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Neil MacCormick Judging Ronald Dworkin

William Fitzgerald Roman defeat in victory


James Fergusson Novelists as bibliophiles
Martin Butler A Christmas masque revealed
DECEMBER 7 2007 No 5462 www.the-tls.co.uk THE TIMES LITERARY SUPPLEMENT UK 2.70 USA $5.75

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LAW 3

Mr Justice
Ronald Dworkin' s troubled search for respectful politics, a moral law
and the fundamentals of democracy
he Holb erg Priz e is the recentl y N EIL MA CCORMICK ble, account of the prin cipl es that anim ate the and the principle of respon sibil ity says that

T established Nob el-t ype prize for the


Hum aniti es. Thi s ye ar's winner is
Ronald Dworkin. Hi s rem arkable
contribution s to the philosoph y of law and
mo ral and political phil osoph y mak e him a
SCOtl Her shovitz , editor

E XPLO R[ N G L A W 'S E M P I RE
The juri sprud ence of Ronald Dworkin
texts and that no w bear upon current deci sion
making. It is not so much the basic principles
that evol ve, but the judge' s or jurist ' s under-
standing of them . With that evolution com e
new precedent s, new pre-interpretive materi-
each person has the respon sibility for realiz-
ing that value in her or hi s own life .
From thi s conc epti on of dignity Dworkin
then develop s a doctrine of human right s, and
of fund amental right s. Funda me ntal are the
worth y recipi ent. Th at opinion recei ves 336pp. Oxford University Press. 53 (U$99.95). als for carrying for ward the unfolding "chain- human right s that are ess ential to securing the
9780 19 927435 2 nov el" of the law.
weight y confirmation from two recent conditions of dignity. Th ese may be onl y
books by him - Is Demo cracy Possible Ronald D workin Any person ' s und er standin g, or even one' s imp erfectly captured in the very word s found
Here ? and Justice in Rob es - and two about best reason ed-through interpretation , of deep in Human Rights Covenants or Con ventions,
him - Exploring Law 's Emp ire, edited by I S D EMO CRA CY POSSIBL E H ERE ? con stituti onal principles is capable of bein g or even in con stituti onal bill s of right s. But
Scott Her sho vitz, and Ronald Dworkin, 177pp. Princeton University Press. 11.95 (US controversial. It doe s not foll ow that no the y underlie and ani mate the (perh aps
$ [9.95). fla wed) textual formulation s, clear of the
edited by Arthur Rip stein. Th e latt er two are interpret ation is bett er than any oth er. Th e
978069[ 126531
ex celle ntly edited and we ll-pres ented mission of lawyer s and theori sts of law is compromi ses that led to adoption of the texts
coll ections of pap ers by signific ant jurists J USTIC E I N ROBE S always to be seeking the best and mo st persua- in the form the y now take .
and philosoph ers discu ssin g and critiquing 300pp. Belknap Press. 2 2.95 (US $35). sive account of the matt ers at stake . To get a G iven that groundwork, Dworkin tak es up
vario us of Dworkin ' s theses. Th e Her sho vitz 978067402[679 feel of what thi s means for Dworkin, one can the qu estion of how we ought to cop e with ter-
book gives Dworkin the opportunity to do no bett er than to study his own argum ent s rori sm. Ca n it be legitimate to set aside the
Arthur Rip st ein , e d i t o r
respond to comments and criticism s. on currently fund ament al issues. norm al con stitutional right s to pri vacy and to
Som e peopl e take the view that law is a RO NALD DWORK[ N In Is Democracy Possible Here ?, he pro- freed om from arbitrary arre st and detention -
norm ati ve sys te m that regulates its own crea- 186pp . Cambridge University Press. Paperback, poses two principles that he think s nearl y all or from being tortured, in the case of sus-
tion , a "dynamic" syste m. Han s Kelsen , the [3 .99 (US $24.99). Am ericans would accept, howe ver different pected terrorists? Ca n we balance their right s
mo st prominent ad voc ate of that view, con- 978 052 1 664 127 their party alleg iance and ideological stance . aga inst the risk to oth er people' s right to life
tra sted law as a dyn amic syste m with mor al- Th e prin cipl es give cont ent to the idea of the itself, so as to ju stify some downgradin g of
ity, which he con sidered a "static" norm ati ve Out of these raw "pre-interpretive" eq ual dignit y and worth of eve ry human life. right s of terro rist suspects? With pain stakin g
syste m. For any great mora l prin cipl e, like materials, one mu st see k to construct the Th e principle of intrinsic value says that that clarity Dworkin shows ho w such a prep ared-
the commandment "Love Thy Ne ighbour As mo st satisfactory, the mo st attractive possi- eve ry human life has intrin sic potential valu e, ness se lectively to do wngrad e protection of
Th yself', we need not ask who mad e it or fundamental right s offends the deepest princi-
when - it has a tim eless qu alit y. When ever ple s of the US Con stitution, when in turn we
probl em s arise, we seek to deduce from the read these as concretizing more fund ament al
principle an answer to our new dilemm a. In principles of human dignity.
law, however, as situations and circum- The book ' s argum ent continues through
stances chan ge, legislatur es make new laws, issues of religion and dignity. It touches upon
jud ges issue new deci sion s, exe cutive agen- whether women have a right to abortion dur-
cies exercise regul ator y powers, and so on - ing the fir st trim ester of pregnancy, whether
all as ultimately authorized by the con stitu- th e c ons titutio n sho uld be read as requiring
tion of the country in que stion. permission for physician-a ssisted suicide ,
With any such legal-po siti vistic contrast of and what is the proper plac e for religion in a
law and morality, Ronald Dworkin is in deep state that accords everyone eq ual dignity and
disagreement. For him , a con stitution does not seeks to guarantee its inviol ability. Nex t up
stand apart from mor al principles. It is not are ta xation and libert y, and the que stion of
restricted solely to empowering legislature s, whether the form er necessaril y infringes the
judiciaries, exe cutive officers and agenci es. At latter. It does not , if some redi stribution of
least in the United States, the Constitution mark et-earned income and wealth is du e as a
taken togeth er with the "bill of right s" matter of ju stic e in favour of poorer, weaker,
ex presses a deeply mor al vision of the charac- or eve n simply unluckier citizens. Deplo yin g
ter of the polity who se con stitution it is. Th e his celebrated mod el of a hyp oth etic al insur-
empowering that the Con stitution effects is ance market, Dworkin see ks to establish what
empowe rme nt within a morall y defin ed fram e- people wo uld reas onably be prepared to pay
work; the dynamic con stitution lies within a in ord er to insure again st misfortunes arising
somew hat more static mor al order. otherw ise than from their own failures of
"Ded uction" is also, for Dworkin, the
wrong term to de scrihe deri vation of new 28.11.07 London EC4 respon sibility. On thi s foundati on , he per sua-
si vely mak es th e ca se for a conception of con-
guidance from long-held principl es in the con- stitutiona l libert y that includes rather than
text of new dil emmas or controversies. Wh at This is th e view of the trumpeters of St press and palace in th e intervening excludes rights to soc ial insurance aga inst
is at stake is a process he call s "interpreta- Bride's as the Queen and the Duke of years have not always been of the best. pov ert y and illness. That refut es the thesis
tion ". This is not simple deduction . The con- Edinburgh came to celebrate th e second But now these are mostly peaceful days that taxes unwarrantedly cut into libert y.
stitution, the law and the right s the y enshrine rededication of the journalists' church on that once troubled front. The brass Finall y, he takes up the issue of democracy
are all what Dworkin invites us to think of as in Fleet Street. Originally built by Sir players delivered a bold anthem, "Beauty itself, acknow ledg ing that majority decision-
"interpretive conc ept s". What they mean is Christopher Wren after th e Great Fire for Ashes", specially commissioned making on a uni ver sal and equ al franchi se is
onl y incompletely disclo sed in the raw text of of London, St Bride's had to be rebuilt from the Oxford composer, Bob indeed an esse ntial component of it. Yet mere
relevant document s, eve n when one adds to after German wartime firebombing, and Chilcott. The shades of Samuel Pepys, majoritariani sm is not the sa me thing as
them all the dyn amic change s wrou ght from had its first rededication, in the pres- baptized at the church, and Samuel democracy - the case put here is for "partner-
ge neration to ge neration by con stitutional ence of the young Queen Elizabeth and Richardson, who is buried in its grounds, ship democracy" in which every citiz en is col-
amendment s and by precedents of the her husband, in 1957. Relations between might have shared a gentle smile. laborati vely en gaged in the comm on project
Supreme Co urt and other like mat erial s. Continued on page 4

TLS D E C EM B E R 7 200 7
4

Continued f rom page 3


LAW 3 Neil MacCormick Scott Hershovitz, editor Exploring La w' s Empire of shared self-gove rnme nt on equ al term s
Ronald Dworkin Is Dem ocr acy Possibl e Here ? Justice in Robe s with all the others. The possibility of partn er-
Arthur Ripstein, editor Ronald Dworkin ship depend s on the pre senc e of institutions
oth er than majorit y-elect ed legislator s and
POE MS 5 Alan Brownjohn Precisely exe cutive officials, requiring in particular
27 Raymond Friel Early Morning on the Lake some kind of judicial agenc y to protect the
common requirem ent s of equal dignit y and to
LETT ERS TO TH E EDITOR 6 The Gre at Depression , Au strofascism, Ezra Pound, etc insul ate these from majorit arian invasion .
On the question of whether partn ership
AR CHITECT URE 7 Jonathan Bloom Oleg Grabar The Dom e of the Rock dem ocrac y is possibl e in the United States
tod ay, Dworkin has at least faint hop e. Pro-
IRISH HISTORY 8 Diarmaid Ferriter Paul Bew Ireland - The politic s of enmity 1789- 2006
vided people aband on mutual denunciation
R. F. Foster Luck and the Irish - A brief hi stor y of change 1970- 2000
and sound-bites and return to mutu all y
Marianne Elliott Guy Beiner Rem emb ering the Year of the French - Irish folk hi stor y
respectful debate that starts from fundam en-
and social memory
tal principles, dem ocr acy can be save d . Is
BIO GRAPHY 10 Martin Clark Alfonso Scirocco Ga riba ldi - Citize n of the world Democracy Possible Here ? is a strong open-
Lucy Riall Garib aldi - Inventi on of a hero ing stateme nt in this hop ed-for debate, from a
resolut ely liberal stance (see David Dyzen-
CLAS SICS 11 William Fitzgerald Mary Beard The Roman Triumph hau s' s paper "The Rule of Law as the Rul e of
Liberal Principle" in the Rip stein coll ection).
COMMEN TARY 13 Martin Butler To warm the cold night - Georg e Chapma n' s forgotten Christmas It remain s to be see n whether con servati ves
ma sque will join the debate in a like spirit.
Paul Trewhela Paint er and poet - A Lond on encounter in the aftermath of war Although deepl y engage d with issues of
Zinovy Zinik Freela nce democracy and con stitutional law, Dworkin
Then and Now TLS February 24, 1989 - Ro y Foster has other leg al strings to his bow. In Ju stice
in Robes, a recurring ex ample is that of Mr s
ARTS 17 Andrew Porter Benjamin Britten Th e Turn of the Screw (Coli seum ) Soren son, victim of an illn ess that was
Tohy Lichtig Punchdrunk Productions The Ma sque of the Red Death induc ed by propri etary dru gs that she had
(Ba ttersea Arts Centre) ear lier taken to help cure a different disea se.
Maria Margaronis Euripides Women of Tro y (Lyttelton Th eatre) If she cannot now identify which particular
Roz Kaveney The lJarj eelin g Limit ed (Various cinemas) drug manufacturer or manufacturer s pro-
duc ed the dru gs that cau sed her illness, can
FICTION 19 Patrick Denman Flanery Marlene van Niekerk The Way of the Wom en she instead sue all of them on the basis of
Katharine Hihbert Nadine Gordimer Beeth oven Wa s One Sixteenth Black and their market share and rec over damages pro-
Oth er Stori es porti onall y from each according to market
Tadzio Martin Koelb Stephen Henighan A Gr ave in the Air - Sto ries
share? As a matter of distributive ju stice and
risk- spreadin g betw een tho se who benefit
FICTION IN BRIEF 21 Roz Kaveney Patricia Cornwell The Book of the Dead
from the producti on and use of such dru gs,
T. O. Treadwell John Grisham Playin g For Pizza
and tho se who bear the burd en s of illness
Natasha Cooper C. J . Carver Gon e With out Trac e
caused by them , Dworkin supports the theor y
Tim Pashley Arturo Perez-Revertc Th e Paint er of Battles
of mark et- share liability.
Chris Moss Giancarlo de Cataldo, editor Crimini
For him , the arguments - first of coun sel,
BIBLIOGRAPH Y 22 James Campbell Neil Pearson Obelisk - A histor y of Jack Kahan e and the then of judges - in cases such as the 1980
Obeli sk Press Californian deci sion in Sindell v Abbott Lab s
J ames Fergusson Per sonal touch es - The catalogue of John Fo wles' s Library are paradigmatic exa mples of how to brin g a
Bill Bell Donald Jackson Kerr Ama ssin g Treasure s for All Tim es - Sir fresh turn to tort law. This is don e by expos-
George Grey , colonial bookman and collector ing the relevan ce to the current problem of
David Finkelstein Miles Ogborn Indian Ink - Script and print in the makin g of the principles of ju stice that are embodied in
English Ea st India Company ear lier law and now await the interpr et ation
that shows their bearing on the probl em in
RELI GIO N 25 Eric Southworth Miguel de Unamuno Treatise on Love of God hand . This is not moral argument in subs titu-
tion for legal argument. It is practical legal
SO CIAL ST UDI ES 26 John Tusa David Hendy Life on Air - A histor y of Radi o Four argum ent , and for Dworkin that mean s that it
intim ately interweaves legal mat eri als and
POETRY 27 Jane Yeh David Morley The Invisibl e Kings moral concerns in the proc ess of interpr etin g
Aingeal Clare Fiona Sampson Common Pra yer the prop er ground of tort liability in this situa-
tion . Such interw eaving of different strands
IN BRIEF 28 Thomas Clerc Paris, Mu see du XXl e Siecl e
of argument is charact eri stic of good lawyer s
Ross King Machi avelli
and good lawyerin g; it is not a matter of illicit
Richard Mabey The Frampto n Flora
lawm akin g by non-l egislators. It is omnipres-
Benjamin Stora Les Troi s Exils
ent in law , especi all y in the "hard cases" that
Shirley A. Wiegand and Wayne A. Wiegand Books on Trial
cr eate opportunities for creati ve reconsid er a-
Jeff Dolven Scenes of Instructi on - In Renai ssance rom ance
tion of the right interpr etation of law in one
Paul Freedman Food - A histor y of taste or oth er of its man y bran ch es.
Mark Kurlansky Non-Violenc e - The histor y of a dangerou s idea
Few phil osoph ers or lawyer s write with
This week' s contributors, Crossw ord so ea sy and engaging a literary sty le as
31
Dworkin, and the flow of his argument has
NB 32 J. C. Language difficulties, Rh ymin g Rimb aud , RLS on the phone, etc striking per su asiven ess, ev en if so me times at
the back of one' s mind pan gs of dissent strug-
gle to reach the surface. He ha s revoluti on-
Cover picture: Wrapp ers for Ceci l Barrs novel s Daff odil, Amour French / o r Lo ve, Lady, Take Heed!, and Bright Pink Youth, reproduced fro m Obelisk: A
ized the way man y people think about law
histor y of Jac k Kahane and the Obelisk Press by Neil Pearson , which is reviewed on page 22 courtesy of Ne il Pearson and Matt Pia; p3 Reuters; p7
Hanan Isachar/Corbi s; plO Bridgem an Art Library; p I3 Bridgem an Art Library; p IS Stephen Stuart-S mithlThe Time s; p17 Don ald Coo per/Photo-
and related subje cts. Let us consider some of
stage ; pi S Don ald Coope r/Photos tage ; pI 9 Johans Borm an Fine Art Ga llery; p24 National Portrait Ga llery the parti cular topi cs he has illuminated.
As is ob viou s, the nature of legal reasoning
The TLS (l SSN 03076 61 , USPS 021-626) is published wee kly and distribut ed in the USA by OCS America Inc, 49-27 3 1st Street , Lon g Island City, and the place of reason in adj udication are
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TLS D E C EMB E R 7 2 0 07
LAW 5

by Hersho witz and Dale Sm ith in Exploring ingredient s of a goo d life well led . In meta- leadin g into some practical answe r to a practi- tures and court s and similar institution s. This
Law 's Empire) is that of the "integrity" of a ethics we discuss whether such jud gem ent s ca l issue, whether by a lawyer in court or by a co ncept is of a kind he calls "cr iterial", on the
politi cal co mmunity or polit y. The ana logy ca n have any objecti ve basis, any grounding jud ge or by a professor or student in a law ground that there are ordinary language con-
with personal integrit y is delib erate. An indi- in realit y. In his latest writing, particul arly in school cla ssroom. ventions that set criteria for correctly using
vidual may over time exhibit steadiness in the ce ntrally important Chapter Six of Justice On that acco unt, Dworkin says we should the wor d "law" to refer to noticeable featur es
mora l j udge men t and in conduct, gradua lly in Robes, Dwor kin rec asts his objection to re-evaluate work like that achieve d by H. L. of some polit y or another. But the co nven-
developin g a more enriched or refin ed moral this in term s of its involving an "Archime- A. Hart , his pre decessor in Oxford as Pro fes - tion s are vag ue and the criteria impr ecise,
sensi bility ove r a lifetime. In parallel, so dean" approac h. For he sees it as see king to sor of Juri sprud ence. Dwor kin is not con- and it does not rea lly matter where you draw
might a country's citize ns hope fo r it to have step outside the moral world in order to see it vinced by Hart ' s claim to be giv ing a descrip- lines among the famil y of instituti onal activi-
developed a bod y of law that exhibits steadi- whole and to get leverage upon it. This, he tive account of the princip al featur es of what ties that get called " law" .
ness of prin ciple acknow ledg ing the equal says, is impossibl e, an illu sion. (Arthur we may regard as central instanc es oflaw and By contrast, there is a "doctrinal" concept of
dignity of all citize ns and framing statutes or Rip stein' s introdu ction to Ronald Dworkin, a legal sys tems. The positivists, he sugges ts, law. By this, Dworkin means exac tly that inter-
layin g down precede nts that give due expres- co llection of essays, cont ain s an illu min atin g are more interestin g if read as offerin g legal- pretive concept that he says we deploy in ask-
sion to the prop er regard for indi vidual s and discussion of the issue.) There is no "exter- ity as an alternative to "integrity" at the core ing what the law has to say about any urgent
that ca ll for a proper exe rcise of their ow n nal" point of view from which we ca n see and of practi cal reasonin g about law. If they question concerning somebody's rights. The
responsibilities throu gh the legal and eco - und erstand the character of legal or mora l rea- adhere resolut ely to their task of descripti on philosophy of law finds its proper business in
nom ic institut ion s of a free society. so ning and then adj udicate upon its objec tiv- they produc e rather vac uous work. What else work with the doctrinal concept, while the phi-
Integrity in this sense requir es coherence in ity or subjec tivity. The onl y way in which are they describin g? All this pro vokes a spir- losopher has little that is useful or interesting
legal reasonin g, coherence being a virtue of that argument can be made is from the inside. ited rejoi nder fro m John Gar dner - Dwor- to say about the sociological concept.
argum ents much discussed in recent years , Externa l sce pticism is vacuous and intern al kin ' s ow n successor in the Oxford Chair. The Here the gro und under the Dworkinian
notably for exa mple by Susan Hurley in her sce pticism is radica lly uncon vincing. vigorous exc hange of fusillades between theor y suddenly gets a bit boggy. "One word,
wise contribution to Exploring Law 's Empire. "What is the law?" is a question Dworkin these two in Exploring Law's Empire makes two concepts" is always a tricky claim. Law is
Of course , norm ative coherence is not enough consi ders to arise in any interestin g way only good readin g, thou gh Dworkin ' s intervention indeed an omniprese nt feature of hum an inter-
in itself, but even on its own it exp resses a con- within the arg umen tative practice. It is as is the more per suasive in this particul ar con- action, and there are many kinds of law
cern for ju stice as reasonable consistency in thou gh it always arises with a tacit suffix: text. Lately, he has taken to sugges ting that involved. One might explain this as "institu-
the like treatm ent of relevantly like cases. A " What is the law in Mr s Sorenso n's there is more than one concept of law. There tional norm ative order", following throu gh
good jud ge has also to take careful account of case?" "What is it in Hamd an v Rum sfeld is a "sociological" concept, which we might with elucidation of what norms are and how
the practic al implications, and in this sense the so far as it concerns detention without trial of use in picking out an interestin g fact about they ca n come to take the form of textually
consequences of whateve r disposition of an 'enemy co mbatants'?" A sentence comm enc- Latvia, the United Kingdom and Mexico - explicit rules or more general principles. Then
individual case she is invited to consider, and ing "The law is . .. " should always be read as they all have legal syste ms, all have legisla- one needs to reflect on institutions and institu-
that calls for application of appro riate legal tionalization, and on the kinds of relations or
values embedded in a legal tradition. There relational attributes ("rights", "duties", "per-
are significant lee-ways of interpretation in
such cases , but where the law is genuinely
Precisely sons", "property" , etc) that can be ascribed to
peopl e when their situation is considered as
underdeterminate it is very often the case that legally relevant. In the case of a constitutiona l
clearly greater practical reasonableness On "All Souls' Night" (we ll, Yea ts used the idea, state - we have many contemporary exa mples
attaches to one rather than another conclusion And I'll try it, athe istic though I am) , - how does the law come to be distributed into
that could be said to be legally open. In my I sit and slurp the best blended I can find packages like public law, criminal law and pri-
view, there is more to be said and there is For 9.99 (" Produce of Scotland", "Selected vate law; how do these connect to concepts
much to be said at a significantly finer- For the Co -ope rative Gro up"), having pull ed the curt ain s like the state, civil society and the economy?
grained level of detail about legal reasonin g And turned out the lamp s all ove r NW3. And what part does ju stice, or a serious aspira-
than Dworkin has eve r said. He is an impress- Its about fou r hour s since the laser preci sion tion to ju stice, play in any serious attempt to
ionist, a painter with the broad brush. But the Of Mr Staghur st-J ones (his rea l name? - no) understand these domains?
big ideas he deplo ys have great value for Was applied to the retina of my ailing eye , These are serious question s, and they are
those working closer to gro und level. Which had constantly preferred to deli ver me, not necess arily questions of sociology. Insti-
There used to be man y who considered law For about six month s, any horizontal line tutional theor y of law purs ued within legal
to be far less determ inate than it now see ms With blur s and undulations; a maliciou s trick studies as a part of the philo sophi cal self-ob-
reason able to co nce ive it as bein g . Trium- To play on one addi cted to what the wor ld describ es se rvatio n of the law c o nnec ts in fascin ating
pha ntly, Dworkin has scouted legal and As a "recreation" to rank with "hill-walking" ways with Niklas Luhm ann' s "system
mora l sce ptic ism in respect of adj udica tion Or "angling" - i.e. "reading" . theory" in soc iology, but neith er coll apses
and judicial argume ntation. Nobody engage d Now it' s five-forty, into the other. Legal sys tems are distinct
in the actua l practic e of arg uing a point is dis- And with a thudd ing head ache, the natural from , but interacti ve with, politi cal and eco-
posed to say that it doesn't really matter one Afterm ath of the expertise I was afford ed nomi c syste ms in the grea ter theatre of state
way or the other, or that the other fello w' s By Mr Staghurs t-Jo nes, with low murmur s and civil society.
case is as good as one's ow n, or that there is To his team (too low for my muffl ed ea rs), A well-rounded account of law in this insti-
just not enough of a legal basis to get any With the headach e stopped, by aspirin s and Arde n Hou se, tutional conception of it facil itates a genuine ly
argu ment go ing at all. Sceptici sm about the This solid eye -patch repl aces it as my fear: pluralistic and compara tive view of different
value of one 's ow n case within a prac tical It' s been put on to protect me, but wea ring it systems and different approaches. By con-
argument carried o n in all seriousness is I can' t tell if Mr Staghur st-Jones succeeded, trast, Dworkin , despite frequent valiant efforts
impo ssibl e to sustain. It' s ju st a way of losing Or failed , as the case may be . . . to the contrary, often seems to be extrapolat-
the argument. There perhaps rem ain prop o- In his preambl e, ing a fascinatin g view of one country 's legal
nent s of "Critical Legal Studies" who stren u- In the low-key high-tech con sultin g roo m, he had and constitutional order on to other countries
ously purs ue this kind of "internal sce pti- By law to tell me whateve r might acc rue with different historical develop ment and dis-
cism", but as Jerem y Waldron argues in his Or ju st foll ow from thi s procedur e: There might be tinct constitutional orders and legal traditions.
contrihution to Exp lo ring La w 's Empire, th e " Improvement, no altera tion, haemorrhage, Moreover, if l aw does have an in stituti onal
case grows thinn er and thinn er. For mer scep - Detach ment, or loss of vision. Onl y one or two per cen t charac ter in the sense intended , then it doe s
tics of mild er hue, like myself , have come Lose the sight of the eye" . I signed and thank ed him always implicate respect for certain values,
round to accepting that there norm ally is a In anticipation - "Always encourage !" chiefly ju stice in one or other of its intercon-
genuine right and wrong, not j ust an on-bal- Was also used by Yeats. nected senses. That in turn shows why what
ance individu al preferenc e, even in the most Aga inst the dark Dworkin calls the "doctrinal" application of
closely co ntested of cases . I raise another slurp: "To state-of-the -art the concept in individual cases or in legis-
"External scepticism " is another matter. Ophthalmi c surge ry - and Mr Staghurst-Jones!" lative formul ations does indeed make acce pt-
Thi s is the term Dwor kin uses to characteri ze Do I thin k I can hear the pushing back of cha irs able or even mandatory the kind of appeal to
those who, from outside a give n practice, As they all stand to lift their glasses , those long tables integrity that he has so eloquently champi-
see k to establish whether or not there are Of eye less skeletons smiling me luck oned. The power of his juri sprud ence is enor-
valid grounds for objec tive jud gement s appli- When the patch comes off at precisely ten tomorrow? mous; but its extent is ove rstated. There is a
cable to practices of that kind, concluding larger whole of which it is a distingui shed -
that there are none. In ethics, we discuss the A LA N BROW NJOH N and Holberg-worthy - part.

TLS D EC EMB ER 7 2007


6
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR

Austrofascism The Great Depression non-miltary mental hospital, St


Elizabeths Hospital in Washington,
Sir, - I was appa lled to see Ritchie DC, for twelve yea rs (1946--58) .
Robertso n, in his otherw ise balanced Details of his incarceration can be
and care ful article (Commentary, Sir, - Ne ither the header nor yo ur of tim es - after initi al app lause, he found in The Roots of Treason:
Nove mber 23), labellin g the Aus- reviewer A. J. Sherma n (November called Roosevelt' s mo netary poli cy Ezra Pound and the secret of St.
trian Co rpora te State of 1934-8 as 9) co nve ys the central message of "gold standa rd on the booze" . Th e Elizabeths, by E. Fuller Torrey.
"anti-fascist" , with the beni gn ep i- Ami ty Shlaes 's The Forgotten costs of the New Dealers' prosecuto-
thets "conservative, autho ritarian" Man . The book is a docum ent ed rial zea l, a major focu s of my book , L. G. WA LKE R JR
thrown in for good measu re. By this description of the co nfus ion amo ng also preoccupied Keyn es, who 1053 Boiling Road, Charlotte,
mistake, Pro fess or Rob ert son perpet- po liticians, eco no mists and the wro te that Roosevelt might we ll North Caro lina 282 07.
uates the found ation myth of post- pub lic during the Great Depr ession , nati on aliz e utiliti es or leave them
----~.---
Seco nd World War Austria, that when co nfro nted with phenom ena alon e. But the eco nomist saw no
both Christian Dem ocrats and Social-
ists (and by extension all Austrians,
of which they co uld sca rce ly co n-
cei ve mu ch less co ntrol. Some heed
po int "in ch asing utiliti es aro und
the lot every oth er week".
Young Sarkozy
including those who had succ umbed paid to the medi cal admo nitio n "do Mr Sherma n's view is that The Sir, - In a review of Nicolas
to the siren songs of Naz ism) no har m" wo uld have helped but letters @the-tls.co.uk Forgotten Man is wro ng to inclu de Sar kozy's biograph y of Georges
were Naz i victims . While it is still wo uld hard ly have been cura tive . various figures from the period - Mandel (The n and Now, Nove mber
somew hat de batable whether the Th e shoc k of the Seco nd Wor ld FDR spo ke in a 1932 co mmence - Mellon , Father Divine who 30), Sarkozy was describ ed, back
"Standes taat", with its heady mix of War was required to restore the ment add ress at Og lethorpe Univer - believed that Hoover ' s and Roo - in 1996, as "deputy mayor of
reactionary Ca tho licism and large once-shattered "animal spirits" . sity of "bold, persistent experimenta- seve lt's fiscal interventionism was Neuilly" . An unlik ely position for
borrowings from Ita lian fascist Keyn es was not ce ntrally tion". The phrase bec ame famou s cou nterproductive. This seem s such an ambitious perso n, and the
ideology, sho uld be ca lled "Austro- invol ved in the arg umen ts between instantl y, with the New York Times strange, especially give n such result of an erroneo us translation
fasc ism" (mos t historians do so call the New Dealers and their opp o- writing of ''' the bold persistent figures' pro minence. Sherrnan may of depu te maire. At that time, M
it), a quick search on the Web shows nent s. In an ex tended per specti ve, experimentation' speec h" . Beside not have heard of Father Divine, for Sar kozy was holdin g two offices, a
close para llels in ideology and orga n- however , his attac k on orthodox "fear itself', "bold per sistent ex peri- exa mple, but the New York Times of local one as mayor (maire) of the
ization with Franco 's Spain and eco nomists for their neglect of "o ut- mentation" is the phrase most Amer- the 1930s carried some 350 stories city, said to be the richest in France,
Mu ssolini ' s Italy, and indee d Hit- put as a who le" bec ame the source icans associ ate with FDR . about the cult leader. What Sherman and a national one as MP (depute)
ler ' s Germa ny. The fact that the of macro econ omi cs, which, after Sher man writes that " Keynes both is rea lly sayi ng is that Father Divine for the constituency. A co mmon
Stand estaat opposed the annexa tion several false starts, fin ally brou ght inspired and guided the New Deal". did not happen to be in the histories practice in France, where this
policy of Naz i Germany certainly atten tio n to inst itution s, whic h, ifThis is not accurate. The genera l con- he has read. Here it is Sher man who much-d ebated cumul des mandats
does not qu alif y it as "anti-fascist" , used prop erl y, ca n posit ively influ- cept that gove rnmen t spen ding co uld is revising rea lity, and not 1. {"accumulation of mandates") is
and is an insult to all tho se who ence relevant agg rega te varia bles . generate grow th came to FDR, who Sherrnans defau lt pro- go vern- favoured by politicians as a way to
active ly opposed Fascism in Europe led the New Deal, not via Keynes ment stances , his assumptions that streng then their electora l position .
in this period . JAMES M . BUCH ANAN but rather fro m hom egrown theori sts official inter venti on s are benign and
PO Box G, Black sburg , such as Waddill Ca tchings and Wil- tax cuts outrageou s, seem moreover LOUIS LECOMT E
HE tN RtC H PO LL Virginia 2406 3. liam Trufant Foster, and Roosevelt' s curious ly da ted. In the 1930s, 50 rue Lhom ond, 75005 Paris.
Kro ttendorferstra sse 32, favourite, George Warren of Corne ll A ndrew Mellon characterized the
Sir, - A. J. Sherman's facts and University. trving Fisher of Yale ----~,---
A-8052 Graz . Great Depr ession as a mere "bad

----~----
ass ump tions are qu estion able (in likewise mattered more.
his review of my book The Ro osevelt was elec ted in 1932.
qu arter hour " in the history of pri-
vate-sec tor grow th. At the tim e, that
Gypsy names
Forgotten Man: A new his tory of Keynes did not eve n publish the descripti on see med bold . But we
Perplexed soldiers the Grea t Dep ression ). Gen era l Theory until 1936. Frances now know that Me llon was right.
Sir, - Co mme nting on David
Morley 's The Invisible Kings
Sir, - Referr ing to NB (November M r Sherm an writes of "the insou- Perkins, Roosevelt's Labor Sec re- (Bo oks of the Year, Nove mber 30),
9) , it is right to draw attentio n to ciant notion of ' perpetual experi men - tary, wro te, for exa mp le, in her AM ITY SHLAES Les Murray says that the Gyp sy
W. W. Gibson 's significa nce as an tation' , which Shlaes insists char ac- memoir that "Roosevelt himse lf Co unci l on Fore ign Relations, Harold names of English cities and town s
ea rly and di stin cti ve voice a mo ng teri zed th e R oosevelt years" . It is wa s unfamiliar wi th Keyn e s". Prntt Hou se, 58 East 68th Stree t, have been "hitherto kept stum m
the poe ts of the Gre at War. It should not I, but Roosevelt , who insisted . Keynes berated Roosevelt a numb er New Yor k 10065. and not tran slated for outsiders" . It
be noticed that eve n before the look s as if he has not come across
-------------~-------------- George Borrow' s Romano Lavo-
volume Battle came out in 1915,
Lil (1874), which gives the Rom-
Gibso n's much-anthologized "Break-
fast" was pri nted in The Natio n as
Ezra Pound the life, libert y and happin ess
of his world - and that he care d
consciou sly and deliberately address -
ing in his poems; he eve n sets aside any names, and their tran slati on s,
early as Oct ober 17, 1914. Sir, - In his ex tens ive review of so much abo ut poe try preci sely my dealings with the poems them- of thirt y-eight Briti sh towns,
Few , other than Dominic Hibb erd Vo lume On e of my Ezra Pound: because he believed it could change selves, parenthetically menti onin g counties and count ries (and one
and Joh n Oni ons in Poetry of the Poe t - A portrait of the man and thin gs for the better. Collini men- them as "lengthy interlud es" which we ll-know n Australian location ).
Grea t Wa r (1986), have given du e his work (November 23), Stefa n tion s Pound ' s project of civili zing he find s "hard going" - too hard,
recog nition to Gi bson 's penny- plain Co llini raised the very pertin ent Eng land only to say that he gave it apparentl y, for him to take on board. AD RtA N ROOM
sympathies for the suffering ques tion, can biograph y do ju stic e up - he gives no idea of what was (The rev iewe r in The Econom ist, of 12 High Street, St Martin' s, Stamford.
ranks , in verse without sentime nt or to "the 'astonishing dram a' of involved in his strivi ng (in Or ages all unliterary places, also found them
----~,---
patri oti sm . By 1916, Battle was in Pound' s poetic developm ent " ? He words) "for the adv ance men t of "hard work but . .. hard wor k that
its third thou sand , was read by sugges ted that it could not , that "a intelli gence and cu lture in Eng land".
Mor e cruc ially, Collini suppresses
offers huge rewards" .) The dram a of
Pou nd' s developm ent as a poet that
The bastards
Rose nberg at the Fro nt, by Owe n biograph y is, if not exa ctly irrele-
and by Sassoon, who said of Gib- vant, at least maladapted" , because pretty well all the evidence that might Co llini wants to see is in fact all there Sir, - In the mem orable stage
so n : " He ex po unde d w ha t to me at wha t j ustifies o ur attending to him offe r a more inter estin g answer to his in the hook , and the wonde r is that adap tatio n of War an d Peace dur-
that time was a kind of new gospel: "is reall y go ing on elsew here, all leading question. In his account of he can't see it whe re it is actually ing the last war, Kutuzov - played
poetr y must grow o ut of the human but inaudibly to ma ny of us" . He Pound ' s life (all the details of which happenin g - everywhere in Pound ' s by Frederick Valk - forbad e any
con dition. Plain dir ect language means, ev ide ntly, that it is go ing on are drawn from the book under living, thinkin g and creating. pity for the plight of the invaders.
mu st be used and all inversion s and on ly in the poetry, and he states that review), he has stripped away at "Who asked them to co me here! It
arc haisms mu st be avoi ded" . Pound "did not , at least in the every point the intimate connection s A. DAVID MOO DY serves them right ", he thund ered,
As the ano ny mous TLS reviewer period cove red in thi s vo lume, give between the life and the work. He Churc h Gree n House, Old Churc h "the blood y bastards!" Given
of Octob er 14, 191 5, sa id, Gibso n a damn about anything else". nowhere engages with the full and Lane, Pateley Bridge , Harrogate. the change of climate since then,
"spoke fo r the perpl exed soldier That stateme nt igno res the very detailed acco unt of Pound ' s think ing "the tu ckin g bastards" (see To ny
under order s". con siderab le weight of ev ide nce to about his poetry; he nowhere engages Sir, - Co ntrary to the stateme nt by Briggs' s letter, Nove mber 16)
the co ntrary in my portrait of Pound , with the again full and detailed Stefan Collini that Pound spe nt seems j ust right.
ROGER HOGG evi dence that he cared about the acco unt of Pound' s social and cul- twelve years in an Amer ican military
12 Bra intree Gardens, state of America, about the state of tural criticis m, and of the society mental hospital, he actually was a S. S. PRAWER
Newcastle upon Tyne. society in England, about adva ncing and culture whic h he was very patient at a civilian, federally fund ed, Th e Q ueen ' s Co llege , Oxford.

