, formulate and solve problems in the field of
mechanical engineering.
CONTINUING EDUCATION. A recognition of the need for, and an ability to engage in, life-long
learning in the field of mechanical engineering.
ENGINEERING PRACTICE. An ability to use the techniques, skills, and modern tools necessary
for the practice of mechanical engineering.
4 2: PARTICLE KINEMATICS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

2: PARTICLE KINEMATICS
PARTICLE KINEMATICS
In particle dynamics, the dimensions of the body are unimportant since the effects of rotation
are neglected. All bodies are assumed to be modeled as a single point. Kinematics is the study
of geometry with respect to time, without regard to the forces causing the movement.
Therefore, particle kinematics reduces to the investigation of the motion of a point with
respect to time.

ABSOLUTE ANALYSIS
The measured values of a physical quantity depend on the reference frame of the observer.
When the measurements are made from an inertial reference, absolute analysis is being used.
To apply the laws of physics, quantities must be absolute!

An inertial reference frame (also called a Newtonian reference frame) satisfies one of the two
following conditions:
Fixed
Non-rotating and moving with constant velocity
For most problems, a reference frame attached to the earth is considered an inertial frame.

## BASIC KINEMATIC QUANTITIES

There are three basic kinematic quantities:
Position vector..................
Velocity vector ....................
Acceleration vector ...........

All three are vector quantities, having both magnitude and direction. When representing a
vector, make sure to include an arrowhead over the symbol. A vector can never equal a scalar,
e.g., 3 m/s!

POSITION
The position vector defines the location of the particle as a function of time. Coordinates are
used to describe this location. There are three different sets of coordinates that are used in this
course:
Rectangular (x, y, z)
Useful whenever quantities are given in fixed directions.
Commonly, but not necessarily, the horizontal and vertical directions.
Cylindrical (r, , z) or Polar (r, )
Useful whenever angular quantities are given.
Path (s)
Useful whenever path is known. Use this system whenever possible!
Does not need a reference frame, only a reference point.
5 2: PARTICLE KINEMATICS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

The rectangular and polar coordinates are fixed coordinates. They are independent of
knowledge of the path, but depend on choice of reference frame.

VELOCITY
The velocity vector is defined as the change in the position vector with respect to time:

................................................................................................................. (1a)
Where is a shorthand expression for . The direction of is always tangent to the path
of motion. Its magnitude is referred to as the speed.

ACCELERATION
The acceleration vector is defined as the change in the velocity vector with respect to time:

................................................................................................................. (1b)
The direction of is, in general, not tangent to the path of motion. For a fixed reference
frame, both velocity and acceleration are independent of the origin.

## DIMENTIONS OF KINEMATIC QUANTITIES

Dimensions are used to describe the physical quantities. The basic dimensions needed in
kinematics are:
Length
Time
All kinematic quantities can be expressed in terms of these two basic dimensions. Make sure
that all terms in an equation have consistent dimensions. This is called dimensional
homogeneity.

## UNITS OF KINEMATIC QUANTITIES

Units are specific measures of the dimensions. In this course, both the International System (SI)
and the U.S. Customary System (FPS) are used:

## Dimension SI Units FPS Units

Length (L) Meters (m) Feet (ft)
Time (t) Seconds (s) Seconds (s)

The units of any physical quantity can be changed with the aid of conversion factors. These
conversion factors are numbers that are physically unity. Some useful conversion factors
between the two systems are:
6 2: PARTICLE KINEMATICS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

Length Conversions
1 in = 2.54 cm (Exact) 1 cm = 0.3937~ in
1 ft = 0.3048 m (Exact) 1 m = 3.281~ ft
1 yd = 0.9144 m (Exact) 1 m = 1.094~ yd
1 mi = 1.609344 km (Exact) 1 km = 0.6214~ mi

Velocity Conversions
60 mph = 88 fps (Exact)
1 mph = 0.44704 m/s (Exact) 1 m/s = 2.237~ mph

SIGNIFICANT DIGITS
The significant digits in a number include the left-most, non-zero digits to the right-most digit
written (if there is not a decimal point present, the right-most zeros may or may not be
significant). Answers can be no more significant than the least accurate number in the data.
However, rounding off should be done only after the final calculation. In this course, give
answers to at least 3 significant figures.
7 3: CONSTANT ACCELERATION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

3: CONSTANT ACCELERATION
RECTILINEAR MOTION
For rectilinear motion the path (a straight line) is known; therefore, PATH coordinates should
be used. Rectangular or polar coordinates could be used just as well resulting in similar
equations but in this class, path coordinates are used whenever possible.

## Start Position @ time t

When using path coordinates, a reference frame is not needed; only a reference point (O) is
required.
The unit vector is tangent to the path, in the direction of increasing s.

## BASIC KINEMATIC QUANTITIES

For rectilinear motion, the unit vector is constant with respect to time, as it does not change
directions. Therefore, the basic kinematic quantities can be expressed as:

## Position vector ...............

Velocity vector ...............
Acceleration vector ........

However, instead of working with these vectors, their scalar components are used in analysis.
The key in solving kinematic problems is determining the velocity and acceleration
components!

................................................................................................................. (2a)
................................................................................................................. (2b)

The components may be either positive or negative. Using these components, the vectors and
their magnitudes can be easily determined!

......................................................................................... (3a)
......................................................................................... (3a)

The magnitude must always be positive. For rectilinear motion, the subscripts on the
components are often omitted. In such cases, the components and their magnitudes will both
8 3: CONSTANT ACCELERATION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

be represented by the same symbols. Therefore, the symbol | |is typically used to indicate
magnitude.

DISPLACEMENT
The displacement of a particle is a vector defined as the change in the position vector. For
rectilinear motion it has a magnitude of |s|. s is found by subtracting the initial position )
from the final position :

....................................................................................................... (4)

## The displacement may be either positive or negative.

DISTANCE TRAVELED
The distance traveled ) by a particle is the total length of the path, and is always positive.
To determine this distance, it is necessary to determine if the particle changes directions (the
speed will be zero at such a point).

If the particle does not change directions, the distance traveled will be equal to the
magnitude of the displacement.

= -

If the particle changes directions, find out where it changes, and then add together the
length of the segments (a diagram is very useful).

= - + -

AVERAGE VALUES
In some cases, average values (instead of instantaneous values) are of interest. For rectilinear
motion these are:

## Average Speed: ................................................................. (5a)

Average Velocity: ................................................................. (5b)
Average Acceleration: ................................................................. (5c)

Only as t approaches zero do the average velocity and acceleration give values similar to the
instantaneous velocity and acceleration.
9 3: CONSTANT ACCELERATION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

CONSTANT ACCELERATION
If the acceleration is constant (make sure that it does not change with time, position, or
velocity), the two differential relations can be easily integrated (and, if necessary, you should be
able to do it to obtain the equations below). Assuming the initial conditions to be:

The integrations yield two relations (s t and v t); and by use of the chain rule or substitution,
a third relation is found (v s):

## s-t relation ................................................................. (6a)

v-t relation ................................................................. (6b)
v-s relation ................................................................. (6c)

The t subscript (which stands for tangential, and not time) has been dropped on the velocity
terms (and sometimes it is also dropped on the accelerations). I dont particularly like to do
this, but it is common and convenient. Remember though, that and are still the
tangential components, and are not the magnitudes. Be very careful with signs! If the initial
conditions are at some time , then replace in the equations above with .

NOTE: These equations should be used for all homework problems in which the
acceleration is constant. (That means that you should not be doing the actual
integrations they have already been carried out for us)!

FREE FALL
A common example of constant acceleration occurs when a particle rises or falls freely, the only
force acting on the particle being its own weight (if air resistance is assumed negligible). The
particles acceleration will always be downward and constant (assuming that the distances are
short and g doesnt change):

If up is positive =- g
If down is positive =+g

The local gravitational acceleration, g, is always positive and has a standard value of:
g = 9.8067 m/ = 32.174 ft/

However, for this class we assume were on the planet M2D, where the values of g are:
g = 10.0 m/ for fps units, and g = 32.0 ft/ for SI units.

