Anda di halaman 1dari 30

The art and science of determining

angular and linear measurements to


establish the form, extent, and relative
position of points, lines, and areas on or
near the surface of the earth or on other
extraterrestrial bodies through applied
mathematics and the use of specialized
equipment and techniques.
Surveys are divided into two general
classifications:

PLANE SURVEYING- is that type of


surveying in which the earth is considered
to be a flat surface, and where distances and
areas involved are of limited extent that the
exact shape of the earth is disregarded.

GEODETIC SURVEYING- are surveys of


wide extent which take into account the
spheroidal shape of the earth.
TYPE OF SURVEYS
CADASTRAL SURVEYS- are usually closed
surveys which are undertaken in urban and
rural locations for the purpose of
determining and defining property lines
and boundaries, corners, and areas.
TYPE OF SURVEYS
CITY SURVEYS- are surveys of the areas in
and near a city for the purpose of planning
expansions or improvements, locating
property lines, fixing reference monuments,
determining the physical features and
configuration of the land, and preparing
maps.
TYPE OF SURVEYS
CONSTRUCTION SURVEYS- these are
surveys which are undertaken at a
construction site to provide data regarding
grades, reference lines, dimensions, ground
configuration, and the location and elevation
of structures which are of concern to
engineers, architects, and builders.
TYPE OF SURVEYS

FORESTRY SURVEYS- a type of survey


executed in connection with forest
management and mensuration, and the
production and conservation of forest lands.
TYPE OF SURVEYS
HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYS- refer to
surveying streams, lakes, reservoirs,
harbours, oceans, and other bodies of water.
These surveys are made to map shore lines,
chart the shape of areas underlying water
surfaces, and measure the flow of streams.
TYPE OF SURVEYS
INDUSTRIAL SURVEYS- sometimes known
as optical tooling. It refers to the use of
surveying techniques in ship building,
construction and assembly of aircraft, layout
and installation of heavy and complex
machinery, and in other industries where
very accurate dimensional layouts are
required.
TYPE OF SURVEYS
MINE SURVEYS- are surveys which are
performed to determine the position of all
underground excavations and surface mine
structures, to fix surface boundaries of
mining claims, determine geological
formations, to calculate excavated volumes,
and establish lines and grades for other
related mining work.
TYPE OF SURVEYS

PHOTOGRAMMETRIC
SURVEYS- a type of
survey which makes use
of photographs taken
with specifically
designed cameras either
from airplanes or ground
stations. Measurements
are obtained from the
photographs which are
used in conjunction with
limited ground surveys.
TYPE OF SURVEYS
ROUTE SURVEYS- involves the
determination of alignment, grades,
earthwork quantities, location of natural and
artificial objects in connection with the
planning, design, and construction of
highways, railroads, pipelines, canals,
transmission lines, and other linear projects.
TYPE OF SURVEYS

TOPOGRAPHIC
SURVEYS- are those
surveys made for
determining the shape of
the ground, and the
location and elevation of
natural and artificial
features upon it.
TYPES OF NOTES
The following are the five common types of notes kept in
practice:
1. Sketches. Theyre drawn freehand and of liberal size.
2. Tabulations. A series of numerical values observed
in the field are best shown in a tabulated format.
3. Explanatory Notes. Explanatory notes provide a
written description of what has been done in the
field.
4. Computations. Calculations of one kind or another
form a large part of the work of surveying.
5. Combination of the Above. The practice used in most
extensive surveys is a combination of the above types
of notes.
INFORMATION FOUND IN FIELD NOTEBOOKS
1. TITLE OF THE FIELD WORK OR NAME OF
PROJECT. The official name of the project or title of
the field work should always be identified. The
location of the survey and preferably its nature or
purpose should always be stated.
2. TIME OF DAY AND DATE. These entries are
necessary to document the notes and furnish a
timetable, as well as to correlate different surveys.
3. WEATHER CONDITION. Temperature, wind velocity,
typhoons, storms and other weather conditions, such
as fog, sunshine, and rain have a decided effect upon
accuracy in surveying operations.
4. NAMES OF GROUP MEMBERS AND THEIR
DESIGNATIONS. The chief of party, instrumentman,
tapeman, and other members of the survey party
must be identified.
5. LIST OF EQUIPMENT. All survey equipment used
must be listed, including its make, brand, and serial
number.
THE FIELD SURVEY PARTY
1. CHIEF OF PARTY. The person who is responsible for
the overall direction, supervision, and operational
control of the survey party.
2. ASSISTANT CHIEF OF PARTY. The person whose duty
is to assist the chief of party in the accomplishment
of the task assigned to the survey party. He takes over
the duties of the chief of party during the absence of
the chief.
3. INSTRUMENTMAN. The person whose duty is to set
up, level, and operate surveying instruments such as
the transit, engineers level, theodolite, sextant,
plane table and alidade, and etc.
4. TECHNICIAN. The person who is responsible for use
and operation of all electronic instruments required
in a field work operation. It is his duty to see to it that
these equipments are functioning properly, are
regularly calibrated, and are in proper adjustment.
5. COMPUTER. The person whose duty is to perform all
computations of survey data and works out necessary
computational checks required in a field work
operation.
6. RECORDER. The person whose duty is to keep a
record of all sketches, drawings, measurements and
observations taken or needed for a field work operations.
7. HEAD TAPEMAN. The person responsible for the
accuracy and speed of all linear measurements with
tape.
8. REAR TAPEMAN. The person whose duty is to assist
the head tapeman during taping operations and in other
related work.
9. FLAGMAN. The person whose duty is to hold the
flagpole or range pole at selected points as directed by
the instrumentman
10. RODMAN. The person whose primary duty is to hold
the stadia and leveling rod when sights are to be taken
on it.
11. PACER. The person whose duty is to check all linear
measurements made by the tapeman.
12. AXEMAN/LINEMAN. The person whose duty is to
clear the line of sight of trees, brush, and other
obstructions in wooded country.
13. AIDMAN. The person whose duty is to render first aid
treatment to members of the survey party who are
involved in snake and insect bites, accidents, and other
cases involving their health, safety, and well being.
14. UTILITYMEN. The persons whose duties are to
render other forms of assistance needed by the survey
party or as directed by the chief of party.
ERRORS. An error is defined as the difference between
the true value and the measured value of the quantity.

MISTAKES. Mistakes are inaccurate in measurements


which occur because some aspect of a surveying
operation is performed by the surveyor with
carelessness, inattention, poor judgment, and improper
execution.
TYPE OF ERRORS

SYSTEMATIC ERRORS- This type of error


is one which will always have the same sign
and magnitude as long as field conditions
remain constant and unchanged.

ACCIDENTAL ERRORS- These errors are


purely accidental in character.
SOURCES OF ERRORS

INSTRUMENTAL ERRORS- These errors


are due to imperfections in the instruments
used, either from faults in their construction
or from improper adjustments between the
different parts prior to their use.

NATURAL ERRORS- These errors are


caused by variations in the phenomena of
nature such as changes in magnetic
declination, temperature, humidity, wind,
refraction, gravity, and curvature of the
earth.
SOURCES OF ERRORS

PERSONAL ERRORS- These errors arise


principally from limitations of the senses of
sight, touch and hearing of the human
observer which are likely to be erroneous
or inaccurate.
ACCURACY. Indicates how close a given measurement
is to the absolute or true value of the quantity measured.

PRECISION. Refers to the degree of refinement and


consistency with which any physical measurement is
made. It is portrayed by the closeness to one another of a
set of repeated measurements of a quantity.