TLS D E C E M B E R 7 2007
ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY 7

Islam
onthe
temple
JONATHAN BLOOM

Ole g Gr ab a r
T HE DOME OF T H E RO C K
222pp. Bclkn ap Press. 14.95 (US $22.95).
9780 67402313 0

early a half century ago, in 1959, a

N precociou s young professor at the


University of Michi gan publi shed
a long and scholarly article , "The
Umayyad Dome of the Rock in Jeru salem " in
Ars Orientali s, a relati vel y ob scure aca demic
old master has return ed once aga in to his first
love, tryin g to distil a centu ry or more of
The interior of the Dome of the Rock

and ea rly Byzantin e architecture in the


region , and as the population of Jeru salem
entire ex terior, whose mosaics we re replaced
by tiles in the sixtee nth centur y and again in
journ al. In it he demon strated that the beauti- scho larship into an entertaining and readable, after the Mu slim conqu est remained largely the twenti eth). He carefull y explores what
ful if enigmatic building dominating the if occasion all y infuri atin g, book. It is aimed Christian and Jewish, with Mu slim s at the top the buildin g tells us by its shape and
Jeru salem skyline, which had been built at not at his usual scholarly audi enc e, but at the ofthe social hierarch y, it see ms likely that the decor ation , and tries to tease out its original
the end of the seve nth century AD on the site few hardy - and all armch air - tra vellers to work of buildin g and decoration mu st have meanings, propo sing that the buildin g was
of the long-d estro yed Jewish Templ e, was Jeru salem who wish to learn more about its fallen to local craft smen of whateve r faith. In originally erected to remember the templ e and
erected to adve rtise that the new religion of mo st promin ent building, still commonly but this way , the Dom e of the Rock trul y repre- Palace of Solo mon on the site, to celebrate the
Islam had superseded God's previous revela- quit e erroneously known in guidebooks as sents a work of what we understand toda y as Mu slim victory over the Christian wor ld, and
tions to Jews and to Christians and was a "The Mo sque of Om ar". (It isn 't a mosque Islamic art, that is, art not necessaril y made to commemorate the place where God would
forc e to reckon with for eve r. He convinc- and has nothin g to do with the second ca liph, by Mu slim s or for Mu slim practic e, but rather return to Earth on the Day of Judg ement. The
ingly dismi ssed earlier and more com mon Omar. ) Unlike Grabar' s earli er article and art made in societies where most peopl e - or original purpo ses of the buildin g seem to have
views that the building was con structed to two recent book s on the subje ct (The Shape the most important peopl e - we re Mu slim s. been lost, as early Islamic societies never
commemorate the site of the Proph et Muham- of the Holy and The Dome of the Rock, The Dom e of the Rock stands atop a large developed institution s like a clergy that could
mad's mystical ascen sion to heaven men- the latter primarily a showcase for Said natural outcrop of bedrock in the middl e of maintain such meanings over time. Grabar' s
tioned in the first verse of Chapter Sevent een Nuseibeh 's glorious photo graph s, so me of a vas t es planade that roughl y corr espond s third chapter explores how, in the four centu-
in the Koran , or to repl ace the Kaab a itself as which are rep roduc ed here in very sma ll to the site of the monum ent al encl osure ries after it was erected, people began giving
a focu s of pilgrimage whe n Mecc a was sca le), Grabar attempts to encapsulate the surrounding the ancient Jewish Te mple. the buildin g an entirely new range of mean-
briefl y held by a counter-caliph, and sug- histor y of this intriguin g structure and show Thi s compl ex had been built in the first ings and associations, quite different from
ges ted that the site was com monly identifi ed ho w its meanin g s change d dramaticall y over century BC by Herod the Great, presum ably those intended by the original patron. They
as the buri al place of Ad am , and the place thirteen centuries ev en as its essenti al forms on the site of the earlier templ e of Sol omon, tran sform ed the Dome of the Rock into a
whe re Abr aham had attem pted to sac rifice and decoratio n (at least on the interior) itself levelled by the Persian s in the sixth Mu slim holy place within a vast sacred space,
his own son. In the following dec ades the rem ained remarkabl y con stant. century B C. The Rom an Empero r Titu s the Haram al-Sharif or Noble Sanctuary.
author of that article (son of the eminent Byz- The Dome of the Rock (Qubbat al-Sakhra destro yed Herod ' s templ e in 70 AD, carting Although they continu ed to associate the site
antini st Andre Grabar) went on to for ge his in Arabic ) is generally conc eded to be the off its treasures to Rome , and rebuilt it as a with the end of time, by the eleventh centur y
ow n distinguished car eer, eve ntua lly becom- first work of Islamic architecture or art - pagan struc ture. With the offici al promulga- Mu slim writers and travellers record that the
ing the fir st Aga Khan Professor of Islamic and what an initial effort it was ! Although tion of Christianity in the fourth century, Dome of the Rock had become the centrepiece
Art and Architecture at Harvard University, Mu slim s had undoubtedly erected utilit arian the old site of the Jewish templ e, from which of a compl ex of buildin gs comm emor ating the
and then Professor of Islamic Art and Archi- buildings and mad e useful item s of cloth , Jesus had expelled the mone y changers, was Proph et Muh amm ad ' s mystical journey from
tecture at the Institut e for Ad vanced Study at pottery and metal ware in the decad es since abando ned in favour of new sites and struc- Mecca to Jerusalem, and then heaven.
Princ eton, fro m which post he has recentl y 622, when Muh amm ad had emigrated with tures elsew here in the city that com memo- Grabars fourth chapter continues to trace
retir ed . his follo wers from Mecc a to Medin a and rated major events in his life, parti cul arly the building' s histor y from the twelfth
The recipi ent of innum erable intern ation al Mu slim s began reck onin g their calendar, his death. For the early Christians, the temple century to the twent y-fir st. In Jul y 1099, a
awar ds and hon our s, Oleg Grabar was respon- there is no evidence to sugges t that any of this ruin s rem ained eloquent testimon y to how Crusa der arm y stormed Jeru salem and took
sible - along with colleag ue, co-author and output was conc eived as art, form , or struc- the new di spen sation had succee ded the old. the city, massacrin g the Mu slim and Jewish
sometimes rival, Professor Richard Etting- ture imbu ed with a range and depth of sym- When Mu slim s arrived in Jeru salem , in the popul ation and tran sforming the Dome of
hausen of New York University's Institute of holic asso ciations that g o heyond pure utilit ar- middl e of the seventh ce ntury, they took the Rock into the Te mple of the I .ord . (So me-
Fine Arts and the Metropolitan Mu seum of iani sm. The Dome of the Rock changed all adva ntage of the vaca nt real estate and built what inconsistentl y, they also transform ed
Art - for introducing several generations of this. It was built in 692 on the order of the their first mosque - or communal plac e of the nearb y Aq sa Mo sque into the Temple of
curi ous Am eric an amateurs and young scho l- Umayy ad Ca liph ' Abd al-Ma lik (reigned prayer - in the abando ned templ e precinct, Solomon, although the y should have known
ars (myself includ ed ) to the hitherto exo tic 685-705), seve nty-two (lunar) years after the but began con struction of the domed struc- that the two buildings should have been
field of Islami c art. Indi vidually and together , Hegira, but nothin g - apart from the Arabi c ture onl y half a century later. In the first one and the same.) They surmounted the
the two professors (and their discipl es) tran s- inscription on the interior (which is incid en- chapter of this book, Profe ssor Grab ar specu- dom e with a cro ss, embellished the interior
form ed the field from an exclusive pur view of tally the first dated ev idence for the writing lates on what assoc iations the holy site may with religiou s pictures and inscriptions,
dilettantes and connoisse urs to a dynamic aca - do wn of the Koran) - indic ates that it was have held for early Mu slims durin g the fifty surrounded the rock with an iron grill e and
demic disciplin e that link s the field s of art his- actually designed, built , or decorated by Mu s- years befor e they actually began con struction . covered it with a platform for an altar at
tory to Middl e East Studi es, both of which lims, although so me later tradit ion s associate The second chapter focu ses on the buildin g which to celebrat e the litur gy, but otherwise
burgeoned (along with univer sity enrolments) variou s Arab names with its design. itself, which he describes with eloquent preci- did not fund ament ally change the building.
in the second half of the twentieth centur y. As the buildin g' s for ms and decoration fall sion, show ing what is old (much but not all of The Christians held Jeru salem for less than
In this slender and synthetic volum e, the square ly within the traditions of late Antique the interior mosaics) and what is new (the a century, for the great Sal adin reconqu ered

TLS D E C EM B E R 7 200 7
8 IRISH HISTORY

the city in 1187 (treating the Christians, by


contras t, with courtesy) and reconsecrated
the Dome of the Rock as a Mu slim sanctuary,
third after Mecca and Medin a in the triad of
Islam ' s holiest sites. M eanwhil e, Euro pea n
Leaps and lapses
Christians continued to associate the building DI ARMAID FE R R ITE R
with the mys teries of the Knight s Templ ar,
so that it rea ppea rs, albeit somew hat Paul S ew
transfo rmed , in Raphael' s "Marriage of the
Virgin" and other paintin gs of the Italian IR E L A ND
Renaissance. The politics of enmity 1789- 2006
Under Saladin and his Ayyubi d and 6 13pp. Oxford University Press. 35 (US $65).
Mameluk e success ors, the Dom e of the Rock 9780 19 820555 5
became the cent repi ece of Jeru salem ' s "uni- R. F . F os ter
versity", as the Haram al-Sharif becam e sur-
round ed by dozens of madr asas, or theologi- LUCK AND TH E I RI SH
ca l colleges, and other religio us instituti ons A brief history of change 1970- 2000
found ed by pious amirs lookin g for a reward 228pp. Alien Lane The Penguin Press. 20.
97807 13997835
in the hereafter. Fo llow ing the Ott om an
conquest of Jeru salem in 1516-1 7, the city
became a backwater, but the Dome of the uch of Paul Bew' s remar kable,
Roc k was entirely refu rbished by Suleiman
the Magnific ent (reigned 1520-66), who ju sti-
fiabl y con sidered himself the Solomon of his
M formid ably research ed and fluently
written survey of more than 200
yea rs of Irish history is about squandered Golf Five Zero wat chtower, Cr ossmagIen, South Armagh ; from Castles of Ulster by
age - his nam e is the Turkish for m of So lo- opportunities and misse d chances. These Jonathan Oll ey (56pp. Factotum. 20. 978 0 954432010)
mon , and he was kno wn to his ow n people as includ e the failur e to gra nt Catholic ema nci-
kanun i or "Lawgiver" . Glazed ceramic tiles pation in Irel and until 1829, and the manner arg ued that " If Nigge r we re not Nigge r, Irish- "politics of the gun" between 1919 and 1923.
in the Ottoman style repl aced the glass mosa- in which the message of Wolfe To ne and the man wo uld be Nigger". But this was not He recognizes, without sermo nizing, that
ics on the exterior of the building, which 1798 rebellion - to prom ote the "common repr esent ati ve of main stream opinion ; the during 1916-21 , Sinn Fein created a high
had weathered badly throu gh ce nturies of name of Irishm an" in place of the existing real probl em was the lack of belief in state level of expec tancy as to the likely outcome
Jeru salem ' s harsh cli mate. The exterior of politi cal and religiou s divisions - was "cru- interventi on, and there was plent y of blame of the War of Independ enc e, which ulti-
the structure as we see it today is therefor e ell y mocked". Bew, Professor of Irish Poli- attac hed to the An glo-Iri sh landl ord s. The mately result ed in a poisonou s civ il wa r after
largely an Ottom an crea tion, although the tics at Qu een ' s University Belf ast, takes the Irish nation alist John Mit chel acc urately the split in Sinn Fein over the term s of the
sixtee nth-ce ntury tiles them sel ves we re impact of the French Revoluti on as the start- enca psulated the mood bet ween Brit ain and Anglo- Irish Treaty of Decemb er 192 1.
repl aced by more or less acc urate copies ing point for the debate about the status of Ireland in 1847: " In Ireland , a vag ue and dim Bew' s last two chapters trace the expe ri-
in the twenti eth century. Mean while, Catholics in Ireland. At that time, the possibil- sense that they we re somehow robb ed, in ences of the two states, Nor th and South, ruled
Suleima n's own tomb, behind his mosque ity existed of one of two extremes takin g hold Eng land, a still more vag ue and blund erin g by men who "believed not so much in the
in Istanbul , is a free Ottoman adaptation of in Ireland in the late eighteen th and early nine- idea that an impud ent beggar was dem anding economy of truth as the necessary brutality of
the Do me of the Rock' s interi or. teenth century - Protestant Ascend ancy , or their money with a scorch in his eye and a truth" . He is critical of Eamo n de Valera, who
Gra bar ends his romp throu gh hi story with the radical, Jacobin alterna tive . Bew devotes threat upon his tongue". In tandem with a tri- was in power from 1932-48, as someo ne who
a brief look at the present state of the build- much attention to Ed mund Burk e, who, he umph al sec tarianism and vio lence in Ulster, "ruled supreme as the philosoph er king of
ing, which has, within living memory, serve d maint ain s, "had a profo und insight into the the atmo sphere was rancid , facilit atin g the Irish pastor alism and frugal co mfort". This is
both (if not sim ulta neo usly) as a symbol of angle of vision of Catho lic Irel and living eme rgence of the Fenian impul se, which, a simplification of the man who maximi zed
Israeli touri sm and of Palestini an national- cheek by jowl with an entire co mmunity that in harnessing the disgruntl ed emigrant Irish , the sovereignty of the twent y-six counti es
ism. The book concludes on a rather depress- consid ered itself superior". Inspired by was , Bew points out, "decisive proof that a with determin ation and often sophistication,
ing note as the auth or exa mines the build- Burke, leadin g politici an s in Brit ain began grea ter Ireland beyond the seas now existed" . in the 1930s, secured the legitim ation of
ing' s conflic ting roles as a politic al symbol, a to consider the argu ment that the sec urity of There was also a changed class bias to Irish democratic institut ions and was determin ed
Mu slim holy place, a ma sterpi ece of world B ritain requ ired so me kind o f rapproc hement nation ali sm , wi th urban artisa ns and cl erks to implement an independent foreign policy.
art, and a tempo rary buildi ng on a Jewish with Ca tho lic Ireland , but they failed to treat adding their voice, and a Fe nian procl ama- Bew is critical - wro ngly, in my view - of the
holy space that will be rebuilt in all its glory the issue with any urgency. tion during the rebellion of 1867 that policy of neutra lity durin g the Second World
when the Messiah return s. The concepti on of a union of Britain and "expressed with grea t clarit y a nation alist, War that resulted. It was not a moral failur e
Grabar's book is a welco me addition to the Ireland that might lead to "one people" was dem ocr atic and agrarian radica l message". but a necessity for self-prese rvation, though it
genre of non- speciali st writing by acknowl- powerful , but dependent on the reducti on of The Fenian movement claimed 50,000 mem- is difficult to dispute the truth of the assertion
edge d spec ialists in arca ne field s, who try to politi cal differences, religious animos ities and ber s, which repr esent ed, Bew sugge sts, "a that, in the area of social services , "if one was
explain in relative ly simple term s why what local prejudi ces, as Willi am Pitt the Youn ger formi dable mass nationalism by any serious poor and vulnerable it was better to be born on
they do is import ant for ordinary folk to discovered in having to deal with the sense of comparative Europea n criteria", while also the No rthern side of the Irish border" .
kno w. In general, Grabar succee ds admir- indifference, "perhaps even contempt" , in Brit- inten sifying sec tarian animos ities in Ulster, Bew' s chapter on the Trou bles in Northern
ably, although he occ asionall y lapses into ish politi cs that threatened to undermin e the where it had a significa nt appea l to Belf ast Irel and from the late 1960 s is a judi cious
infuri atin gly obtu se art-speak : "One can be union. Daniel O ' Connell won Catholic eman- worki ng-class Catholics . The leader of the account of hate-fu elled violence and the
called sentence like in the sense that a numb er cipation on the basis ofthe strengt h of popular Hom e Rule ca mpaign in the late ninetee nth contrast bet ween hollo w rhetoric and furti ve,
of compl ete units of compos ition are identi- mobilization rather than "the abstrac t ju stice century, Charles Stewa rt Parne ll, is subjec ted behind-the- scenes scrambling for a way out,
fied and explained. The other way can be of the case ", the difficulty for the futu re being to a rich and textured ana lysis by Bew, as are with the backdrop of "the usual mistru st and
ca lled phonetic, or po ssibl y morphem ic, as that " Ireland ' s celebrated culture of agitation" the contradictions that lay at the heart of ethica l antag onism of Ulster politi cs". In the
it consists of lists of ele ments, repeated or was now fully form ed . There was always a Parne llism - "active flirtati on" with Fenians Republic, he sugges ts, not enough peopl e
uniqu e , found o n the w alls ". The absence degree of incon sisten cy in O' Conn ell 's hut also a mild hesit anc y and conce ntratio n listened to the Tao iseac h, .lack l.y nch, whe n
of foot- or endnotes is welco me in a book career, but he was a major force in British on Parli ament. Parne llism surv ived its maker, he asked , " Would we wan t to ado pt the role
of this type, but Grabar allud es to or cites high politi cs, and Bew' s dissection of him - and his eve ntual successor, John Redm ond , of an occup ying conqueror ove r the million
many wor ks he has neglected to includ e in his alliances, successes and failures, includin g is give n credit for attem pting to break down or so six-co unty citize ns, who at present
the biblio graph y. his sectarian stand on higher education - is sectar ian division s. Bew' s narrati ve falters suppor t partiti on ?". The eve ntual acce ptance
Neve rtheless, at a time when pundit s absorbi ng and con vincin g, showing how slightly in not devotin g enough attention to of this logic - notably by Berti e Ahern in the
regul arly dem oni ze Islam as the perfect O ' Conn ell brou ght the Irish question back to the legion of the excl uded who planned the 1990s (who is praised for the " studied"
exa mple of the unch angin g "other" , with the centre of British politi cs in 1844- 5. 1916 Risin g, the mood of despair within moder ation with which he approac hed North-
which "our" civilization is destin ed to cl ash, The potato famin e that followed these nationalism that produced it, and the failur e ern Ireland ) ca me slow ly. But Ahern, whe n
Oleg Grabar shows not only how long and yea rs prompted some memb ers of the Briti sh of Redmo nd and his genera tio n to appreciate the war was over, still wa nted to play the
deep is Islam ' s assoc iation with Jud aism political cla ss to sugges t an Irish ethnic inferi- what was going on at grassroots level. Bew Green card. Despit e all the talk of reconcilia-
and Christianity, but also how Islam and its ority or lazin ess. In the Hou se of Co mmo ns, highli ght s the Briti sh ove r-reac tion to the tion, the decision by the Irish gove rnmen t to
grea t contributions to wor ld civ ilization have in Decemb er 1847, John Wa Iters, MP for Risin g, the manifestation of "an em otional reint roduce the military parade (aba ndoned
ev olved and changed ove r time. No ttingham (and pro prietor of The Times) hardening" that did so much to crea te the in the early 1970 s) to commemora te the

TLS DECEMBER 7 20 07
IRISH HISTORY 9

ninetieth anniversary of the 1916 Rising in Pro testantism, with Catho lics devising thei r
2006, confirmed that there are still, in Ire-
land, "two histories, separate and in conflict".
For Berti e Ahern, politics is, once again,
ow n spiritual and moral solutio ns.
In the chapter on Fianna Fail and Irish
polit ics in the past thirt y yea rs, Foster distin-
Revolution ahoy!
local, but as Bew recognizes, Britain should guishes between those interested in policy,
be feeli ng a large measure of histori cal guilt such as Padd y Hillery, Ireland ' s first EEC n Au gust 22 , 1798 - at the height MARIA N N E E L LI OT T
for the mistakes of successive gove rnments
in their approac h to Ireland .
R. F. Foster has been asked on several
Co mmissioner, and those interested in poli-
tics, such as Charles Haughey and the likes of
Padra ig Flynn and Sea n Dohert y, Fianna Fail
O of Britain ' s war with Revo lutionary
Fra nce and after the United Irish
rebellion of that summer had been brut ally
Gu y B e in er
occasions to update his seminal Modem Ire- mini sters in the 1980s who were rewa rded suppre ssed - three Frenc h frigates sailed into REM E M B ERI N G THE YEAR O F
land 1600-1 972, published in 1988, an often "well beyond their capacities" . He cas tigates Killala Bay, Co Mayo, on the wes t coas t of T H E FR E N C H
biting and controvers ial survey , whic h was as a "sanc timo nio us delu sion" the argumen ts Irel and . On board we re 1,019 Frenc h troop s Irish fo lk history and soc ial mem ory
488pp. Un iversi ty of Wisconsin Press . $4 9.95:
refreshing in its determin ation to interrogate put forward by comm entators that the corr upt- under the co mm and of Ge nera l Humb ert,
distrib uted in the UK by Eurospan. 28.95 .
cherished assumpti ons. It was seen as one of ing relati onship between propert y developers along with 6,000 stand of arms and 3,000
9780299 2 1820 1
the leading "revisionist" texts of the 1980s, and and politi cians was ju stified becau se it uniform s for the Irish expec ted to join them.
it is unsurprising that publishers would be inter- exis ted "to create the environ me nt which the The Irish were hesitant at first, and with
ested in seeking Foster's view of the transfor- Ang lo-Irish enjoyed and that we as a people reason , as this was not the main French force Irish-language poetry and oral balladry, show -
mation of Ireland in the past thirty years, dur- could never aspire to". This is an angry chap- destined for Irel and, which Humb ert' s prem a- ing how, alth ough they can be corr upted by
ing which he spent much time immersed in his ter, and Haughey, the "Napoleon of the Third ture sailing had jeopardi zed. Moreo ver, the pre-existin g them es or later co mme mora-
study of W. B. Yeats, producing the definiti ve Republi c of Ireland" , who dom inat ed Irish French we re rather contem ptuous of the Irish tion s, folk tradit ions neverth eless ofte n defy
Life of the poet in two volumes. polit ics from 1979 until 1992 , is dissect ed peasant s who offered their services, eve n " invented" nation al histories . I particularly
Roy Foster thus co mbines a goo d grasp and expose d as a fraud. Last year, a tribu nal exe cuting some fo r very minor offences. The liked the chapter dealing with time in folk
on the politi cs of Irish history-writin g with report foun d that, in acce pting huge sums of Irish loss of life in the two- week ca mpaign history, agricultural cycles, climatic disas-
deep immersion in the cultu ral world of money from businessmen ove r ma ny yea rs, that followed was horrifi c, and the Fre nch ters, generational lifespans within famili es,
twenti eth-c entury Ireland, and he has made Haughey had debased Irish democracy. were thought to have de liberately place d and the way these provide chronological ref-
the right choice in decidin g to write a new In lookin g at the Troubl es, Foster, like them in the front line of battle. Little wo nder erence points and creat e "an illusion of unbro-
volume rath er than an addition to his large Bew, heaps prai se on Jack Lynch , whose that folk "memory" was not as enamo ured ken cont act with original historic al eve nts" .
survey history. Luck and the Irish is a ski l- " sane and careful" res ponse to the No rthern of the French as "official" Irish nati onalist Increasingly it is bein g recog nized that the
fully written and thoughtfu l boo k, based on crisis stood in contrast to the machinations of traditi ons have tend ed to be. 1798 Irish Rebellion was in fact a civ il wa r.
the Wil es Lectur es de livere d in Belf ast in Haughey and what Fos ter calls "time war ped Guy Bein er pic ks up this count er, "subver- We still do not know the full extent of the cas -
2004 , in which Fos ter mo ves fluidl y thro ugh Irish-Am erican s" - though he is not right to sive" traditi on brilliantl y. But you will not ualties, nor eve n what actually happened in
a variety of them es without reachin g gra nd- dismi ss the march on the Briti sh Embassy find an acco unt of the reasons why Humb ert areas outside Ulster and Lein ster. Although I
standing conclusions. The book ' s title may after Blood y Sunday in 1972 as "an angry is not ce lebrated in folk mem or y, or of what was aware of the slaughter of Irish "rebels"
be tak en by some to be patron izin g, and Dublin crowd choreographed by local Repub- actually happened du ring the "year of the foll owin g the defeat, here folk memory adds
Foster's occas ionally caustic put-d own s will licans" . It was a lot more than that. Foster's French" in his book, as he dismisses much the detail in what Bei ner describ es as "the
annoy others, but they should not di mini sh likes and dislik es become apparent (in con- of the historiograph y of the period, while not topo graph y" of folk comm emoration ("the
the brilli ance of the writing, which places trast to Haughey, Garret FitzGerald, the Taoi- actually engag ing with it. Indeed, Remember- hanging field" , "the pathway of slaughter" ,
him as a historian in a league of his own. seach du ring 1982- 7, is seen as far-sighted ing the Year of the French presupp oses a the many ha nging trees identifi ed with local
The perspec tive of an Irish "exile" in Oxford and realistic). This chapter is a remi nder detailed knowled ge of the eve nts of the heroes, the mound s of clay and stones
on the vast changes in Irish soc iety in recen t of why the shee r longevity of the Tro ubles period, which will restrict its readership. Thi s "remembered" as their restin g places).
decades is also something that should be entrenched partition; Foster, echoing Bew, would be a pity, as it is an important contribu- Bein er at times see ms to ass ume that the
we lco med as a constructive co rrective to highlight s the emergence of neo- Nationalist tion to what is now an intern ational grow th und erd og always occupies the moral high
some of the more insul ar and self-co ngra tula- rhetoric in the twenty-six counties at the end indu stry in the study of "collective me mory" ground, and repea ted reference s to the cliche
tory assess me nts of change in Irel and . of the peace process. He acknow ledges that and co mme mora tion. Mercifull y, this wor k is that the victors write the histor y are hardl y
The big change apparent in those thirt y it is still too ea rly to tell whether, as some not lost in the impenetr able jargon of many of sustainable in view of the manner in which
years, "perhaps deci sively and for ever, is a asse rt, the peace process led to the Balkani za- these studies; there is a good analys is of the the writings of ex iled United Irish lead ers
question of attitude" . Fos ter traces this tion of local politi cal culture in Nor thern key theoretical wor k in the field and a clear or their descend ants shaped futur e account s
change through eco nomics, politics, the Irel and, and to c om munities becomin g more explanation of why the author pre fers the of 1798. That said, there is a broad enin g here
declin e of religion, wome n's liberati on , the divided than eve r. term "social" rather than "co llective" me mory of those deemed victims of 1798, and a goo d
ceme nting of part ition and the imp act of Irish Foster ' s conclu ding chapter, demo nstrating to describe the process by which communities effort to rescue Prot estant traditi ons (largely
liter ature. Whether the co llect ive transform a- a confident grasp of a variety of cultural rememb er their past: "being a selective collec- ignored by the collectors of the Irish Fo lklore
tions repr esent Ireland' s Grea t Leap Forwa rd form s, highlights achieveme nts in literature, tion of interpr etati ve constructi ons based Co mmission) and those of the man y Catho-
or are the product of a series of inter- poetry, theatre and film that sugges t a "drama- on both auth entic and fabric ated sources" . lics who op posed the Rebellion.
connected crises, it is too early to pro nounce tic developm ent in confidence and innova- He challen ges the common ass umption that Guy Beiner began the work for his thesis,
on, but , in teasing out these different themes, tion" , with attention devoted to the Irish soci al or collective memor y is construc ted which became this book, as the preparation s
Foster deli vers an insightful and often wryly writers who have transcended previous liter- acc ording to present needs. "Social mem or y for the bicentennial of the 1798 Rebellion gath-
funn y analys is, which does not shy away ary inhib itions while also revealing "the was not a passive rec ipient of official ered pace. Despite all the razza matazz of 1998,
from opinion and spec ulation. He is influ- power and sugges tiveness of historical themes commem orative discour se. Fo lklore could the scholarly output from the bicentennial
enced by and gives credit to a variety of in the creati ve literature" . He makes reject externa l vers ions that did not cor re- (with some notable exceptions) was disappoint-
sources, such as the curre nt affairs magazine it clear that the manipul ation of memory has spond with the way the past was remembered ing. In a wide-ranging critique, lan McBride
Magil/, which marked a breakthrough for been centra l to much of what Ireland has made locall y" , as he shows very effective ly by desc ribed much of it as flawed by false antithe-
investigati ve journalism in Ireland , when of itself durin g the pas t thirty years. At the de monstrating how folk histor y of the French ses. There is an element of this also in Beiner' s
laun ched in 1977, and he foll ows the concl u- same time, Foster lament s the cas ual attitud e landing differed markedly fro m histor y as it book, but it has benefited from the delay in
sio ns o f eco no m ic historians suc h as Co rmac to architectural and archae ologica l heritage, a was taught in the schools. public ation . The surprising success story of
O'Grada, that Ireland ' s low tax, low puhli c "fascinating and o ften depre ssing harom eter This, then , is a hook w hich exa mines ho w 1998 was the re-emergence of Thomas Paken-
debt ec onomy, and developm ent of soc ial of Irish attitudes to the past" . Unfortunately, success ive generations of people in one part ham' s 1969 The Year of Liberty , as the only
partn ership are the result of the "Celtic he rem ains curiously resistant to the charms of of Ireland have "remembered" one eve nt and single history of the 1798 Rebellion. We still
Tiger" eco nomy rather than its cause . But Irish spor ting endeavo ur; there is no mention incorp orat ed it into the histor y of their local- need a new one which would incorporate the
Fos ter also ack now ledges "a sometimes spec- of the contribution the Gaelic Athletic Asso- ity. Bein er is too good a scholar not to recog- many new modes of investigation sugges ted
tacul arly unequ al pro sperity". He devotes ciation has made to Irish cultural confidence. nize the pitfalls of usin g oral traditi ons and here. Although a dose of modesty might not go
much attention to the declin e of the influ ence In concluding, Roy Foster has little doubt that folk history. He shows how his main source, amiss when dealing with earlier works in the
of Catholicism and the rise of the wo me n's Ireland has changed for the better, because the Irish Folklore collec tion of University field, this is an important and beautifully pro-
move ment, which help ed set the "terms that "good luck was maximised by good manage- Co llege Dublin (largely oral sources collected duced book. Guy Beiner here shows himself
enforce d a revoluti on in the tradit ional Catho- ment" , but Luck and the Irish is a balanced in the 1930s and 40 s), is sometimes contam i- to be a historian of unusual talent, well placed
lic Church's place in Irish life", and he points work that gives equal billing to the uncritical nated by the promotion of Catholic national- to bring a very wide range of skills and sources
to the acc urac y of the Protestant essa yist celebra nts, and the sceptics, of the impact ism in that period . Eve n so, it is an und er- to what he calls a "cubist portraya l of the
Hub ert Butl er ' s predi ction in 1970 that a la of the "Celtic Tiger", while offering his ow n used mine of information, though not as past" and to do so without also losing it in
carte Catholicism wo uld become a kind of distincti ve, original and elegant insights. underu sed as Bein er claim s. He also analyse s jargonistic confu sion.