Unless otherwise stated, these values should be used for all homework and test problems! This
represents less than a 2% difference.
10 4: PROBLEM SOLVING ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

4: PROBLEM SOLVING
GUIDES
Solve each homework problem using the following GUIDES:

## Example: A particle is moving to the right at 5 m/s. It is then subjected to a constant

deceleration of 3 m/s2. What is the speed after 3 seconds?

Name
ME 206 Problem Number
Date

## G GIVEN Express in mathematical symbols (not in words) any given expressions or

constants. Also include any values taken from handbooks.
2
= - 3 m/

## U UNKOWNS Express in mathematical symbols (not in words) all desired quantities.

Include subscripts!

I INITIAL, INTERMEDIATE AND FINAL CONDITIONS In tabular form, list the kinematic
quantities of position and velocity at the given times.

0 1
(s) 0 3
s (m) 0 -
(m/s) 5

D DIAGRAMS The necessary diagrams depend on the type of problem. In general these
are: 1) Reference frame 2) Kinematic diagram 3)Kinetic diagram (FBD)

E EQUATIONS AND EVALUATION Show and underline all basic equations. Evaluate
using at least significant figures. List all assumptions made!

= 5 + (-3) (3) = -4

## S SOLUTION Express answers obtained in previous step in terms of words, not

mathematical symbols. Include units on every answer.

## The speed after 3 sec is 4 m/sec to the left.

11 5: VARIABLE ACCELERATION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

5: VARIABLE ACCELERATION
VARIABLE ACCELERATION
In many practical cases, the acceleration is not constant and a mathematical relationship has
been developed between two of the four variables listed below:
.............................. Time
.............................. Position
.............................. Velocity
.............................. Acceleration

## Relationships with the remaining two variables can be obtained by either:

Differentiation
Integration

DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS
Two differential relationships have already been developed for such cases:

................................................................................................................. (7a)
................................................................................................................. (7b)

Remember, the subscript has been dropped on the velocity terms since velocity is always in
the tangential direction (unlike acceleration in some motions). Since these expressions are
given as time derivatives, the chain rule should be used whenever derivatives of position are
involved. This gives:

................................................................................................................. (7c)

In summary, the differential relations available are listed below. Substitute the given
expression into the proper differential relation (one which contains both variables from the
given expression). This should then tell you whether to differentiate or integrate.

Variables Present
Differential
Equation

12 5: VARIABLE ACCELERATION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## SOLUTION OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

To integrate, use separation of variables. Manipulate the D.E. so that only one variable
appears on each side. Then use definite integrals, making sure to include all 4 limits of
integration. These limits should appear in a kinematic table (which contains , , and ). If a
second integration is to be done, dont put in the final conditions until both integrations are
carried out.

## COMMON CASE: EXPLICIT FUNCTIONS OF TIME

It is very common for the position, velocity, or acceleration to be given explicitly as a function of
time. To determine whether differentiation or integration is necessary, examine the following
diagram:

Differentiate Differentiate

## POSITION VELOCITY ACCELERATION

Integrate Integrate
13 6: GRAPHICAL SOLUTIONS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

6: GRAPHICAL SOLUTIONS
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION
When data is gathered experimentally, or when the particles path is erratic, it may be more
useful to represent the relations between , , and with graphics, instead of trying to
determine mathematical equations. When working problems graphically, do not write
equations for the kinematic variables!

GRAPHICAL DIFFERENTIATION
The differentiation process can be done graphically by measuring the slope at the point under
consideration:

## 1) Velocities can be found from the - graph:

......................................................................................... (8a)

## 2) Accelerations can be found from the - graph:

......................................................................................... (8b)

## 3) Accelerations can also be found from the - graph:

......................................................................................... (8c)

GRAPHICAL INTEGRATION
The integration process is done graphically by measuring the area under the curve between
specified points:

## 1) Positions can be found from the - graph:

..................................................... (9a)

## 2) Velocities can be found from the - graph:

..................................................... (9b)

## 3) Velocities can also be found from the - graph:

.......................................... (9c)
14 7: PATH COORDINATES ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

7: PATH COORDINATES
CURVILINEAR MOTION
For curvilinear motion, the path a curved line may or may not be known. Therefore,
depending on the situation, the coordinates used should be either:
Path
Rectangular
Polar (Cylindrical)

PATH COORDINATES
Path coordinates ( ) are generally used whenever the path is known. These coordinates do not
use a reference frame, but utilize a stationary reference point.

The unit vectors for path coordinates vary with time (constant magnitude, but changing
direction.)
is tangent to the path in the direction of increasing ,
is normal to the path, always toward the instantaneous center of curvature.

## BASIC KINEMATIC QUANTITIES

The basic kinematic quantities can be expressed for 2-D motion as:

## Position vector ..............Determined by value of and knowledge of path.

However, as in rectilinear motion

## Velocity vector ..............

where:
15 7: PATH COORDINATES ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## Acceleration vector .......

where: (from vector analysis, )

PATH COMPONENTS
The velocity and acceleration components for path components can then be written as:

............................................................................................................... (10a)
............................................................................................................... (10b)
............................................................................................................... (10c)

The velocity is always tangent to the path and therefore there is no normal velocity (and the t
subscript is often dropped but be careful since this is sometimes the same symbol used for
speed).

The tangential acceleration can be positive or negative. It represents the time rate of change
in the magnitude of velocity. The normal acceleration is always directed toward the center
of curvature and can never be negative. It represents the change in the direction of velocity.

## VECTORS AND MAGNITUDES

The vectors and their magnitudes are:

............................................................... (11a)
............................................................... (11a)

If the path is expressed as a function , the radius of curvature ( ) at any point
can be found from:

## For a circular path ............... = Radius

For a straight path...............
16 7: PATH COORDINATES ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## ALTERNATE FORMS OF TANGENTAL ACCELERATION

If the tangential acceleration is not an explicit function of time, then the chain rule must be use.

............................................................... (12a)

............................................................... (12b)

Of the two acceleration components, the tangential acceleration is normally the more difficult
one to handle. This is due to it being a differential equation (D.E.), while the normal
acceleration is simply an algebraic equation.
17 8: RECTANGULAR COORDINATES ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

8: RECTANGULAR COORDINATES
RECTANGULAR COORDINATES
Use rectangular coordinates whenever quantities are given in fixed directions (such as the
horizontal and vertical directions).

The unit vectors for rectangular coordinates are constant with respect to time:
is in the direction of increasing ,
is in the direction of increasing ,
is in the direction of increasing .

## BASIC KINEMATIC QUANTITIES

The basic kinematic quantities can be expressed for 2-D motion as:
Position vector................
Velocity vector ................
Acceleration vector ........

RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS
In this class we work primarily with the scalar form (components). The components of the
position, velocity, and acceleration vectors are:

............................................................................................................... (13a)
............................................................................................................... (13b)
............................................................................................................... (13c)
............................................................................................................... (13d)
18 8: RECTANGULAR COORDINATES ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

If x and y are in the horizontal and vertical directions, the components are referred to as the
horizontal and vertical components. If not, they are simply the x and y velocities and
accelerations.

## VECTOR AND MAGNITUDES

Once the components are found, the vectors and their magnitudes are easily determined:

............................................................... (14a)
............................................................... (14b)
............................................................... (14c)

The direction of each vector can then be found by dividing the vector by its magnitude. The
direction of the velocity vector will always be tangent to the path. The acceleration vector will
not generally be tangent.

PROJECTILE MOTION
Rectangular coordinates are often used to study projectile motion free flight motion of a
particle (the only force acting on the particle is its weight).

Assume the X-axis to always be horizontal and the Y-axis always vertical and directed upwards.
Since the bodys acceleration will always be downward and constant, the acceleration
components can be written as:

Therefore, using the equations of constant acceleration, the horizontal motion is governed by:

....................................................................................... (15a)
....................................................................................... (15b)

## The vertical motion is governed by:

....................................................................................... (15c)
....................................................................................... (15d)
....................................................................................... (15e)

If the axes are not horizontal and vertical, the acceleration components are not constant, and
these equations are not valid!
19 8: RECTANGULAR COORDINATES ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

Several common expressions (derived from the equations above) are used to find maximum
height ( ) and range ( ) from the given firing speed and firing angle (measured from the
horizontal).