TL S D E C EMB E R 7 2 007
IO BIO GRAPHY

o ne. Initi all y, he plan ne d to ret ake Nice, but

Serious celebrity was per su aded to liberate Sicily (from the


Bourbon Kin g of Na ples) instead. In May
1860 his "T housand" ill- arm ed vo luntee rs
land ed at Marsala in Sicily, ra pidly defeated
ere are two very d ifferent books Ga riba ld i hi mself and mos t of his bio gra- the Neapolitan army and withi n a few mon ths

H
M ARTI N C LA R K
abo ut Giuseppe Ga riba ldi. A lfo nso ph ers have thought them very sig nifica nt - as had crossed to the mainl and and taken Na ples
Sc iroccos Gariba ldi: Citizen of the A lfo nso S ci r o c c o d oes Sciroc co, who gives a de tailed account. itself. It was an amaz ing campaign, wo n by a
world is d istinctly o ld-fas hio ned in approach It was there that Gariba ldi recruited his fir st han dful of radical stude nts and ama teur
and unash amedl y risorgimentale (the Italian GAR IBAL D I Italian " volunteers", ther e that he abducte d enthusiasts aga ins t a regul ar ar my,
eq uivalent of " Whig" ). But as a traditi on al Citizen of the world and later marri ed A nita, and there that, to ge n- admittedl y one led by spec tacu larly
biography it is ve ry good, and has the tradi- A biography eral asto nis hment, he ref used to acce pt a incompetent ge ne rals. Bot h Sc irocco and
Translated by Allan Ca meron
tion al virtues. It is we ll wri tte n and ex tremely reward for his endeavours fro m a gra teful Riall are goo d on the detail s of this famous
368pp. Princeton University Press. 17.95
we ll tran slated by Allan Ca mero n, it is up to Urug uayan governme nt. Indeed, it was thi s exp loit, particul arl y o n the Sicili an opera-
(US $35).
date on the huge Ga riba ld i literature, it has ge nerosity of spirit, not his mar tial exp lo its tion s. Ga riba ldi 's init ial appeal aime d at
978069 1 115405
plenty of illumi natin g detail , and it pays a themselves, that fi rst ma de his name and being all-incl usive. No tor iously anticle rica l,
pro per regard to his ea rly life and South Lu c y Ri al l attrac ted the noti ce of both the med ia and the he wooed the Churc h an d atten ded services
America n expe riences. Furthe rmore, it is not Mazzini an republican s back hom e. Soo n he reg ular ly : Sici ly was wor th a mass. In Na ples
GAR IBAL D I becam e " the repub lican over the wa ter" , the
too defer ential to its subjec t, altho ugh it natu- he eve n presi de d ove r the liqu efaction of St
Invention of a hero
rally treats Gar iba ld i as a hero : exceptiona lly man who wo uld re turn to Italy to fight for Janu arius' blood, which wor ked satisfac tor -
482pp. Yale University Press. 25 (US $35).
courage ous , utterl y dedi cated to the ca use , 9780300 112122 lib ert y at hom e as we ll as abroa d. Eve ntua lly ily; but then, the who le ca mpa ig n had been
magnanimous, spec tac ularly successful, and he did return, pa rtly becau se he became disi l- miraculo us.
o n the right side . T his last cr ite rio n is, as lusion ed with the Urug uayan wa r and its war - It had also been , as Riall po ints o ut and
always, open to disp ute, altho ugh it is not largely by progressive jo urna lists and lor ds. However , Ga riba ldi remained a ga uc ho Scirocco does not, a tot all y illegiti mate act
di sput ed in Sc iroc cos book. ro mantic no veli sts th rou ghout E urope . She in me nta lity th rou ghout his life and so me - of piracy . Ga riba ldi had to stea l a co uple of
Lucy Riall's Gariba ldi: Invention of a therefore wr ites mai nly abo ut the media, times wore his ponc ho on ce remon ial occa - ships for the trip , and then attac ked a lawful
hero, by co ntras t, is resolutely mod ern , but claims also that Ga riba ld i " played a sio ns, an affectatio n that Ria ll regard s as Italian state with which Piedmont was not at
indeed po stmod ern . It is not so mu ch abo ut seri ous pa rt in creating hi mself as a image cult ivation , but which was surely no wa r. He later thr eat en ed to attac k the Pap al
Gari ba ld i him self, as abo ut his image as po litica l ce lebr ity" . He ap pears in thi s book more reprehe nsible than, say, M ont go mery' s States, also peaceabl e and also rul ed by an
" the Hero of Two W orld s" , an d abo ut in rath er an unfl atterin g ligh t, either being ber et or Churc hill's cig ar. Italian , until Pied mo ntese tro op s moved in to
how his reputatio n was used to spread a used by others or, more frequ entl y, as being Wh en Gariba ld i we nt back to Italy in 1848, stop hi m. He talked liberat ion , but he acted
po litica l message. Sh e writes stern ly that " we himsel f a delib erate self-publicist and master he denounced M azzini ' s plotting and agg ress io n and he deli vered annexatio n. Riall
no lon ger believe in Grea t Men ", and arg ues of spi n. atte mpted in itiall y to fight for the Piedmon- argues that he go t away with it only becau se
that Ga riba ldi's " hero ic per son alit y" was All thi s is commenda bly rev isio nis t and tese mon arch y, but soo n wo n lastin g glory by of his ca refully cultiva ted heroic reputation .
"artificially co nstruc ted and prom oted ", Riall's theme is cer tainly fashi on ab le, but he r his de fence of the Ro man Republi c aga inst T he Euro pea n media backed him and his
strictures are somewhat exaggerated. After the Fre nch in 184 9. After that, there was no me n, as bein g right and romantic. Dum as hi m-
all, most politici ans and generals have a need to worry abo ut Gariba ldi 's im age: his self tu rned up to wa tch the Battle of Milazzo
New Publications in English tender regard for their ow n rep utations: they fame spread spontaneo usly. Sc irocco po ints in Sici ly. It was the picturesqu e that
play up their ach ievements and play do wn out , interesting ly, that altho ugh Ga riba ldi appea led , and the T ho usa nd were nothing if
Philip BENEDICT, Graphic History : their failures, they pro vide a bit of co lo ur for always used " volunteers" (ie, freebooter s) not picturesqu e. To ado pt Lord Coppe r's
The Wars, Massacres and Troubles of j ou rnali sts and eve ntually they wr ite their and although mu ch of his popul ar appea l vital di stincti on , the me d ia supp orted the
Tortorel and Perrissin. 2007, 432 p. highl y selec tive mem oi rs. Perh ap s Ga riba ld i arose from his unoffi cial status as rov ing free- Patri ot s aga inst the Reb els, and so mehow
94 ill., 8 in colours & 43 fold-outs d id thi s too, but he had excelle nt reasons: d om fight er, in fac t he was always ca reful managed to persuad e the civ ilized wo rld that
ISBN, 978-2-600-00440-4 102,47 71,15 morale mattered, in both war and po litics. to sec ure some sor t of semi-official backi ng it was the T ho usa nd who we re the Patri ots.
Through the study of a single print series, Moreover, he was an outs ide r, a gene ra l with- or at least co nn ivance from a recognized pol it- T hey also de picted Gari ba ld i's va rious
lost chapters in the history of journalism. out an army . He need ed to attrac t foreign ical author ity, both in So uth Amer ica and , enemies - the Bo urbo ns of Nap les, the Pope,
of the graphic arts , and of Protestant his- fin ance and to rec ru it voluntee r, unp aid later, in Italy. But the revo lts and wars of the Au strian s - as utte rly tyranni cal villains .
torical cons ciousness re-emerge . troops; and he needed supporters able to 184 8- 9 ended in disastrou s failure and we re Riall's account of all this rhe torica l enthusi-
affec t publi c opinion and therefore govern- a ca tastro phe for Gariba ld i person all y, as his asm is am us ing and impressive. Ho wever, I
Robert M. KINGDON, Geneva and the
ment poli cy in France and Britain. He was for- pregnant wife , Anita, di ed on the fli ght north doubt whe ther the forei gn press had any sig -
Coming ofthe Wilrs ofReligion in France
tun ate that hi s versio n of events was taken up from Rom e . Ri all , however, see ing th rou gh nifi cant imp act in So uthern Italy, and R iall
(1555-1563) . Foreword by Ma ck P. Halt, and publicized by Alexandre Dum as pere the eyes of a cultura l historian , regards these seriously und er estimates the dipl om at ic skills
Postface by Robert M . Kingdon and othe rs, and so achieved wide circ ulatio n. events as quite a successful "mobilisation of of Cav our. Ga riba ld i may have been the toast
N ew edition 200 7, 184 p. How many di vision s had Du mas? No ne , but the masses" int o po litica l ac tiv ity : a time of of the European cha tteri ng classes but he still
ISBN, 978-2-600-01203-4 26,57 18,45
he co uld hel p to provide cas h and en th usiasts, new jo urn als, pamphlet s and cl ubs, above all ende d up havin g to hand ove r Sicily and
Thisbookhasbecomea classicin its field, an d Ga riba ldi knew it. of new ro man tic adve ntures and new myth s. Southern Italy to the ki ng of Piedmont,
exercising considerable influence on In any case, his medi a- spi nn ing fault s, if But these we re the futil e my ths of failure, and whose efforts to rul e soon aro use d even
thought about the Reformation, particu-
fault s they were, were tri vial compared with Ga riba ld i had enoug h sense to rea lize it. He greater pop ular hostilit y than the Bo urbo ns
larly in France but alsoin othercountries,
since its fits!publication in 1956. his real achieve me nts . He was very far fro m withd rew to Amer ica in despair and becam e had done.
bein g a media crea tion. Sciroccos heroi c a sailo r agai n, while Mazzini' s foll owers By 1861 , Italy was unified , but Gar iba ld i
Williarn MONTER, A Bewitched Duchy: view of Gariba ld i may be o ld-fas hio ned, but fad ed away. was far from satisfied: Rom e and Ven etia
Lorraine and its dukes, 14 77-1736 it is ra the r more plausible than Riall ' s Gar iba ldi re turne d to Italy in the remained as yet outs ide the new kin gdo m,
200 7, 176 p. "constructivist" critique. Heroes are like mi d- 1850 s, altho ugh even then he mad e his whic h itself was wea k and corrupt. In the
ISBN, 978-2-600-01165-5 91,08 63,25 saints : there are not many of them, but they ho me o n the rem ot e island of Ca prera, off next few years he led two more expe d itions
Drawing on basic archival sources in are eas ily reco gni zed . Garihaldi was north-east Sardini a, livin g mod estly and, in to "liberate" Rom e, hoth defeated - hy royal
Paris and Vienna as well as those in man ifestl y the ge nuine article, if rather too R iall 's view, cultiva ting his im age rath er than forces in 1862 , by the Frenc h in 1867. Even
Lorraine itself, William Monter offers macho for mode rn sensi bilities. He was a the so il. Wh en wa r cam e aga inst Austria Scirocco find s it diffi cult to defen d these
the first English-language history of uniqu e figur e, both in per son alit y and in in 1859, he raised troo ps for the King of ill-judged ca mpaigns, which cos t Gari ba ld i
thi s important European buffer state .
appeara nce. No one , not even Dumas, would Pied mo nt and fou ght in the north ern hill s, but muc h of his pres tige in Italy. Gari ba ld i
have dared to invent him, although was outraged by the ar mistice signed at also, rath er confusi ng ly, fou ght for the Kin g
othe r people di d, of co urse , help to sprea d Villafra nca d i Vero na, and in parti cul ar by in 1866 agai nst the Au strian s, and for
his renow n. the later cession of his hom e town , Nizza the French in 1870- 71 agai nst the Pru ssian s.
Given her med ia-base d approach, R iall is (N ice) , to the French . Gariba ldi also suffe red In 1864 , he enjoyed a triu mph al visit to
inevitabl y curs ory on Ga riba ld i's ea rly yea rs, the hum iliatio n of marrying an eighteen - London , and here Ri all ' s study of medi a

Droz befo re the med ia took hi m up. She is ra ther


dismiss ive of his ca reer as a sailor and of
yea r-o ld girl who turn ed out to be four
months pregn ant by ano the r ma n; the ep iso de
adul ation rea lly comes int o its ow n. The tri p
was lar gely des igne d to raise money for
11 rue Massot, c.l' 389 CH - 1211 Geneve 12 his military ac tiv ities in Rio Gran de do Su i left hi m feelin g moc ked an d di shono ured. another ma rc h on Rom e, to ove rthrow
droZ@droz.org www.droz .org and Urug uay ("a n adve nture r"), but both Furio us , he loo ked for an outlet, and found pr ies tly power. Gar iba ldi now incarn ated

T L S D EC EM B E R 7 2007
BIO GRAPHY & CLASSICS 11

Under the Arch


W IL LIAM FITZGE RA LD reached the cons ulship (and many who did
not) wou ld have had the chance to command
M a r y B e ard an army, somew here in the Roma n Empi re or
beyond, and so to earn a triumph. M ilitary
THE R OM A N T RIUMPH service and co mmand were not optional for a
448pp. Harvard University Press. 19.95 Ro man politician, nor did they invo lve a part i-
(US $29.95). cular cho ice of career; militarism lay at the
978 0674026 13 1 heart of Roman cu lture and was integral to
the life of ju st about eve ry Roma n male.
"T riumPh" is a wor d with umph. Victo- Eve n Cicero, Rome ' s pre -em inent ora tor,
riou s arms thrown in the air, e ne mies launched a might y camp aign to win a
and riva ls cast to the ground - a triu mph, on the basis of so me not altoge ther
triumph is nothin g if not complete. It has glorious manoeu vrings while he was Gover-
become the ultim ate express ion of success nor ofC ilicia . We ca n follo w this (unsuccess -
("A triu mph" shouts the billbo ard), the ulti- ful) campaign in some det ail, throu gh Cic -
mate celebr ation of adve rsity overcome ("A eros voluminous and fascinating correspo nd-
triumph of the hum an spirit") . Our word ence . From wha t his friend Cae lius writes to
deri ves fro m the Latin triumphus , the ter m him shor tly after he arrives in Cilicia it is
the ancient Ro mans used for a ritu al victory clear that thought s of a triumph were at the
ce lebration, one of the most commo n back of any Rom an gove rnor 's mind : " If we
emblems of Rom an culture in the mod ern cou ld only get the balance right so that a wa r
popul ar imagin ation . The Romans ca lled this ca me along of ju st the right size for the
ritu al a "triump h" becau se the victorious strength of our forces and we achieved what
troops cried "io triump e" as they ma rched was needed for glory and a triumph without
throu gh the stree ts; but the meani ng of the facin g the really dangerou s clash - that
cry is obscure to us and would have been so would be the drea m ticket" . In hi s speec h
to the troops themselves. Aga inst Piso Cicero mocks Pisos philosophi-
One ancient theory derived it from the ca lly high- minded lack of interest in app lying
Greek word thriambos, an epithet of for a triumph and represent s the des ire for
Dionysos (Bac chus), but lingui sts argue one as the acce ptable, eve n approved, face of
that this etymology must have passed first ambitio n.
through Etrusca n to end up as triumpus; Beard shows us that eve n Cicero' s letters,
Giuseppe GaribaIdi by Vincenzo Cabianca (1827-1902) others connect it with the refrain "t riumpe, that most det ailed acco unt of the day-to-d ay
triumpe, triumpe, triu mpe" in an obscure ex iste nce of Rome' s elite, leave us in the
anti-pope ry as well as the other heroic liberate anybody, a disillu sioned Gari baldi archaic Ro man hymn , in which it may be a dar k about the criteria for a triumph. Valeriu s
virtues . So the British hugely admired sat o n Ca prera, wrote more memoirs and ca ll for divine epipha ny. Eve n its gra mmati- Maximu s, writing in the time of the Empe ror
him, although the Irish did not. novels, and bitterly denoun ced the mo narchy ca l form is disput ed . Is triumpe a voca tive , an Tiberiu s, articulates a grisly "triumphal law" ,
Ind eed, as Riall occas ionally admits, there and the State he had helped to found . He impe rative, an Etruscan nom inative , or an according to which a mini mu m of 5,000
was always quit e a strong anti-Ga riba ldi attended radica l meetin gs and lament ed that excla matio n? All have been sugges ted . The enemy troops had to be killed in a sing le
strain in the medi a, both in Italy and else- he had spent his life fightin g for freedom , but etymo logy of triumphus is only one of the dis- battle for a triu mph to be ce lebrated; but this
where. Catholics and conse rvatives thou ght to no ava il; peace and prosperit y were as puted or obsc ure aspe cts of this most Rom an law is not menti oned in any surviv ing
him dangerou s; Marx ca lled him a "pitiful remo te as ever, and he himself was "one who of instituti ons, and if Mary Beard' s new acco unt of triumphal debates. Bea rd sees
don key" , and the Ge rma n histori an feel s the m isery and shame o f hi s ow n co un- bo ok, The Roman Triumph, ca n be co ns id- Valerius as beh aving no differentl y from
Fer dinand Greg orov ius referred to him as a try". By the 1870 s, Gar ibaldi had become a ered the defin itive treatm ent , it is not bec ause modern histori ans who try to impo se reg ular -
"hermit agitator" . Many others ju st thought nat ional monument, but an embarrass ing ly she solves any of the ca nonica l pro blems . ity and rules on a fluid reality. Just what quali-
his ideas we re romant ic tosh , and rightl y so. dissident one, furi ous that the Revolut ion, In fact, Professor Beard makes it clear that fied a genera l to ce lebrate a triumph was
Peo ple in Brit ain may have taken Ga riba ldi and Nice, had been betrayed . Riall shows there never ca n be a comp lete acco unt of negotiable, though it seems that the first initia-
for a tender-h earted liberal , and he certainly him little sympathy in his old age , eve n asse rt- the triumph, and that alm ost every thing we tive lay with the troop s, whose accla mation
was an auth entic hero, but unfortun ately he ing that "at least some of his melancholy and thought we knew about it is questionable. of the general as "imperator" was often see n
was also an "ethical interventionist", who neuro sis was stage d for public cons umption Lookin g beyond the impo ssible task of reco n- as the first step on the road to a triumph. It
agree d with the Arge ntinia n dictator Juan and for politi cal purpo ses .... Ga ribaldi's ill, struction, she offers us a different approac h has been spec ulated that a passage in Plautus'
Manuel de Rosas that "war is the true life of tired and broken body serve d as a symbo l of to the study of ancient soc iety in this wide- comedy Amp hitruo may be a parody of the
man" . G ariba ldi was on ly too anxious to take nation al suffer ing, and was a very effec tive rangin g study of "triumphal culture" in traditi onal language in whic h requests for a
up his swor d and ove rthrow a tyrant here or mea ns of publicly per sonifying the social Rome. Bear d argues that ancient acco unts of triu mph were expressed or granted : "The
liberate a peo ple there. Like all his kind, he inju stices of liberal Italy" . the triumph should not be thought of as enemy defeated, the victor ious legions are
ass umed that his ow n va lues were univer sally Perhap s so , but at any rate the age d so urces but as theor ies, driven as much by retu rning hom e, the might y conflic t brou ght
val id, that there was a huge demand for his Gar iba ldi rea lly did create a myth , of preconceptions and conte mpora ry agendas as to an end and the ene my exterminated. A city
services and that his acti vities would have no "Garibaldinism" : a radical legend of valia nt are modern scholarly studies, and she which brought man y cas ualties to the Theb an
unint end ed consequences . This simple- youthful heroes, selfless ly battlin g aga inst expa nds our visio n beyond the triumphal pro - peop le has been defeated by the strength and
mind ed, self-righteous view was a recip e officia l corr uption and priestly tyrann y. cessio n itself to take in the pr elimin ari es and va lo ur of our troop s and tak en hy storm,
only for constant wars and con stant disillu- Thi s myth still had considerable appea l the aftermath, the desc riptions, memorials, under the authority and auspices of my
sionment. In fact, popul ar enthusias m for abroad, as Conrad's Nos tromo (now here images and metaphors of triu mph that master Amphitruo, espec ially" .
"liberation" , when it came to Italy, was men tioned by either Lucy Riall or Alfonso together make of ancient Ro me "a trium phal Mo st of the existing scholarship on the
noticeably muted, particularly in Naples, Ven- Scirocco) showe d, but its true signi ficance culture" . triu mph has strugg led to recon struct the
ice and Rome; certa inly the cult of Ga riba ldi was at home. Gar ibaldi's hostility to Not every Rom an military victory was cele- details of the ceremo ny from the often contra-
did not persuade many Southerners of the vir- officia l Italy had import ant long-ter m "de- brated by a triu mph . A triumph was awar ded dictor y bits and pieces of evidence scattered
tues of Italian unification. And few historians legitimizing" consequences: decades later the by the Se nate (or not) on the requ est of the throu gh texts and images of different kinds
today wo uld regard Francis Joseph of Aus- brand name "Gariba ldi" was still bein g general, who had to make a case that his vic- and periods. The triumphal route, the order of
tria, or Pius IX, or eve n the Bourbons of invoked to pro mote unoffi cial revo lts. In the tory merited this supre me honour. It has been the proc ession, the genera l's dress , his char-
Naples, as having been tyrant s. mea ntime the reve red hero had enjoye d one ca lculated that about 300 triu mphs took place iot and the insignia of triumph, as well as the
Despite Riall's arg umen ts, it see ms to me last victory. As Alexa ndre Dumas rem arked, in the 1,000 yea rs of the city's histor y. Eve ry origins of the ceremo ny, have all been stud-
that Gar iba ldi's only trul y sig nifica nt medi a the most romant ic place to be buried is Roman polit ician asp ired to a triumph, and ied and debated. Bear d shows that the com-
impa ct was in his last yea rs. Too old and ill to on an island . practicall y every Ro man po litic ian who pos ite picture traditional in modern reference

TLS DECEMBER 7 2007


12 CLAS S ICS

works and histories is based on very sha ky displ ayed in a trium ph should not actually be songs all make a tempting package, but the that we don 't know where it ca me fro m and
found at ions. She dem onstr ates in some Rom ans. This ca used probl em s ev idence for the triumphator' s imperso nation what it meant ? Bear d argues that ritu al is not
detail, for instance, that it is impossibl e to rec - in the wan ing yea rs of the Republi c, when so of Jupit er is very slen der. What we can say is like that - invariable, monolithi c and tied to
oncile the vario us acco unts of the trium phal many victories were wo n in civil wars. that Rom an authors of the late Republi c and an original mea ning . Ritu alized behaviour is
route; the only point about whic h there is Lucans epic poem on the civ il war between ea rly Empire were particul arly concerned distingui shed by its parti cip ant s as separa te
general agree me nt is that it ended with a Pom pey and Caesar describ es it aptly as a with the line between the hum an and the from eve ryday non-ritual practice, but it may
stee p climb up to the Cap itoline Hill and the "war that could have no triumphs". Octa- divine, and with the probl ematic conce pt of be imp rovisator y and variable. Rules, origins
Templ e of Jupiter. vians victory ove r Cleopatra was reall y the the div ine human. Eve ntually, the empero r and traditi ons (almos t always less ancient
The final cli mb mu st have been quit e a climax of a civil wa r in which the enemy was would be hail ed as a god and recei ve divine than we suppose) are retrospecti vely crys tal-
cha llenge for a procession which includ ed led by Mark Ant ony, and Octavian' s ce lebra- honour s, but this would be a slow and diffi- lized und er the pressure of co ntempora ry
not only enemy captives and Roman troops tion of a triumph help ed to disgui se that fact. cult process . need . The mean ing of a ceremo ny lies "as
but floats, mode ls and pictu res representing Balanci ng the ene my captives and bringing Like the empero r, the triu mphing general much in the recollecti on and re-pr esentation
cities captured and battles won and, above up the rear of the triu mphal process ion we re raises the problem of how to balance his of the proceedin gs as in the tra nsient proceed-
all, loot. The triu mph encouraged Roman the victor ious gene ral's troops, chanting the status as godlike, and so exce ptional, with ings themselves. Its story is always in the
writers to flight s of extravagant descripti on. mysterious "io triu rnpe" . Less mysterious that of the servant of his co mmunity. In the tellin g. The exaggerations, the distorti ons,
At Pomp ey' s triu mph of 61 BCE (his third !), we re the rude chants that the triumphing ea rly yea rs of the ci vil strife that wo uld even - the selective amnesia are all part of the plot".
we are told that the boot y displayed in the troops were licensed to direct at their genera l. tuall y bring Augustu s to power as the first A goo d exa mple of how origins are retrospec-
triumph included 75, 100,000 drachm ae of Suetonius gives us a sa mple of what Caesar's Roma n Emperor, the poet Lucretius used tri- tively invented for customs is the ancient
silver coin, thirty-th ree crowns of pearl, count- troops contributed: "Romans, watch your umph al imagery to make a subvers ive poi nt theor y that the god Dionysos invented the
less wago nloads of wea pons and a huge gam- wives, the bald adulterer's bac k hom e. You about the ideal relation between the heroic triumph (as so often, linkin g Rome with
ing board made of precious stones holdin g a fuck ed away in Gaul the go ld you bor rowed individu al and his co mmunity. Lucretiu s' 011 Greece) . Stories of Dion ysos' arrival in
golden moon weighing thirt y pounds. The tri- here in Rome". Traditiona lly these chan ts the Nature ofThings, his epic poem expound- Greece from the Far Eas t date back at least to
umph prov ided the oppor tunity to list and have been see n as "apotropaic" , des igned to ing the prin cipl es of Epicurean philosop hy, Euripides ' Bacchae (c408 BCE). But in the
count (bullion, statues, captives, wea pons), to con text of Alexa nde r's camp aigns in India
describe the outlandish and the exotic, and to (326 BCE), Dionysos' return from sprea ding
revel in the power of Imperi al Rome. his rites in the Far Eas t was rem odelled as a
Or to depl ore its decadence. For , with the victorious return from India, compl ete with
triumphal procession, novel for ms of foreign troops and captives, so supplying Alexander
extravagance flowed into the city: lute girls, with a divine precedent. Then , after Rom e
harpi sts, coo ks, sideboa rds and one-legge d co nquere d Greece and ass imilated much of
tabl es all feature pro minentl y in disapprovi ng Alexa nder's Empire, the Retu rn of Dion ysos
ancient desc riptions. Some of this loot took became the Triumph of Dion ysos, Roman
the form of Greek statues and other works style, and Dionysos was credited with invent-
of art, which would ge nerate a co mpetitive ing the Rom an triumph. This developm ent
mania fo r coll ecting in Rome' s elite. It is this provides a nice demo nstration of how the
cultura l effec t of the conques t of the Gree k flo w of influ ence may run back wards rather
wor ld that led Ho race to remark that "captive than forward s, as Bear d argues in this and
Greece took the savage victor capti ve" , a many other cases.
parado x of the kind that, as Beard shows, was So much for the origins of the triu mph, but
charac teristic of trium phal writing . wha t about its end? Modern traditi on has
The triumph was not only a ritu al of it that the last triumph was celebrated in
success, it was also a ritu al of humili ation. A Co nstantinople, rather than Ro me, by the gen-
gene ral triumphed over an enemy , and the era l Beli sariu s in 534 CE, after a vic tory over
humbl ed enemy had to be paraded for all the Va nda ls in Afri ca. Appropriately, it was a
to see . In the triu mph al procession the enemy very unconvent ional affair. No Christian cele-
leader and a selection of ene my troops, suit- brati on, after all, could end with the custom-
ably loaded with cha ins and other insignia of ary sacrifice in the Tem ple of Jupiter. Beard
defeat, prece ded the triumphing general in cites a numb er of triumph s that might ,
his chariot. But this spec tacle of humili ation depending on what view you hold of the tri-
was inherentl y fragile. Obviously the tri- umph , be considered the last, but she is
umphin g general wa nted to display the co n- rightl y more interested in the decisive ch ange
quered as worthy adve rsa ries, and contempo- " T h usne Id a in th e Triumphal Procession of Germanicus" (1873) by K. T. von Pi/oty, which came about with the rule of Augustu s.
rary acc ou nts stress that the cap tives in the from th e book under review From Augustu s on, only the em peror or mem-
procession were chosen for their stature and bers of his famil y we re allowed to ce lebrate
beaut y. But a parti cul arly dignifi ed leader , wa rd off envy and the ev il eye in the moment cas ts Epicurus as a triumphing Rom an gen- a triumph, and the triu mph ca me to serve
unb owed in defeat, could upstage the genera l when the success ful ge neral was mos t vulner- era l who, having dared to campaign aga inst almost as the equiva lent of a coro nation rit-
following in his chario t. Beard' s fronti spiece able. Thi s is consiste nt with what is perh aps the religio us fear that is oppr essing mort als, ual. An equa lly important developm ent was
shows Ju gurth a doin g ju st that to the triumph- the best-kno wn aspec t of the traditi onal pic- brin gs back as the spoils to be displ ayed in the fact that Augustus adopted the insignia
ing Mariu s in Tiepolo' s sumptuously ture of the triumph, the slave who supposedly his triumph the knowledge of "what can be and sy mbols of the triumph to mar k his novel
dramatic "The Triumph of Ma rius". Horace' s stoo d behind the ge neral in his chariot to and what cannot", giving us the wherew ithal status. Am ong his titles was imperator (ori -
poem celebrating the defeat of Cleopatra by remind him that he was not a god, by repeat- to resist fear of the gods. "So religion , cas t gin of our word empero r), that title with
Octavian (the futur e Augustus) ends with the ing the wor ds "Look behi nd. Reme mber that beneath our feet, is trampl ed in its turn whic h a victorious general was accl aim ed by
Queen committing suicide so as to avo id you are a ma n". In the film Quo Vadis ? the and his victory raises us to the heavens." his troops as the first step toward s a triu mph.
being led in trium ph at Rome. Horace exploits slave's wo rds rec ei ve an unintended com ic Epicurus' "triumph of the mind" has this With A ugustus, the triumph moved into the
the flexihilit y of l.a tin word order to end his twist whe n they are deli vered to a triumphin g adva ntage ove r that of the Rom an genera l: it symholic realm .
poem with the line "no lowly woman in the tri- Marcu s Viniciu s as he ogles a prett y girl in is the com munity, not the triu mphing general Ea rly in her book Beard asks, "Can we get
umph" , shifting the triumph from victor to the crowd (nothing wrong with Marcus Vini- that is raised to divine status. beyond the easy . .. conclu sion that such ritu-
vanquished . What, he asks, constitutes the cius!). Beard points out that the slave and his Beard argues that the controve rsy surround- als ... acted to reaffirm soc iety's key values?
true triumph , the true heroi sm? Spectacular tri- cautionary wor ds have been cobbled together ing the deific ation of hum ans in this period is Or beyond the more subtle variant that sees
umph al backfires ca me in other forms too: out of bits and pieces of evidence from differ- the context in which to und erstand ancient them rather as the focu s of refl ection and
Rom an authors reported occas ions in which ent co ntexts and periods and that no single referenc es to the di vine status of the triumph- debate on those values . . . T. M ary Bear d
the miserable captives had awa kened pity text gives us the who le pictu re. She is simi- ing genera l, and that they do not offer any certainly gets us beyond the easy concl usion,
rather than Schade nfreude in the spec tators , larly sce ptica l about the mod ern theor y that support to theories about the primiti ve though by the end it' s still not clear what
who were led to reflect on their own troubles, the trium phin g general imp ersonat ed the god origin s of the triu mph in noti ons of divine might lie "beyond" the more subtle variant,
or on the possibilit y that they too might find Jupiter Best and Grea test, dressed in the kingship. Mu st we then resign ourse lves , in or whether we wa nt to go there, given that
themselves in the position of the defeated . clothes of his cult statue and with his face sim- the face of Beard' s sce pticism, to confessin g th is rich and provocative book offer s such a
Rom an audiences might identi fy with the ilarly paint ed red . The impersonati on of the our ignora nce about the precise det ails of this full account of what it means to ca ll ancient
captives, but it was cruc ial that the captives god, the admoni tory slave and the apotropaic col ourful and iconic ritua l, and acknow ledge Rome "a triu mphal culture" .

TLS D EC EMB E R 7 2 0 07
13

To warm the cold night


A forgotten Christmas masque by George Chapman stressed the
stability of lames I's Britain - and made Prince Charles dance
iterary historians are usually good MARTIN BUTLER making "the cold night warm f With stirring Are set in circle of his charmed co mmand,

L at rem emb erin g thing s, but occa-


sionally significa nt discoveries are
lost to sight. One such case is The
Masque of the Twelve Months which, nearly
sixty years ag o, was reco gniz ed as havin g
to be unreadabl e. It open s with a short section
that really belon gs in the ma squ e' s second
half. Th ere then follow s a lon ger passage
which repr esent s the true beginning ; next
pleasures" , and are answered with "frolic"
capers from a grotesq ue character nam ed
Pro gno stic ation ; he symbolica lly danc es out
good om ens for the new yea r. But these danc-
ers are on ly the wa rm-up for the eve ning 's
Walled with the wallowing ocean, and whose

Charming all war from his mild monarchy,


Tunes all his deeps in dreadful harmony!
hand,

As in all oth er court festi vals, the show end s


been writte n by the Renai ssanc e poet and there is a brief section which is the masque' s star performers: the twel ve Months, led by with the masque rs takin g ladies out from the
dr amati st Ge org e Chapma n. Brandon Ce nter- real conclusion , then a gro up of five songs "princely April" and "flourishing May" . audi enc e to dance the gen eral revel s.
wall 's mor e recent attribution to Chapman of which belon g in different part s of the dia - Th ese twel ve ge ntlemen would have been How can we be sure that Chapman wro te
a play, "C araca lla", found among the Cas tle logue . It look s as thou gh the songs were ori gi- top-ranking aristocrats and courtiers, dre ssed thi s confection? The text ha s so me verbal
Ashby manuscripts, in these pages pro vok ed nall y writte n together on a separate sheet of in the mo st ex pensive silks and cho sen for features that are Chapma nesq ue : for
scholarly dissent (March 3 1, 2006, and subse - pap er , and that Collier mudd led up the rest of their status, gracefulness and dancing skills. example , it use s the rar e term " ante -m asq ue "
qu ent correspondenc e) . Th e attribution of his tran script. Perhaps he had two sheets The scenery behind the heart open ed up to dis- rather than "anti-masq ue" , and refers to the
The Ma sque of the Twelve Month s, thou gh fold ed into four leaves, and put the out er clo se them arra yed in theatrical glory , with goddess Ath ena by an unusual but characteri s-
much mor e sec ure, was never follo wed up, shee t insid e what should have been the inn er. loud mu sic and glistering light s. tic spelling, "A thenia" , More deci sively,
and it wa s never dr awn into the mod ern col- Whatever happened, he print ed non sen se . back in 1950, in two brief not es, Kenn eth
lected editions of Cha pman. It has only ever Onc e reordered , the masqu e emerges as a Mui r and Ralph Elsley point ed out that it con -
been print ed once, in 1848 , and then in a charming but politically pointed fant asy cele- tained material deri ved from scattered part s
form so garbl ed as to be meaningless. bra ting the Stuart success ion and the happy of Ch apman' s work s. Th e story about Cupid
Today the com mon ass umption among peace of James' s Britain. The action open s beco ming a nightingale and a nymph reworks
sc ho lars is th at Chapman w rote on e court with a lighthearted prelud e, a dia logue a passage from his Tragedy of Charles, Duke
festi val, The Memorable Masque, performed bet ween a female fairy, Pigwi ggen , and an of Byron ( 1608), in which the same fable is
in 1613 at the we dding of James I' s daughter, owl, Mad ge How let. Madge has flo wn into applied as a compliment to Ma rie de' Medici;
Princ ess Eliz abeth (the futur e "Winter the Whit eh all Banqueting Hou se belie vin g it the masqu e borrows or paraphrases thirty-
Qu een "). But if thi s were true, it would see m to be some yeoman's barn , but Pig wig gen two lines. Th e dialogu e bet we en Beauty and
surprising that Chapman' s friend Ben Jon son expl ains that revel s will take plac e ton ight in Aglaia has a shor t pa ssage recycl ed word
- who wrote do zen s of ma squ es for James honour of the fair y king, and that she is there for word from The Memorable Masque. And
and hi s son Charles - should have told the to guard the roy al seat against evil influ enc es: there is a Chapman source for the text' s mo st
Scotti sh poet Willi am Drummond that , as ide Every night compellin g but strange lyric, a so ng calling
from him self, onl y Chapman and Fletcher Mak e I attendance on this blessed bower, on the masqu ers to warm the cold night with
cou ld make a masqu e. At the moment wh en Where majesty and love are met in one, the heat of their dancin g :
Jon son sa id thi s, Christmas 1618-19, he was All harmful spirits frighting from his throne, Shine out, fair suns, with all your heat,
visiting Drummond at hi s hom e near Edin- And keeping watch that no ill-looking planet Show all your thousand-coloured light;
bur gh. Perhaps Jon son knew that Ch apman Fasten his beams here; all ill-lookin g comets, Black Winter freezes to his seat;
was ind eed the poet who had been commis- In all their influences so much feared, The grey wolf howls, he does so bite;
sio ned in hi s abse nce to ent ert ain the court Converting into goo d and golde n dews Crook' d Age on three knees creeps the street;
that Christmas . That peace and plenty through the land diffuse. The boneless fish close quaking lies,
Th e probable rea son why this masque has The revel s, Pigwiggen tell s M adge, will be And eats for co ld his aching feet;
been almo st completely overlo ok ed is that it conducted by the "great enchantress, f Imperi - The stars in icicles arise.
was print ed by John Payn e Co llier, the Victo- ou s Beauty, who in her ch arm ed fort f Sit s Shin e out, and make this winter night
'J~{ r. , -,
rian literary scholar and notorious for ger. clo se hereb y", and she read s a procl amation .1 ' " .., Our Beauty' s spring, our Prince of Light.
Collier included it in Five Court Ma sques, callin g on all the ladies who wou ld join George Chapman by W iIliam Hole The bizarre images in thi s so ng are hard to
his contribution to the Sh akespeare Soci ety Beaut y' s train to attend. Mad ge ag rees to und erstand until one realizes that the y origi-
Publ ication s for 1848. Inevitabl y with watch the show fro m a vantage point among The main business of the masque was to nate with the Greek poet Hesiod, whose
Coll ier, the whiff of for ger y han gs about it. the spectators . She will perch o n "some cit y high light the masqu ers' elegant danc es, Works and Days Chapman tran slated in
Indeed , the manu scripts from which two of head- attir e" , the lace cap wo rn by a woman wh ich occupied much of the even ing. The se 1618.
the oth er masque s in thi s collection were in the audience , and "look throu gh that ". we re don e in stages, intersper sed with songs Hesiod describ es the miserabl e effect of a
print ed were give n the Collier treatm ent. Beaut y herself then enters, accompa nied and spee ches allow ing them to rest and co ld winter's day , saying (in Chapman' s
One , the anony mous Mount ebank 's Masqu e, by Aglaia, one of the Thr ee Graces . Her regain their breath. In a complex narr ati ve version) the "wild bea sts shrink, like tame
which surv ives today in the Huntington "charmed fort " turn s out to be a heart -shap ed betw een the dances, Beaut y makes an intri- three-footed men , f Who se back s are broke
Library in San M arino, has "John M arston" piece of sce nery, which open s to rev eal her. cate compliment to the principal month, with age, and forehead s dri ven f To stoop to
pencilled on it. The handwriting is osten sibly In dialogue with Aglai a, Beauty ex plains the April. He is "loved of all , yet will not love" , earth". In a margin al note, Chapman explain s
ear ly but is prob abl y Collie r's own ; toda y no und er lyin g symbolis m. Her fort is "the heart and Cupid him self has tried to en snare him. "He calls old men helped with staves in their
on e believes it is by Marston . The oth er, The of the yea r" , and it swe lls and bur sts open Cupid, we are told, came in disgui se, first in gait ' three-footed':'. As for the "boneless
Masque of the Four Seaso ns, Colli er claim ed with love for the King who is watching the the shape of a nightin gale and then as an fish " , thi s is Hesiod ' s term for th e octopu s as
was a major court show danc ed at Whit eh all show . In the heart she is served by eight armed nymph, and entreated Apri l to love, tran slated by Chapman, in a passage where
by Jam es' s son, Princ e Henr y. In fact, the young pages, sons of the Elements and the but April won the arrows from Cupid' s Hesiod describe s the octopus respond ing to
manu script (now in the Briti sh Library) Co mplex ions, who were prob abl y play ed by hands, "and now Lov e ' s shafts are head ed co ld by eating its ow n "feet" (what we would
states quit e clearl y that it was writte n for adolesce nt noblemen from the court' s inn er with his grac es". So wonderfully skilful is now call its tentacles): beh av iour that sounds
Sir Tho mas Middl eton of Chirk Cas tle, circl e. Ca lled up by Beauty, they fall into a his dancin g, thou gh, and that of the other incredib le but has been verified by modern
Denbighshir e, in 1634. dance . Thi s is the evening' s first highl ight , masquers (say s Beaut y), that they see m to be naturalists. For the tran slator of Hesiod , these
Th e manu script from which Collier printed and would have been staged with much ingen- guardian ang el s who will keep the realm arcane imag es enriched his portra yal of the
the Masque of the Twelve Months cannot iou s choreograph y. secure . Th is perm its a dire ct compliment to freezin g Chri stma s weather. Wheth er the
now be found , so its authenticity ine vitab ly What follows, thou gh, is more spectacular. the kin g : audience understood them is another que stion .
look s doubtful. But it can eas ily be shown Beauty now promi ses to call up the whole What shall we offer to his wisdom, then, Of course , such borrowin gs could still
to be authentic, since Colli er clearl y did not year to celebrate the court. At her command, By whom these mo ve and be? For whose point in Collier's dir ecti on . With Ch aprn an ' s
under stand what he was printing . Th e text is thirteen figur es depicting the year ' s Moons worth all works at his elbow , a det erm ined forger
complete, but is so chaotic ally arr ang ed as enter, with torch es in their hand s. Th ey dance, These wonders in these isles ange lical could have creat ed a pastich e which knitt ed

TLS D EC EM B ER 7 20 0 7
14 COMMENTARY
Victorian ~cience
New from Chicago togeth er a masqu e from some of the ob scurer Th e oth er confirmation comes from a set sparked off a chain of eve nts that led to the
work s of this important dram ati st and poet. of sce ne design s that survives toda y in the loss of his own territories in the Rhin eland ,
But Co llier did not attempt to claim the text coll ecti on of the Duk e of Devon shire at and to a Euro pean conflagration lasting thirt y
for Cha pman, nor could he have kno wn the Chatsw orth. Masqu es were staged with yea rs. As it happened , the principal diplo-
fact s that have subseq uently com e to light co stly sce nery and costu mes, usually matic guest at the perform anc e of the Masque
about the masqu e danc ed at Whit ehall on designed by the court architect Inigo Jon es. of the Twelve Month s was Frede rick's ambas -
Twelfth Ni ght , 1619 . This is the only major Th e grande ur of the scenes, and the amazin g sador Baron Dohna, sent to London on a mis-
Christmas festi val fo r the whole Jacobean illu sioni stic effe cts creat ed as they chan ged , sion to so licit English support in Bohemi a.
period for which no text has yet been identi- were always the heart of the evening 's It was all the mor e striking, then, that the
fied . It was the last festi vity to take plac e in enterta inment. Lik e all Jon es' s work, the masqu e stresse d so much the stability and
the Banqu etin g Hou se built for James in Chatsw orth design s are little mor e than rough security of Jam es' s Britain , the mon arch ' s
1606-07, for the structure burn ed do wn a sketches, but three can be conn ected with the wi sdom, his court' s harmoniou sness, and the
wee k later, afte r which Inigo Jon es built on masqu e . In their defin itive edition of the gu arant ee of future peace offered by his
the sa me spot the new Banqu etin g Hou se that masqu e dra win gs, Stephen Orgel and Roy "charmed command". In the event , James
still sta nds in Whit ehall tod ay. Strong date two of these to 1619 on stylistic gave Frede rick on ly very limi ted support.
Nothin g much was kno wn abo ut thi s gro unds . One of them shows the ma squ e Although man y of his subje cts felt thi s was
masqu e until 1978, when the Ca nadian takin g plac e in a visual frame composed of a decisive moment in intern ation al affair s,
The Earth on Show scholar John Orr ell unco vered a diplomatic the twel ve figur es of the zodiac presided over James preferred to keep his distanc e from
Fossils and the Poetics ofPopularScience, /802-1856 dispatch sent back to Turin by the Savoy by Time . One shows the discover y of the conflicts which he cou ld not financiall y
Ralph O'Connor resident Giova nni Batti sta Ga baleone, masqu er s, and two have in their centr e a afford, and which he feared wo uld destabilize
"Abrilliant and highly readable book examining the describing the repeat performance which was con spicuou s depiction of a heart. Th ese are his own government. Perh aps, give n what we
complex relationships between fact and fantasy, science stage d in a new venue at Shro vetid e. Italian the only masqu e sketches in which a heart now kno w about the next thirt y years, he was
and the imagination, characteristic oftheaccounts of ambassa dors at Jam es' s court always had a app ears as a sce nic obj ect. right in this assessment. Still , on e can ima g-
the Earth's prehistory that proliferated during the
Romantic period.... [O'Connor] writeswith wit and keen interest in state ceremonial and how it Wh at, then , wo uld Chapman's masqu e ine Baron Dohna blenching when he heard
verve, and the story he has totell isenthralling." compared with festi vities at hom e, and, fo rtu- have meant for the court in 1619 ? The the masqu e' s description of the "wallowing
-Anne Barton, University of Cambridge nately for us, Gabaleon e describ ed the show nineteen -year-old Princ e Charles - " Sweet ocea n" that separated Brit ain from the Conti-
Cloth26.00 at some len gth : April , loved of all, yet will not love" - had nent, and its prai se of Jam es for "Charming
[On Monday last] his highness the Prince of newl y entered the politic al arena . He was all war from his mild monarchy, I [And
Wales accomp anied by eleve n other principal invested as Princ e of Wales in 1617 , and tun ing] all his deeps in dreadful harmony".
lords - among them the Marquis of plans wer e afoot to identify a brid e suitable This mad e it mor e than ob viou s where
Bu ckin gh am - pe rfo rme d <1 very lo ve ly and for him . Roy al attenti on wa s focu sed on find - Jarne s' s fam ily and politi cal priorities lay.
very sumptuo us masque in the roya l halls ing a Ca tholic princ ess, as James was keen to The Masque of the Twelve Month s mark ed
before the king and a great number of lords balanc e the marri age to a Ge rman Prot estant a new turn in Jac obean court culture, from its
and ladies. The masque represe nted the four princ e that had been struck up in 1614 for older cosmopolitan , out ward- looking mode
seaso ns of the yea r with very rich costumes, Charles 's sis ter. James felt that , in a Europe to much mor e defen sive form s of ce lebration
some full hose and some in the French style, in divid ed by acute reli giou s differenc es, he und er the pressur e of a mounting politic al cri -
various colours. could use the marriages of his children as sis. The C hristmas masque s that foll owed in
Gabaleon e goes on to say that the fir st intern ation al dyn astic cement. He was also Jame ss rem ain ing years (all of them written
acti on was a danc e of "twe lve littl e pages" , attracted to the idea of a conn ection with the by Jon son) mostl y took peac e as their them e.
foll owed by "sixteen page s dressed like Spani sh ro yal famil y, the Hab sburgs, as Th ey dwelt insistentl y on the need for stabil-
wom en in a lon g white robe , bearin g a moon Spa in was one of Europe' s mo st po werful ity in a Europe that wa s sinking into progres-
at the head, and in the hand two lit torch es". states - albeit thi s was not a choice popul ar sively greater conflict, and on the wisdom of
Th en the princ e and lords were disco vered in with his subje cts. And so began the doomed James ' s desire to rem ain disengaged from
Science in the Marketplace a setting with "very lovely orn ament s" , and diplomatic pur suit of the Infanta Mari a, overseas affairs. Thi s ten sion, between the
Nineteenth-Century Sites and Experiences perform ed their danc es until two o'clock in which culminated in 1623 with Cha rles's requirem ent to celebrate the court and the
Editedby Alleen Fyfe and Bernard L1ghtman the mornin g. Inevitabl y, what Gabaleon e farcic al journey to Madrid in pur suit of a need to address a wider cri sis in which Jam es
"Theeditors and their enthusiasticteam take us onan
describ es does not correspond point by point brid e that he was never able to brin g back . was conducting a ho ldin g act ion, was onl y
exciting tourof neglected locations wherean expanding
audience forscience wasattracted and wooed. w ith Chapma ns text. M asqu e s sometimes All thi s, thou gh , was still in the future . In beginning to develop in 1619. No netheless
Exhibitions, galleries and museums, lecture-halls,clubs chan ged in rehear sal, and amb assadors oft en 1619, Charles danc ed in the role of a virile its out lines are already deci sively apparent in
and salons all featureinstimulatingessaysthatbring miscount ed the numb ers of danc ers. But yo ung lover, accompanied by his glamorous Chapmans ma squ e.
to lifethe experiences of theaudiences themselves."
-John Brooke, University ofOxford enough of the essenti al details are there to friend , the Marquis of Buckingham , as Wheth er peace at all costs was Ch apman' s
Cloth26.00 identify it: the danc e of sma ll pages, the entry "flourishing May" . Th e presence of these own wish it is harder to say. The Masque oj
of Moons bearing torch es, and the seas onal two young men , one the King' s son, the other the Twelve Months sta nds a long way fro m
them e of the fict ion, twel ve masqu ers whose his dear favourite and bosom associ ate, The Memorable Masque. The more optimis-
roles embo died the turnin g seasons of the attested to a mood of confidenc e and energ y tic themes of that earlier text impli ed support
year. at Whit ehall . James may have been ageing , for "forward" polici es in religion and trade ,
To this we may add two independent confir- but his son was fre sh ly comin g onto the and sug ges ted that Britain' s role was to lead
mation s of the dat e. One comes from within ceremonial stage as a forc e in his ow n right. the world, not to ex ist in isolation from it.
the text itself: Pigwiggen' s statement that she His youthful virility embodied the hop es for But The Memorable Masque was written in
is at Whit ehall to ward away the influ enc e of seasonal renewal in the Stu art dyn asty. The different tim es, and in any case masque po ets
any dangerou s com et s. Thi s mu st refer to the masqu e had a doubl e focu s, on the old King were not free to say what they wanted. Th eir
com et which appeared ove r Eng land between and the coming cro wn prince. Th e cold role was to serve and ce lebr ate .
Novemb er 18 and Decemb er 16, 1618, and of winter would be tran sformed into a Th ey had to pro vide the Crow n with
cau sed a sensa tion. It was thought to port end mar vellou s spring by the erotic potential of de vice s that dram atized its current priorities,
grea t trouble s, and pr edictions and analyses th e ne xt gen er ation. And ye t the eve ning w as a nd to in stil re sp ect for th ose priorities in th e
were made on it, including John Bainbridge' s shadowe d by hint s of an xiet y, the om en s and spectators who witnesse d the show . Certainly
An Astronomi cal Description of the Late port ent s that Pigwig gen warded aw ay, and Ga baleone was won over. Wh en Jame s asked
Comet. Jam es him se lf becam e so irrit ated by which Beaut y acknowledg ed by keeping in him what he thou ght of the masqu e, he
Victorian Popularizers of Science the publi c speculation that he excla imed the her "charmed fort " . repli ed "that it see med an impressive thin g to
Designing Nature for NewAudiences com et was nothing more than "Venus with a The Europea n situation was deteriorating, me, but that the mo st impressive was to hav e
Bernard Lightman fire-brand in her arse", and wrot e an exas per- du e largel y to events in Bohemi a, where the see n his highness the Princ e of Wal es danc e
"Unwrapthe presentsunder aVictorianChristmas tree, ated satire in verse warnin g his subje cts to Bohemian "estates", the Prot estant minority, with such majesty and grace". To judge
and you wouldbelikely tofind an accessible, attractively keep their idea s under control : "W herefore I wheth er Chapman's achi evem ent still see ms
illustrated book on science.... Llghtmansheds aflood
were in rebellion aga inst their new ruler, the
oflight ontheauthors of these volumes. .. and this wish the curious man to keep I His rash imagi- Archduke Ferdinand, a Catholic and cou sin as persuasive as it did to thi s Itali an ob server ,
deeply researched study isan indispensable guide to nation s till he sleep" . The ma squ e charact er to the Spani sh Habsburgs. In 1619, Jame ss read ers will have to con sult the masque in
their world."- James A. Secord, University of Cambridge called Pro gno stic ation similarly belon gs to a Germ an son-in-law , Frede rick the Pa latin e the current issue of English Literary
Cloth26.00
Christmas season when omen s were a matter Princ e, was offered the Boh emian cro wn by Renaissance, where it app ears in full and in
of sudde n compellin g interest. the Prot estant estates, and his acceptance the correct sequence .

TLS D EC EMB ER 7 200 7


COMMENTARY 15

ernon Scan nell, who died last mon th, form " . Two years later, Sca nnell - who had

V was born John Yerno n Bain in


Linco lnsh ire in 192 2. He never
exp lai ned the exac t ma nner in wh ich he
Painter and poet fought in the Middl e Eas t and the Nor mandy
landings, had dese rted prev iously, and been
brut all y treated in milit ary prison - was aga in
acquired his assumed name. It was not until A London encounter in the aftermath of war arres ted in Leeds , court-ma rtia lled and (when
1983 - with the publication of his volume of the military board heard he was a poet ) se n-
autobiography, The Tiger and the Rose, when tenced to a "soft" term in a psychi atri c ward .
he was sixty - that he reca lled in print his Bomberg, WaIter Sickert, Wyndh am Lewis Out of this expe rience came his memorabl e
desertion from the Ar my after YE Day, when and other celebrated British painters of the last poem , "Casualty - Mental Ward" , with its
he ass umed the surna me under whic h he century . At the time of his meeting with Scan- refrain , "Something has go ne wro ng inside
subsequently lived and wro te as a poe t. Even nell, though registered as a conscientiou s my head . / I hold long con ver sations with the
there, however , he left clues partially hidden. obje ctor and directed to work on the land as a dead" . But how did he acquire his new sur-
In a subsequent volume of autobi ograp hy farm labourer, Holden occas ionally modelled name ? He does not say. Hold en recalls that it
published four yea rs later, Argument of in art schools in Lond on and was at the time was provided by a prostitut e, who wor ked for
Kings, which surveys his wa rtime expe ri- working full-time with Ball in an "illicit fac- a brothel- owner friend.
ences , Sca nne ll revea ls (in the penulti mate tory for the making of dolls' heads", in which That same year, the Borough Gro up held its
sen tence) that whe n he deserted from bar- Scannell jo ined them, later graduating with first two exhibitions in Lond on, at the Archer
racks at Hamilton in Scotland after the Ger- Holden to a new enterprise in which they bot- Ga llery and the Everyman Cinema. And a
man surrender in March 1945, he was "walk- tled and sold a vile-sme lling perfum e at a stall year later, Bomberg formall y joined the gro up,
ing away from the army befor e it dehuma n- in Walthamstow Marke t. Scannell remembers assumed the presidency in place of Holden
ised [him] co mpletely" . In The Tiger and the that by lunchtime, "The reek of the scent grad- and began exhibiting with his students. Photo-
Rose he tells how he travelled to London, and ually seemed to penetrate eve ry pore of my graphs in David Bomberg, the monograph by
how on arrival he we nt to a flat in She pherd 's body and even find its way down my throat Richard Cork ( 1987), show Holden, Mead and
Bush where his younger sister, Sylvia, was and into the stomac h. I thought I would never Creffield in Bomb erg' s classes a few years
living, and me t two ana rchists, whom he be free of the taste of it" . later. Holden now has painti ngs in the Tate,
names only as "Cliff ' and " Peter", who With an adven turo us life behind him as a the Arts Council collection and in major
helped him with his deserti on . profession al boxer (a career Sca nnell was collections in Swe den, where he has lived for
"Peter" was Peter Ball. "Cliff ' was Cliff also to try), agricultural labour er and honor- half a century. He has welcomed the kings of
Holden , who a few yea rs later became a ary Gypsy, Holden was at the time disent an- show the dirt" . Since Sca nnell was much big- both Swe den and Norway to Mars trand island,
found er and fir st president of the Borough gling himself from a wa rtime career as ana r- ger than Holden or Ball , "there was nothin g off the coast of Sweden, where he and his
Gro up: arde nt, highl y motivated young paint- chist organizer and agi tator. He was on the for it but to buy trousers. Sylvia supplied the family ran a success ful design studio - albeit,
ers who came together in 1946 to bring atten- edi torial collective of the anarchist jou rnal necessary clot hing coupo ns and I had enough on his introdu ction to the King of Swe den,
tion to the approach in paintin g of their War Commen tary, which cha nged its name cas h to buy a pair of heavy work man's cordu- he was wear ing a jac ket in the red and black
teacher, David Bomb erg. (At the time of after the war to Freedom, and had edited arti- roys which Sylvia chose since I could not go of anarchy.
Sca nnell's death, another for mer me mber of cles for the jo urna l by George Or well, Ge rald into a ci vilian clo thes shop dressed in uni- PA UL T RE W HE LA
the Boro ugh Gro up, Denni s Creffield - intro- Bre nan and Herbert Read, while articles
duced to Bomb ergs teachin g by Holden - und er his ow n name appeared in its issues of
had an exhibitio n of charcoal drawin gs at the mid-October 1942 and mid-Septemb er 1943.
James Hyman Ga llery in London. ) Holden
had tremend ou s energy , and no one did more
In April 1944 he was himself the subjec t of a
front- page news article in the Manchester ~
than he to bring attention to Bo mberg ' s work Daily Dispatch, headed "CID see ks appre n- LIVERPOOL
and teachi ng for almos t twent y yea rs. The tices' strike leader". The article stated that
form ation of the Borou gh Gro up, which Scotland Yard was "anxious to interview a
mounted seven exhibitions in five years, young man who is believed to be the head of
Bomberg's first posthu mous retros pec tive a secre t organ isation behind the shipya rd and
OBELISK
(with the Art s Co unc il, in 1958) and the first engineering apprentices who are on strike on
public apprec iation of Bomberg' s work as a Tynes ide and Clydes ide, as well as at Hud- A Hi story of Jack Kahane
te acher (Ho lden 's ra d io talk , " A n artis t as dersfie ld and Middlesbro ugh". Tho ugh not and the Obelisk Press
teacher" , on BBC Radio Three in 1958) were detecte d on that occ asion, Holden had spe nt NEIL PEARSON
all due to his effor ts . time in the polic e ce lls - as he was to do agai n
'Obelis k, in Pearson 's skilled hand s, is an
When Sca nnell arrived at his sister's flat in Franco's Spain in the mid- 1950s, when he
in May 1945, she was in a brief relation ship punched a Civ il G uard followin g the shoo ting entertaining and immensely readable book ...
with Holden, who says he fir st met her at of an anarchi st esca pee in the mount ains of the literary world owes a lot to Kah ane and
Lucian Freud 's house in Lond on . Sca nnell And alusia, where Holden was paintin g. the Obelisk Pre ss and to Pearson 's lively
relates how the door was opened by a "short, By May 1945, however , Holden had account of their adventurous publishing lives.'
com pac tly built young man with rather pale already met Bomberg, then teachin g part- Tom Rosenthal , Independent onSund'!)i
eyes whic h look ed wa ry and unwelc omin g". time at the City Literary Institut e in Lond on, 9781846311017 Cloth 2 5.00
This was Holden, who we lcomed Sca nne ll in and was ready to begin inten sive study with
for a meal as soo n as Sy lvia explained who the man who m he still calls his "Master" THE PARIS OLYMPIA PRESS
he was. Scannell told them he had deserted when Bomb erg began his teachi ng at the PATRI CK KEARNEY
and wa nted to stay for a few days until he Boro ugh Po lytec hnic in Southwa rk that Oc to-
EDITED BY ANGUS C ARROLL III L
co uld get some civilian clo thes, and that he ber. Hold en and one of Bomberg' s earliest
"\ RI '\: (,:)1 ) ,\11' 1 \
hoped Hold en wo uldn' t be worrie d. "Sy lvia stude nts, Dorothy Mead , who for eleven A detailed account of the notorious Press 's
I'RI
laughed" , Sca nnell recalled. " 'O h, Cliff yea rs was his lover , rec ruited students for publishing activities, including biograp hical
won' t mind. He'll he glad to help. He ' s on Romh erg' s classes when they modelled in sketches of its au thors, an introduction to the
the run himsel f. So is Peter' . ... They were the es tablishme nt art schools, and togeth er
both An archi sts; Cliff, passionatel y con-
vinced of the truth of his convictions, wo uld
took the initiati ve in formin g the Borou gh
Group - without Bomb erg as a member, but
Press's literary achievements, and a complete
bibliography of works published .
9781846311055 Cloth 25.00
-_.-
quote Baku nin, Krop otki n and Herbert Read und er his guida nce - in 1946. Holden seve red
while Peter smiled with a gen tle sce pticism , his co nnec tions with anarchism after he
amused by his friend ' s enthusias m." Sca nnell fo und his Spa nish and Hungarian comrades COLLECTORS' EDITION
wri tes that Holden , alrea dy by then a painter , discuss ing the use of wea pons, a seri ous limited print run, slip-cased Obelisk/The Paris OlYmpia Press set
was "not only an enthusiast but was , in his breach with his ow n ea rly Quaker beliefs. 9781846311062 100.00, available January 2008.
unm ateri alistic way, very ambitious". Holden has told me how he burnt Sca n-
Soo n to be eighty-eig ht, and still an enthusi- nell's uniform in the kitchen gra te at the flat wwwJiverpool-unipress.co.uk
ast, Holden is today the oldes t surviving mem- in Shepher d's Bush. Accordin g to The Tiger Te!. + 44 (0)151794 2233 Em ail: lup@liv.ac.uk
ber of the Lond on Gro up, which was found ed and the Rose, Cl iff "parted with an old navy Trade orders: Marston Book Services Te!. +44 (0)1235 465 500
before the First World War and includ ed blue shirt, a useful colour since it would not

TLS DECEM BER 7 2007


16 COMMENTARY

ritish artists are ser ious ly dismayed Blick , and, accor din g to the producer, it

B these days. They cannot fathom why


one decent art ist se lls for millions
while others disappear into obli vion. At
FREELANCE inspir ed him to wr ite eac h and eve ry episo de .
He traced M argarit a through her gallery.
Pleasantly surprised, Marg arita tactfully
numerous shows, auctions and art fairs, the Z IN O VY Z IN I K scho ol and initi ally did not regard her self as asked which painting Hugo Blick was talkin g
new breed of milliona ires from Russ ia and an artist. She began to move in artistic circles about. It was a depi cti on of a night train ' s
C hina buy wor ks of art for huge sums of surp rising ly few of them rebe l; and those onl y when she worked in a bar in Hoxton headlamp s like the beamin g eyes of a mo n-
money, guided by no ne of the accep ted who do resort to a kind of punk ideolo gy: Sq uare, in Shoreditch. At her show in the stro us ghost. Ma rga rita 's me mory was wor k-
aesthe tic or commercial criteria. The sums they turn their atte ntion to rubbi sh heaps in disused Trinity Churc h at Ma rylebo ne, I was ing hard. She asked where Blick go t the paint-
involved are so unpredictable that peo ple fee l order to show the wor ld that modern art is told by her friends that she became interested ing, and was told that it was bou ght in a sec-
dizzy, lose their sight and sense of perspec - nothi ng but junk. Two of my fellow memb ers in taxid erm y because her father was an on d-han d arty shop in Ca mde n. At this point,
tive. I was told by con noisse urs of Russian of the Co lony Roo m Club even created a pop ex porter of ostriches to England. In her wor k, some thing cli cked in Margarit a' s mem ory.
oliga rchs that these nouvea u-ric he types are group call ed The Rubbi sh Men . My friend she tries not to turn the corpse of a dead After leavin g unive rsity, she shared a big
guided only by their perso nal advisers who Martin Rowson , a car toonist, wro te a book anima l into a simulacru m of life ; no, she pre- hou se in the wro ng part of Cam de n Tow n
have their own unartistic reasons for prompt- abo ut rubbi sh in his childho od : Stuff But serves the deadl y state in whic h she found it. with so me fellow artists where , with the
ing the boss to buy this or that piece of wor k. even when it co mes to rubbi sh , some of the I was much imp ressed by her pale lady doll energy of yo uth, she had pro duced a numb er
In my paranoid view , this atmos phere of chaos ar tists are on the tip of the heap, while others at the table strewn with corp ses of birds and of giga ntic ca nvases in a bomb astic ex pres -
and disarray in the art wor ld is deliberately are sliding furth er and furth er do wn . other dead stuff under the glass, like in a sion ist sty le. Eve ntually, the day came whe n
crea ted by the for mer KGB apparatus now in I' m famil iar with two artists who gather cabine t of curiosi ties. I now realize that Mi ss the building was to be redeveloped, and
powe r in Ru ssia, which, in cahoots with the material for their wor k off the pavem ent , or Havisham co uld have served as a spiritual eve ryo ne had to move out. M argarit a chose
Ch inese Po litburo , employ the shock tactics of in dead anima l deposito ries, where yo u find idea l for ecology warriors . No wonder energy - the best of her output, leaving behind a few
bu ying the wor ks of art without any visible victims of road acc ide nts and harsh wea ther savi ng environme ntalists make so much fuss big ca nv ases that she regarded as expe rime n-
logic, at random , in order to induce panic in co nditions. Bot h are taxidermi sts. One is my abo ut the ways of co llecti ng rubbi sh . tal junk. Wh en the builders mo ved in, these
the enemy camp , to co nfuse and des troy its old fri end Gi ll Ru ssell , who a few yea rs ago Rubbish bins are a hunting gro und not only unfra med pictures mu st have been chucke d
aesthetic system, wea ken its socia l fabric and crea ted a wo nder ful taxid ermi st samp le of an for ce lebri ty-w ors hippe rs (who try to find out into the skip. It was from there, most prob-
undermin e Western moral values. They pre - ow l, immaculately restored , whose o ne eye what brand of beer their go ds pre fe r), but also abl y, that a clever treasure-hunter fished out
pare the gro und for a new prol etarian revo lu- was rep laced with a video ca mera. It has a for art collec tors . There are num erou s tall Margarit a' s painting which, ma ny years later ,
tio n, with artists as the revoluti on' s vanguard. mech ani sm that makes the ow l rotate o n a stor ies abo ut a Picasso foun d in a skip. This was sold to the creator of Sensi tive Skin . For
Because mo dern artists are the new prole- rod , so if you fix it up on the lintel of you r yea r, my dau ght er' s caree r go t a boost thank s a decent sum of mon ey (not to be revealed ).
tariat. Sin ce the I960s, Brit ish art schoo ls front door, yo u can view on a scree n every- to one of those rubbi sh-h eap hunt ers. M argar- "I told yo u many times to be more careful
have produ ced so ma ny artists that nobod y thing that is happ en ing around yo ur hou se. ita Glu zberg teaches part-time at the Royal about yo ur masterpi eces, not to throw them
knows what to do with them and their art. Apart from the undi sput ed artistic value of Co llege of Art. Her recent show was so ld out around as if it was some kind of ju nk" , I sa id,
These depri ved masses of artists lead squa lid this video -ow l, the install ation can be used as - not for hund reds of thou sands, thou gh , and like any ca ring father , co nce rne d about of his
ex istences , in shared acco mmo da tio n and a cland estin e sec urity device. So far nobod y life in Lond on is expe nsive . She was plea sed , offspring's artistic legacy.
com munal dwe llings , mi serable, dark and has been tempt ed. Gi ll still works as a house therefore , whe n thi s summer she was ca lled "You' re wro ng" , was my da ug hter's reply.
damp, frequ ently witho ut hea ting, where they painter and decor ator in orde r to survive. by the pro ducer of the BBC dra ma series "If I hadn 't treated my wor k as j unk, it wo uld
strugg le daily for a mor sel of rec ognitio n on Polly Morgan ' s stuffed crea tures, on the Sensi tive Skin, starr ing Joanna Lu mley. The have been ga thering du st in my studio,
emp ty stomac hs , biting their nail s and paint- other hand, are snatched by collec tors from pro ducer was see king Margar ita' s permiss ion instead of falling into the hand s of a very
bru sh handl es in bout s of envy and rage . Of every show she has, for hun dreds of thou- to use one of her paintings in the latest insta l- influ enti al TV writer and bein g made a cen-
course, they are ripe for revolt , read y to sands of pou nds. Perhaps she's so success fu l ment s. The paintin g han gs above the desk of tral piece of the star -studded ser ial." Fame,
destroy the cap italist art establishme nt. But because she never grad uated from any art the writer and director of the series, Hugo mo ney and all that stuff - it' s all rubbi sh.

pose interpretative probl ems. It is not simply


IN NEXT WEEK 'S THEN AND NOW that a balance has to be struck bet ween the
history of Ireland and the hi story of An glo-
Irish relation s, difficult thou gh it may be to
Great Hou se, which deser ves to def y the es tab lish th e c or rec t emphas is . There is a
TLS Febru ary 24 1989
ravages of tim e. mo re incestuou s and more dangerou s sense
Roy Foster His prose, at once lyrical and sinewy, is a in which the history of mo dern Ireland tend s
pleasure to read; and the felicity of style is to be written, ofte n uncon sciou sly, fro m an
In the week of our review of the contin uation match ed by organi zation al skill. Section after anglo centri c perspecti ve . So much of the
of R. F. Foster 's history of modern Ireland section is a model of concision , yet the text source material reflect s Eng lish ass um ptions
(1'8), we look back to our review of his rarely appea rs hurried or foreshort ened. The that perspecti ves can eas ily be di stort ed .
Roger Scruton original volume, by Joseph Lee. To read the book' s finest moments include his topo graph i- Th e impli cation s of his approac h co nfro nt
Fos ter fro m the very first sentence, "When
article in fu ll, got to www.the-tls.co.uk. ca l survey of ear ly seven tee nth-ce ntury Ire-
What is
. C. Beckett' s The Making of Modern
land , the de licate prob e into "the cove rt co nti-
nuiti es from the Tudor per iod" in Stuart Ire-
does mod ern Irish history begin ?" Havin g
canvassed var ious answers, including Henry
forgiveness ?
J Ireland 1603- 1923 has held pride of
place since its publi cation in 1966 not
only as the standard narrative history of the
land, the descripti on of the dilemm a of the
Old Eng lish, whose loyalty to the Crow n left
them vulnera ble to shifting power relations in
VllI 's assumption of the title " King of Ire-
land " in 1541 , the co llapse of the am bitions
of Hugh O 'Neill in the ch aos of Kin sale in
John Habgood per iod, but as one of the outstanding studies of Stuart Eng land, the delinea tion of the contours 1601 , and O 'Ne ills fli ght to the Co ntine nt in
the modern history of any Europea n coun try. of the seve ntee nth-cen tury planter and the 160 7, Foster co rrec tly concludes that "noth-
Strident atheists Roy Fos ter's Modern Ireland 1600-1 972, eighteenth-ce ntury asce ndancy men talities, ing began , or ended, thu s neatly" . Neverthe-
a very different type of histor y, is full y the vig ne ttes e ncapsulating hi s refl ection s on less, the criterion for all the sugges ted dates,
wor thy of the standa rd set by Beckett. the Cro mwe llian and Williamite settlemen ts, or for alterna tive possibiliti es, like 1534 ,
John Rogister Ambitious ly co nceive d and beautifully the account of the spread of Orangism in where the relevant vo lume of A New History
designed , it is in the first place a wor k of art. It nineteenth- century Ulster and of Fenianism in of Ireland begin s - is the end, or the begin-
Walls of Versailles is no coincidence that Fos ter integra tes archi- the other provinces, and the analysis of the nin g of the end of Gae lic Ireland . .. .
tectur al histor y with striki ng effec t into his post-Parnellite period , where he trenchantly "We are all revision ists now" , Foster has
Katherine study. He has a discernin g eye , and an almos t challenges the fam iliar assumption of a transfer writte n elsew here . But thi s tell s us little, as he
tacti le feel, for the great hou ses of Ireland , of emo tional ene rgy from politics to cultu re. imm edi atel y find s him self obl iged to wrestle
Duncan-Jones both in their ow n aes thetic right and as custo- Fos ter determined to write an acco unt with riva l definiti on s of revisioni sm , rang ing
dians of gen tee l tradition . He qu otes Yeats: which wo uld be "above all, an Irish interpr eta- fro m merely the present ation of new ev i-
Shake speare 's to ki ll a house tion of the histor y of mo dern Irel and" . Yet dence to anti-nationa lis m . . . . He wo uld
Where great men grew up, married , died, while it ca nno t be cla imed that, after nea rly seem to be a rather mild rev isionist, retainin g
affida vit I here decl are a capita l offe nce. seventy yea rs of self-govern men t of a sor t, a broadl y beni gn attitu de toward s a moderate
In Modern Ireland Foster builds his own thi s exe rcise is prem atur e, it continues to brand of Irish nationa lism . . ..

T L S D EC EM BE R 7 2007
17

Britten delib erately and delicat ely avo ided.


The EN O cast was assured and profic ient.

Demons in D major Best of all, the Miles of Geor ge Longworth


(Covent Gard en ' s Yniold ear lier this yea r),
clearly, sensitively, and trul y sung and
enacted , with confidenc e, without affectation
AN DREW PORTER - the best Miles ever , I thought. He had
already sung the role in Liege. Naza n Fikret
B enjamin Britt en shone, too , as Flora . Now a Guildhall stu-
dent, she is internati onally seas oned in the
THE T URN O F T HE S CREW role: a biographical note listed eight Euro-
Coliseum pean citi es in which she has played it since
her London debut , aged thirteen , in Elijah
fter a drab new Carmen, a cheap new Moshin sky' s produc tion . The very fir st

A Poppaea, and a coarse new Aida,


thin gs took a turn for the better at the
Coliseum with the arri val of a new Turn of
Flora, the matur e (but diminuti ve) soprano
Oli ve Dyer , called for some suspens ion of
disbelief. A yo ung Nicholas Hytner , in 1979,
the Screw. It is a Maryin sky Th eatre produc- boldl y cast the twel ve-year-old Reb ecc a
tion, by David McVicar, first see n in St Platt. Fikret combined con vinc ingly youthful
Peter sbur g last year (with a Russian ca st sing- dem ean our and tone with trenchant deli very
ing in English, and Valery Gergi ev conduct- of the difficult, emoti onall y and vocally intri-
ing). At the Co liseum it repla ces Jonathan cate lullab y. Rebecc a Eva ns was a moving,
Mill er' s long-li ved 1979 staging, last seen in pleasingly direct gove rness, ju st occasionally
1993 with Valeri e M aster son as the gove rn- pushing into impurity of timbr e. Ann Mur-
ess and Philip Langrid ge as Peter Quint. In Rebecca Evans as the governess and George Longworth as Miles ray, Mr s Grose, was a dignifi ed hou sekeep er,
different ways, Mill er and McVicar took up slightly grander than usual (for her origin al
the challenge of presentin g Benjamin Brit- was perhap s surprising that the drama cam e mind" . But James is "vague" , ambiguous - " He do hate wo rry" , the "does" of later edi-
ten' s chamber opera - six singers, thirt een across as powe rfully as it did - a tribut e to the and he knew it. In 1898, when H. G. Wells tion s was used) , and edgy rather than warm
players - in London' s largest theatre. cas t, to Britten ' s score, and to Frank Mat- sugges ted that the gove rness was somew hat of tone. There was ju st a touch of Mr s Dan-
Mill er' s designer, Patrick Rob ert son , used chams genius as a theatr e archit ect. und erdefined , James repli ed that he "had to ver s about her. A note of edgy desperation in
im agin ativ e , techni call y inno vati ve projec- Thousands of words have heen spilled over rule out subjective compli cat ion s" as he dealt Ch eryl Barker' s Miss .Jessel was not inappro-
tions to sugges t the scale and scope and the Henr y Jarnes' s tale and the opera based on it. with "the grotesque business I had to make priate. Tim oth y Robin son ' s Quint was exce l-
beautiful surroundings of Bly, the haunt ed Is it the je u d 'esprit ghos t story James said her picture" . In a preface to the New York lent - allurin gly, subtly sinister. (An other
Essex country house. His designs, like John he'd written, or are the ghosts, as Edmund edition of the tale he "recognized" that "Peter supernatural tale about a doomed boy, D. H.
Piper' s colourful paint ed elements for the Wil son declar ed in a 1938 essay, " not real Quint and Miss Jessel are not 'ghosts' at all, Lawrenc e ' s "The Rockin g-Horse Winner" ,
ori ginal stag ing (1954) , found imagery for ghosts at all but merely hallucinations of the but . . . demon s as loosely con struct ed as came to mind as McVicar gave prominenc e
the exuberant musical beaut y of the D-m ajor gove rness"? Leon Edel agreed with Wil son; tho se of the old trials for witchcraft" . Perhaps to the rockin g hor se.)
variation and fourth scene, and the F-sharp S. Gorley Putt in his Reader' s Guide to Henry all that needs say ing now is that Britten Garry Walker made his ENO debut con-
bri ghtn ess of the Sund ay morning sce ne in l ames (1966) called the gove rness a "vam- and Piper created an opera that retain s ductin g thirt een skilled soloists from the
Act Two. Evil, with chilling effect, sto le into pire" , the "emotional cannibal " whose hysteri- James' s ambiguities beneath the narrative orch estra, securing chamber pla ying that
an idyll. A sma ll, central acting area kept the cal behaviour cau ses little Miles' s death . In surface. At Morl ey College in 1966 Geoffr ey neverth eless see med to fill the huge house.
drama in tight focu s. In the new stag ing, James, no one but she "sees" the ghosts, and Connor was the first to challenge the English His bal ance of the marvellou s musical struc-
Tanya Mc Callin' s full- stage set and her they do not speak. In Britten ' s opera they Opera Group's "straight" produ ction. Dacre ture and inventions (twe lve-note them e and
co stum es are all-bl ack , relieved only by have an ex istence indep endent of her : they Punt' s setting sugg ested not Bly but the "laby- fifteen variations) and the taut dramatic line
touch es of white (bedcl othes, a rockin g sing a colloquy together ; Quint con verses rinth " of mysterie s in which the gove rness is was sure. Onl y Miles and Flor a sang English
horse), and a patch of yellow backcl oth with Miles, and Mi ss Jessel with Flora. lost. She was present during the ghos ts' collo- well; the other s were clear at the expense of
added to the outdoor sce nes . To Britt en ' s cast Myfanwy Piper, Britten ' s librettist, bluntl y quy. Man y directors have since staged searing natur al pronunciation. (Evan s made a meal of
Mc Vic ar added s ix ac to rs, the se rvants men- di smi ssed the "suppo sed vag ueness" o f the acco unts of the piece, with varied emphases. the rep eat ed "m ine " in her sce ne w ith Mi ss
tioned in the tale; they moved the furniture story: " It is vag ue onl y in one thing: in what, The gove rness is again present in McVic ar ' s Jessel.) McVicar ' s all-black approach may
about durin g the interludes. Both directors if anything, actually happ ened between the version, writhing in nightmare as if to sugg est lack the variety and con trast of stagings more
counten anced an "open" use of the huge children and the hauntin g pair . ... In eve ry that the ghosts are her dream . This departur e faithful to Britt en ' s and Piper ' s "book" , but it
stage . Gi ven the amount of cro ss-stage sing- other particul ar Henry James is preci se .. . from the stage directions comes close, per- was imaginati ve, and was by all conc erned
ing into the wings that Mc Vicar prescrib ed , it about the governess .. . about her state of hap s, to the " spelling it out" that James and very well exe cuted .