The range is the horizontal distance traveled before returning to the same elevation.
Maximum range occurs when = 45.
20 9: POLAR COORDINATES ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

9: POLAR COORDINATES
POLAR COORDINATES
Use polar coordinates whenever angular quantities are given. Polar coordinates are fixed
coordinates: independent of knowledge of the path, but dependent on choice of reference
frame.

The unit vectors for polar coordinates vary with time (constant magnitude, but changing
direction).
is in the direction of increasing Radial direction
is in the direction of increasing and perpendicular to Transverse direction

## BASIC KINEMATIC QUANTITIES

The basic kinematic quantities can be expressed for 2-D motion as:
Position vector................
extends outward from the origin; is measured from a fixed reference line (X or Y
axis) to the moving radial line (generally CCW to conform to the right-hand rule) and is
used to define the direction of the radial unit vector.
Velocity vector ................
where:

## Acceleration vector ........

where:

POLAR COMPONENTS
The velocity and acceleration components are then:
21 9: POLAR COORDINATES ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

...................................................................................................... (16a)
...................................................................................................... (16b)
(16c)

...................................................................................................... (16d)

Each of these components (and their individual terms) are referred to by specific names. These
names are listed in the table on the next page.

## VECTORS AND MAGNITUDES

The vectors and their magnitudes are:

............................................................... (17a)

............................................................... (17b)

CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES
For 3-D problems the z-coordinate (axial direction) is also needed to specify the position:

## The additional velocity and acceleration components are:

22 9: POLAR COORDINATES ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## SYMBOL NAME DIMENSIONS SI UNITS

Radial speed ( ) L/T m/s
Change in radial speed L/T2 m/s2

Angular speed ( ) 1/T rad/s
Angular acceleration ( ) 1/T2 rad/s2

## Transverse speed L/T m/s

Transverse acceleration L/T2 m/s2

z Axial position L m
Axial speed ( ) L/T m/s
Axial acceleration ( ) L/T2 m/s2

## Centripetal acceleration L/T2 m/s2

Coriolis acceleration L/T2 m/s2
23 10: RELATIVE MOTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## 10: RELATIVE MOTION

TRANSLATING REFEREENCE FRAME
Up to this point, all observations of a particle P have been made from some fixed point O.
This was absolute analysis. However, in many cases, observations may be made from a point
Q, which is moving relative to the fixed point O. The motion P with respect to the fixed
point can then be found using a translating reference frame. This is a relative analysis.

## ABSOLUTE AND RELATIVE QUANTITIES

The position vector can be found from vector algebra; the velocity and acceleration vectors
come from differentiation.

................................................................................................... (18a)
................................................................................................... (18b)
................................................................................................... (18c)

## and are absolute position vectors; is a relative position vector.

and are absolute velocity vectors; is a relative velocity vector.
and are absolute acceleration vectors; is a relative acceleration vector.

If quantities are given in reference to still air or still water, these are relative quantities. The
absolute (actual) quantities can be determined by vectorially adding the air or water velocity or
acceleration.
24 10: RELATIVE MOTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS

1. Show the vector triangle; this should include the magnitudes and directions.
2. Show the fixed reference frame.
3. Write the appropriate relative equation (vector form).
4. Resolve the vectors into rectangular components (scalar form).

On occasion, a purely trigonometric solution is convenient. This type of solution would make
use of the law of sines and cosines.

Law of sines:

Law of cosines:
25 11: DEPENDENT MOTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## 11: DEPENDENT MOTION

DEPENDENT MOTION
In some types of problems the motion of one particle will depend on the motion of another
particle, such as in cable-pulley problems. These problems make use of absolute analysis, in
which the motion of each particle is measured with respect to a fixed point (but not necessarily
the same point).

## PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS

In solving dependent motion problems, the steps given below should be followed:

1. Measuring from a fixed point, define the position of each particle using path
coordinates. It is not necessary that the same point be used for each particle.
2. In terms of the coordinates, show changes in cable length for each section:
(+) .......if length of section increases
(-) ........if length of section decreases
3. ............... Relate these changes to changes in total cable length (assuming cable to be
inextensible). Write the following equation for each cable:
............................................................................. (19)
L (0) .......if cable length is unchanged
L (+) .......if cable is being unwound
L (-) ........if cable is being unwound
4. Differentiate to find relations for velocity and acceleration.

These results do not depend on the amounts of cable wrapped around the pulleys, so these
portions can be omitted from the analysis.

## SYSTEMS IN WHICH ANGLES CHANGE

In some cable-pulley systems, the cable angle may change with position. This problem is
generally solved by setting up a right triangle: consisting of the cable as the hypotenuse, the
coordinate as one side, and a fixed length as the other. The change in cable length can then be
computed as the hypotenuse (written in terms of the coordinate and fixed length) minus the
fixed length.

When carrying out the differentiations to obtain the velocities and accelerations, make sure to
take time derivatives (which will require use of the chain rule).
26 12: PARTICLE KINEMATICS REVIEW ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## 12: PARTICLE KINEMATICS REVIEW

BASIC KINEMATIC QUANTITIES
Position vector .......................
Velocity vector .......................
Acceleration vector ................
RECTILINEAR MOTION
Velocity component ...............
Acceleration component .......
AVERAGE VALUES
Average Speed .......................
Average Velocity: ...................
Average Acceleration: ............
CONSTANT ACCELERATION
s-t relation ..............................
v-t relation..............................
v-s relation .............................
GRAPHICAL SOLUTIONS
Differentiation........................
Integration .............................
CURVILINEAR MOTION: PATH
Velocity component ...............
Acceleration components ......
CURVILINEAR MOTION: RECTANGULAR
Velocity components .............
Acceleration components ......
Projectile Motion ...................

## CURVILINEAR MOTION: POLAR

Velocity components .............
Acceleration components ......
RELATIVE MOTION

DEPENDENT MOTION
27 13: PARTICLE KINETICS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## 13: PARTICLE KINETICS

PARTICLE KINETICS
Kinetics is the study of forces which influence the motion. There are three methods commonly
used to study kinetics. These are:
Equations of Motion
Work Energy
Impulse Momentum
All three methods are based on Newtons second law of motion for particles.

## NEWTONS SECOND LAW OF MOTION

Of the three methods listed above, directly using the equations of motion is the more basic
method, and is always applicable. This method utilizes the second law of motion in its most
fundamental form:

..................................................................................................... (20)

The equation of motion is a vector equation. It is valid only when the acceleration is measured
with respect to an inertial reference frame. There are several limitations on the use of the
second law:
Relativity (Einstein) .....................................High speeds (speed of light)
Quantum Mechanics (Schrodinger) ............Atomic distances
Under these conditions, certain modifications need to be made to the second law.

## DIMENSIONS OF KINETIC QUANTITIES

In addition to length and time (the dimensions needed for kinematics), the other basic
dimensions needed for kinetics are:
Mass
Force

## These dimensions are related through Newtons second law:

In the SI system of units, mass is taken as the base dimension (force is a derived dimension).
This is referred to as an absolute system. In the U.S. system of units, force is taken as the base
dimension (mass is a derived dimension). This is referred to as a gravitational system.
28 13: PARTICLE KINETICS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## UNITS OF KINEMATIC QUATITIES

The units commonly used in kinetics are:

## Dimension SI Units FPS Units

Force [F] Newton (N) pound (lbf)
Mass [M] kilogram (kg) slug

## Some useful conversion factors between the two systems are:

Mass Conversions
1 lbm = 0.45359237 kg (Exact) 1 kg = 2.205~ lbm
1 slug = 32.17~ lbm = 14.59~ kg

Force Conversions
1 lbf = 4.448~ N 1 N = 0.2248~ lbf

## Force Mass Relations

1 lbf = 1 slugft/s2 (Exact) 1 N = 1 kgm/s2 (Exact)
1 lbf = 32.17~ lbmft/s2 (Exact)

## MASS AND WEIGHT

Any two particles have a mutually attractive force between them. Newtons law of gravitation
gives this force as:

..................................................................................................... (21)

## where is the universal gravitational constant.

The force of the earths gravitational attraction (weight) on a body of mass is:

= 6.67E-11 = 3.44E-8
= 5.98E24 kg = 4.10E23 slug
= 6.38E6 m = 2.09E7 ft = 3960 mile
Therefore, the standard acceleration due to gravity at the earths surface is taken as:

= 9.81 = 32.2
29 2: PARTICLE KINEMATICS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## Mass (also referred to as inertia) is a measure of a bodys resistance to acceleration. Mass is

not a force! Weight is a gravitational force.

..................................................................................................... (22)

By definition the standard value of is defined as exactly 9.80665 (32.174~ ). The value of
actually varies from approximately 9.78 (32.1 ) at the equator to 9.83 (32.2 ) at the
poles.

NOTES
Unless instructed differently, in this class the following will be assumed in order to simplify
calculations:
For problems using FPS units:
Use the standard value of value of = 32.2 .
Therefore a block with a mass of 100 lbm will weigh 100 lbf.
For problems using SI units:
Use a value of = 10.0 .
Therefore a block with a mass of 100 kg will weigh 1000 N.
30 14: RECTILINEAR EOM ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## 14: RECTILINEAR EOM

TYPES OF PROBLEMS
Two types of problems occur in the study of dynamics:
Forces known
Position, velocity, or acceleration to be determined
Position, velocity, or acceleration known
Forces to be determined

DIAGRAMS NEEDED
The diagrams to be always shown are:
Kinematic diagrams
Outlined shape of the body
Reference frame or point
Coordinates
Unit vectors
Kinetic diagrams (Free Body Diagrams FBDs)
Outlined shape of the body, isolating it from its surroundings
All forces that act on the body
Active forces.........Weight and applied
Reactive forces .....Constraints and supports
Labels for all forces (numerical values if know, appropriate symbols if not )
Necessary angles

EVALUATION NEEDED
The evaluation normally includes both:
Kinematics
Kinetics

## For problems of the first type (Forces known):

Use kinetics first!
Write down the equations of motion (EOM) in component form. Substitute the
force components (determined from the FBD) into these equations. Solve for
the acceleration.
Then use kinematics!
If necessary, solve for velocity and position.

## For problems of the second type (Position, velocity, or acceleration known):

Use kinematics first!
Evaluate the acceleration components from the given information.
Then use kinetics!
31 14: RECTILINEAR EOM ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

Write down the equations of motion in component form. Substitute into these
equations the force components (determined from the FBD) and the
acceleration components (determined in the kinematics section).

RECTILINEAR MOTION

Kinematics
The kinematic relations for rectilinear motion have already been developed. If the acceleration
(or forces) is constant then use the constant acceleration equations:

s-t relation
v-t relation
v-s relation

If the acceleration is variable, than the general differential equations must be used:

## Velocity component ...............

Acceleration components ......

Kinetics
For rectilinear motion, the equations of motion are written in path coordinates. Always write
down the vector equation, and then (right below it) show the scalar component equations.

If there is more than one particle, also indicate the particle for which the equations are being
written.

## TREATMENT OF CABLES AND PULLEYS

Cables are assumed to be inextensible and mass less. They can only be in tension. (Tensile
forces always point away from the body). Assuming massless and frictionless pulleys, the
tension is the same at any point along the cable. However, different cables have different
tensions!

In order to relate the tensions of two cables connected to a pulley, a FBD of the pulley must be
drawn and an equation of motion be written.
32 15: FRICTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

15: FRICTION
TYPES OF FRICTION
Friction is a resistance force which inhibits or prevents slipping between bodies. It always acts
tangent to the surfaces of contact. When the surfaces have no film or fluid separating them,
dry (or Coulomb) friction occurs. This should be in the form of:
.............................. Static friction No relative motion between the bodies
.............................. Kinetic friction Bodies moving relative to each other

## MAXIMUM FRICTION FORCE

The maximum value of the frictional force is:

..................................................................................................... (23)

where is the static coefficient of friction. Hardly ever is this the actual friction force occurring
between the two surfaces. The actual force depends on the particular situation.

## No Relative Motion .......... )

The friction forces between surfaces at rest, with respect to each other, must be less
than the maximum frictional force:

The direction of this force is unknown and must be determined from the equations of
motion. (Assume a direction and then check the sign).

## Impending Motion ...........( )

At the instant relative motion is starting, the actual friction force is equal to the
maximum:

The force must be shown in its proper direction, opposing the impeding relative motion.

Relative Motion................ )
After relative motion is started, the frictional forces are less than the maximum:

..................................................................................................... (24)

where is the kinetic coefficient of friction, with < . The frictional force on each
body is in a direction opposite to its motion relative to the other body.
33 15: FRICTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## WHEN THE TYPE OF MOTION IS NOT KNOWN:

For cases in which it is not known what type of motion the system is undergoing, assume no
relative motion! Then solve for the friction force and compare to .

## If ........ Assumption correct No relative motion

If ....... Impending motion
If ....... Assumption incorrect Relative motion
Rework using
34 16: SPRINGS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

16: SPRINGS
VIBRATIONS
Vibrations is the study of oscillatory motion. The vibration may be either free or forced.
.............................. Free Vibrations Motion is maintained by weight or spring
forces
.............................. Forced Vibrations Motion is caused by external forces.

## Both of these types may be either damped or undamped.

.............................. Undamped Frictional forces are neglected; vibration can
continue indefinitely
.............................. Damped Frictional forces are present; oscillations decay

Free, undamped vibrations will be studied in this section, and the solutions will only involve
velocity and position (relations involving time requires solving a 2nd order D.E.)

HOOKES LAW
Springs are assumed to be massless and linear. They can either be in tension (causing
elongation) or compression (causing contraction). In either case, the force and deflection are
related by Hookes Law:

..................................................................................................... (25)

where:
........Spring force (Tension or Compression)
.........Spring stiffness (Force/Length)
.........Total spring deflection

Even though Hookes Law is a static equation, it can be used in dynamics since the springs mass
is negligible.

SPRING DEFLECTION
The length of a spring at any time can be written as:

............................................................................................................... (26a)
............................................................................................................... (26b)

where:
.......Initial length of the spring (free length)
..........Displacement variable, measured from equilibrium

## The deflection ( ) is added or subtracted depending on whether the elongation (+) or

contraction (-) is being measured. The coordinate ( ) is measured along the same line as the
spring.
35 16: SPRINGS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

EQUATION OF MOTION
By defining the displacement variable ( ) to be zero at equilibrium, rather than at the position
of zero deflection, the equation of motion for a spring-mass system becomes:

with:

(The weight of the mass and the initial spring force cancel each other.) Using this expression for
acceleration (instead of using the time derivative) allows the use of separation of variables to
find a position velocity relation.
36 17: CURVILINEAR EOM ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## 17: CURVILINEAR EOM

CURVILINEAR EOM
Curvilinear motion poses no special problems! Simply split the vector equation of motion
into component form. However, be careful with signs once the assignment of
reference axes is made, the expressions for both the forces and the accelerations must be
consistent with that assignment.

RECTANGULAR COORDINATES
Rectangular coordinates are commonly used when the path is given in the form: or
for problems involving projectile motion. Remember, in this case, choose the X-axis to be
horizontal and the Y-axis to be vertical.
Kinematics Kinetics

POLAR COORDINATES
Polar coordinates are used when the path is given in the form: . Due to the nature of
the kinematic relations, these coordinates are generally the most complex to use. However, for
circular paths, the equations greatly simplify (although path coordinates would still be the
choice). In such cases, the radial direction is positive away from the center.

Kinematics Kinetics

PATH COORDINATES
Path coordinates are the coordinates of choice whenever the path is known. Remember that
the normal direction always points toward the center of curvature. This can be somewhat
tricky for 3-D type problems (conical pendulum) just make sure that the center of curvature is
in the plane of motion.

Kinematics Kinetics
37 17: CURVILINEAR EOM ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

GENERAL NOTES
If a change in speed is to be found, the equations of motion must be integrated. To do
this properly, the equations must be written as a function of position (requiring that the
FBD be drawn at an arbitrary position). If the conditions at a given speed are desired,
the equations of motion may be written at the specific point.
If there is loss of contact with a surface or when in a zero-g environment (apparent
weightlessness), the normal force is zero.
For 3-D type problems (a car on a banked track), be careful with the normal force it
may not necessarily be in the normal direction
38 18: WORK & KINETIC ENERGY ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## 18: WORK & KINETIC ENERGY

GENERAL PRINCIPLE
A work energy principle is very useful in relating changes in speed to changes in position. In
order to apply the principle, the forces must be either constant or a function of position. The
method cannot be used if the forces are written in terms of time or velocity!