-----------------------'~,-----------------------

romenade theatre is in vog ue, and few believe that we are in it (the mask s are cru cial

P comp anies do it quit e like Punchdrunk.


Their site-spec ific producti ons - prefer-
ably in di sused buildings - make a virtue of
Ushered alone to this). But some of the effects are similar:
passivity isn't an option . Everyone has a dif-
ferent lived experience , as well as a merely
sprawling, deca ying spaces, encourag ing the TOB Y LI CHTIG dered desks. William Wil son che ats at ca rds herm eneutic one (swappin g notes at the end
audi enc e' s disorientation . The actor s (and in a dra wing room of faded glamour ; Marie is part of the fun ). Thi s exper ience, however,
action) come and go, while the observer is Punchd runk Produ ctions Rog et beckon s guests into her perfumery. A is more sensory than intellectual , a viscera l
left to wa nder around at will, a ghostly drunk (possibly out of "The Black Cat") reaction to the environment, which is why it
voyeur in a mask (ha nded out at the start), TH E MA SQ U E O F T H E R ED D E A T H offers me a glass of wine. After takin g a tenta- work s best when macabre - and why it is
catching strands of the "play", o nc moment at Bartersca Arts Centre tive sip, I am ordered to knock baek the rest import ant to walk around alone. The Masque
a busy wedding, the next alone in a morgu e. and told I "may survive" . The Ushers are in is as much them e park as theatre, thou gh the
Pre viou s Punchdrunk event s include an inter- (we are all guests at a decad ent , macabre the hou se: Rod erick kill s his sister and put s performance aspect is also important.
pretati on of The Tempest in a form er Dept- party) . The fam iliarit y of the Batt ersea Art s her in a box (when she later emerges, seve ral Physical drama features strongly (few words
ford distill ery; of The Cherry Orchard in an Cen tre as a venu e somew hat lessen s the bystand ers shriek); later , he appears on stage are spoken), and so me of the scenes (the
old Ge olog ica l Sur vey building in Exe ter; surprise eleme nt, thou gh the Old To wn Hall at the Palais-Ro yal (a real bar, complete with fight s, the rapes, the murd er s) are beautifully
and of Faust in an abando ned Wapping wa re- is unexpectedl y vast and every last broo m orch estra), a mindreader in the vaudeville. exe cuted, pure ba llet. The chor eograph y is
house. The matica lly, this sort of theatre lend s cupboard is used to exce llent effect by Felix Back stage, the performers glam up while trad- astounding - marshalling so man y actors
itself well to the gothic. The fiction of Edgar Barrett and his design team. The scheme is ing saucy banter. around so many rooms requires precision
All an Poe thu s seems a fittin g choice for the DIY go thic: there is a for est, a wine cellar, an Punchdrunk require audience memb ers to timin g as well as flexib ility. Punchdrunk
team ' s latest venture : Poe is all about mood. opium den ; a rump led bedch amb er , a music question their own role. In a way, this is the have struck a formu la: one can guess what
The Masque of the Red Death is a di stilla- room (compl ete with out-of-tune piano s) and oppo site of the Verf remdun gseffekt: instead future productions might entail and - as with
tion (or fragm entation) of several Poe stories, seve ra l spooky stairwe lls . Hall s are diml y lit of bein g forc ed to rem emb er that we are the opi ates that ruin ed so many go thic heroes
the Masque itself being a con venient hook with candl es; fevered, inky letter s litter disor- wa tching a play, we are encourage d to - the first time hits the hard est.

TLS D E C EMB ER 7 2 0 07
18 ARTS

n Katie M itchell' s new production of children; when Mene laus enters to recl aim

I Euripides' tragedy, the defeat ed Troj an


women in their eve ning gow ns are locked
into a space like an indu strial car park . There
Dust and water the hated Helen , the y look to her to see how
they should react.
Mitch ell' s inter est in danc e find s a natural
are red light s, stee l shutters, concrete pill ars; home: the wom en glid e acro ss the stage as if
lift machin ery whines . Official s who are only MAR IA MARGARON IS father, Hector' s, shield. In Mitch ell ' s version they were holdin g a partner or move togeth er
follo win g ord ers bustle about with clip- the child (a rubber doll ) is carri ed in a met al as a whol e community, and we think aga in
board s. In a windowed ga llery upstair s a man briefca se and laid out on the lid of a card- of everything the y' ve lost. Hecub a' s gestur e
Euripid e s
talk s on the phone , while Helen , the cau se of board document box. Perhap s this is meant of emptying - sugar from a bowl , make-up
it all, danc es alon e, or flits back and forth , or WOM E N OF TROY to reflect the bureaucratic natur e of modern from Helen' s purse, salt from a salt cellar - is
lifts her dre ss to show a bell y marked with a From a vers io n by Don Tay lor war, but it cheats the play of a troubling set of vivid shorthand for the pointl essne ss of war;
mysteriou s red ring . We are in a familiar but Lyttelton The atre resonances about heroi sm and military might , in the end , dust and water pour from the
unspecific plac e, a dream of hell with 1940s and Hecuba of her elegy for her son. damaged roof. When everything is fini shed ,
styling : frock s out of a Jack Vettri ano paint- Euripides spared his fello w citiz en s no detail Mitchell see ms to think best visually and Andromache walks back ward s acro ss the
ing, big band s on the crackl y radio , lipstick s of what they 'd don e. To make the play more musicall y, in theme s and variations, rhythm s stage, pre gnant and dressed in white, toward s
and po wder comp act s. accessible, Mitch ell has dra stically pared and motifs; she uses the chorus beautifully the vanishing point of memory and hop e.
It is a compelling vision, but Mitch ell ' s do wn Don Taylor' s vivid translation , remo v- to deepen or shift the atmo sphere. At the But the real power lies in the old bones of
commitment to her now fam iliar imag ery and ing almost all sense of con text. The Gree k beginning of each epi sode , when clanging the play : its abso lute denunciation of war' s
techniques - the slowed-dow n movement s ships, with their creaking ropes and sails, and door s threaten some new calamity, the cru elty, its devastatin g empathy, its deft di s-
alternating with hectic acti vity, the sound Tro y' s imagined tow ers have all but dis- wom en flock tog ether at the side of the stage ; section of the functionaries who commit the
loop s and interferenc e, the dance steps and appeared . The cut s speed the drama along, at the most painful mom ent s, they turn in most terribl e crimes. Euripides takes us step
the ritu alistic use of obj ects - tend s to dro wn but they make it thinn er; layers of iron y and on them selves, each in her separate grief. by ironic step from the belief that "the next
out the emotion of the play. There are specificity are lost. In the last harrow ing Mostly they're Hecuba' s creatures, depend - pain is always wor se than the last" to the
inspired ges tures, perfectl y paced and pitch ed epi sode, Greek officials bring the bod y of the ent on her mood . When she slumps in a chair, unthinkab le place where ther e is " no abyss of
- as when Kate Duch ene' s Hecub a takes her murd ered child Astyanax to Hecuba on his the y stand and stare at her like bewi ldered pain to discov er". Hecuba, Priam' s wido w,
dead daught er ' s sequinned shoes and pur se endures on stage throu ghout ; rega l and
out of a plastic bag, and holds them up to the proud , she almost never break s, thou gh she
chorus one by one - but some of the scenes trembl es with the effort. The loss of her royal
that should be almost too painful to watch left status, the waste of her daughters' breeding
me unmo ved , distracted by the business "on bruti sh soldiers and forei gners" , is as
on stage . Possessed Cass andra (Sinead painful to her as exile ; the first crack in her
Matth ews, blond e and frail in a liquid silver self-control appears when she loses Cassa n-
dress) comes on to an absurd cacophony of dra. Andromach e tries to argue that the living
beep s and blasts and flame s and flashin g are worse off than the dead - unti l the Gree k
light s; An astasia Hilles Andromache rushes Talthybius, played here by Mich ae l Gould,
about so frantically when the Greeks com e urge s her gruffly to "be sensible" as he tak es
for her child that the agony dissipates. her son Astyanax to be hurl ed from the city
Women of Troy see ms the most modern of wall. The women turn on Helen (Su sie
Euripides ' tragedies: the anger in it is still Tra ylin g) for revenge, but that too is deni ed
palp able, the intim acy with which it shows them by Menelaus (Stephen Kenn edy), a man
the women's suffering has lost non e of its adept at buying his own ration alizations.
edge . The year before it was produc ed , Finally there is noth ing left but Hecuba' s epi-
Athen s had massacred the men of Melo s and taph for her brok en grand son : "This child
taken the women as slaves because they was murd ered by the Gre eks becau se they
would not join an allianc e again st Spart a; Kate Du ch en e as Hecuba were afraid of him " .

-----------------------~-----------------------
o po ss e ss charm is to hav e a con stant lon g- suffering conductor of the train, whose

T escape route from bein g brou ght to


account; but the film s of Wes And er-
son are all, to some degr ee, about the limita-
W e bandaged brothers waitress lover Jack seduces , eventu all y
throw s them off it in the middl e of nowh ere -
the train is alre ady lost, and now they are.
tion s of charm and the tearing away of the ROZ KAVEN EY them a Valuabl e Lesson. A char itable view , And yet if they ever achieve enlightenme nt,
insulation it pro vides. There is a paradox mostly sustainable, is that And erson is it is of course now , when they see three
here, of course, becau se And erson ' s film s are THE DARJEELI NG LIMITED inte lligent eno ugh to accept that to parody boys drowning and manag e to save two of
them selves always charming and whim sica l, Various cinemas that world view is to participate in it. The them - they act as ordinary decent human
and indeed many critic s, most notabl y Da vid blood stain ed band age s in which Francis is beings and stand bedrag gled at the dead
Thomson in a recent Guardian piec e, have swa thed are a corr elati ve for the fact that ch ild ' s funeral. Proper hum an behav iour is
argued that Anderson ' s facilit y with the cern s of the American haute bour geoisie. no one much likes him , perh aps especially not all that comp licated and they mana ge it.
quirky, de lightfu l and ecce ntric is the thing Thre e estran ged broth er s meet on a train his broth ers and the ass istant whom he mock s And that fun era l reminds them of their dead
that will always prev ent him from becoming in India. Fra ncis (Owe n Wil son), the survivor for his alop ecia; Jack and Peter have their father and the silly squabble about his car
full y adult as a director and writ er. Stern task- of a disfiguring motorcycle accident, has prob lem s, too. which mad e them late for it. They meet up,
ma sters will reject The Darj eeling Limit ed as decided that the time has come to seek Peter (the hawklik e Adri en Brod y) is so briefl y, with the moth er (Anj elica Hu ston)
a film that appropriates Indian culture and spiritual enlightenment. He has summoned afraid of loss that he is contemplating who abandoned them to become a nun, and
land scape as a backdrop for the lim ited con- Jack and Peter and for the first days of their divorcing his pregnant wife lest worse befa ll we realiz e that perh ap s they will never
journ ey bosse s the m aro und, orderin g their him; Jack is a writer w itho ut or iginalit y go hom e; they ca st their match ed eleg ant
meals for them and handing them laminated who se short stories recapi tulate arguments luggage aside - actu alizing the psychobabble
itineraries of trip s to temp les and spiritual with his mistress. (In case there were any of discarding old baggag e crud ely but
exerci ses. The idea that one cou ld pursue doubt of this, a short film called "The Hotel effectively - and continue to ride, perh aps
en lightenm ent in this way is clownish ly sad- Chevalier" , wide ly available on the internet, for ever.
the thre e brothers swa thed in garlands and also starring Jason Schwartzm an as Jack and No one can accuse And erson of subt lety,
A ustralian Books, CDs, DVDs? kneeling to the sound of a hundred bell s is Natalie Portm an as his mistress, reiterat es but , where The Royal Tennenb aums and The
both a bri lliant parody of spiritual touri sm what we hear of Jack ' s new story . Schwartz- Life Aqu atic let their protagonists off the
ReadingS SOO KS
M USIC
FI LM and deep ly poign ant. man is also the co-author, with And er son and hook , The Darj eeling Limit ed at least
Some aspects of the film are almo st Roman Coppola, of The Darj eeling Limit ed.) ackno wledges that its trio of aimless brothers
Orderyour books, CDs & DVDs by 14.12.07
fo r Christma s delivery anywhere in .dustralia.
painfu lly part of that side of middl ebrow This is a comedy of mann er s in which have intr actabl e prob lem s. Along the way,
American popu lar culture in which peop le bad mann er s are rebuked - ang lophone they entertain us, whil e raising the issue of
www.readings.com .au are in Denial about their Rea l Probl em s, and Ind ians overh ear the brothers' bick ering how we look to our fell ow trav ellers, when
in need of Experi enc es which will Teach and politely affect non-c omp rehen sion. The our whim sica l egoc entr ism lead s us astray .

TLS D E C EMB E R 7 200 7


19

The new South African novel

At Grandmother's Ford
PA TRI CK D E NMA N FL AN ERY that Agaat would inherit Grootmoedersdrift:
"on leasehold and also the hom estead . . .
M arl en e v a n Ni ek erk until when she reaches eighty she has to
hand it over to my son who must make f ur-
THE W A Y OF T H E WOM E N ther provision fo r her up to her death".
Translated by Michiel Heyns Later , Jakki e signs ove r all the prop ert y to
625pp. Little, Brown. Paperback, 14.99. Agaat without condition . Symbolic dates are
0 316 85439 9 deplo yed to empha size the process of truth -
tellin g and reconciliation playin g itself out
n her pow erful first novel, Triomf on a farm in the Western Cape. One

I (1994 , English translati on 1999), the


Afrik aan s-Ianguage noveli st M arlene van
Niekerk turned an unflin chin g eye on the
character die s, and Agaat first com es to the
farm , on Dec emb er 16, South Afri ca ' s
nation al Day of Rec onci liation , which was
lives of an impo veri shed and incestuous onc e the Da y of the Cove nant commemorat-
Afri kaner famil y living in the Johannesbur g ing the 1838 victory of the Voor trekk ers
suburb of that book' s title durin g the run-up over the Zulus at Blood River.
to South Afric a' s first dem ocratic elec tions The original Afrik aan s and South Afric an
in 1994. Her new novel, The Way of the English editions of the novel are called
Women, elega ntly translated by the noveli st simply Agaat, and it is a pity that the title
Michi el Heyn s, is both grander and more Littl e, Brown ha s preferred see ms to efface
soher. Set in the Western Ca pe, it explores Agaat' s importance hoth within the de Wet
the relationship between an elderly Afri kaner fam ily and in the novel itself. "The way
farm er, Milla de Wet, who is dying of AL S "Landscape near Brandforl", 1927 , by J. H. P ierneef (1886-1957) of the wome n" is a loose tran slation of
(Lou Gehri g' s Disea se), and her Coloured Tradou w, the indigenous name of a mountain
serva nt and so le car er, Agaat Louri er. Through this fragment ation of voice and I crawled out of the fire . . . was dug out of the pass near Grootmoedersdrift, but this
Describing Agaat as Milla' s serva nt, how- time, a chronologic al narrati ve begin s to ash stolen out of the hearth fell out of a cloud admitt ed ly more access ible title fails to do
eve r, is to ove rsimplify their compl ex and emerge. Mili a was given the farm by her came up with the fennel washed down in the ju stice to Ag aats narrati ve and creati ve
conflicted relati onship of filial love, betra yal, moth er, on the occas ion of her marri age to flood was mowed with the sickle threshed with importance.
abuse and resentm ent, the origin s, develop- Jak , a fla shy man of almos t feminine beaut y, the wheat baked in the bread. There is, in fact, con siderab le evide nce
ment and reso lutions of which are the sub- the only son of a doctor fro m the nearb y Whil e the story is always told fro m Mili a' s that we are meant to think that Agaat might
stance of this important novel. town of Ca ledon. Grootmoedersdrift pe rspective, this is unqu estionably Agaats be the actual author of Mi lia' s deathbed
The Way of the Women is organized as (Grandm other ' s Ford, named for "the shal- book. She is a charact er born of confl ict and narration and her second-person address
a kind of cycli cal montage. Ap art from the low cro ssin g near the homestead " ) was es tab- violence; her bod y is deform ed by an injury to her self. It is Agaat who writes long
prologue and epilog ue , which are in the voice lished by Mili a' s great-g randmother, "who sustained in her moth er' s womb which left descr iptive letters to Jakkie whe n he goes
of Milia' s adult son, Jakki e, the bod y of the farm ed into bein g this littl e plot of earth", one of her arms shrive lled, the hand a sma ll away to school and later j oin s the Air Forc e,
novel is di vided into twent y chapters, each and Mili a herself is a capable farm er , with "paw", its fingers half-fu sed . Her per sonalit y not Mili a, whose almost telegraphic diarie s
further subdivided into (usuall y) four a uni versity degree in languages. Eve n before has also been con struct ed by Mili a' s inten- are edited by Agaat before she reads them
di screte sectio ns w ith di stinctive vo ices, all they are marri ed , however , Jak - who later sive ea rly educ atio n - wh ich Jak re vi led as alo ud . Jakkie de scribe s th em as containing
apparently Mili a' s. At least one of these is an describ es him self as "a wife-batterer with "coon kind ergarten". Lesson s were enforced "everything that Mill a de Wet saw fit to
impo ssibl e narration, as she describ es her self-know ledge" - begin s abusing Milia, who by beatin gs with the hand le of a feather beque ath her reader s" . It is clear, too , that
fin al days in bed, pa ralysed , voice less , sews sleeves and a high collar onto her du ster ; but Milla also gave her book s, Agaat has a ventriloquist's talent. There is an
depend ent on and subje ct to Agaats care, wedding dress to hide her brui ses. Several beginnin g at the age of twelve, when Agaat unsettlin g scene late in the novel where she
communicatin g throu gh an elaborate pri vate yea rs into her marri age, she begin s to find was forced to become nursemaid to the infant spe aks Mili a ' s thou ght s back to her , using
vocabulary of eye movem ent s. Thi s silent comfort whe n Agaa t arrives on the farm in Jakki e. These books - a handb ook for her mistre ss' s voice : "She moves in behind
langua ge developed between them whe n 1953. farm ers, an Afrikaans song anthology , and the bed , above my head I hear the words that
Agaat first came to Mili a' s farm , Lyric all y refl ecti ve, The Way of the Borduur So (Embroider Like This) with a well up in me, lisping they drip from Agaats
Grootmoedersdrift; she had been so trauma- Wom en need s to be read at its ow n pace. It foreword by Mr s Betsie Verwoerd (the wife tongu e" . Elsewher e, Milia speculates that
tized by her abusive early childhood that she imitates the rhythm s of farm life: long of the Prim e Mini ster , Hendrik Verwo erd ) - Agaat might "spend the rest of her earthly
was, for a time, elective ly mut e. periods of slow mo vem ent, cu ltivation , are the touch stones to which Agaat days writing down what she we nt throu gh
The other voices here includ e Milia' s grow th and matur ation , punctuated by constantly return s. She becom es a better, with me". Agaat is figur ed throu ghout the
second-person address to her self , giving an furiou s acti vity, grues ome birth s and death s, more knowledgeab le farm er than her white novel as an artist, achi eving the kind of
account of her life from her court ship and union s and di ssolutions, fires and di sease. employers, is more literat e, creati ve and dome stic arti stry to which Milla once
marriage to Jakobu s "Ja k" de Wet in 1947 The gradual unearthing of the secrets hidd en gifted, but as a result she is distanc ed from aspired. Whi le Mili a clearly saw embroidery
to her son Jakki es flight from South Afri ca in Milia' s diaries and buri ed in her and the other serva nts. Milia, in turn , is torn as the prop er occupation for a woma n and a
in 1985. There is also an italiciz ed , largely Ag aats mem ori es a nd th e j ux ta pos ing of bet ween believing that Agaat is something serva nt, Agaat quickl y mas tered the different
unpunctuated strea m-of-co nsciousness infor mation, brou ght about by the shifts more than a serva nt, and bein g unable to stitches , and turn ed the stiff white caps Mill a
narrati ve which rep resent s, or perh aps between the vo ices in a single chapt er, help s prevent her self from cruelly punish ing the made her wear from the age of twel ve into
reflect s back on, the time when Mili a was to sugges t the larger significa nce of eve nts slightest tran sgression ; Agaat learns that can vasses for richl y em bro idered figurati ve
fir st diagno sed and began to suffer the wh ich in isolation may appear either mun- she must behave like a serva nt in order to sce nes . Her greatest work of embroidery -
preliminary effects of her illness. The fin al dane or simply cryptic. survive. and one which mirror s the achievement of
voice - extracts from M illa' s diary, kept from A great deal of the forc e of this novel lies One of the many theme s of The Way of the the novel itself - is Milia' s shroud: "In
1953 to 1979 - serves a doubl e function in in its gradua l unveiling of "truth"; in Women is reconciliation : personal reconcilia- laidwork and black work and braiding and
the novel; an illuminatin g and unsettlin g particular the withholding of the detail s of tion bet ween Milia and Ag aat, and more cro ss-stitch and canvas . . .. The shearing,
contrapuntal narrati ve, it is also a symbo lic the strange circumstances throu gh which genera lly, reconciliation bet ween rac es. The the calving, the way of the women, a heron
represent ation of Agaat' s readin g of the Agaat happened to come into Mili a ' s care as deathb ed scenes take pl ace in 1996, the aga inst the sky, a blue emperor in the for est
diaries aloud to Mili a on her deathb ed - a a child of four or five (her age is uncert ain). yea r in which South Afric a ' s Truth and .. . all the scenes of Grootmoedersdrift" .
readin g which was in part psychol ogical When young Jakki e asks Agaat where she Reconcili ation hearin gs began . Befor e her In a 1983 essay, "The Great South Afric an
torture and in part a settling of old scores . came from , she respond s enigmatically : illn ess deprived her of spee ch, Milia ensured Novel", J. M. Coetzee argued that , as yet,

TLS D E C EMB ER 7 2 0 07
20 FICTION

there had been no such book, yet he believed Wom en ca n be see n both as a respon se to co ntinued, a "literature of empty land scape" , langua ge of signs encoded in the land scape is
that "a grea t, authentic South Africa n novel Coe rzees radical revision of the farm novel which long made the pastor al complicit with both visible and legible. Whether or not The
sta nds a better cha nce of co ming into being in his book In the Heart of the Country the elision of black South Afri cans, both Way of the Women is the first Grea t South
in Afrik aan s than in English" . It would , (1977, a work Mili a attes ts Agaat has read), politica lly and aesthetically. Ma rle ne van Africa n novel, it is unqu estionabl y the mo st
however , "have to make a clean break with and to the Afrik aan s farm novel (or plaas- Nierkerk has, in The Way of the Women, important since Coerzees Disgrace (1999).
the traditi onal Afrik aan s novel" , which was roman) ge nre . Tra ditiona lly, the place of sought to address these very probl em s, But eve n such a con siderable cl aim fails to
"haunted ... by the idea of the plaas (farm) " wo men in the South Afri can far m novel had reclaiming the farm novel as legitim ate credit this book with the serious artistic
and was "in fact, coex tensive with the been restricted to the farmhou se, or as fictional territory, by expa nding the represen- achieve ment it represent s. It is a gra ndly
plaas", presenting "an 'o fficial' view of Coe tzee put it in his 1988 critical study tation of wo me n's place in the world of the operatic epic in a manner now rarely
South Afri ca as a settled land . .. whose so il White Writing, "confined to the breast-fun c- So uth Afric an farm, while also enacting attempted and more rarely achieved with
belon gs to its farm ers and titleh older s, a land tion of giving food to men , cut off from the a sym bolic redi stribution of the land itself, such formal co mplexity and ingenuity. Thi s
that is someo ne 's prop ert y". The Way of the outdoors ". The farm novel has also been , he giv ing the farm to Agaa t, for whom the is narr ati ve crea tion of the highest ord er.

--------------------------~,--------------------------

respect as the dour , sensible approac h taken explore d elsewhere, particularly in her 1981

Dreams of the dead by her son. Gor dime r does not explicitly
raise these question s, but they rem ain in the
reader ' s mind, along with the image of the
novel, July 's People, in which a white coupl e
shelter in their black servant's house durin g
an imag ined South Afr ican revolut ion .
age ing, irresponsible grandmother with her In " Dreaming of the Dead", the unid ent-
adine Go rdimer's eleve nth co llec- KATH ARI N E HIBB ER T "raggedly-red pa inted mouth" , cheering at a ified narr ator dream s of a reuni on with

N tion pro vides co nfirma tio n, if


co nfirmation were needed , of her
ease with the short story . These thi rteen
Na d i ne Go rd im er
Marlene Dietrich co ncert.
"Mother Tongue" , also conce rned with the
disloca tion of emigra tion, tell s the story of a
Su san Sontag, Edw ard Sa id and Anth ony
Samp son , who have returne d from the
Empyrea n heavens to (w here else but ?) a
tales, all previou sly published in magazin es, BEETH OVEN WA S O N E S IXTEENT H young, nai ve and loving Ge rma n wife, who Chinese restaur ant , where they tuck in while
nimbl y and elega ntly co nj ure compl ex B LACK AN D O THER ST OR IES moves with her new hu sband to his nati ve di scu ssin g what they are up to in the after-
characte rs livin g throu gh eve nts which in 178pp. Bloom sbury. 14.99. So uth Afri ca. Her English is not goo d enough life. In Gor dirners imagin ation (she knew
978 0747592334
ma ny cases span yea rs, without straining the to keep up with the friendl y, slangy bant er he the thr ee fello w liter ary lum inari es), Sa id
form . Sever al co nsider the expe rie nce of shares with his friend s, so she is left wonder- has becom e a composer, Sa mpso n a witch-
immi grant s to South Afri ca, Go rdime r 's cham bers . But was this "incorrigible sca tter- ing whether they are discussi ng " something doctor, while Sontag is still focu sed on
home country . In "A Frivo lous Wom an" , brain ch armin g" wo man - who built a jolly to do with a sports even t or, once , a dessert ge nde r issues. It isn 't clear how autobio-
adult grandchildre n del ve into the trunk of life for herself in the hostel where she so meone made?" , whe n they are in fact graphica l thi s sto ry is, but it is eas y to
mas querade cos tumes and sequined mas ks befri end ed black servants, Afrik aner locals talkin g about her hu sband ' s previous sex ual imagin e that the absen t gues t the
ca rried by their now-d ead Jewi sh gran d- and young gay men in order to recreate the conqu ests. The movement s here are fro m one narrator is wai ting for is Go rdimers late
mother when she esca ped from Nazi whirl of outings and operas she was used to co ntinent to another, but they draw on husband, Reinh old Cassi rer. Sim ilarly dream-
Ger many. Perhaps keepin g these fripperi es in Berlin - reall y so dumb? Perhaps her Gordimer ' s exper ience of living in a country like is "Gregor", in wh ich a cock roa ch lives
was contem ptible at a time when her ability to fin d that "everything was a party" - divided into pre- and post- aparth eid eras and for several days in an inacc essibl e part of the
co mpatriots we re bein g taken to the gas eve n in a refu gee camp - is as worthy of along rac ia l lines: issues she ha s frequ entl y narrat or ' s typewrit er while she is
readin g Kafka.
Onl y the title story, sparked by a comment
he eight stories in Stephe n S te p he n H eni gh an is, after all, "down the road from Gor dimer says she heard on the radi o, dwe lls

T Heni ghan ' s new co llec tion, A Grave


in the Air, ask what it is to be an out-
sider. Charac ters are repeat edl y set apart,
A GRAVE I N THE A I R
Stories
222pp. Sas katoon, SK: Th istledown Press.
Buch enwald ", a sym bo l of inhum anit y that
lies ju st outside the city. Latifa' s famil y
have hidd en their background from her.
explicitly on race in So uth Afri ca. Here, we
discover that, while once black s claim ed
Europea n ances tors to ga in pri vileges und er
alien to the culture, soc ial class, or era in Paperback, $ 18.95. Alth ough her detach ment is honest, it aparth eid rule, now whites are sea rching
which they move. Immi grant s, refu gees, 978 1 89723 529 4 see ms neverth eless to have left her feelin g for black relati ves or forebears in an atte mpt
foreign corres ponde nts and others strugg le empty. Darryl' s det achm ent is self- to find kin ship with the newly powerful
to m aintain their identiti e s w he n the struc - a yo ung woma n with ambitio ns to bec om e imp osed , but the effec ts arc similar. Th e majority, and to allev iate their g ui lt over their
tures which once defin ed them have altered a phot ograph er, explains why she wa nts happin ess of both depend s on their share d continuing positions of authority. A white
or disappeared. to leave Rom ania to work in Germ any, but journey into memor y, however diffi cult , university professor, a campaigner for the
"The Killin g Past" turn s on a man' s "her moth er ' s dark eyes we re already and on acce pting the terribl e past. ANC und er aparthe id, travels to imp over-
diffi cult relati onship with what has go ne foreign" . A shared vision has become This is the most poign ant of Henighans ished town ships in a diamond-mining town
befor e. Bart' s famil y em igrated to Ca nada impo ssibl e, and Doina' s homecomin g, like them es: the importance of hum an ac tion in in sea rch of the di stant co usins his grea t-
from Brit ain , and the resultin g disconti nu- many here, will be unfulfilling. the face of a terrible political and histori cal grandfather might have sired when newly
ity still unnerves him . He becomes increas- Th e title story brings all these them es impotenc e (des pite wha t the read er alrea dy arri ved in the country as a prospector.
ingly devoted to investigatin g the famil y skilfully together , whe n Latif a, a young kno ws to be the truth ). He is not shy of the The professor doesn 't find any relati ves. In
legend of hi s great-grandfather , A. B. Bosn ian Mu slim living in Ger many, learn s twenti eth ce ntury's big subje cts, and he this story, as in many in the coll ection, littl e
Chev ret, who attempted to make fair play her family histor y from Darryl, a Canadian put s them to effective use. "The Killin g reall y happen s. Possibl e confront ation s and
an antido te to wa r. Chevre t, who was ex -journa list who wo uld rather for get the Past" , which opens the book , and the titl e cat astroph es seldo m arrive, and if they do,
haunt ed by the terribl e human cos t of the form er Yugoslavia. Darryl works for a sto ry, wh ich cl oses it, are es pecially they are und erpl ayed . Infid eliti es between
First World War, travelled with a team of cultu ral programm e, but has been sent a fax success ful at brin ging out the stra nge husbands and wives, for instance, in the
amateur footb allers throu ghout the Axis asking him to attend a wa r-crimes tribun al. ten sion of tales whose outco mes are trio of stories named "Alternative Endings",
countries, preachi ng spor tsma nship. More Face d with a return to hi s diffi cult past, he already known to us throu gh hi stor y. The are sensed but not spoken of. But the ten sion
than half a century later, Bart foll ows his cont empl ates esca ping into art, "something effec t dep end s on uncomp romi sin gly created is real, and the abse nce of the
trail , hopi ng to di sc o ver a new se nse of sel f. that lasts". Culture and hi story are insep ara- dire ct pro se , coupled w ith direc t acce s s to crisi s to w hic h it coul d have led is not
At hom e, Barts girlfriend considered him a ble, however, and his hastily co nstructed the cha racter s' thought s and feelin gs, so disappointin g.
fau x-immigrant who cannot und erstand ivor y tower crum bles when Latif a arrives that we ourse lves are never for ei gn to In her introdu ction to the "Alternative
what it means to be displaced ; in Ge rmany, with a rock band he is chaperoni ng in these tal es of foreignn ess. Thi s ca n have Endings" stories , Gordimer des cribes how
he is a brash new-world er, exhuming what Wei mar. Recogni zing her surname as that its dra wb ack s, when the author simply she conjures whole charac ters from brief
many believe best forgott en . Th at the tribal- of a Bosnian friend, Darryl approac hes reports a cha racte r's e motio nal state and encounters with stra ngers, how she "picks up
ism Chevret ch allenged couldn 't be ove r- her, but Latifa tell s him she "will never be moves o n. A cool ness some times threatens an im agin ed life at so me stage in the hum an
co me in 1939, we know; that the same Bosnian aga in" : she is Slo veni an now. to settle across the page s - but Henighans cycl e and leaves it at anothe r" . Her signifi-
forc es will doom Bart ' s quest is the Sho cked and fru strat ed by her deni als, und erl yin g humanit y, hi s interest in the cant them es and the distincti ve indi vidu als
unh app y suspicion at the heart of the story . Darryl mu st face his ow n past. He recall s average per son in often less than ave rage she crea tes will leave read er s to do some
Alienation ca n also be dom estic , and Sarajevo, where he staye d on long after circums tances , almos t always warms extrapo lation of their own , co nsidering
some find them sel ves strangers within their his editors lost interest, and Srebrenica. thin gs up aga in. characters and top ics well after they have
ow n families. In "Freedom Squ are", Doin a, Perh aps no one has co me that far ; Bosni a TADZIO M ARTI N KO E LB fini shed Beethoven Was One Sixteen th Black
and Other Stories.