## The principle is the integrated form of the tangential equation of motion:

Kinetics ...........

Kinematics ......

KINETIC ENERGY
Kinetic energy ( ) is the particles energy (capacity to do work) due to its motion. It is
defined as:

................................................................................................... (27a)

Kinetic energy is a scalar quantity and is always positive. The change in kinetic energy ( )
from its initial position to its final position is given as:

WORK
The work ( ) done by a force in moving a particle from its initial position to its final position is:

................................................................................................... (27b)

The initial position is the lower limit, and the final position the upper limit. Work is also a scalar
quantity. The work done by a system of forces is equal to the scalar sum of the work done by
each force. Several points to consider in the determination of the work are:
If force and displacement are in the same direction .......... = +
If force is applied at a fixed point ....................................... = 0
If force is normal to the direction of motion ...................... = 0
If force is constant...............................................................
If a curve is given ..................................................... = Area under curve
39 18: WORK & KINETIC ENERGY ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## WORK & KINETIC ENERGY PRINCIPLE

The general principle can be rewritten as:

................................................................................................... (27c)

This is a scalar equation; it replaces only the tangential equation of motion (the normal
equation may still have to be used). This equation can also be applied to systems of particles
one equation can be written for the entire system (work done by internal forces sum to zero).
However, this equation cannot be used when there are energy losses due to heat, noise,
deformation, vibration, etc. When these are accounted for, the principle of work and energy is
equivalent to the 1st Law of Thermodynamics.

## PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS

Diagram
Show a free body diagram at an arbitrary position.

Table
Include a coordinate for each force which does work.
The magnitude for velocity is used, and not its components.
The table cannot contain more than one unknown.

0 1

Equations
Always write the following equations:

Evaluation
Simply substitute known values directly into the main equation.

POWER
The capability of a machine is measured by the amount of work it can do per unit time. This is
referred to as power (P).

................................................................................................... (28a)
40 18: WORK & KINETIC ENERGY ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

By using the definitions of work and velocity, power can also be measured in terms of the
particles speed:

................................................................................................... (28b)

## Like work and energy, power is also a scalar quantity.

EFFICIENCY
The ratio of the work done by a machine (output) to the work done on a machine (input) is
called the mechanical efficiency ( ) of the machine.

..................................................................................................... (29)

Since frictional forces will always be developed within the machine, extra power is needed to
overcome these forces. Therefore the mechanical efficiency is always less than one.

## DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

The dimensions of work and all energy terms are: [ ] [ ].

## The dimensions of power are:

The corresponding SI and English units for work, energy, and power are given below:

## Quantity SI Units FPS Units

Work, Energy Joule (J) foot-pound
Power Watt (W) horsepower (hp)

## Some useful conversions are:

Work, Energy Power
1 J = 1 N-m 1 W = 1 J/s
1 Btu = 778 ftlbf 1 hp = 550 ftlbf/s
1 Btu = 1055 J 1 hp = 746 W
41 19: POTENTIAL ENERGY ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## 19: POTENTIAL ENERGY

NON-CONSERVATIVE FORCES
Forces can be classified as either conservative or non-conservative, depending on whether the
work done by the force depends only on the particles net displacement or on the path taken.
Conservative .................Work done is independent of path
Weight and spring force
Non-conservative .........Work done is dependent on path
Applied forces, friction, etc. (all forces except weight & spring)

The ability of a conservative force to do work can be measured by its change in potential
energy (PE):

## Positive work ..............Energy lost

Negative work ............Energy gained

## WORK & POTENTIAL ENERGY PRINCIPLE

The work and kinetic energy principle can be modified to include potential energy, by taking the
previous principle and subdividing the work into conservative and non-conservative:

....................................................................................... (30a)

This is the most useful form of the work energy principles and is the one commonly
employed.

Note: Some books use different symbols for work ( ), kinetic energy ( ), and potential energy
( ) and therefore write the equation above as:

....................................................................................... (30a)

POTENTIAL ENERGY
The potential energies due to weight and spring force can be found by determining the work
done by these forces.
42 19: POTENTIAL ENERGY ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

Weight
The potential energy due to a constant weight is:
....................................................................................... (30b)

where is the elevation above an arbitrary datum (positive if above, negative if below).
The datum must be horizontal.

Spring Force
The potential energy stored in a spring is determined by:

....................................................................................... (30c)

## CONSERVATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY

In all the forces acting on the system are conservative, then = 0. This leads to the
simplification:

......................................................................................... (31)

This means that the sum of kinetic and potential must remain constant (or conserved). This is
usually referred to as Conservation of Mechanical Energy.

## PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS

Diagram
Show and mark the datum.
Show initial and final positions.
Show a free body diagram at an intermediate position.
Pt. 1

mg
Datum
Pt. 0
43 19: POTENTIAL ENERGY ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

Table
Include a coordinate for each force which does work.
The magnitude of velocity is used, and not the components
The table cannot contain more than one unknown.

0 1

Equations
Always write the following equations:

Evaluation
Simply substitute known values directly into the main equation.
44 20: IMPULSE & MOMENTUM ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## 20: IMPULSE & MOMENTUM

GENERAL PRINCIPLE
The impulse momentum principle is very useful in relating changes in speed to changes in
time. In order to apply the principle, the forces must be either constant or a function of time.
The method cannot be used if the forces are written in terms of position or velocity!

## The principle is the integrated form of the vector equation of motion:

Kinetics ...........

Kinematics ......

LINEAR MOMENTUM
The linear momentum ( ) of a particle is defined as:

............................................................................................................... (32a)

Linear momentum is a vector quantity. The change in linear momentum ( ) from its initial
position to its final position is given as:

LINEAR IMPULSE
The linear impulse ( ) acting on a particle from its initial position to its final position is:

................................................................................................... (32b)

The initial time is the lower limit, and the final time the upper limit. Impulse is also a vector
quantity. The total impulse caused by a system of forces is equal to the vector sum of the
impulse caused by each force. Several points to consider in the determination of the impulse
are:

## ................................................... If force is constant

................................................... If a F t curve is given
.........................................................
45 20: IMPULSE & MOMENTUM ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## LINEAR IMPULSE & MOMENTUM PRINCIPLE

The general principle can be rewritten as:

................................................................................................... (32c)

This is a vector equation. However, in an analysis this equation is split into scalar equations.
Only rectangular coordinates should be used (they remain constant with respect to time)! The
unit vectors for the other coordinates change with time, making the integration of forces with
respect to time very difficult.

DIFFERENTIAL FORM
The impulse momentum principle can also be written in differential form as:

..................................................................................................... (33)

This means that the sum of forces acting on a particle is equivalent to the change in linear
momentum.

## CONSERVATION OF LINEAR MOMENTUM

For systems involving two particles, the total linear impulse is often zero (due to equal but
opposite forces). In this case, the linear momentum of the system is constant, leading to the
simplification:

=0 ..................................................................................................... (34)

## This is referred to as the Conservation of Linear Momentum. To determine if this condition

applies, examine the FBDs of both particles.

Note: Some books use a different symbol for linear momentum ( ) and therefore write the
equation above as:

=0 ..................................................................................................... (34)

## DIMENIONS AND UNITS

The dimensions of impulse and momentum are: [ ] [ ].

The corresponding SI and English units for impulse and momentum are given below:

## Quantity SI Units FPS Units

Impulse, Momentum Ns lbfs
46 20: IMPULSE & MOMENTUM ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS

Diagram
Include x y unit vectors or directions.
Show free body diagrams of one or both particles at an arbitrary position.

Table
The velocity components must be used, being very careful with signs.
If two particles are involved, two tables should be used.

0 1

Equations
Always write the following equations:

Evaluation
Simply substitute known rectangular components directly into the two scalar
equations
47 21: IMPACT ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

21: IMPACT
TYPES OF IMPACT
Impact occurs when two bodies collide during a very short time period, causing large impulsive
forces. Non-impulsive forces (such as weight) are commonly neglected during an impact
analysis.

The line connecting the mass centers and the point of contact is called the line of impact. If all
three points lie on the same line, this is called central impact. If the points are not on the same
line, eccentric impact occurs and must be studied by rigid body dynamics.

Central impacts can be classified based on whether the velocity vectors lie along the line of
impact or at an angle to the impact line. These different types are:
Direct Impact ..........motion is a long line of impact
Oblique Impact .......motion at an angle to the impact line

COEFFICIENT OF RESTITUTION
The coefficient of restitution ( ) is a measure of the deformation process, being a ratio of the
restoration impulse to deformation impulse. Letting the x-axis lie along the line impact, the
coefficient is defined as:

................................................................................................... (35a)

## For particles A and B this equation can be expanded as:

................................................................................................... (35b)

## The coefficient of restitution has a range of 0 1.

= 0 .............Perfectly plastic impact: maximum loss of mechanical energy
= 1 .............Perfectly elastic impact: mechanical energy is conserved.

Mechanical energy ( ) is lost during all but a perfectly elastic impact. The energy is
transferred to heat, sound, and deformation energy.
48 21: IMPACT ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

IMPACT ANALYSIS
The equations which can be used in impact analysis come from:

Direct Impact
Use if impact line known
Use for A+B

Oblique Impact
Use if impact line known
Use for A+B
Use for A
Use for B

For a stationary mass, the mass is considered infinite and its velocity after impact is considered
zero. However, its change in momentum is not zero and cannot be neglected.
49 22: ANGULAR MOMENTUM ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## 22: ANGULAR MOMENTUM

GENERAL PRINCIPLE
Use the angular impulse and momentum principle when the particle is rotating about an axis.
This principle involves taking the moments of the vector equation of motion about the fixed
point O:

Kinetics ...........

Kinematics ......

Moments ........

## Using (the latter term is zero since

and the cross product of parallel vectors is zero.)

ANGULAR MOMENTUM
The angular momentum ( ) of a particle is defined as:

................................................................................................... (36a)

## Angular momentum is a vector quantity and is commonly referred to as the moment of

momentum. If a particle is moving along a curve in the x-y plane, a scalar formulation is usually
more convenient. The magnitude of the angular momentum is then given by:

where is the moment arm of the momentum vector (perpendicular distance from point O
to the line of action of the velocity vector). The proper sign is determined from the right hand
rule.

ANGULAR IMPULSE
The angular impulse ( ) is also a vector quantity, and is defined as:

................................................................................................... (36b)
50 22: ANGULAR MOMENTUM ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

For 2-D motion (x-y plane), the scalar form is again used. This gives the same equation as above
(except for the vector symbols removed), with all terms being computed about the z- axis.

## ANGULAR IMPULSE & MOMENTUM PRINCIPLE

The general angular impulse and momentum principle can be rewritten as:

................................................................................................... (36c)

This is a vector equation. However, in 2-D analysis (x-y plane) this equation is used only in the
z-direction.

DIFFERENTIAL FORM
The angular momentum principle can also be written in differential form as:

..................................................................................................... (37)

This means that the sum of moments (about a point O) is equivalent to the change in angular

## CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM

When the total angular impulse is zero, the angular momentum of the system is conserved,

..................................................................................................... (38)

This is referred to as the Conservation of Angular Momentum. For example, this occurs when
a particle is subjected only to central forces (forces always directed toward point O). In this
case, angular momentum is conserved, but linear momentum is not!

## DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

The dimensions of angular impulse and momentum are:

The corresponding SI and English units for angular impulse and momentum are given below:

## Quantity SI Units FPS Units

Angular Impulse,
Js ftlbfs
Angular Momentum
51 22: ANGULAR MOMENTUM ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS

Diagram
Include X-Y reference frame, be careful with the placement of the origin.
Show free body diagram at an arbitrary position.

Table
The magnitude of velocity is used along with the proper moment arm.
If more than one particle is being considered in the system, use another table.

0 1

Equations
Always write the following equations:

Evaluation
Simply substitute known values directly into the scalar equation in the z-direction.
52 23: PARTICLE KINETICS REVIEW ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## 23: PARTICLE KINETICS REVIEW

MASS AND WEIGHT
Newtons Law of Gravitation .
Weight-Mass Relation ............
Conversions ............................1 N = 1 kg m/s2 1 lbf = 1 slugft/s2 = 32.17~ lbmft/s2
FRICTIONAL FORCE
Maximum friction force .........
No relative motion ( ; Impending ( ); Relative motion ( )
SPRING FORCE
Hookes Law ...........................
Spring deflection ( ; Spring length ( )
EQUATIONS OF MOTION
Newtons Second Law ............
WORK & ENERGY
Work Kinetic Energy ............ 0 1
Work Potential Energy ........
Work.......................................
Kinetic Energy ........................
Potential Energy .....................
Power .....................................
Mechanical efficiency ............
IMPULSE & MOMENTUM
Impulse Momentum ........... 0 1
Impulse...................................
Momentum ............................
Differential form ....................
IMPACT
Coefficient of Restitution .......
ANGULAR IMPULSE & MOMENTUM
Angular Impulse Momentum 0 1
Angular Impulse .....................
Angular Momentum...............
Differential form ....................
53 24: RIGID BODY MOTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## 24: RIGID BODY MOTION

RIGID BODY KINEMATICS
A rigid body does not change shape. It is a system of particles for which the distances between
the particles remain constant.

## Spring ......................Deformable body (distances between particles change)

Steel bar ..................Rigid body (if deformation is neglected)

In rigid body kinematics, the same relations used for particles are needed, but the rotational
motion must also be accounted for. Therefore, both linear and angular quantities are involved.

TYPES OF MOTION
For plane motion, the path of each point on the rigid boy lies in one plane (planes for all points
are parallel). There are four main types of plane motion:

Rectilinear Translation:
Direction of body axes: constant
Origin: moves in a straight line

Curvilinear Translation:
Direction of body axes: constant
Origin: moves in a curved line

## Rotation about a Fixed Axis:

Direction of body axes: changes
Origin: fixed

## General Plane Motion:

Direction of body axes: changes
Origin: moves
54 24: RIGID BODY MOTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

GENERAL MOTION
General motion is a superposition of:
Translational motion
Rotational motion

Different points on a rigid body in general motion have different velocities and accelerations.
The velocities and accelerations of any two points on the same rigid body can be compared by
using the relative equations:

................................................................................................... (39a)
................................................................................................... (39b)
................................................................................................... (39c)

The relative velocities and accelerations (with respect to point B) are determined by assuming
point B to be stationary (pinned).

TRANSLATION
For rigid bodies, the magnitude of is constant (distance between particles does not
change); however, the direction may or may not change. If in translation, the direction does
not change.

=0 =

=0 =

All points on a rigid body in translation move with the same velocities and accelerations.
Therefore, particle kinematics may be used to study this type of motion.
55 24: RIGID BODY MOTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

ROTATION
The rotation of a rigid body is described by its angular motion. All lines in a rigid body in plane
motion have the same angular displacement ( ), angular speed ( ), and angular acceleration
( ). The equations relating these angular kinematic variables are similar to those previously
given for the translational variables simply replace ( , , and with , , and :

## Angular acceleration: ................................................... (40b)

corresponding table for use in rotational problems is:

0 1

The techniques used in solving the angular equations are the same as those used for
translation. For example, if the angular acceleration is variable, the differential equations
shown above must be used. If a graph is given, graphical solutions are generally used.

## CONSTANT ANGULAR ACCELERATION

If the angular acceleration is constant, the equations above can be integrated to yield:

## -t relation ............................................................... (41a)

-t relation ............................................................... (41b)
-s relation ............................................................... (41c)
56 25: ROTATION: FIXED AXIS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## 25: ROTATION: FIXED AXIS

When a rigid body rotates about a fixed axis, all other points move in concentric circles about
the fixed axis. Therefore, the position of any point P on the rigid body can be written in terms
of its angular position, , which is always measured (in radians) from a fixed reference line to

## And from the acceleration components:

Dropping the subscripts and substituting and for the angular speed and acceleration, the
equations for a rigid body rotating about a fixed axis become:

............................................................................................................... (42a)
............................................................................................................... (42b)
............................................................................................................... (42c)

These equations are valid only for rotation about a fixed axis (the axis may not be moving) and
the distance is measured from the fixed axis to the point of interest. In using these equations,
the directions of and most correspond. The velocity will be directed perpendicular to a
line drawn from the fixed point to the point under consideration in the direction of . Similarly
with and . The normal component is always directed inward.
57 25: ROTATION: FIXED AXIS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

VECTOR ANALYSIS
In most cases the velocity and the two acceleration components can be determined from the
scalar equations. However, if the geometry is difficult to visualize (e.g., 3-D), the following
vector equations should be used:

....................................................................................... (43a)
....................................................................................... (43b)

## Here, , , and should be expressed in terms of their, , , and components. Remember

also that, the order in which the vectors appear in the cross product is significant.