TLS D E C EM B E R 7 2 0 07
FICTION IN BRIE F 21

Patricia Corn well treat ed . After this, no Am eric an team will beat or ca tching their breath. In Gone to see the wor ld throu gh her eyes when she is
T HE BOOK OF THE DEA D touch him , and it appea rs that his ca reer is Without Trace, however , snow freezes the sudde nly taken from him . Fa ulques is aw are
387pp. Little, Brown. 18.99. ove r. The n his manager discovers that - skin, lungs labou r and pain really hurt s; onl y that his talent as a painter is limit ed . The
97803 1672423 4 improb able as it see ms - there is an A mer- the grittiest determin ation gets Jay home. mural relies heavily on his photograph y and
ican footb all league in Italy and that one of She is an exce llent charac ter : nicknamed a reworking of Old M aster s. The encounter

O ne of the temptations for authors of


long-ru nning series is to put into the
novels whatever happens to them in their
its team s, the Parma Panthers, needs a quarter-
back . Rick accepts the offer for wan t of any
other , and the mi ld comedy of culture shoc k
" Ice" by her juni ors in the Balk ans, very
brave and exceptionally fit, she is em otion-
ally vulnerable in love.
with Marko vic help s him develop the com-
position yet it is not about re morse or
atonement fo r his exploitatio n of victims of
perso na l lives. As Patric ia Cornwell has that results makes up the novel. One flaw in the nove l is its lack of interest war fare, but more a game of chess.
become progressively more fam ous - not Footba ll A mer icano in Italy does indeed in the sex trade ' s custome rs. Carver's pimps, TIM PASH LEY
only for her books, but for her troubl ed exis t, though it occupi es a low place in the traffi cker s and broth el-o wners beha ve like
private life and for her theories abo ut classic sport ing hier archy. Eac h team in the league antique dealer s, selling the merchandise
crim e cases - she has found herself subjected is allowe d three (paid) American players, the among themselves without its eve r getting GiancarIo de Cataldo , editor
to hostile media com ment. So now, The Book rest bein g enthusiastic local ama teurs of vary - into the hand s of the punters. There may be C RIM IN I
of the Dead , the latest of her novels about the ing degrees of competence. The quest of the so me ver isimilitude here, but without paying Translated by Andrew Brown
foren sic pathologist Kay Scarpetta, involves Parm a Pan thers for the Italian Super Bowl custome rs the trade wo uld surely wither. A 320pp. Bitter Lemon Press. Paperbac k, 8.99.
a television psychologist, Dr Se lf, a man with gives the novel its structure, but its real subplot might have covere d this aspec t, but 978 I 904738 26 8
few eth ics who pursues a vendetta aga inst subjec t is an unsoph isticated Midwesterner ' s that wo uld have slowed the action, and
taly' s crime fiction scene, currentl y one of
Kay and threaten s to exp ose her sec rets .
A sense of the author's emo tional involve-
ment with the material contributes energy ,
co ming to term s with life in a northern Italian
town. This does not pro ve difficult. Master-
ing the gears hift of a Fiat Punt o is one of
Carver is very goo d at narrative pace. The
novel races along: "While the Hercul es
roare d and shuddered around them, [they]
I the world 's liveliest, takes much of its
inspirati on from Am eric an movie images of
but it also crea tes some off-key mom ent s. Rick ' s more serious probl em s, and thou gh a yelled at one another until , with no apparent Italian hard men, using eleme nts fro m the
Scarpetta is dealing with an intern ational flirt ation with a local soprano comes to lessen ing of power, the pilot yan ked up the stylish film s of Quent in Tarantino and John
serial killer, as well as coping with probl ems nothi ng, his treatment by his new frie nds and nose and slammed the aircraft down on the Woo. In Crimini, the first collec tion of Italian
close to home. Her ass istant, Mari no, is going team mates is hospit able and war m. tarm ac .. ." ; "T he little 4x4 Lad a Niva crime short stories to be publi shed in English,
to pieces und er the stress of a new relation - An afterword tell s us that Grisha m visited boun ced across the potholed road like a all the male cops, and many of the fem ale
ship and is jealous of Scarpettas engagement Parm a while doing resear ch for another book . ce me nt mixer on spee d . . . ". Well- ones, are qui ck- witt ed, cool under pressure
to another man; both her beloved niece and It is clear that he enjoyed him self there, and resear ched, shocking, mov ing and exc iting, and , above all, mach o, eve n when violence is
her long-term sec retary are having health Playing for Pizza often reads like a travel Gone Without Trace shows that a British near and death highl y prob able. " Italian noir"
pro blems . The eleme nt of soap opera, ofte n guide , with great attention paid to the local wr iter ca n take on the most vigorous of the may not go quit e so far as the filmm akers do
an enjoya ble part of a long-running series, cuisine . When describin g culatello or tortel- Americans. in aestheticizing violence, but it treats wrong -
threaten s at times to take ove r the story . lini in hrodo, Grisham 's writing takes on an NATASHA COOPER doin g as part of the modern human condition
When it turn s out that many of Sca rpe tta's ene rgy and precision not otherw ise much in and casts a wry gaze on the grim realities of
domestic diffi culti es have been manipul ated evi dence in this slight, amiable novel. crime and the politics of polic e work.
by her obsess ional enemy , and it becomes T. O. T READWELL Arturo Perez-Reverte The villains in Crimini are up to date and
apparent that this sa me enemy knows about, T HE PAI NT ER OF BATTLE S pan-European - cos metic surgeons, success-
or is invol ved with, several of her current 2 18pp. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. 12.99. ful politi cians, bent cops - and far from
cases, we feel that Co rnwell is torn between C. J . Carver 978 029785 169 I ful-fill ing any kind of national Mafi a fantasy,
rea lism and a more fantastical kind of G ONE WI THO UT TRACE many of them are Albani ans, Croa tians and
n The Painter of Battles, Arturo Perez - Chinese . These days, heredit y and the
writing . Her heroin e is being betr ayed by
what is false within; it is hardly a coincidence
that her nemesis is ca lled Sel f.
314pp. Orion. 18.99.
978 075287 1837 I Reverte lays out his wares in a brief first
chapter. Faulques has retired from a life
extended family are insignificant ; character
flaws are every thing . The Italy on show here
Part of the interest of the Sca rpetta books
is that the forensic techniques they featu re
are always developing; sea rching for
L ee Child, who pro vides an approv ing
quote on the cover of this novel, has
summe d up the main difference between
photogra phing the ugly little wars that have
plagued the world in the late twenti eth
cen tury . He now lives, a sem i-recl use, on the
is part of a glob alized world, in which media
recog nition, fame, beauty and cash are what
tempts peop le to murd er and graft. The once
bloodstains, Sca rpetta remarks loftily that American and Briti sh crime fiction. In his Catalan co ast, devotin g his days to painting dark underworld is now a slightly shadowy
she does n' t use the blood- sen sitive glowi ng view, British writers deal with questions such a 360 degree mural in the desert ed watch- corn er of eve ryday life. Power is no longer
c hem ica l Lumi nal any more. Occ asi on al as "will it stop raining? ", while A me rica ns to wer whe re he ca mps o ut alon e . A shoc king about runnin g a ca rte l, but abo ut everyo ne
cl umsinesses in the narrative about her tackle "will the senator's daughter be rescued eve nt in the past cau sed him to give up know ing who you are.
detective ' s pri vate life do not matter ; it is before she's skinned?" . Th ere is something photogra phy in order to discover throu gh Thi s is a highl y readabl e collection, and
fibr es and superglue we ca re about. The in this. With geogra phica l limit ation s, few painting the "scientific expos ition of what he the taut prose, in Andrew Bro wn' s sea mless
reaso n we read novels about the foren sic guns, even fewer serial killers (and the fact has obse rved" . Through the mura l and the translation, maintain s a filmi c energy . Out-
investigation of crime is not artistic dec orum that the wors t of those was Dr Shipman, who memori es it evo kes, Faulques meditates on standing stor ies includ e "The Third Shot" by
but a fasc ination with how things work. This worke d in the qui etest and most dom estic phot ograph y and art, order and ch aos, dea th Carlo Lucarelli , "Death of an Info rmer" by
is what Co rnwell has always prov ided, and it of settings) , British writers sometimes have and after life, Go d and gods. Reca lling the Ma ssim o Carlotto, "What' s M issin g" by
is an area in wh ich she does not disappoint. problems gene rating exc iteme nt and mai n- times he spent with his girlfriend, Olvido, Marcello Fois, and "The Boy Who Was
Ro z KAVENEY tainin g reali sm in the sa me novel. and the conversa tions he has with Ma rkov ic, Kidn apped by the Christmas Fairy" by
C. J. Carve r has found a way . Her main a Croa t he met durin g the Yugos lav civil Giancarlo de Cataldo ; all of them keep
cha rac ter is Jay McCauley, who left the wars, he exam ines his conviction that "man dialo gue, desc riptions and plot fast and
John Gri sh am British Army after witnessi ng some atrocious tortures and kills for pleas ure". clipp ed , while allow ing for the creation of
PLA YI NG FOR PI ZZA rapes in the Balkan s. She is now working These refl ection s constitut e nearly the mood. Andrea Cam illeri gives us a throw-
258pp. Century. 15. for an NGO, traci ng yo ung girls whole novel. The searc h for "the code of the away but enjoyable black comedy ca lled "A
978 I 8460 5368 9 traffic ked for the sex trade. The villai ns are blueprint, the key to the cryptogra m" of war- Series of Misundersta ndings" , and the much-
the grubbiest, crue lles t Balkan thu gs, and fare and chaos is engagi ngly don e. The mural translated Nicco lo Amm aniti j oin s forces

I n Playing for Pizza, John Grisham aban- their victims pretty fourt een-year-old s, who
dons the courtroo m dra ma whic h he has are tempted out of poverty by the false
so long used with unprecedented success , to prom ise of legitim ate job s in London. Jay
will becom e Fa ulques's ow n Grecia n Urn,
but for him truth is not beaut y but uglin ess.
Ho wever, the reader ' s attention can falter
with a young Rom an author , A ntonio
Man zi ni, in a mordan t and quirk y parable of
greed, " You Are My Treasure Ches t" . Eve n
offer an eve n more venera ble narrati ve trope, track s one lead from Bristol back to and the only suspense here comes from these somew hat slight stories are well
the "fish-out-of-water" story. Albania, and her adven tures are both chilling Markovic ' s physical threats, Ol vidos written and entertaining. What is most impres-
Rick Dockery, from Iowa, is a marginal and con vinci ng. Danger foll ows her hom e unwindin g enchan tments and the increas- sive is the writers' willingness to introduce
player in the Natio nal Football League, the to England, where her sufferings inclu de ingly violent incid ent s the photographer wild tangents into their tales and lead us
elite top level of the spor t, usuall y kno wn being flun g ove rboa rd, unconscious, into the recalls from his expe riences of war. down da rk alleys, only to discove r there is no
in Britain as gridiron. Inserted into a cruc ial Bristol Cha nnel and a puni shin g two-mil e Ol vido is the lea st satisfac tory of the three grow ling dog or armed bandit waiting there.
game, he manages in onl y eleve n minutes to swim back to shore . main characters. Beautiful, bohemian and It is no longer slick mafiosi keepin g us
sna tch defea t fro m the j aws of vic tory , and, In Carver's prev ious novels, the action sex ually alluring, she charm s soldiers, arti sts, interested but twisted plots and bizarre
after bein g carried off field concussed, sce nes she created are very exc iting but not head waiters and Fa ulques , who, before he coincid enc es; this is crime ficti on for the post
becomes the object of such oppro brium that altoge ther reali stic; her character s eme rge met her, believed "he could survive both modernist as well as the stylist.
fans storm the hospital where he is bein g from physical traum a without missing a heart- war and wo men " unscathed . He is beginnin g CHR IS M o s s

TLS D EC EMB E R 7 2 007


22 BIBLIOGRAPHY

Published in Paris
ack Kahane arrived in Pari s from M an- JAM ES C A M P BE L L
j chester in the I920s , bent on makin g his
name as a no veli st and publi sher. As a N eil P e a r s o n
writer, he leaned toward s the flipp ant , dash-
ing off a series of tales, the saucy titles of O BELISK
which are sure ly mor e enterta ining than the A history of Jack Kahan e and the Obelisk Press
cont ent s: Suz Falls Off, It' s Hard To Sin, 494pp. Liverpool University Press. 25 (US $39).
Amou r French for Love, The Gay Intri gue, 978 I 8463 1 101 7
etc . It was as a publi sher that Kahane hoped
to be a true original - the darin g pioneer who the arrival of a par cel from the Pari s-ba sed
unc over s a sca ndalo us ma sterpiec e . From literary agent William Bradley, in October
1929 on ward s, he was the propri etor of 1932. In addition to the French translation of
several imprints (collectively discussed here one of Kahan e' s own novel s, "We are also
as the Obeli sk Press). He wa nted a book that sending you .. . TROPIC O F CANCER, as
wo uld app eal to the discernin g and the vulga r promised". Th e author, for the tim e bein g,
reader at onc e, "an unprintable book that is fit was "Anonymous" . Eve n Kahane felt faint-
to read" , in the words of Ezra Pound . Lady hearted when he sat down to read a work that Jack Kahane, from th e book under revi ew
Chatterley 's Lover was such a book , and now see ms almost inconceivabl y ob scene for
Kahane publi shed it in 1936 , thou gh there the tim es, and he took two years to publi sh it. 1920 s and 30s . Kahanes first title, Sleeveless fir st. In thi s he resembl es the publisher who
had been half- a-d ozen prev ious editions, Tropic of Cance r, published und er Henr y Errand by Norah C. James, had originally carri ed on the Obeli sk tradition after the
including the ex purga ted on e produced by Mill er ' s real nam e, we nt throu gh five (genu- been issued by Scholartis Press in London Second World War , Mauric e Girodias -
Seek er in 1932. Jam es Joyce had acquir ed the ine) impression s in as man y yea rs, and (run by Eric Partridge). On public ation in Kahanes son. Giro dias , who at the age of
reputation of a risqu e author, and Kahan e Kahane proc eeded to build his list aro und his Februa ry 1929 , book sellers were raided, the fourt een drew the cover illu str ation for
almo st put him self out of business before sing le ge nuine disco ver y, with whose name edition seized, the publi shers charged, the Tropic of Cancer (a giant crab holding a
he started by payin g Joyce an enor mo us the Obeli sk Press is forever link ed. In succes - novel judged obscene. The pro secution argued wom an in a faint ), opened for bu siness in
ad vanc e for Haveth Childers Everyw here , sion, he issued AlIer Retour New York that Sleeveless Errand cont ained "co nversa- 194 5 by unp ackin g the bo xes of Tropic of
a seve nty-six-page section of what wo uld (1935), Black Spring ( 1936), Scenar io: A film tion s by person s entirely devoid of decenc y Capricorn that had lain in storage all throu gh
become Finnegans Wake - a book that with sound (1937), Max and the White Phago- and morality . . . . Blasphem y is freely the wa r. He continued to sell the bo ok und er
reviled read ers for all the wrong reason s. Not cytes ( 1938) and Tropic of Capricorn ( 1939 ). indul ged in by all the cha racters, and filth y lan- different imprints, in Eng lish, French and
cont ent with that, Kahane we nt on to issue a The last was among the final Obeli sk titles guage and indecent situations appear to be the German, for the next seve ntee n yea rs, in
"de luxe edition" of Pomes Pennyeacn deli vered by the print er before the outbreak keynot e". Pearson professes him self puz zled additi on to Nexus , Sexus and Plexus and
(1932 ), with "initial letter s design ed and of wa r on Sept emb er 3. On the same day, by the action, since the language complained other Mill er titles. Havin g taken his Fre nch
illuminated by Lu cia Joyce" , the author 's Kahane died of heart failure, age d fift y-t wo. of - "bloody hell", "w hores", "for Christ's mother's nam e in order to shield his Jewi sh-
dau ght er. The price for a shea f of unb ound By then , as Pearso n' s 240-page bibli ogra- sake", "bitch" , "homos" , etc, " most of which ness in wa rtime, he we nt on to publi sh far
sig natures hou sed in a gree n fold er was 1,000 ph y shows , the list was coming up. Kahan e appear no more than a coupl e of times" - had more risqu e book s und er the Ol ympi a Press
franc s - twent y tim es the co st of a regular never lost faith in the appea l of a spicy title - been allowed in other novels. Neve rtheless, and related imprints than his father dream ed
Ob eli sk potboiler. Of the twent y-fi ve copi es who wo uldn' t be tempted by Half o 'clock in Kahan e knew that the publi c likes nothin g of (for Sleeve less Errand read The Whipping
produced , ten we re impounded by C usto ms Mayfair by Prin cess Paul Troubetzko y, or To better than a banned book , and his edition, Club; for Lady, Take Heed! read Rape) at the
at Do ver - not for bein g seditious ly aro using, Beg I Am Ashamed, or Lady, Take Heed! (the with a preface by Edwa rd Garne tt, was in the same tim e, by so me mysteriou s mag netism,
but as subject to "a luxur y tax amo unting to last "Cecil Barr" novel, dedi cated by the Paris shops by April. attr actin g one defining modern work after
a third of their retail value". author to his inventor, Jack Kahan e)? - but Pearson complains that "the achievements anoth er: Watt, Molloy, Lolita, The Ginger
Kah ane was the kind of rogui sh publisher wa r and death ca ught him with a number of of Kahan e the publi sher" are overlo ok ed in Mall, Naked Lunch. Al exand er Trocc hi,
th at m os t wr ite rs are g lad to kno w ex ists, but prop er improper book s on the presses. In addi- acco unts of Eng lish-language publishing in several of whose novels were publi shed by
are grateful not to be depend ent o n. His fir st tion to Tropic ofCaprico rn, the bulk of which Par is durin g the period . He compares Kahan e O lymp ia, defamed Giro dias as "the man who
successful title was Daffodil (1931) by Ce cil lay in storage until the war was ove r, they to the likes of Harr y and Caresse Cros by, the publis hed Watt und er the impression it was a
Barr, aka Jack Kahane. According to Ne il included Winter of Art ifice by An ais Nin, propri etor s of Black Sun Press (publishe rs of dirt y book" , but no mere porn ograph er could
Pearson in his highl y enterta ining Obelisk: Some Limericks by Nor ma n Douglas, and an Po und, Hemin gway, Hart Crane, Raym ond have been as luck y as Girodias was . Th e
A history of Jack Kahane and the Obelisk illu strat ed French tran slation of a fable by Radi guet ), Robert Mc Calmon of Co ntact Edi- ex planation lies partl y in the fact that
Press, the first edition was issued as "3rd Ovid . In the precedin g years, Ob eli sk and its tion s (Gertrude Stein , H. D., Djuna Barn es, he basked in the freed om that cam e after
impression " , in order to "give the app ear ance ass ociates had publi shed works by Richard Hemin gway), Edward Titu s, Nancy C unard, the war, whereas his father strugg led in the
of health y sales, and so stimulate de mand" . Aldin gton (Death of a Hero), Cyr il Connolly and not least "the sa intly Sy lvia Beach", who climate that gave rise to it.
Th e second impression bec ame the "Sth" , the (The Rock Pool) , James Hanl ey (Boy) and published Ulysses from her book shop, Shake- Pearson writes with brash style , occasion-
third the "9 th", and so on toward s a my thica l Lawrenc e Du rrell (The Black Book). spea re and Co . However , through his lively ally mu sclin g in on his read er : it is enough
eightee n printings recorded by trustin g histo- Kahane had succee ded in achi evin g a curi- "Author Bio graphi es", he und ercut s his ow n to learn that To Beg I Am Ashamed was
rians such as Hugh Ford in his se minal book , ous personal inf am y, bein g, as Pearson says, argument, demonstratin g why Kahane is undon e by the Public Mor alit y Co uncil, with-
Published in Paris (1975). "the last resort of an author unable to place unlik ely to command the respect show n to out bein g bulli ed into see ing it as "a bod y
Kahanes opportunity to es tablish Obeli sk his wor k with anyone else" . It was on these the oth ers (to spe ak of him as "co mprehen- eve ry bit as stupid and sinister as it soun ds".
as the publi sher of works of literary merit that groun ds that Mill er recommend ed him to sively for gotten" is plainl y wro ng). Slee ve- Th e phrase "one-handed read ership" sho uld
defied authority and con venti on cam e with Durrell, then on the rebound from Faber and less Errand is a "dee ply terrible book". have been stifled the fir st tim e it swe lled
Faher . Miller urged the twent y-fi ve-year-old The Gentle Men hy Marik a Norde n is the tow ard s the pen , w itho ut bein g pr essed int o
noveli st not to yield an inch to fearful Briti sh work of a "non-writer" . Jam To-Day by service over again. But this unusual , trip artit e

FOUR COURTS PRESS

The Orange Order in Canada


publi shers. " It see ms to me, at the mom ent
[1937], that Kahane would be the only man
to do it." He added that the publi sher was a
Marj ori e Firminger, who was briefl y courted
by W yndh am Lewis and left an unpubli shed
mem oir of his bad behaviour , is "not so much
labour of love - a bibliograph y, profile of the
publi sher , and a histor y of the press, all bound
as one - is a valuable addition to the literatu re
DA VID A. W I L SO N EDITOR writer, too : "under the name of Ce cil Barr - a book as an arbitrary coll ecti on of mildl y of ang lophone Pari s publi shin g. Mr Pearson
Locates C anadian Orangei sm in it s inte rn ati onal con tex t vile vile crap, the viles t of the vile - and he salacious prattl e" . Storm Tarn by Princ ess does not say so, unl ess I ove rlooked it (the
and exami nes the reasons for the O rder's declin e in the ad mits it, but with that Eng lish insou cianc e Pa ul Tro ubetzkoy is "a sor t of Wuthering book lack s an index), but the Kahane name
second half of th e aorh century.
that makes my blood creep". Co nnolly was Heights but witho ut the lau gh s" . lived on in Parisian literary life in the person
ISBN 978-1 -84682 -77 -9 224PP ills. 45 kind er: he describ ed Kahane as "faintly Kahan e ' s ow n novels prob abl y spea k mor e of Jack ' s other son, Eric (d 1999), tran slator
Published: 7 December
Mephi stophelean" but prai sed his " lonely acc ura te ly for his taste than the streaks of into French of Lolita, Naked Lunch and the
guerrilla war against prud er y" . quality in his list. Hi s desire was for some- plays of Harold Pinter; and, in reverse dir ec-
7 M alpas Street, D ublin 8, Ireland
Tel. (Dubli n) 453 4668 www.fourcourtspress.ie
The modern mind boggles at what prud ery thin g salacious, produced by ge nius; lackin g tion , of Zaz ie dans le Metro in the Englis h
withheld from the Briti sh read er in the late the second, he wo uld happily settle for the versio n publi shed by the Ol ympi a Press.

TLS D EC EMB ER 7 2 0 07
BIBLIOGRAPHY 23
The Edwin Mellen Press
another, "John Fow les Bibliomaniac"). Publisher ofScholarly Books

Personal touches Britain ' s greates t ex pert on the history of


bookpl ate s was Brian North Lee, who died in
February this yea r. An En glish teach er who
The Ethnography of Time: Living With
History in Modern Rural France
James Fergusson on the catalogue of John Fowles's Library had once trained to be an Anglican prie st, Lee
Matthew Hodges
alm ost single-handedly turn ed the collectin g
and the sale of a bookplate collection of bookplates from an obscure sideline for
Goldsmith College

amateurs into a serious occ upation fo r histori- 97X-U-7734-5285-5


raham Gree ne once said that if he Bibli ophil es no w, ho wever , coll ect Fow les 's ans of taste - and not onl y taste, but heraldr y

G hadn't been a writer he wo uld "most books ju st becau se they we re Fowl ess.
happil y" have been a sec ond-hand
and genealo gy, too , and the fine art of print ed
"Association" copies exe rt a particular ephemera . He was, in 1972 , a eo-founder of
bookseller ; book sellers, he thou ght , were fascination , eve n if the only ev idence of the Bookpl ate Soci ety, for man y yea rs ed iting
Reading, Writing and Translation in the
Relacion Acerca De Las antigiiedades De
Los indios (c. 1498)
"eccentric" and they were "friendly" . His own ership is a small signature or a post- its newsletter and, often under its imprint, by Fray Raman Pane
1959 play The Com plaisan t Lover has one at humou s book-label. Fow les's book s are attrac- produ cin g a strea m of book s, including works
its centr e. Cli ve, flirtin g with Ann, the bank tive because he was an incontinent annotator. on indi vidu al design ers - Simon Brett, Claud Constance G Janiga-Perkins
manager' s dau ghter , says , "You wo uld not Like A. L. Rowse, he couldn' t read a book Lo vat Fraser , Leo Wyatt , Richard Shirl ey University of Alabama
und erstand how imp ortant a book seller' s cata- without scribbling in it. (M aybe there is some- Smith and Rex Whi stler - and studies such as 978-0-7734-5380-7
logue is". An n repli es: " It must be like writing thing primitive in that, too - in the readers' British Bookpl ates: A picto rial history (1979) ,
a no vel" . Cl ive : "Yes, 1 think it is. One has to need physically to mark out their territory.) He Briti sh Royal Bookpl ates (1992) and Sco ttis h
know what to put in and what to leave out" . writes correction s in histori es of Dor set, col- Bookplates (with Sir llay Campbell, 2006 ). Representation ofthe Cultural
Another noveli st attra cted to second-hand lates the ortho graphy of texts, append s an anec- Lee amassed a large colle ction of book- Revolution in Chinese Films by the Fifth
book s was John Fow les. From the mid-1 950 s dote about a local farm er to an archaeologic al plates, mounting them in Stanley Gibbons Generation Filmmakers
he was an habitu e of Francis Nor ma n's book- offprint about a Roman villa, draft s a poem in "Devon" large-c apacit y, peg-fittin g stamp Ming-May Jessie Chen
shop in Hamp stead, "a shop", he wro te, a French Baedeker, subscribes his hom age to album s. His neat captions are complemented & Mazharul Haque
"which mu st rank as one of the dirti est, most Th om as Love Peaco ck (" the secret introduc- by his research notes, letters, draw ing s, or
978-0-7734-5511-5
disorgani zed and lovabl e in North London", tion to all Victori an literatu re"). He accumu- proofs. At Bonh am s, New Bond Street, the
the place where he "learned a great deal more lates Willi am Barnes and Thomas Hard y, bulk of his surv iving collection was sold on
about literature . . . than I eve r did at Oxford". writes margin al commentaries on John Clare Nov emb er 13, in twent y-three lots comprising Isaac Newton's Philosophy ofSacred
If he were not a writer, he "might well" have and Emily Dickin son , parodi es the manu script thou sand s of bookpl ates, fetchin g a hammer Space and Sacred Time
become a seco nd-hand bookseller, he told journal s of a Cam bridge undergradu ate travel- price of 29 ,180 (35 ,016 with buyer ' s prem-
Peter Straus, the puhli sher-tumed- agent , who ling to Rom e in 1899. He also gathered asso- ium) aga inst estimates of 6 ,750- 1 2,300 . Gregory Gillette
Pennsylvania State University
also collect s book s. Fow les, who died in 2005 , ciation copi es of his own , book s from the Lee wa s not happ y about the way institutions
used to question Straus closely on book-bu y- librari es of other writers, Swinburne 's Roswall treated collections and intend ed his own to be 978-0-7734-5406-4
ing matters. Strau s contribut es a sensitive intro- and Lillian (1822 , offered by Cox for 85), broken up. His forty-nin e album s of miscella-
duction to the latest catalogue, 56 , from the Eve lyn Underhill's The Ad ventu res of M r neou s Briti sh bookplates, classified alpha beti-
The Emergence ofLatino Americanos
book seller Charles Cox (Rive r House, Tre- Verdant Gree n (1853, 70), Madam e Bovary cally but divided into ten lots, made 9 ,600
on the United States Political Stage
glasta, Launceston , Cornwa ll PU5 8PY), in William Rossetti ' s copy (new edition, 1862, again st estim ates of 3, 900-5,900; his seve n-
"John Fowles, The Co llection: book s from the 600), given him by his broth er Dante Gabriel. teen album s of "royalty" , amounting to some Anthony A Sisneros
librar y of John Fowles, part i", This first part His Thackeray Rehecca and Rowena (1850 , 800 princely bookplates but also including Cor- University of Illinois at Springfield
cont ains 541 item s, coverin g a broad range of 250 ) is signed by the author, his Matthew onation tickets and other royal memorabilia ,
978-0-7734-5451-4
subjec ts: Dorset and the West Country, his- Arnold Poems (1885, 200) inscrib ed "with did best at 6,200 against 800 - I,200 ; four
tory, philosoph y, natur al history and literatur e very kind regard s, and cordi al ackno wled ge- albums containing 350 bookplates relatin g to
up to 1900 . A second part will includ e earlier ment s of much help" to the librari an of the India made 1 ,800 and four containing 500 What Do We Imagine God to Be? The
book s, French literature and the French Revo- Athenaeum Club, Henry Tedder. relating to the West Indie s 2 ,200. One album Function of "God Images" in Our Lives
lution . Fowles' s twentieth-c entu ry book s are The cat alo gue shows ho w deepl y the was devot ed to a living bookplate designer,
bein g sold by Maggs Broth ers (50 Berkel ey writer imm ersed him self in the nin eteenth the artist and illustrator John Lawrenc e, once a Edited by Pierre Hegy
Adelphi University
Square, London W IX 6E L). century, and identifi ed with its bent toward s London neighbour of Lee' s. It vividly demon-
" I hate people who collect thin gs." Cox antiqu ariani sm , w he the r in natural hi sto ry strates the proc ess o f creati on , supply ing so me 978-07734-5488-0
uses a line from Fow les's 1963 novel, The Col- and geology or arch aeology, topo graphy and fort y bookplate sketches each for Marjorie
lector , for his title-p age mott o. It is not Fow les clim atology. He was a de vil for old detail , Moon and Brian Alderson , both experts on the
The Devastating Impact ofHurricanes
spea king, of course, but his heroin e Miranda, and that is the prop er mark of the traditi onal children ' s book , and went for 1,400.
Katrina and Rita on
the would-be paint er who has been kidnapped antiquarian book seller ' s mi scell an y - the sur- Lee cheerfull y sold item s from his collec-
Health and Education
by Fred, the deviant butt erfly collector. What pri se of the unknown , or unknown twists to tion as he went along: his was a working col-
she says is, " 1 hate scientists . I hate people the already kno wn. lection , mined by him for his prodi gious out- Edited by Rose Duhon-Sells,
who co llect thin gs, and cla ssify thing s and Charles Cox kno ws what to put in and put of book s and articl es. His working library AshrafEsmail & James Takona
give them nam es, and then forget all about what to leave out: his notes point out the con- has been broken up in a 735-item catalogue, 978-0-7734-5426-2
them. " Later, she describ es Fred as "a collec- necti on s with the publi shed novels and, also, 178 , from the book sellers Claude Cox (Col-
tor. Th at' s the great dead thing in him". with the publi shed Journ al s. Occasion all y he lege Gateway Book shop , 3 & 5 Silent Street,
Wh y do book coll ectors coll ect ? Book s are allows him self a personal not e. Of Fow les 's Ipswich IPI ITF) , "The Bookplate Libra ry of The Impact ofMilitarism and Social
writte n on the subje ct (and collectors collect cop y of Dorothea Hughess bio graph y of Brian North Lee". John Blatchl y, in an intro- Mobility on the Construction
them ). Unde niably, there is a primitive side her aunt , Memoir of Jan e Elizab eth Senior duction, pays tribut e to Lee ' s "infectious ofMasculinity in Elizabethan
to it. Peopl e talk about book-vhunting"; (Bo ston , 1916), he writes : "The marvellou s enthusiasm" and "scholarly achieve ments", and Jacobean Drama
indeed Straus corn mend s Fowles's "eagle Jeanie Senior is one of the unsun g heroin es of both of which are exemplified in the material
Timothy Francisco
eye" in the "hunting do wn" of unu sual item s Victorian England" . Senior, sister of Thomas on offer, which includes book s on American, Y oungstown State University
for his coll ecti on. For man y, the jo y is in the (Tom B rown 's Schoo ldays) Hugh es, was Canadian, Danish, Irish, Italian, Japan ese, Rus-
chase, the exc iteme nt in the capture. Posses- appointed in 1873 as an inspector of wor k- sian, Welsh and Yugo slav bookplates, scrap- 978-0-7734-5390-6
sion thereafter may be a disappointment : the hou ses, the first wom an go vernm ent inspec- book s and album s compil ed by him relatin g to
plea sure of gloa ting over your trophies is tor. Cox pric es the book , never publi shed in the arts patron Chri stabel Aberc onway (450)
hard to share . But Straus pleads that Fowles Brit ain and not ob viou sly in any major Brit- and the collectors Horac e E. Jone s (220) and We invite proposals for books that will
was a co nstructive book coll ecto r - his collec- ish library (nor menti oned in Senior' s OD NB George Heath Viner (260 ); a collection of make a contribution to
tion was a symptom of his brood y, quirky entry), at a mod est 85. royal letterh eads ( 120); thirt y-nin e item s by scholarship.
curiosity, an aid and stimulant to his writing. Lik e man y serious coll ectors, Fow les or about Joan Hassall, to whom Lee was We reply promptly to all enquiries.
If book collectin g is the coll ectin g of book s commission ed a bookplate, alle gedly from literar y exe cutor (8-450) ; a set of eighteen
The Edwin Mellen Press
for their own sake, he may perh aps not be Reynolds Ston e, also based in Dor set, though bookpl ates designed for him by Hassall, John
16 College Street
defin ed as a book coll ector at all. " I coll ect it is not very characteri stic of Stone's work , Lawrence, Simon Brett, Hilary Paynt er and
Lampeter SA48 7DY
[book s]," wro te Fow les in his 196 3 diar y, and man y of the books in Cox 's catalogue oth ers ( 15); and more than lOO item s by or
WalesUK
"for reason s that would mak e mo st bibli- bear it; others have a circular blind sta mp, relating to him - book s, offprints, even (at
Tel: ++44 (0) 1570423356
ophil es spit - becau se 1 wa nt to read them ." "John Fow les / Lyme Regi s" (he also had 1 00) his 200 3 grant of arms . Fax: ++44 (0) 1570423 775
emp@mellen.demon.co.uk
www.mellenpress.co.uk
TLS D EC EMB ER 7 200 7
24 BIBLIOGRAPHY

eorge Gre y' s life was colourful by book-coll ectin g histor y". In a fin al chapter

G any sta nda rd. Born in Lisbon in


1812 , he recei ved his milit ar y train-
ing at Sandhurst and serve d for six yea rs in
Colonial collector dedicated to the grea t man ' s cultural legacy
we are told of Grey' s hop e that his collecti on s
might act as "educational, moral and spiritual
Ireland, befo re und ert akin g two ill-fated BILL B ELL res ources that wo uld lead to the bett erm ent of
Au stralian ex peditions during 1837-9. After all in New Zealand and South Africa" .
a spe ll as magistrate in South Au stralia he D on ald J a ck son K e rr Grey's profession al car eer may have been
was app oint ed at the age of only twent y-eight distin gui shed in the nineteenth-century sense
as Go vernor of the col on y. In 1845, the Co lo- AM A S SI N G T REASU RES FOR A L L of the wor d - o n his death in 1898 he was
nial Offic e sent him to sor t out the situation TIM E S honoured with a public buri al in St Paul' s -
in New Zea land, then in the ear ly thro es of Sir Geo rge Grey, colonial boo kman and co llector but his virtues as a colonial administrator are
35 1pp . New Cas tle, DE: Oak Knoll. $49.95.
the so-ca lled Maori Wars. It was a j ob that he toda y grea tly di sput ed. Grey ' s firm belief in
978 I 58456 196 5
reli shed and exe cuted so we ll that he was the need to ed uca te peo ple out of their "sav-
app oint ed Go vernor of the Ca pe Co lony ten ager y" is we ll kno wn , as are hi s schemes to
ye ars later , where he success fully subdued materi als. Am assing Treasures for All Times assimil ate them throu gh the near co mpulsory
the anti-E uropea n movement then bein g offe rs, in the word s of its author, "the first purchase of land . As one recent bio graph er
promulgated by the Xho sa. He returned to full account of Grey' s coll ecting and the put s it, "the hum ane, reser ved , intellectual
New Zea land in 1861 , takin g it upon him self development of his two libraries" , on e of ge ntlema n co- existed with a racialist and
to defeat the Kin g movem ent , then the most which he donat ed to the Ca pe To wn Publi c imp eri ali st zea lot".
pow erful forc e for Maori se lf-de termination, Libr ary in 1861 ; the oth er form ed the basis of All of which might lead us to qu estion
going on to ord er the confi scation of nati ve the Auckl and Publi c Lib rary on its donation Kerrs cl aim that this book is in no way "a
land and the installati on of milit ar y settle- in 1883. study of Grey's political activities" . Alth ough
ments, eve n aga inst the ad vice of the Co lo- Grey was born into the go lde n age of book it does not attempt to exo nera te Grey' s polit-
nial Offi ce. Aft er an unsucc essful bid for a collectin g, ju st one mon th before the legen- icallife dir ectl y, the image we are left wi th is
sea t at Westmin ster in 1870 , Grey returned dary Ro xbur gh e sa le, often said to mark the of a passion ate bibli ophil e, a ci viliz ed gen tle-
yet again to New Zealand where he invol ved beginning of a new kind of bibliographi cal man, and a socially respon sibl e publi c serv-
him self in pro vin cial politi cs, his official antiq uarianism in Britain. The London bo ok- ant. "His public-minded ge neros ity", cl aim s
politi cal career coming to an abrupt end seller Bern ard Qu arit ch, with who m he had Kerr , "establishes his right to be called the
when he was made to res ign the premi ership regul ar dealin gs, onc e lament ed that they had Patron of the South ern Hemi sph ere ." In the
of Auckland in 1879. both fallen victim to the prevailin g biblio- Sir Georg e Grey by Sir Hubert von end, Grey' s atte mpt to ga ther togeth er an
In a professional life so eve ntful, it is man ia. Grey had a reput ation for tenacit y in Herkomer (1901) archi ve ofthe best of ang lopho ne civiliza tion,
rem ark able that Grey sho uld have found tim e his public life, and that sa me tena city was ev i- as we ll as a document ary record of the very
for anything else. As we learn from thi s book, dent in a pri vate life dominated by a passion tirelessly corresponding with authors, book- cultures that he was in the business of des troy-
however, he was, throu ghout hi s life, a vora- for book s. In matter s bibli ographical Grey selle rs and fello w collectors. ing, might be see n as one mor e aspect of his
ciou s book collector, dev oting mu ch of his was no dil ettante, and his letter s, many of By the tim e of the Ca pe To wn bequ est, assimilationi st polici es. One unint end ed out-
free time to the maint enanc e of an ex tensive which are included here, stand witness to a Grey had accumulated a for midable co llec - com e of this well-resea rched, if slightly hagio-
networ k of mission aries, print er s, and book- see ming ly boundl ess intell ectual curi osity. tion . "To have asse mbled such a coll ecti on graphic, acco unt is its dem on strati on of
se llers in ord er to indul ge his priva te pas- In spite of the tyrann y of di stanc e from the [and again st such odds] in a lifetim e wo uld be Waiter Benjamin' s fam ou s dictum that
sions, including eve rything from Shake- met ropoli s - perhaps bec ause of it - we find herculean" , writes Don ald Jack son Kerr . "To barbarism is not necessaril y incomp atibl e
spea re first folios to indi genou s manu script him por ing ove r cata log ues in his spare tim e, have done so twice .. . is witho ut parallel in with civiliz ation .