For 2-D motion, the angular velocity and acceleration are simply: and , where
and are both measured positive in the CCW direction (using the right-hand rule). Also, the
triple cross product can be expressed as:

## (2-D only) ........................................................................... (43c)

NO SLIP CONDITION
If two bodies contact one another without slipping, and the points in contact move along
different paths (e.g., gears), the velocities and the tangential acceleration accelerations are
the same, but the normal accelerations are not.

## If P and P are points on the two gears where contact is occurring:

................................................... (44a)

................................................... (44b)
58 26: ABSOLUTE ANALYSIS ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## 26: ABSOLUTE ANALYSIS

GENERAL PLANE MOTION
In the analysis of problems undergoing general plane motion, two methods are available:
Absolute analysis
Relative analysis

Absolute analysis is straight-forward to use if the geometry is not overly complex. However,
for more complex problems, relative analysis is almost always used.

ABSOLUTE ANALYSIS
In an absolute analysis, the motion is described only with respect to a set of fixed axes and
involves the use of time derivatives. The procedure for such an analysis is:
Choose a set of fixed axes
Relate the position ( ) of a point to the angular position ( )
Take the first time derivative to get a relation
Take the second time derivative to get an relation

GEOMETRIC CONSTRAINTS
Occasionally, conditions are put on the systems motion by the geometry of the design. For
example, in the diagram below, the velocity and acceleration of point A must be vertical,
whereas the velocity and acceleration of point B must be horizontal.

Points which coincide at a pin have identical paths and therefore have the same velocities and
accelerations. This is illustrated in the diagram by examining point B, which is common to
59 27: RELATIVE ANALYSIS: VELOCITY ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## 27: RELATIVE ANALYSIS: VELOCITY

RELATIVE MOTION
For simple geometries, absolute analysis may be used to study general plane motion. However,
for more complex geometries, relative analysis is necessary. In relative analysis, two sets of
axes are used. One set is fixed (inertial reference frame) and is used to measure the absolute
quantities. The other set translates with the body and is used for relative values. The
translating reference frame is also assumed to be non-rotating.

## RELATIVE VELOCITY ANALYSIS

General plane motion is simply a superposition of translation and rotation. This concept is
shown below, arbitrarily choosing point B as the reference point for the attachment of the
translating reference frame.

A A A
B
B
B

## General Motion = Translation of B + Rotation about B

To the non-rotating observer attached to B, the body appears to undergo fixed-axis rotation
about B. The diagram above can be represented mathematically by the relative velocity
equation.

................................................................................................... (45a)

## PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS

Two procedures are commonly used in a relative analysis one uses the scalar components,
the other uses the vectors themselves. For 2-D motion, the scalars are more convenient; for
3-D motion, the vector analysis is necessary. The procedure for a relative velocity analysis using
scalars is:
Choose a set of fixed reference axes
Draw a kinematic diagram showing absolute velocities
Draw a kinematic diagram showing relative velocities
Write the relative velocity equation
Underneath this equation, write the X- and Y- components
60 27: RELATIVE ANALYSIS: VELOCITY ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

POINTS TO CONSIDER
The relative velocity equation can be applied to any two points on the same rigid
body.
The relative velocities (wrt B) are determined by assuming B to be pinned and then
using:
....................................................................................... (45b)
Points which coincide at a pin have the same velocities.
Conditions put on the systems motion by the geometrical design should be included
in the absolute diagram (e.g., the directions of the velocities of certain points may be
known).
61 28: RELATIVE ANALYSIS: ACCELERATION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## 28: RELATIVE ANALYSIS: ACCELERATION

RELATIVE ACCELERATION ANALYSIS
Relative acceleration analysis is similar to relative velocity analysis. It assumes that general
plane motion is simply a superposition of translation and rotation. This concept is shown
below, arbitrarily choosing point A as the reference point for the attachment of the translating
reference frame.

A
A A
B
B
B

## General Motion = Translation of B + Rotation about B

To the non-rotating observer attached to B, the body appears to undergo fixed-axis rotation
about B. The diagram above can be represented mathematically by the relative velocity
equation.

................................................................................................... (46a)

## PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS

Two procedures are commonly used in a relative analysis one uses the scalar components,
the other uses the vectors themselves. For 2-D motion, the scalars are more convenient; the
3-D motion, the vector analysis is necessary. The procedure for a relative velocity analysis using
scalars is:
Choose a set of fixed reference axes
Draw a kinematic diagram showing absolute accelerations
Draw a kinematic diagram showing relative accelerations
Write the relative acceleration equation
Underneath this equation, write the X- and Y- components

POINTS TO CONSIDER
The relative acceleration equation can be applied to any two points on the same rigid
body.
The relative accelerations (wrt B) are determined by assuming B to be pinned and
then using:
....................................... (46b)
Points which coincide at a pin have the same accelerations.
Conditions put on the systems motion by the geometrical design should be included
in the absolute diagram (e.g., the directions of certain accelerations may be known.)
62 29: INSTANTANEOUS CENTER ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## 29: INSTANTANEOUS CENTER

INSTANTANEOUS CENTER OF ZERO VELOCITY
The instantaneous center (IC) is a point (on or off the body) which has zero velocity at the
instant under consideration. The body can be thought of as rotating about the IC at the
particular instant. This simplifies the velocity equations by selecting the IC as the base point,
since = 0 at this point in time.

...................................................................................... (47a)
....................................................................................... (47b)

## where for 2-D analysis:

........................................................................................ (48)

The IC may change with time. It is used only for computing velocity, and is not used for
acceleration calculations since it is not actually a fixed point.

LOCATION OF THE IC
The IC is generally located by a graphical means. There are 3 common cases:

## If the angular velocity and the velocity of a point are known:

Draw a line perpendicular to the know velocity at the corresponding point. Distance
to IC equals .
If the directions of two non-parallel velocities are known:
Draw perpendicular lines to the velocities at the respective points. IC is located at
their intersection.
If magnitudes and directions of two parallel velocities are known:
The IC is determined from proportional triangles.
63 30: RIGID BODY KINEMATICS REVIEW ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## 30: RIGID BODY KINEMATICS REVIEW

TYPES OF MOTION
Rectilinear Translation
Curvilinear Translation
General Plane Motion
ROTATIONAL MOTION: DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONS
Angular speed ........................
Angular acceleration ..............
CONSTANT ANGULAR ACCELERATION 0 1
-t relation ............................ (s)
TRANSLATION
All points have some velocities and accelerations
Velocity ..................................
Normal Acceleration ..............
Tangential acceleration..........
Vector form ............................
No slip condition ....................
GENERAL PLANE MOTION - ABSOLUTE ANALYSIS
Relate the position ( ) of a point to the angular position ( ) & differentiate wrt time
GENERAL PLANE MOTION - RELATIVE ANALYSIS
Relative velocity equation .....
Relative accel. equation .........

INSTANTANEOUS CENTER
For 2-D analysis: .....................
64 31: MOMENTS OF INERTIA ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## 31: MOMENTS OF INERTIA

EQUATIONS OF MOTION
A rigid body may undergo both translation and rotation. A force equation is written to study
the translational effects and a moment equation for the rotational motion.

................................................................................................... (49a)
................................................................................................... (49b)

Notice that the acceleration is the acceleration of point (the mass center) there is no
exception to this. The moments and the mass moment of inertia are also about the
mass center this is always valid, but in the case of rotation about a fixed axis, the fixed point
may also be used.