-----------------------'~.-----------------------

textu al symbo ls for maximum effect. Factors latter more confide ntially passed among influ-
Pressed into service who lost control of such materi al, as in the
case of Alexand er Sharpei gh , envoy to Ad en
ential memb ers of the Briti sh court. The clo se
readin g of the eve nts is impr essive, but one
on the southern coast of Ar abia in the Co m- com es away wo nder ing why so much time has
he Eas t Indi a Company, for med by DAVID FI NK ELS T EI N

T
pany ' s fourth voyage in 1608, significa ntly been spent on matters that changed little in the
royal charter in 1600 , develop ed from harm ed Co mp any sta nding and trade link s. In functionin g of the Co mpany.
a haph azard business coll ecti ve intent Mil e s O gb orn the case of Sharp eigh, on arri ving in port he Surprisingly enough, despit e the Eas t Indi a
o n ex ploiting the spice trade in the Eas t fail ed to ob ser ve local practic es and the Co mpany's comm anding presenc e in Indi a
Indi es an d India to a rulin g body controlling I NDI A N I NK cu sto m of presentin g the King' s letter to the and its depend enc e o n the tool s of writing
most of north ern and southern Indi a by the Scr ipt and print in the mak ing of the English Eas t local ruler in person , instead havin g it con- and printin g to cont rol its bu siness proc esses,
early 1800 s. From bases in Sur at, Bombay, India Co mpany
veye d and interpreted by a third party . By the org anization did not set up printing facili-
288pp. University of Chicago Press. $40; distributed
Madras and Ca lcutta, it ran an ex treme ly losing control of his symbo ls of textual ties in Indi a until the late I77 0s, whe n it
iu the UK by Wiley. 24.
profit able and mon op oli stic trad e that made authority, Sharp eigh wea kened his bargain- made Ca lcutta its main printing base . It mad e
978 02266204 1 I
its dire ctor s and investor s very wealth y. By ing and negoti atin g positi on , and the mission up for thi s deficienc y by churning out a third
the tim e it ceded control of its territories to ultimately failed . Th e Co mpany's factors of all materi al print ed in Ca lcutta bet ween
the Briti sh Crow n in the aftermath of the announce men ts of share and stoc k pric es; per- learned that politic al and comme rcial sur- 177 8 and 1800. Th e type of mat erial pro-
Indi an upri sin g of 1857- 8, it had becom e a fo rmance monit orin g; publi c rel ation s and viva l in the subcontinent depend ed on using du ced was aimed ge nera lly at gov erna nce
tan gibl e sym bol of Briti sh col oni al ex pansion marketin g wor k. All ofthese tasks were aided the pen as a tool of dipl omacy. Fro m such and at supporting Company activities: prim-
and ec ono mic domi nati on . and und ertaken throu gh the thorou gh use of ea rly lesson s it wo uld develop and secure a ers we re produced to aid Co mpa ny officials
Its early history was one defin ed by the print , writing and text. There are so me strik- monopoly on Indi an trad e until politi cal to becom e profi cient in indi genou s lan-
creation of business model s structure d to ing moment s in the volume illu stratin g the eve nts overturne d its privileged positio n. guages, jo ining ream s of printed off icial
cop e with the distance between the Com- capacity of texts to becom e potent symbo ls of Ogborn gives a thorou gh analysis of the document s, regulati on s and form s. Ogb orn
pan y ' s ce ntre in London a nd it s factori e s a nd authority - as, for exa m ple, in th e case of the place of print and text in the for mation of the describ es ho w the ea rly developm ent of print-
ware houses in Indi a. Th e impl em ent ation of Co mpa ny emissary to Band a Aceh in 160 I, East India Company as a political and commer- ing in Indi a was affect ed and co nstra ined by
rules, regulati on s and procedures meant to who was taken in state to the local pot ent ate, cial force in India. Less surefoo ted is his dis- the Co mpany 's dominant position in the
control and create acco untability in its fac- preceded by his lett ers of introducti on and cussion of the pamphl et wars of the 1660s and subco ntinen t. Printing was under stood to be a
tor s' operations was a central concern of gree tings from the English co urt, which were 80s, when debat es in print on the efficacy and "political techn olo gy" . Thi s dominance in
Company dir ectors in the ear ly dec ades of carried separa tely in a silk-cove red golde n relevance of the East India Company to con- print was eve ntually challen ged after 1805 by
its ex istence , and it is a matter we ll ex plored bo wl atop an elega ntly decor ated elephant. temporary trad e, and on the rivalr y with its religiou s communities in India , who brou ght
in the introductory cha pters of Indian Ink . Al so key to the Co mpany's successes was Dutch count erpart, contributed to complex pol- in their own printin g wor ks to produce reli-
Thou gh he does not explicitly state it, Mil es its under standin g of the relati on ship between itical situations, but had little effect on the East gious tract s and translation s in suppor t of
Ogb orn' s book in effec t chronicles how the writing, kno wled ge and power. As Ogborn India Company's business in India. Slanders their mission ary work. Soo n other parties in
Eas t Indi a Co mpany transformed itself by astutely notes, early negoti ation s by Co m- and attac ks on the Co mpany 's integrity and Indi a gained access to the tool s of print for
impl ementin g now sta nda rd business prac- pany repr esent ati ves in South Eas t As ia for wor th were met with both print ed and hand- their ow n pu rpo ses, and textual power shifted
tices and processes: doubl e led ger boo kkeep- tradin g access and concess ions requ ired diplo- written counter-attacks, the form er circulated away from the Co mpany, until its dissoluti on
ing entries; producti on of annual report s; macy and focu sed use of lett ers and oth er in coffee hou ses for publi c con sumpti on , the as a limit ed com pany in 1874 .

TLS D E C EMB ER 7 2 0 07
RELIGION 25

Krau se, Nietz sche, Pascal, Renan, Rit schl ,

Nigh is the end Schl eiermacher, Schopenhauer, Spenc er


and Spinoza. Part of his contribution to his
country' s intellectual life may be rela ted to
this catalogue of names. He regu larly sought
iguel de Unam uno (1864-1 936) is ERIC SO UTHWORTH Unamuno started the Treatise on Love of to propagat e greater famili arit y with areas of

M best kno wn to Eng lish audiences as


the author of The Tragic Sense of
Life, read in Craw ford Flitch ' s tran slation,
Mi guel d e U na m u n o
God in 1905. It eventu ally grew, drastically significa nt thou ght from abroad.
revi sed and expanded, into The Tragic Sense Some of Unarnunos idea s will be familiar
of Life. The Treatise remained unkno wn to to English read ers from other sources - not
and, more recentl y, Anth on y Kerrigan' s. He TRE ATISE O N LOVE OF GOD the readin g public , its manu script in the least, his own sources , as, for example, when
was a multifaceted figur e - uni versity pro- Translated by Ne lson R. Orringer author' s archives, unt il Nelson R. Orringer he engages with Schop enhau er on the nature
fessor, phil osoph er , philologist, theol ogian , 224pp. University of Illinois Press. 23 (US $40). prep ared it for public ation , with a car eful of love and pain. Orthodox read ers may be
politica l activist, j ournali st, crea tive writer - 978 0 252 03 124 3 introduction and ample annotation, first, in disconcerted by the way his inwardness
and one purpo sefull y madd ening to read . His 2005, in the original Span ish , and now here, with gospel teach ing combines with evide nt
texts are den se, aphori stic and inten sel y self- not wish to make peac e between my heart in his acc ompli shed Engl ish translation. As heterodoxy, as when he talks of liberating
con scious. He was intellectually a sce ptic and my head , between my faith and my author of a study of the French and German God from crud e matter , or asserts that men
and emotionally a belie ver , and his pro se is rea son ; I want them to fight one another liberal Prot estant sources of The Tragic made Jesus divine. It is not surprising that
designed to forc e his readers to effor ts equa l and to den y one another reciprocally, since Sense of Life, Orrin ger is the man for the job, Unarnunos work s were bann ed by the
to his own . He be lieved his compatri ots to be their comb at is my life". Religion for the and he acquits him self extreme ly well. His Church. The Treatise has lively passages of
es pecially in need of such assa ults, since West mean s Christianity, with the particu lar version of the Spani sh is reliab le and clear, po lemic : against crud e "scientificism" in the
Spani sh culture had becom e monotonous, appeal held by the doctrin e of God made man , his erudition info rmati ve. He situates the chapter "What is Truth?" and, especi ally pun-
puni shin g, inward-turning, and bon e-h eaded; a God who suffers. Unamunos focu s work in the cont ext of Unamuno' s unfolding gently, against the individual ism of modern
Spaniards had to be j olted out of dull compla- is the Christ of the Go spels, not the Jesus of religiou s thought, and relate s it to historical society in the chapter " What is Charity?" .
cenc y by realignin g their own cultural values . history; he is drawn to Paul' s preaching of the cont ext (not least contro versies about theolog- Som e, indeed , may feel that Unamuno is
But beyond that, he sought to challenge the folly of the cro ss, and attract ed by the apoca- ical moderni sm, finall y condemned in 1907 better at destruction than con struction.
self-dece iving smugness of anyo ne who fails lyptic tone of the New Testam ent. The end, by Pop e Pius X). Orringer has enj oyed access His thou ght may not be especially original ;
to experience anguish rooted in our irreduci- for all of us, is nigh. Relig ion, he thinks, is not to the author' s own book s, some of which the Treatise, whil e less unwield y than The
ble uncert aint y about per sonal immortality. fundamentally about ethics or good works. are personally anno tated . Unamuno had Tragic Sense of Life, may, within the histor y
He shared Pascal' s horrifi ed astonishment He has little time for the abstractions of philo - devoured the New Testam ent, and earlier and of theo log y and ph ilosophy out side Spani sh-
and anger at tho se insensiti ve to their eternal sophica l theologians or the profoundly unsat- later Fathers of the Church (he was Professor speaking countries, not eve n count as distinc-
destiny , a conc ern for which, he believed, lies isfying "proofs" of God ' s existence that lead of Greek at Salamanca), together with a host tive or innov atory ; its stances may not find
at the root of all religiou s striving : " Religion us deeper into despair. Feeling com es first of later theologians and philo soph er s of reli- read y echo es among man y modern read ers,
is the yea rning not to die, and is faith in ("love is one thing, and kno wledge of God is gion , some of wide renown and others now of variously armed again st despair. In his
immortalit y .. . reason by itself kills, and another"). From despair we may rise to faith, less, includ ing Feuerbach, Gu yau, Harnack, own way , though , Unamuno poses powerful
imagin ation gives life .. . for myself , 1 do and to communion with God through love. Hegel, William Jam es, Kant, Kierk egaard , question s.

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TLS D E CEMB ER 7 200 7


26 SOCIAL STUDIES

hen I joined the Home Service of of a far grea ter projec t serving the Cor po ra-

W the BBC as a ge nera l train ee in


1961 , my introduction to the radio
Fea tures Departm ent was ve ry curious. The
No ideology, please tion ' s wide r interest - a twent y-four-hour-a-
day, rollin g news networ k.
Within months of the arriva l of the decep-
office where I was give n a des k was shared tivel y mild Moni ca Sims as Co ntro ller in
by David Thomson, autho r of Woodbrook, a JOH N T US A Eve n the Director Ge nera l, lan Treth owan, Septemb er 1978, the battl e lines we re dr awn .
poignant mem oir of the wes t of Ireland , and saw Mclntyre as "personally inflexibl e in the According to BBC exec utives , Radio Four
Rayner Hepp en stall, an author ity on Fren ch D a vid H end y face of criticism". Th e Controll er believed was too ex pensive ; its pro gramming sched-
literatur e . Sadly, it was not their j ob to train that radio's standards were intellectu ally low ules were too infl exibl e ; the BBC' s bur geon-
me or to pass on their wisdo m and know ledge LI F E O N A I R and more influenc ed by journalists and by jour- ing local radio net work , on the other hand ,
and they mad e no attem pt to do so. But Thom- A h istory of Ra d io Fou r nalism than by broadcasting values as he was cheaper and more effect ive than Radi o
son, a ge ntle ma n with thick spec tacles and a 5 18pp. Oxford University Press. 25. believed they should be. Mclntyre' s own Four. Besides - and this was the suppose d
distra cted air, at least opened a cup board, ges - 978 0 19 92488 10 declared preferences were for "hardback not clincher - the local net work was what the
tured to piles of recordin gs he had commi s- paperbac k" readin g and for "conversation not new, all-powerful News and Current Affair s
sioned and sugges ted I try turning them into earlier appo intment in 1965 of the half- chat". When Mclntyre' s new programm e Director ate wa nted. Hend y sets out in detail
transmittable programmes. I spent a happ y French Gerard Mansell as Co ntroller that schedule left some produ cers with too much how Sims and her shrew d chief ass istant,
four months doin g so, pun ctu ated by lunch- change d progr amm e cont ent s. M ansell time on their hand s, he advised them to "read Richard Wade, co ntested and overcame each
tim e visits to the Ge orge in Thaye r Street, wa nted pro gramm es to have a more natur al a few improvin g book s or take an Open Uni- point of the charge shee t and wo n the case
where the Fe atures Departm ent had its true flow, and began to insist on the use of "well versity cour se" . He might ju st have got away for the continuation of Radi o Four as a "rich
ex istence . informed journ alists who knew what they with such attitudes of effortful superior ity had mix" network.
As a brief portrait of a dyin g departm ent - we re talkin g abo ut and had them selves been his ow n ideas been any good. But his most But there was one further battle to be fought
Fea tures was closed in 1964 - my time there involved in the coll ection and preparation of high-profile innovation , that of restrictin g and this one looked - from Radio Four's point
could not have been more instru cti ve. For the materi al". His first and most import ant the Today programme to twent y-fi ve-minute of view - un winn able. If the BBC bureaucrat s
these were the last gas ps of what one might innovation was the lau nch of The World at seg men ts and fillin g the gaps between with a had to put up with Radio Four as a "rich mix"
ca ll the Brezhn ev Era of the Hom e Serv ice , One, a hith erto inconceivable intru sion of ragbag called " Up to the Hour" , exc ited only channel with few conc ession s to the needs of
the yea rs of stag nation, of deep co nserva tism, fact , opinion and comment into the somno lent derision on and off air. "rolling news", then their reven ge wo uld be
when the possibility of a future for such a lunchtime schedules. The hirin g of the fast- Aft er Mclntyre attac ked Radio Four' s cov- the seizure of its Long Wave frequ en cy, a
network see med probl em atical if not highl y talkin g and unorthodox form er Daily Mail erage of the Bud get in 1978 - coverage that valued adjunct to Radi o Four ' s core VHF
unlik ely. Life On Air : A history of Radio edi tor Willi am Hardcastle as present er lit a reflected the known journali stic preferences frequ enci es. It is hard if not imp ossibl e for
Four by David Hend y charts in masterl y fu se under prevailin g ass umptions and polit e of the Direct or General, lan Tretho wan - his onlooke rs to und erstand that some devoted
detail the imp rob able evo lution of a network bro adca sting. He loved send ing reporters to Managin g Dir ector , Radio asked him : " Do Radio Four listeners onl y listen on Lon g
with its head in the clouds in the 1950 s into fry eggs on the pavement in Piccadilly Circus yo u often commit profession al suicide at Wave - ofte n because thi s is the only ava il-
the BB C Radio Four of toda y, which so durin g the summer heatwaves. The o nly sur- Review Board?". Hend y fairl y credits Mcln- able frequ enc y. The divide has echoes of
subtly and acc ura tely reflect s the cha nging prise is that it took from 1965 - when The tyre with some changes that stoo d the test of class distincti on s too : Long Wave: rural/cou n-
face of Briti sh society, to the frequ ent World at One was created - to 1986, when tim e, such as the introduction of File on try folk; VH F: gritty urb an typ es. Yet the
irrit ation of its loyal listener s. John Timpso n left the Today pro gramm e an d Four. But he does not quit e nail a cru cial BBC itself - egged on by mislea ding
Hend y' s account of the attitudes of radio's took with him the fin al vestiges of avuncular, distin ction between success ful and unsuccess- research from McKinsey' s - did not under-
senior managers in the becalmed 1950 s is j okey, "ho ! ho!" broadc astin g - a relic of the ful Radio Four cont roll er s to which the stand its audience. Th e 199 1 Gulf War closed
often amusing, but no t exaggerated. Wh en old folk sy Hom e Serv ice - for the Man sell- ev ide nce of his book poi nts. The ideologues the argume nt insid e the BB C and the dec i-
Andrew Stewart, Co ntro ller of the Ho me Ser- Hard castle revoluti on full y to take effec t. - Mclntyre, later James Boy le , and later sion to turn wha t was Ra dio Four's Lon g
vice, was challen ged by D. G . Brid son , pro- But reshapin g Radio Four was never still the ove rarching ideologue, the Direct or Wave into a "rolling news network" was
duc er of Under Milk Wood , to exp la in why simply in the gift of stro ng-w illed Co ntrollers General, John Birt - all fail. Their views are ann ounc ed . Wh at followed is simply stated
every gap bet ween pro gr amm es had to be or Man agin g Dir ector s of Radio. The net- too fixed , too rigid, too schematic to be use- and Hendy describ es it in ex hilara ting detail.
fill ed by the sound of Bow Bell s, Stewa rt work has too man y "s takeho lders" , many of full y applied to a soft, instin cti ve, imagin a- Th e pea sant s - we ll, the listener s - revolted;
replied "His Grace the Archbi shop of Ca nter- them self-appo inted and po werful because of tive and ex plora tory medium such as radio. in such nu mber s and from so many dir ection s
bur y wo uld be deepl y disturbed if it didn 't!" . it - listeners, politi cians, interest groups, Wh en Birt decl ared in 1993 that Radi o Four that management gave in. The creation of a
And when Stewart' s successor, Ronald bro adcasters themselves, intell ectu als, opin- needed to "broaden its appea l", Michael new "rolling news" cha nne l, Radi o Five Live
Lewin, was as ke d by hi s c hief assistant, ion-formers of eve ry kind. Most or all of Gree n, the famou sly pragm atic Co ntroller of - the brainchild of the then M anaging Direc-
C lare Lawson Dick, why one had to wa it these had at some point to be appeased, per- Radio Four ex ploded: " I could have kill ed tor Rad io, Liz Forg an, and backed by the then
until the eve ning to hear anything interestin g, suaded, res isted, bought off or - in one case - him . 1 was heading in that directi on anyway". Chairman, Marm aduke Hu ssey - save d the
he respond ed : "Don' t you realise that the give n in to. Why ? Wh y sho uld a radio net- The success ful Co ntro llers - of who m day, the Lon g Wave frequ enc y for Radi o
Ma ster of the Hou se doesn 't ge t in until abo ut work and the opinions of its audience be so Green was one - have been sensitive to audi- Four, and many faces.
seve n thirt y?" . With beliefs such as thi s, the imp ort ant ? It is only a net work after all: what ences and the tim es in which they live and Radi o Four is a good barom eter to the
Hom e Serv ice hardl y deser ved to surv ive, could be more ephemeral? But to think like listen ; subtle in the ways they have ada pted; nation al mood , to our politi cal and soc ial tem-
and yet it did, transfor min g itself und er the that is to ignore the social importance of und emonstrati ve in the introduction of perature. No controversy - sex, violence, bad
g uidance of a series of clever and resour ceful Radi o Four, and its place in Briti sh life - an change; and inform ed by the need for a sense lan gu age, permi ssiveness, Europe, rac ism -
bro adcasting editors . One should not, inciden- imp ort anc e which is actual and not ima gi- of fun. A s he approached an ear ly death , has left it unt ouch ed , and indeed the netwo rk
tally, be fool ed by the heavy bur eauc racy of nary. Even durin g the weakest, least focu sed Ton y Whitby told the Head of Re ligi ous has often been blamed for their ex istence . In
BB C titles - "controller", "director" , and so period s, Radio Four has always had an Broadcastin g (w ho was to take his fun eral) 1975, an entire con ference at Ditchl ey Park
o n. Th ey are editors , and their achieve ments uncanny knac k of represe nting a so lid core of that he had always wa nted to "undermine non- debated whether the BBC should "reflect or
ha ve been those of good o nes . British nationa l values , if sometimes too sense and mak e peo ple lau gh". His succes- lead" public opinion ; it concluded that it
The Hom e Service bec ame Radio Four on narrowly, too feebl y, or too cosily. The best sor , David Hatch , summed up Radio Four as must do both . Later, in 1986 , Co lin Morris,
September 30, 1967. By 1969, one of the controllers have worked to unlock this a theatrical ex perience of the whole of life. Head of Reli giou s Broadcasting, was aske d
most imp ort ant docum ent s of mod em Briti sh potenti al. This is the story of thi s book. But , he added, "there are two masks in thi s to draw up guidelines on sex, langu age and
hro ad castin g , " Rroadc asting in th e Se ven- Part of Hend y' s study is the archive- and theatre and on e hear s a sm ile ; we mu st hrin g vio le nce. He gave up , oh ser vin g that it w as
ties" , had outlined the sha pe of mu ch of what eyewi tness -based acco unt of some fierce BBC plea sur e as we ll as traged y" . "like tryin g to paint a whi te line in a sw irl of
we hear tod ay. But it was the somew hat battles. These matter to the ge neral read er and So me Controllers have carried their devo- fog". Towards the end of thi s sensitive and
listener because the natur e of the network tion to the "idea" of a mixed , cultiva ted, thou ght-provokin g acc ount of a nation al insti-
turn ed on their outco me. Th ey are also worth hum ane network to cou rageou s len gth s. tution and its plac e in society, David Hend y
Inheritance (Yerushe) (Hendy 's ow n apt sum mary is of a net work
readin g by conn oisseur s of any bureaucracy, sugges ts that we find our selves in a world
BiUngusl Y"tJdi.sb/EnglUb Poetry
because when the BBC has an intern al row, it that com bines "pragmatism, und erstat em ent , of " neo-Reithianism", charac terize d by a
by Perm Morlcisb
is serio us, articulate, ruthl ess and incid entally [and] mild ecce ntricity".) Yet histori call y "constantly flu ctuati ng, regul ated balance
" .....lIltedby Mary Schulman
foreword by Elie Wiesel very funn y - thou gh prob ably not at the time. thi s definition has com e under attac k not between patern alism and plur ali sm". It is the
This collection brings together for the first time in So me of the ripes t exc hanges emerge from from the wor ld out side but from within the chall en ge and the privilege of eac h Co ntro l-
English translation the work of one of the most gifted between 1976 and 1983, durin g the Co ntroller- BBC itself, where from the late 1970 s ler of Radio Four to manage thi s balanc e in
and remarkable Jewish poets of the Soviet Union. ship of Ian Mclntyre, a man describ ed by the on wards the very notion of a "cosy" network such a way that the listeners do not rise up
m TSAR Publications
~ .......tsarbooks.com
ISBN 9781894770422
Paper$24.95;176 paS'"
liberal - and Libera l - BBC Governor, Mark
Bonham Carte r, as "priggish and didactic" .
was not only deemed antithetica l to preva il-
ing values but was found to stand in the way
and tear him or her limb from limb. It is, after
all , "o ur Radio Four" .

TLS D E C E MB E R 7 2 007
PO ETRY 27

n a prefa tory note, Dav id Mo rley world, one now rend ered almost ex tinct.

I describes The Invisible Kings as the


second sec tion of a cycle that began with
2002's Scientific Papers . Readers new to his
Virgin fiction In a lighter, more co lloquial vein, Morl ey
writes elsew here in The Invisible Kings about
grow ing up in Blackp ool, the child of part-
work , however, will find that The Invisible Rom ani parent s. The poem s "Finn of the
Kings succeeds as a stan d-alone volume , J A N E Y EH po em sho uld be read "at a ca nter" , not Wiles", "Smoke, Mirror" and "Fiction" are
offer ing an introducti on to Morl ey' s special pain stakin gly tran slated by the rea der. Its bur stin g w ith sharp , pith y descriptions and
them es and concerns. (In fact , some of the D a vid M o rl e y success is due to the susta ined qu alit y of lingui stic energy . "Fiction" is espec ially
poem s here are reprinted from his ea rlier the writing, which is den sely textur ed and forcefu l, half litan y, half confess iona l. "Fic-
co llec tions , with on ly minor alterations.) TH E IN VI SIBL E KINGS alliterative, for mal and incant atory in tion was the poached I life histor y of travel-
Mo rley' s train ing as a mari ne researcher and 80pp. Manchester: Carcanet. Paperback, 9.95. style, recall ing both Se amus Heaneys ling folk " ; "Fiction took the bus to the store,
biolo gi st, wh ich ove rtly framed Scientific 978 I 857549058 Beow ulf and Geo ffre y Hill ' s Mercian was allowed I by famil y law to shoplift". As
Papers, subtly per meates his new book , with Hymns: "I invisibl e, audible , a flum e of Morl ey piles on the sardonic personification s
its ma ny portr ayal s of the natur al wor ld. the level of mu sic in its own right ("lilay" is fin ches blowin g I throu gh the thorn field s at ("F iction was a virgin before marri age, of
Sn owfin ches, redpolls, gall was ps and mor e summer, "l en" river) : "Seven shire horses your ridin g" . " Kings" has a flavour of cour se"), the poem develop s into a skewed
po pulate poem s in which Morl ey ma rries wa de , their tail s whish ice-shell. Last lilay Hom eric epic, as we ll as of the Divine self-ind ictment, or self-po rtrait: " It' s hard I
precise obse rva tio n to ex quisite ly musical on thi s len II we swam a hund red hor ses". Comedy (a line of which form s the vo lume's qu arr ellin g with Fiction. Because Fictio n is
langu age to produ ce wor k of rigorou s beaut y. Tho ugh he pro vides a co mpre hen sive glos - epig raph) , a mann er that grants suitable you" . As an alleg ory for any writer's life, not
Th e vo lume 's opening poem , " You Were sary , his introductor y note sugges ts the grav ity to its proj ect - the conj uring of a lost j ust Morl ey' s, thi s rings true.
Bro ke n" , is a bravura perf orm anc e com pose d
of a sing le sentence that branch es out acro ss -------------------~,--------------------

four stanzas like the "amazed, massy shade" it, whereby thin gs (w hich are , by the way ,
of the very tree it depicts. The dra ma of its
slow, centuries-long grow th amid vo lca nic
roc ks, harsh winds and "blights of summer
About the landscape "unalterably themselves") are infu sed with
poign ancy by an over-indul gence of the reflex -
ive ver b. It is a kin d of poetic tic, valuab le
lightning" becom es a narrati ve of surv ival series of meditations written in a A INGEA L C LA RE

A
because it prese nts a handy short cut to signifi-
against all odds, a "fabulous tale" as com pel- spiritua l and incant ator y register, ca nce; but it can be rather addictive, as Samp-
ling as that of any character from myth or Fiona Sa rnps on's Common Prayer F io na S amp s on son's poetr y proves. She is a much better
legend. strikes a unu suall y high- mind ed note in the writer when she ignores the lure of tacked- on
Morl ey' s interests, thou gh , range we ll profane field of conte mporary British poetr y. COM MON PRA YE R import anc e and invests instead in the pro cess
beyond nature ; his inspiration s have included Writt en in probin g, leapin g lines that owe 74pp. Manchester: Carcanet. Paperback, 9.95. of poetr y - for hers is, at bottom, a poetry of
authors from Baud elaire to Brodsky, Mon- much to John Burn side and Char les Wrig ht, 978 I 85754942 3 process. Common Prayer is distinctl y kin etic ,
taigne to Mil osz, giving his poetr y an hers is a poetr y happ enin g on the page before full of movement , grow th, travel and trans-
unu suall y internation al, histor ically infor med us almos t at the spee d of thou ght , and at the ending of a pse udo -ero tic sonnet, " Body lation. In "A Sac rament of Wat ering" , natu ral
o utloo k. In Mandelstam Variat ions (1991 ), a the edge of co nsci ousness . Poems dart across M ass" : activity intrud es on to the poem by way of a
book-l en gth seq uence abo ut Osip Mand el- the page with "rapt veloc ity" , fixin g thei r His cries , tentati ve typographi cal quir k (borr owe d from
stam, who was persec uted in Stalinist Russia co nce ntration on e lementa l forces - light , his sticky martyrdom, belie the Slova k poet Mila Haugova):
for his writings , Morl ey co nsidered the wa ter, mus ic - but lackin g orc hes tration , and how it' s a local godhead that he meets: She appeared between lilac bushes.
natu re of polit ical op pres sion, torture, ex ile demandin g a littl e too much clair voyance how, chasing flights of angels, he )White snap of wings(
and captivity . Th ese ideas find their way into from their rea der. These poems are lon g and tumbles to earth him sel f - in we. Y DU knew she wa s there
the new volume in poems abo ut Paul Ce lan am bitious , seek ing to be, as M atth ew Arnold The abstru si veness of the clo sing cou plet by the quality of space whiteness of light.
and Lety u Pisku , a Nazi con cent ration camp says in one poem' s epigra ph, "glimmering here invites only im pati enc e on the part of Th e reversed brackets are like butt erfl y
in the Czech Republic where cou ntless and vast". Samp son does not shy away fro m the reader; any effort to disentangle it goes un- wings, or perh aps a pair of curtains pull ed
Rom an i were killed. Mo rley' s fondn ess for engag ing with abstrac tions , and while thi s reward ed. Simil arl y ob scur e passages perme- aside to let whateve r is hidi ng behind them ,
co mplic ated repetiti ve for ms and word play ad ds to the poems' ph ilosophi cal am bitious- ate the book . One ma nnerism in parti cul ar is ")light(" for instanc e, expose itself. Samp-
(at oth er times akin to Paul Mul doon' s) is ness, images some times blur into abstrac- repeated with a sha meles s lack of restraint: in son's poetr y thro ws the door s of percepti on
turn ed to a serious purpose in the latter poe m. tion s before they have tim e to resonate, and one poem the sea is "stretched tight as a skin I wide open, but sometimes find s its view
In it, M orley crea tes a di sturbin g ten sion the poe t's hope of "connecting th is, to that, to o ver itself' ; in ano the r, bo ne s "po ur the m- blocked by sm udge d abstractions and ove r-
between two vo ices , eac h of which parr ots yo u" is da shed aga inst an excessively earnes t selves" between the shee ts; light is " spilling insistence on its own poeti cality. Her best
the other's words, slightly changed and in a register. In "Common Prayer" , Sampson out of itself' as it "lay ]s] itself down" ; "body- wor k is that in which the filt erin g sens ibility
shifting or der, like a pair of di stort ed echoes . co unse ls: work" is "building itsel f ', while "shopfronts" is at its most unobtru sive, and as wi th the
Eac h of the ghos tly, unidentifi ed spe akers It's not about belonging . You don't belong. are busy "composing them sel ves". Sa mpso n anim al life at the end of " Night Fugue" , per-
might be a prese nt-day visi tor, a Romani It's about the landscape is not the first poet to hit upon the "se lf- ception s "go intentl y throu gh you I toward s
inm ate, a Naz i guard, or a bystand er who did as co nfesso r. inwoven simile", as Christop her Ricks ca lled dayli ght " .
noth ing - the poem ' s power lies in its ambigu- In the light-box of this pane
ity, and in the way its twinn ed voi ces are for the white-branched willow move s to and fro,
ever locked togeth er in histor y and in death .
At the heart of the collection is a long narra-
spirit
brushing the lens
Early Morning on the Lake
ti ve poem, " Kings" , which takes Morl ey' s of yellow-and-blue April,
previou s ex plora tio ns of Rom ani culture in a its petalled fall
new direction. Writt en in a mixtur e of Eng- of what can never be co ncluded. Original light , outline of mou ntains -
lish an d Rom ani , " Kings" is a se lf-desc ribed We begin to sense that "what ca n never in the upp er air, the last of the star s,
"fairytale" set in Eas tern Europe duri ng the be conclud ed" are the lines them selves; they the onl y sound our moro nic eng ine.
fir st third of the twentieth cen tury . Its narr a- spill out of eac h other , into right-hand mar- Wh en it putt ered out: a loud er silence .
tor, a "w ise fool ", is a Romani man w ho gins and ove r man y pages, and when they The anchor we nt in with a plun gin g splas h
act s as the go-betwee n for his cla n in their fin all y co me to rest it feel s as if one is clo sing (the rop e fast-fo rwardin g in after it).
dealings wi th o utsiders . He also doubl es the door on an ove rhea rd mon olo gue rath er A cor mora nt made a lon g low take-off,
as another sort of go-betwee n, in his role as than reachin g a satisfactory coda. O f cour se, dip pin g its wi ngs before it cleared and soa red.
the clan ' s see r; the spirits of Rom ani kin gs such shape less nes s has its adv antages : like
visit him in his dream s, foretellin g the future . an "oscillograph ' s I flutt erin g wing" , these Low key after a night o n the liqu or
Mo vin g back ward s and for ward s in time, poems are able to char t, mom ent by mom ent , now we were hushed , eve n the children,
the poem tell s the story of his life, his the subtles t of chan ges in moo d and dicti on , as if a memory (a namnes is)
marr iage and the tragic slaug hter of his wife to interrupt themsel ves, an d to ripple out at of mystery had surfaced amo ng us,
and tribe. all ang les, the bett er to fish for epiphany. or the glitter of a surren de red life -
Free ly pepp erin g " Kings" with Romani Some times an epipha ny bites, but more tend er and atte ntive ; assa ilable.
words and phra ses , Morl ey invents a hybri d often it is merely the ghos t of illumination ,
langu age that not onl y mirro rs its protago- banal (" Is any thing beautiful I left in R A YMO ND F R IE L
nist' s bilin gu al ex istence , but also achieves the world?") or crippling ly rarefied, as in