MASS CENTER
Mass is a measure of resistance to acceleration. If the body has a constant mass density, the
center of mass is located at its centroid. For a composite body (one which is constructed of
several simple shapes), the mass center can be found by summing up the first mass moments
and dividing by the total mass :

................................................................................................... (50a)
................................................................................................... (50b)
................................................................................................... (50c)

## MASS MOMENT OF INERTIA

In statics, area moments of inertia were used, with dimensions of [Length]4 and units of
(inches4) or (meters4). In dynamics, mass moments of inertia are used, with dimensions of
[Mass][Length]2 and units of (slugin2) or (kgm2). The mass moment of inertia is a measure of
the resistance to angular acceleration.

..................................................................................................... (51)

## Or in integral form as:

65 31: MOMENTS OF INERTIA ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

Notes:
For a body of uniform density, the mass moment of inertia can be found from the area
moment of inertia by multiplying by: .
If the moment of inertia is known about the mass center , the moment of inertia
about any parallel axis can be found by using the parallel axis theorem:
......................................................................................... (52)
where is the perpendicular distance between the two parallel axes.
In some handbooks the radius of gyration is given and is used to calculate the
moment of inertia:
....................................................................................... (53)
For a composite body, the moment of inertia about any axis can be found by
algebraically adding the individual moments of inertia about the same axis. This
requires use of the parallel axis theorem:
66 31: MOMENTS OF INERTIA ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

Values of mass moments of inertia about the mass center for common geometries are given in
the following table:

Name Figure

y
a
Rectangular
Parallelepiped b z x
c

y
L
Slender Rod ---
z x

y
Right Circular L
Cylinder z x

y
R
Thin Circular
Disk x
z

y
R
Sphere
x
z
67 32: TRANSLATIONAL MOTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## 32: TRANSLATIONAL MOTION

TRANSLATIONAL MOTION (RECTILINEAR AND CURVILINEAR)
For a rigid body in translation, all points have the same acceleration, so actually the
acceleration of any point could be used. However, since there is no rotation, and .
This simplifies the rotational equation, but the moments must still be taken about the mass
center no other point is valid.

................................................................................................... (54a)
................................................................................................... (54b)

If possible, path coordinates are generally used as they are the most convenient.

A common application of these equations concerns the impending tipping problem. When it
is not known whether an object is tipping or not, assume no tipping and check for the location
of the normal force.
68 33: FIXED AXIS ROTATION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## 33: FIXED AXIS ROTATION

If a rigid body is pinned at point O and point O in not moving, either the mass center or the
fixed point can be used in the rotational equation of motion. Normally, using the fixed point is
the most convenient, since the unknown pin forces go through this point. Only if the mass
center is the fixed point, will the accelerations in the equations of motion be zero.

In summary, the equations of motion for a rigid body rotating about a fixed axis are:

................................................................................................... (55a)
................................................................................................... (55b)

For the translational equations, path coordinates are used to find the acceleration of the mass
center.
69 34: GENERAL PLANE MOTION ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## 34: GENERAL PLANE MOTION

GENERAL PLANE MOTION
For rigid bodies in general plane motion, the mass center must be used in both the rotational
and translational equations of motion. In summary, the equations of motion for a rigid body in
general plane motion are:

................................................................................................... (56a)
................................................................................................... (56b)

Normally it is most convenient to use rectangular coordinates for the force equations.

## APPLICATION: ROLLING CYLINDER ON A LEVEL SURFACE

A common application of general plane motion is rolling of a disk or cylinder on a rough surface.
There are several different situations which may occur.

If NO SLIP occurs:
The direction of the friction force may be assumed in either direction. The magnitude of
the friction is solved from the EOM. Make sure that the positive directions of the
translational and angular accelerations correspond.

If SLIP occurs:
The direction of the friction force must oppose relative motion. The translational and
angular accelerations are unrelated.

## If SKIP CONDITION UNKNOWN:

Assume NO SLIP and solve for the friction force.
If : Assumption correct No slip
If : Assumption incorrect Slipping
70 35: RIGID BODY WORK-ENERGY ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## 35: RIGID BODY WORK-ENERGY

PRINCIPLE OF WORK AND ENERGY
The principle of work and energy was developed for particles as:

....................................................................................... (30a)

The same equation is also valid for rigid bodies as long as certain additions are made. This
principle involves force, velocity, and displacement and may be applied to the entire system or
to individual members.

KINETIC ENERGY ( ):
Kinetic energy is a scalar quantity, always positive. The total kinetic energy for a rigid body
consists of the sum of the bodys translational and rotational kinetic energies. For a system
of connected rigid bodies, the total kinetic energy is found by adding the of all moving
parts. The for each type of motion can be expressed as follows:

## General Plane Motion:

....................................................................................... (57a)

Translational Motion:

Since
....................................................................................... (57b)

## Rotation about a Fixed Axis:

....................................................................................... (57c)

WORK ( ):
The work due to force has already been covered during the treatment of particle kinetics. The
same expression holds for rigid bodies. In addition, there may now be work due to a couple.
Again, work is a scalar quantity with its sign depending on whether the force or couple is in the
same direction as the displacement or rotation. The work expressions are summarized below:
71 35: RIGID BODY WORK-ENERGY ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## Work due to a Force:

................................................................................................... (58a)

If force is a constant:

## Forces which do no work:

Reactions at fixed supports ( )
Forces perpendicular to s ( )
Friction during rolling with no slip ( )

## Work due to a Couple:

................................................................................................... (58b)

## If the moment is a constant:

POTENTIAL ENERGY ( ):
Only conservative forces have potential energy. This includes the weight and spring forces.
Both of these have already been discussed and are the same as before, with the exception that
the height must be measured vertically from the datum to the mass center.

PE due to a Weight:

................................................................................................... (59a)

PE due to a Spring:

................................................................................................... (59b)

## PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS

Use the same procedure for analysis that was presented for work-energy for particles.
72 36: RIGID BODY IMPULSE-MOMENTUM ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## 36: RIGID BODY IMPULSE-MOMENTUM

PRINCIPLE OF IMPLUSE AND MOMENTUM
The principle of linear impulse and momentum was used for particles in the form of:

................................................................................................... (60a)

This equation is also valid for rigid bodies, and as before, should be broken down into X and Y
components. For rigid bodies, the principle of angular impulse and momentum is also used:

................................................................................................... (60b)

If there is rotation about a fixed axis (through point 0), then the above equation can be
replaced by:

................................................................................................... (60c)

The angular momentum and impulse (like the linear momentum and impulse) are vectors.
However, for plane motion, only their z-components are of interest.

LINEAR MOMENTUM ( ):
For rigid bodies, the velocity of the mass center must be used:

................................................................................................... (61a)

ANGULAR MOMENTUM ( ):
The angular momentum is also known as the moment of momentum as it is defined as:

................................................................................................... (61b)

## which, for the different types of motion, reduces to:

General plane motion ........................
Translation .........................................

LINEAR IMPULSE ( ):
The linear impulse is defined as before:

..................................................................................................... (62)
73 36: RIGID BODY IMPULSE-MOMENTUM ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

ANGULAR IMPULSE ( )
The angular impulse is defined similarly:

................................................................................................... (63a)

## or, if the point is fixed:

................................................................................................... (63b)

## PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS

Use the same procedure for analysis that was presented for impulse-momentum for particles.
74 37: RIGID BODY KINETICS REVIEW ME 206: Dynamics, Fall 2009 (Day)

## 37: RIGID BODY KINETICS REVIEW

MOMENTS OF INERTIA
Mass .......................................
Mass Center ...........................
Mass Moment of Inertia ........
Parallel Axis Theorem ............
TRANSLATIONAL MOTION
Translation .............................
No rotation .............................
Translation .............................
Rotation..................................
GENERAL PLANE MOTION
Translation .............................
Rotation..................................
RIGID BODY WORK-ENERGY
Work-Energy Principle ...........
General Plane Motion ............
Translational Motion..............
Work due to a Force ..............
Work due to a Couple ............
PE due to a Weight.................
PE due to a Spring ..................
RIGID BODY IMPULSE-MOMENTUM
Linear Impulse-Momentum ...
Angular Impulse-Momentum or if rotation about fixed point
Linear Momentum .................
Angular Momentum...............
(for general plane motion)
(for translation)