TLS D EC EMB E R 7 2 00 7
28 IN BRIEF

Lorenzo di Piero de'Medici as a suitable


dedicatee of The Prince, and when fortun e
sm iled at last and Car dinal Giulio de ' Medici
commi ssioned him to write his History of
Florence, he includ ed a defence of the Pazzi
Co nsp iracy of 1478 , eve n though Giulios
father had been its vict im.
Ross King' s engag ing book does have a
few blemishes (was Juliu s 11 really know n
as "The Ter rible" or "The Wa rrior Pope" in
his lifetim e ? Isn't Urbino in the March e, not
Romagna?), no index and only a sparse bibli-
og raphy ; neverth eless it is possibl y the mos t
readable introduction in English to Machia-
Social Studies velli since J. R. Hale ' s book in the Tea ch
Thomas C1erc Your self Histor y series, publi shed nearly
PAR IS, M USE E D U XXl e SIECL E fift y yea rs ago.
Le dixierne arrondissement D . S. CHAM BERS
249pp. Gallimard. 18.50.
978 2 07 078485 I Botany
Richard Mabey
F or three years Tho mas Clerc, a resident of
Pari s' s rapidl y gentrifying tenth arron -
di ssem ent , stro lled around its 142 streets,
T HE FRA M PT ON FLO RA
The secrets of Frampton Court gardens
avenu es, boulevard s, gardens, passageways 208pp. Quercus. 20.
and squares . The result is this delightful 978 I 905204 68 7
book, recentl y nomin ated for the Prix Ren au-
dot. Th e author 's approach , at onc e arbitrary
and sys tematic, implicitly pays hom age to
another ce lebrated Parisian fl aneur, WaIter
B etween 1828 and 1851 , the five unm ar-
ried daughters of a Glouces tershire
lando wner called Henry Clifford, his two
Benjamin. Clercs perambul ations are unmarri ed sisters and his da ughter -in-law,
reco unted throu gh a variety of devices such paint ed a series of over 300 wa terco lours of
as poetr y, riddles, count erfactu al musings the flowers and plant s grow ing in and around
and historic al references. Always including their village of Fra mpton-upon-Seve rn. The
their di men sions, Clerc details the arro ndisse - ambiti ous scope of the enterp rise, and the
rnent's stree ts in strict alphabetica l ord er, qualit y and coherenc e of the work the wome n
fro m the rue d'Abbeville (220 x 15.75 produ ced , are impressive, but the abse nce of
metres) to the rue Yves To udic (430 x 15 any direct docum ent ation means that we do
metres). Yet, size isn't every thing; the vas t not know how they regarded their achieve -
Ave nue Parme ntier (1,670 x 30 metres) only ment: was it a pastim e or a proj ect, pleasure
merit s six lines of text, while modest rue or dut y; did they intend a parti al or a com-
Rene-B oul anger (500 x 12 metres), its initi als plete acco unt?
a gift for the author's Barthesian soul, The story of what became kno wn as The
inspires six pages. Clercs reaction to Framp ton Flora is a rom ant ic one: the pa int-
the arro ndisse me nt is dictated by hi s person al ings, most of them in leather-b ound albums
relationship with its stree ts and the and retainin g their fine co lours, were discov-
memori es they hold . The text operates as a "In a cabinet wer e about a hundred little elephants made of ivory"; illustration by David ered in the attic of Fra mpton Court by
stra nge refracti ng m irro r. He g uides R. Godine, taken from Th e Annotated S ecret Garden , by Frances Hodgson Burnett, Henri ette C1iffo rd and published in 1985.
us throu gh his arrondisse ment and, at edited by Gretchen Holbrok Gerzina (288pp. Norton. 20. 978 0 393 06029 4) Rich ard Mabey' s introduction to this
the same time, the arrondisse ment guides us revised, expanded reissue, pro vides some
to him . unabl e to ove rco me his reput ation in official general background to nineteenth- century
Clerc is an observer rather than a partici-
Biography circles as a rihaldo - however brilli ant - and botanizing, pointing to the traditi onal link s
pant. The anonymity of the urban space is Ross King to re-in grati ate him self with the Medi ci, between wo men and plant-c ollectin g
pun ctu ated by brief exc hanges ; the occ a- M ACHI AVELLI Machi avelli was extraordinarily busy, writ- and the importanc e of an arti stic education
sional passer-b y as ks for a light , a gro up of 256pp. HarperPress. 14.99. ing his mos t famous works, The Prince and for girls .
hoodies insult s him , an attrac tive wo man in a 9780 00726 127 7 the republica n Discourses on Livy' s Histor y The plant studies are confid ent and strong,
Ren ault 5 nearly knock s him down. He dem- of Rome, both concerne d with effective paint ed in wa terco lour directl y on to expen-
meth ods of gove rn ment. sive art paper, with no under drawin g. Finely
onstrates a dazzling feel for eso teric detail,
fro m the dingy tabac that still sells bri ar
pipes on the rue du Faubourg Poissonni ere
N iCCOlb Machi avelli is always with us,
perver se, parado xical, horribl y relevant.
Ross King may not be a professional Machia-
King stresses Machi avelli ' s fascin ation
with the realit ies of human beha viour and the
composed but natural, they give the plea sing
imp ression of a pla nt picked and brou ght
(1,40 8 x II metres) to the exquisite traiteu r vellista but his short study of the caree r, char- inescapability of indi vidu als from their for- stra ight indoo rs to be rec orded fresh. Details
on rue du Chatea u-d'Eau (692 x 13 metres), acter and writings of the inimit able Floren- tuna and their esse ntial natures, but above all of flower and leaf are evide nt, the curves
recentl y clo sed down due to the unexpected tine is succintly written and enterta ining, his preoccup ation with decepti on as a moral, of stem and spray reali stic yet decor ative. To
appearance of the pa tron's murd ered mis- wholly worthy of its subje ct. He con veys politica l and milit ary art. Decei ving was not the original hand written captions, giving the
tress in th e home- minced sa usages. As hi s Machi avelli ' s extraordinary energy, both onl y a keyoot e in his political theor y hut the Latin nam e of th e spec ies a nd oft en w he re it
taste for the macabre and the bizarre sug- ment al and physical: that capacious, analyti- theme of his play Mandragola, and of a song was found ("Leamington, Sept 1845 " , "F rom
ges ts, Clercs text represent s a decla ration of ca l mem or y for all he had read , starting in his for one of his mistresses to perform . King fishpond May 1847" ), M abey adds botanical
war on the picturesque Pari s of Robert Doi s- father Bern ardo ' s libr ary, and for all he had sugges ts interestin gly that Machia velli ' s ow n inform ation, rem ark s on habit at and rarit y,
neau and Arnelie Poul ain. He depl oys seedy see n, heard and done durin g his service nature made him not much good him self at a note on medicin al use and, often , the local
sex shops, men acin g alleys and din gy smoke- (1498-1512) in the Cha ncery of the Flore n- dissembling and flattery. No doubt he failed and familiar name: "granny' s nightc ap" ,
fill ed bars as an inoculati on aga inst the creep- tine republic, including dipl om atic mission s to deceive his long-sufferin g wife Marietta, "dead man' s fingers" , " Bachelor' s butt ons" ,
ing "rnuse umifica tion" that threatens to rip and military plannin g in the wa r aga int Pisa; but he also antago nized his employe rs in the "love lies bleedin g" . This lavish, large-
out the cit y ' s soul. Unlike the incr easin gly his feats of endurance, vast distances co vered Florentine Signoria by high-h andedn ess; his form at editio n brin gs out in fine detail the
sanitized and saccharine-tinged French capi- at spee d on horseback (for exa mple, seve ra l vain appea l to G iulia no de' Medici from his ra mbling unoffi cial natur e of dog rose , old
tal, this brut al and urine-stained vision por- times all the way from Flore nce to Blois and lice-infested pri son ce ll in 1513, after torture man's beard, Whit e Bryon y, ox-eye daisies,
trays an arrondissement that is alive, vibrant back ), not to menti on his insatiabl e ardour on suspicion of conspiracy, King sugges ts record ed by the C1ifford ladies ove r 150
and fundam ent ally Parisian. for mistresses and prostitut es. Eve n du ring was an ill-ju dged literary spoo f; Machi avelli yea rs ago.
SARAH HOWARD his yea rs in the wilderness (1513-20), when also badly misjud ged the charact er of Li ND SAY D UG UID

TLS D EC EMB ER 7 2 007


IN BRIEF 29

some only bystanders, began a long, demean- mode rn curric ulum, but were neverth eless decadenc e: pho tographs , paintings and the
History ing and often farcical enco unter with state centra lly preoccupi ed with teachin g. Ly ly set reproduced pages of recip e book s and me nus
Benj amin Stora anti-sy ndica lism laws aga inst preachin g vio- out in Euphues to defend the va lue of learn- pun ctu ate the text in stunning de tail.
LE S T ROIS EX IL S lent ove rthrow of the state. Ju ries were qui ck ing by experience (ra ther than learnin g by the Th e co ntributors are relu ctant to engage
Juifs d' Algerie to co nv ict, mostly from preju dice and igno- book), but ende d up tackli ng mora l probl ems with some of the medi cal and soc ial issues
240pp . Stock. 19. rance, but per ha ps a bit also from exas pera - with schoo lmas terly discip line . Sidney sati- surrou ndi ng food co nsump tio n today (the
978 2 234 05863 7 tion, having been for ced to hear intermi nable rized hu man ists ' fondn ess for max ims , or increase in obes ity rates, for example, is
readi ngs from the offe nding literature. There co mrnonplaces, but his ow n sen tentious ness mentioned only in passing). But as Freedman
was , ho wever, no thing farcical abo ut sen- in the Arcadia was sure ly designed to point s out in his introdu cti on , altho ugh
T he leading histori an of Fre nch A lger ia
and the Alge rian War here turn s his atte n-
tio n to his ances tors, the Jews of Alger ia .
tences of ten years and $5, 000 fines hand ed
out to people who thought they we re unde r
imp ress his teach ers. And thou gh Spenser's
emblems and allegori es often undermi ne
conce rns about food an d disease have
increased in rece nt years , so has the sta nda rd
Benj amin Stora shows how, in less than a ce n- the protection of the Bill of Right s. The acc u- their own wor k of fashioni ng the reader, The of health in general in deve loped countries .
tur y, they und erwen t "three ex iles" in the mul ation of erro rs by police, co urt and prose - Fae rie Queene rem ains com mitt ed to teach- Could our grow ing anx iety abo ut what
land that had been their hom e for centuries. cutors made the cases a model for sec uring ing by way of example. A ll three roma nces we eat have a cultura l as we ll as a medi cal
First, the "C re rnieux decree" of 1870 granted rever sal on ap pea l. offe r a rebuke to scho larly booki shness, basis? If thi s interestin g and informa tive
them Fre nch citize nship, which set them Th e trials took place aga inst a back groun d but are never securely anti-didac tic . Their study teaches us anything, it is that while
apa rt fro m their Muslim neighb our s. Then in of wides prea d eco no mic distress, an atmos - authors may have lost faith in classroo m pro- taste ca n be inde pende nt, food is almos t
194 0 the anti-Sem itic laws pro mul gated by ph ere hardl y co nd ucive to a fair hearing for tocol s, but still feel profoun dly nostalgic for always political.
the Vichy regime exclu ded them fro m public defendants regar ded as co llec tivist ag itators them . RO S EMA RY D U NL EAVY
life in Algeria, a situation only reversed whe n from New Yor k. The Co mm un ist Part y, to Dolven writes at a tim e when poetr y and
which so me of them belon ged , publicized the schoo l are on eas ier term s, but Scenes of
the A llies ga ined cont rol of the co lony three
case, and publi c dism ay gree ted the news that Instruction devotes itself to the ongo ing
Social History
yea rs later. Am ong the more perverse of
Vichy's decrees was the ban on Jewish peopl e co uld be locked up for selling books puzzles of ed uca tion. Mos t of Do lve n's read- Mark Kurlansky
lyceens study ing Latin, while the teachin g of whic h were ava ilable in mos t good libr aries. ers will themselves be teachers, and behi nd NON- VIOL ENC E
Gree k was some how ove rloo ked, wi th the The verd icts were eventually ove rturne d in his atten tive analyses of Re naissa nce texts lie The history of a dangero us idea
result that a number of French Jews, now the Criminal Co urt of App eal s, the Hon or- the j oys and frustration s of what he calls "the 203pp. Vintage. Paper back, 7 .99.
in their eighties, ca n read Herod otu s in the able Jud ge Bert Barefoot ren dering the imp ossibl e pro fess ion". Grac ious and eco - 978 0 099494126
or iginal but not Tac itus. op inion that, while the statute was legal, its no mical in both style and argume nt, thi s is a
hen it co mes to no n-violence, Ma rk
Fina lly, when Algerian inde pen dence pre-
cipitated the mass exo dus of Euro pea n set-
tlers in 1962, the Jews left too. Unlike their
applica tion infr inge d "perso nal co nstitutio nal
libert y" . The seized ex hibits were also
released from the cell in whic h they had
work of imp eccable scho larship. Revealing
the unease behind the imp ort ant Re naissa nce
idea that poetr y was des igned both to please
W Kurl ansky poin ts out, wor ds fail us.
The feeble negative lacks some thing, after
fell ow French cit izens, they had been unique been store d . and instru ct , Dolven co nfirms with qui et all, by co mpariso n wi th the colourful lan-
in their roo tedness in the culture of the The story had a profession al interest for author ity what our studen ts (a nd Tudor guage of aggression, from "affray" to
Mag hre b, dressing in Ottoman cos tume for the authors - a libr arian and a lawyer, both in schoo lboys) knew all along : that literature "melee" , " axe" to "zap" . Kurl ansky is a true
Passover and oth er reli gio us festivals, serv - retirement - and they have told it straight- works mos t powerfully when it is teach ing us beli ever; indee d, something of a prose lytizer.
ing couscous (w hich they have since helped forwardl y as a case study of pre-wa r polit ical a lesson . Hi s book is bill ed as "the histor y of a da nger -
to populari ze in metropo lita n Fra nce) and culture at co unty level. So me times, when KA TH ARI N E C RA IK ou s idea" . In trut h it is more adv ocacy than
playing their ow n charac ter istic tradi tion al those events spea k the borin g langu age of history, a yomp through the theological under -
wra ng ling lawyer s, a bit less fidelit y to their pinnin gs of non- violence, the pri nciples, the
mu sic at wedd ings and other family ce lebra -
ch ronicl e might have been we lcome.
Gastronomy practic e and the historic al recor d. He is ever
tio ns. But they had also been full y ass im i-
lated into Fre nch instituti on s and into the lib- Protectin g civil rights in a chang ing demo- Paul Freedman hopeful but not always persua sive. Intent on
era l profession s, whic h made the Vichy laws cra tic soc iety is, of co urse, a very large sub- FOOD inspiration , hi s acco unt is insistentl y upb eat.
particul arl y hard to bear. ject, and the authors wise ly avo id exc urs ions A history of taste Th e monk s of Burma and the lawyers of Paki-
Because they identifi ed with the Republic, into com plexities that would distract fro m 368 pp. Thames and Hudson. 24.95. stan can testif y to the for mid able difficulties
and were iden tifi ed with it, the Jews of A lge- their narrati ve. As a conseq uence, however , 978 050025 1355 of staring down the barrel of a gun.
ria co uld no t remain in the co untry after inde - their attempt to take mea sure of the ep isode Kurl ansky wan ts to do violence to vio-
pend ence: they feared being redu ced to their
anc ie nt statu s of dhimmis (a non-Mu sli m
subject of a state governed in accorda nce
in only six pages of epilog ue does not rise
ab ove a famil iar warning agains t th e arro-
ga nce of power - which was the ori gin al
R ecent interest in food histor y has tend ed
to focu s on specific cultures, peri od s, or
foodstuffs. Paul Freedman, the editor of thi s
lence, to defa ng it, deglam ori ze it and install
re si stan ce , passive an d imp a ssi ve , in it s
place. He is fond of qu otin g Wi llia m Penn ,
with shar ia law). So Stora 's parents, then in ration ale for the legal rem edi es the defend- ambitious "history of taste" , takes a broader the Qu aker, on the simplest formul a for end-
their fift ies, took their children by the han d ants used here to asse rt their rights. view , beginnin g with the eating habit s of our ing war - refu sal: "Somebody mus t begin it".
and j oin ed the exodus with everyone else . J AM E S M . M URPHY hunt er- gatherer ances tors and en ding with Kurl ansky himself aspi res to a Qu aker-li ke
"M other we nt on cleaning the flat until the mode rn food fash ion s such as nou vell e cui- directn ess and simplicity. The "Twenty-Five
sine and the Slow Food movement. Tas te is Lesson s" he has ex tracted from his ow n wor k
last mo ment", Stora reca lls . "Father locked Literary Critici sm figur ed as "not simply the preserve of a tin y co nstitute a kind of digest at the back of his
the door and slipped the key in his pocket ; we
pick ed up our suitcases and left, ju st as if we J eff Dolven aristoc racy, of the co urt culture of the Euro - book. Insof ar as non- violen ce im plies slow -
were goi ng on holi day. But we knew per- SCEN ES O F INSTR UCTI ON pean, Abbasi d or Chinese past or the 'foodie' ness as a virtue - slow to ange r, slow to strike
fectl y we ll that it was over, that we wo uld not In Renaissance romance cutting -edge ofthe present ", but as part of the - the very idea of a q uick read is perhaps a
be com ing back." 288pp. University of Chicago Press. $29; soc ial history of ordinary peopl e. But the little incongruou s. Some of the lesson s, unf or-
Not only are there no Jews left in A lge ria, distributed in the UK by Wiley. 18.50. history of food is not quit e the sa me as the his- tunatel y, are too crude to ca rry co nv iction.
they have large ly em igrated from Morocco 978 0 226 15536 4 tor y of taste; as an thro polog ists ha ve lon g "Once yo u start the business of killing , yo u
too. A fascin atin g period of Jewish histor y been awa re, food is as much a social and po lit- just ge t 'dee per and deeper ' , witho ut limit s."
has co me to an end, and this is its poig nan t
swa nso ng .
J OH N F LETCHER
C an we eve r escape our teachers? Stu-
dent s' mi xed feeli ngs of obliga tion and
resentment to wards th o se w ho in stru ct them ,
ica l matter as a cause of phys ica l sensa tio n.
The var ious food historians who have contrib-
uted to thi s vo lume are aware of th e se qu e s-
"Wars do not have to be sold to the ge nera l
publi c if they can be car ried out by an all-
vo luntee r pr ofession al ar my ."
and their nagg ing susp icion that they are tion s, but more interested in what people actu- Mo re seriously, Nail-violence finds itself
bein g miseducated, are the subjec ts of Jeff ally ate, the way in which it was prepared and in troubl e when co nfro nted with other poss-
Shirley A. Wiegand and Wayne A. Wie gand Dolven' s fin e study of early mo dern the etiq uette of dini ng. ible lessons fro m the masters. Kurlansky
BO OKS ON TRIA L romance. However keen ly John Lyly, Ph ilip To qu estion the wide r implications of parti- makes bold to quote the distinguished theolo-
Red scare in the hearlland Sidn ey and Edmund Spen ser may have cular kind s of diet is not the aim of this beaut i- gian Reinh old Niebuhr: "Pacificism was irre l-
235 pp. University of Oklahoma Press. $24.95. wished to break free of the rigorou s hu mani st full y illu strat ed volume, whic h is above all a eva nt in dealin g with Hitl er". To thi s he has
978 0 806 1 3868 8 traini ng which had made their minds so ag ile, ce lebra tio n of world cuisine. The seafo od no good answer, addu cing only the (limit ed )
their wor ks are enlive ned by those same peda- spec ia lities of Imp erial China, elaborate sea - success of the Danes, and the brut ality of
gogi ca l routines . The story of ear ly mode rn son ings of the medieval Islami c worl d and oth ers, inclu ding the Bri tish. Perhaps there is
O n August 17, 1937, po lice descend ed
on a scruffy book store in Oklahoma
Ci ty where, it was allege d, seditious litera-
romance therefore becom es a story abo ut the
rivalries - often unspok en or unspeak able -
ce lebra ted sauces of the Fre nch gastro nom ic
traditi on are all des cribed with an obvious
no good answer. In ce rta in circ umsta nces,
non- violence is not enoug h. It needs he lp; the
ture co uld be had. Boo ks and pamphlet s were between poet s and schoo lmas ters. en thusias m for their roma ntic app eal. A monk s of Burma lack a Gor bac hev.
taken into custody and a number of citizens, Romanc es had no place on the early generous 238 illu stration s add to the sense of ALEX D AN CH EV

TL S D EC EM B ER 7 2007
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31

Bill Bell is Director of the Cen tre for the of hi s Modern Italy: 1871 to the p resent will William Fitzgerald is a Fellow of Go nville M aria M argaronis is Londo n correspondent
History of the Boo k at the University of appear later this month. and Ca ius Co llege , Ca mbridge. His most for The Nation.
Ed inburg h. He is gene ral ed itor of The recent books incl ude Slavery and the Roman
Edinburgh History of the Book in Scotland , Na ta sha Coope r 's most recent nove l, A Literary Imagination, 2000 , and Martial: The Chris Moss is a freelance journalist. He is
two volumes of which we re published in Grea ter Evil, was publi shed ear lier this yea r. World of the Epigram , 2007. work ing on a book entitled Patagonia : Land-
Nove mber. scape of the imagination .
Katharine Craik is a Sen ior Lectur er in Patrick Denman Flanery is eo -gues t edi tor
Jonathan Bloom shares the Norma Jean Early Mod ern Literatur e at Ox ford Brookes of a spec ial issue of the journ al scr uti ny'I on James M. Murphy is a retired intelligence
Ca lderwood University Professorship of University. Her book Reading Sensations in "South Africa n Cultura l Tex ts and the Global officer and a freelance writer on international
Islamic and As ian Art at Boston Co llege Ear ly Modern Eng land was publi shed earlier Mediascape", forth com ing in 2008. affairs.
and the Hamad bin Khalifa Endowed Chair this year.
of Islami c Art at Virginia Commonwea lth John Fletchers translatio n of Les Georgiques Tim Pashley is Co mmercial Director of an
Univer sity, with his wife and co lleague, Alex Danchev is Professor of Intern ational by Claude Simon, The Georgics, appeared in Oxfo rd-b ased law fir m.
She ila S. Blair. He is curren tly completing a Relations at the University of No ttingha m. 1989. He is Honorary Senior Resea rch Fellow
book on the art and architec ture of the His latest book is a biography of Georges at the Univers ity of Kent. Andrew Porter is chief music critic of the TLS.
Fat imid dynasty in North Africa and Egy pt. Braque, 200 7. He is wor king on a biography
of Cezanne, and a collec tio n of essa ys on art R aymond Frie!' s collec tions of poem s Eric Southworth is a Fellow and Tutor in
Alan Brownjohn' s twelfth vol ume of verse, and war and terror. incl ude Renfr ewshire in Old Photographs , Spanis h at St Peter ' s Co llege, Oxford.
The Men Around Her Bed, was published in 2000.
2004. His Collected Poems was published Lindsay Duguid is Fiction edi tor of the TLS. T. O. Treadwell has been a university
last yea r. Katharine Hibbert was shortlisted as Young lectur er in English Literatu re and a produ cer
Ros em ary Dunleav y is writing a doc toral Journalist ofthe Year in the 200 6 British Press of radio dram a. He divides his time between
Martin Butler is Professor of English Renais- thesis at the University of Ox ford on Awards for her wor k at the Sunday Times New York and Lond on .
sance Drama at the University of Leeds. He is aes thetic conce pts of sweetness in the Magazine. She work s for thelondonpaper.
the general editor, with lan Donaldson and nineteenth ce ntury in relation to suga r. Paul Trewh ela edited the und ergrou nd
David Bevington, of the Cam bridge Edition of Sa rah Howard is Fellow and Dir ector of newspaper of the military wing of the ANC
the Works of Ben Jonson. He edited Cymbe - Marianne ElIiott is Direc tor of the Institut e Stud ies in Histor y at Christ's Co llege , and the South Africa n Communist Party,
line for the New Cam bridge Shakespeare, of Irish Studies at the University of Liver- Ca mbridge . Her mos t recent book , Les 1963-4, and was a politi cal prisoner in Preto-
2005, and The Tempest for Penguin , 2006. poo l. Her book s includ e Robert Emmet: The Images de I'alcool en France : 1915-42, was ria and Johannesburg fro m 1964 to 1967. As
making of a legend, 2003 . She is wr iting a publi shed in 200 5. a painter he wor ks in a stud io that was for-
J am es Campbell' s book s inclu de Paris book on religion and identit y in Irish history. merly Verno n Scanne ll's school.
Interzone: Richard Wright, Lolita, Boris Roz Kaveney' s book Teen Dreams: Reading
Vian and others on the Lef t Bank, 1994 . A col- James Fergusson is preparing a biographical teen fi lm and television fro m " Heathers" to Sir John Tusa is Chairma n of the Court of
lection of ess ays, Syn copa tions : Beats, New book catalog ue on the boo kseller , missionary " Veronica Mars" was published last yea r. Governors at the University of the Arts
Yorkers, and writers in the dark , will be and publi sher Robin Waterfield , 1914- 200 2. London , Vice Chairman of the British
publi shed in the new yea r. Tadzio Martin Ko elb ' s fir st novel, Fate's Mu seum and Chairman of the Wigmore Hall
Diarmaid Ferriter is a Senior Lecturer in Lieutenant , was a finalist for the Pirate ' s Trust. Prev iously he was Managing Director of
D. S. C ha m b ers is Rea der in Renaissa nce Irish histor y at St Patri ck' s Co llege, Dublin Alley Faulkner Soc iety 's Willi am Faulknerl the BBC Wor ld Serv ice, a presenter of News -
Studies at the War burg Institut e, University City University, and a broadca ster with RTE. Willi am Wisdo m Award in 200 3 and the night and a newsreader on BBC television.
of Londo n. He is the ed itor of Patro ns and His new book, Judgin g Dev: A reassessment Sa nta Fe Writers' Project Awa rd in 2004.
A rtists in the Italian Renaissance, 1971. of the life and legacy of Eamon de Valera, Jane Yeh ' s fir st co llec tion of poem s,
was publi shed in October. Toby Lichtig is an assistant editor at the TLS. Marabou , was publ ished in 200 5. She is a
Aing eal Clare' s reviews have appeared in lectur er in Crea tive Writin g at Kingston
numerous jo urnals, includin g the Guardian, the David Finkelstein is Research Professor of Sir Neil MacCo rmick is Regius Professor of Unive rsity, Lond on.
London Review of Books , and Poetry Review. Medi a and Pri nt Culture at Quee n Margaret Public Law and the Law of Nature and Nations
Univers ity, Edinburg h. He is author of The in the University of Edinburgh, where he has Zinovy Zinik ' s collect ion of com ic stories
Martin Clark' s most recent boo k is House of Blackwood: Au thor-publisher also held a Leverhul me Personal Research Pro- a nd sketc hes on life o uts ide R uss ia , At H om e
Mussolini, 2005 . A third, upd ated , ed ition relations in the Victor ian era , 2002. fessorship, 1997- 2007. Abroad, is soo n to be published .

TLS C ROSSWORD 721 V


A
I C
A
T 0
B
R [

L
A
" E
B
R C
H
E R
E
ACROSS DOWN S 0 R 0 E L L 0 R 0 S T 0 V

1 Sw ift insp iratio n from French and 1 Th essalia ns who too k exce ption to T U D U M 0 H E
L A S K I S K U N K H 0 U R
Scotti sh chap s (6) horsing aro und at royal wed ding (8)
Y 0 E T R N E
4 Ca nd idat e in P. D. James play finds 2 Unwelcom e job on American foot (7) [ N T R 0 D U C T I 0 N
that his part is to die for (8) 3 Recon ciliat ion in one da y by A I S I C A E H C D
10 Composer in fa vo ur of Kiev, perhaps Alvar ez (9) C o M M E N T A R I E S
(9) 5 Held in high respect ? - rather fifty -fit y, 0 p [ I C M A

11 Cartoon of Scottish castaway by th is Shav ian cleric (8, 6) T H E H E R 0 E S K N E L T


C R L N E M D H
Ferd inand Mo unt? (5) 6 Pla ywrig ht of Sennacherih sent flowers
H A I K U S W A H A B I T E
12 Profo und offering of Peter Benc hley by ad mirers (5)
E A D S T N N
(3, 4 ) 7 Aida ran unintelli gibly for confused 0 0 L M E N .T Y P E F A C E
13 Hay' s jo lly captai n (7 ) Ep hesian wife (7)
14 Bridle path, so to speak, feat ured in 8 Sort of dawn for Hopkin s falcon (6) SOL UTIO N TO CROSS WOR D 717
Millais' lesser work s (5) 9 His sister-in-law was sharp, we' re told The wi nne r of Crossword 7 J 7 is
15 Hill verse translated to be neater (8) (3,4,7) He /en N. Spr ey, Clev elan d Height s,
18 Right , say, for one abo ut to be late (8 ) 16 "T he hou se at Litt le G idd ing bore no Ohio.
20 "The - that can w ith Logic ab so lute resemb lance whate ver to a - " (So uthey,
I The Two-a nd-Seventy ja rring Sect s Quar terly Review) (9) The send er of the first correct
confute" (Fitzgerald, Ruha iyat) (5 ) 17 A treach erous revel ation of Hartley (8) so lution opened o n December 28
23 O ld port gets exce llent backing from 19 Sort of research for 127 (2, 5) w ill recei ve a ca sh prize of 4 0.
Con ingsby ' s rol e model (7) 21 Min er' s dau ghter , we're told, E ntrie s s ho uld be addre ssed to
25 O utlook mor e unsettled for H ilton aba ndoned by ungrateful torero (7) TLS Crossword 72 1,
protagon ist (7) 22 Northern O lymp us in Valha lla'x garde n T ime s Ho use, I Pe nningto n S tree t,
26 Like writer in Popla r (5) (6) London E98 IBS.
27 W ycliffi sm to rall y lord surprising ly 24 Vo n Lu stbaders was white (5) D ue to a n erro r in pro d uctio n,
(9) the cl ue s and grid of p uzzle 7 19
28 Pianist prod uces note accompanying were g arb le d. We have cance lled
all corners in Ulster (8) th at p uzzle.
29 Cr itic' s south-easte rn source (6)

TLS D ECEM BER 7 20 07


32

L ike others, when abroa d, we enjoy


paddling in the shallows of forei gn lan-
g uages, blith ely dipping into our phrasebook
to ask a Cretan goa therd for dir ections to
the cin em a, or to quiz an Itali an polic em an on
the pric e of fish. Ho wever, we have yet to
di sco ver the magic phr asebo ok that will
unscra mble the lan guage of academi c theor y.
Tr y makin g thi s comprehen sibl e:
Displ acin g queern e ss as an iden tity or mod alit y
that is visibly, audibly, legibly, or tangibly evi-
dent - the seemingly queer body in a "cultural
Turban terrorist ~~ ;;;"-F~. .
~\ ' J: ~
~7 ~. /L ,
freeze-fra me" o f sorts - asse mblages allow us
to attune to movem en ts, inten siti es, emo tio ns , another try. You think yo u know wh at a Th e tran slator of Rimb aud ' s twent y-fi ve i
t'- ~ 61 ~
.4 ""

k
JL/
ene rg ies , af fec tivities , and tex ture s as they turb an is? Here is M s Pua r' s view : quatrain s, composed of twelve-syll able lines,
, '/J....;4~
inh abit events, spaciality, and cor porealities. The turb an is thu s always in the sta te of becom - takes on the challen ge not only of Rimbaud ,
~4.~.<; ~'t ~/~ ~,
~.{---- ~~ 2.---f!_rs-
That is one sente nce from Terrorist Assem- ing, the becoming of a turbaned body, the tur- as Jenkins knows, but Samuel Beck ett , who
blages: Homona tional ism in queer times, by ban becoming part of the body. In all its multi- tran slated the poem in 1930 , Rob ert Lowell
Jasbir K. Puar (Duke University Press). It ple sing ularities it has becom e a per verse fetish (1961 ), as well as Wall ace Fowli e (19 96 ) and ' '""' .X'" ~~
. _ '<"

~
' / "-'r'4:i:t-t~ tl!f..-c.. ~ "
>

may be a characteri stic of peopl e who spe ak objec t - a po int of fixat ion - a kind of ce ntripe - mo st recentl y Jerem y Harding (2004).
in a pri vate lan guage that , once they ge t Jenkins, who is deput y editor of the TLS, \ " ..... ~
tal force , a strange attrac tor throu gh which the ~ ~ LV -.... f..._ ~ -t' A
going, there is no stopping them , even thou gh
no one can und erstand . Here she goes aga in:
den sity of anxiety acc rue s and acc umulates.
Jasbir K. Pu ar is Associ ate Professor of
decid ed that the best way to approa ch thi s dif-
ficult task was to make it mor e difficult. Beck-
~ ,dZ~ /Z-- /""'AJ~c. ...;- ; : -.....~
"This onto genetic dim en sion that is ' prior' Wom en ' s and Gender Studi es at Rutgers. If ett's vers ion is practically unrh ym ed Gust a :l
"'t ~' ~":"-~A0
. d
but not ' pre ' claim s its priorn ess not throu gh
temporalit y but through its ont ological status
you hear a strange dialect bein g spo ken o n
campu s, you' ll know who it is. We would sug -
"down / dro wned" here, a "skies / lice" there).
Lowell hamm ers Rimbaud' s AB AB sche me ,~. R' ~-Z .;(~ -h..S:~-
,. .-1;.('

as that which produces field s of emerge nce ; ges t asking her for detail s of the phrasebo ok into an ABCA pattern, on the anv il of angli- man y more above " . The letter , reproduced
the prior and the emergen ce are nevertheless - but ho w to ph rase the que stion ? cized pent ameter. Fow lie and Hardin g avoid here, was writte n on hotel notepaper. Jame s
' co ntemporaneo us' " . the probl em altog ether. Jenkins has go ne for a scribbled a pos tcript: "This col ossal pile isn 't
Occasion all y, in thi s 335-page sema ntic
riot, th e read er stu mh les on a w ord or two
fro m oth er langu ages, including Eng lis h.
I n his preface to Drunken Boats - a transla-
tion of " l .e Rateau ivr e" , a nd two po em s
of his own - Alan Jenkins ob ser ves that
Rimb aldi an, twelve- syll able A BAB . Here is
one of his sta nzas, follo wed hy Rimh aud:
The greenish water slopping through my hull's
so hid eou s as the picture, partl y because it
isn't detach ed hut coloss ally surro unded".
Th e Belm ont was demoli shed in 1930.
Before one can detect the sense, ho wever, the Arthur Rimbaud wro te the po em "when he so ft pine , Lik e RLS , James enjoyed chatt ing on the
sentence spins off o n its own course. Have was seve ntee n, and had never see n the sea" . More sweet than wi ndfa lls are to kid s, sluiced phon e. The first fictional occurrenc e of the
all the blood requ est, "May I use your teleph one ?" , is
I'd puked up off my planking, and the dirt- sure ly in RL S' s novel The Wrecker (1892).
cheap wine ; Our festive chall enge to readers: What are
Left me as rudd erless as drift wood on the flo od . the earlies t literar y menti on s of the motor car,
(P lus dou ce qu'a ux e nfa nts la cha ir des television , and oth er new-fangle d machin es?
pomm es sures,
L ' ea u ver te pen et ra ma co q ue de sap in
Et des tac hes de vins bleu s et de s vo miss ures
Me lava, dispersant gouvernail et grappin.)
T he third issue of The Yellow Nib, the
annual j ourn al of the Seamu s Heaney
Ce ntre for Poe try in Belfa st, has a murmuring
Drunk en Boats is hand som ely produced by mu sic al theme, beginin g with the magazin e ' s
Sy lph Editions (www .sylpheditions.co m). at name (the nib is a blackbird' s), continuing
8 .99. If yo u can 't afford the intern et , but can with articles on guitar-play ing by Toby Litt
afford Jenkins/Rimbaud, let us know. and Don Paterson , and ending with "three
songs" by Paul Muld oon.

A dislocation occur s in the reader' s mind


on witness ing a writer largely asso ciated
with the nineteenth century bumping into
Lite' s article, focu sed on the folk guitarist
Davey Gr aham and his descending-bass tun e
"A nj i" , is about not bein g able to play the
thin gs mor e common to the twenti eth. Rob ert g uitar. The piece by Paterson, a me mber of
Loui s Steven son first spo ke on the telephone various band s, is abo ut bein g able to play but
in Ca lifornia in 1880 , in a hot el that would not bei ng able to do much else. Here he remi-
. wed \n tile
\<s revle r look good in a Wild West film . In 1898 , nisces about "a wee band ca lled Gho sts" :
All oo O
t-,
a m\lI\on ot, ,e Georg e Giss ing and H. G. Well s darted mis- W e were a trio and we had abo ut four and a
lLS and over ava\lable from sives back and forth from Rom e to Surrey, half numbers I' d written, which I could barely
, " t are I, hoP

tile ,.L
titles in pn" , S BOO",5 .
d prices wltll
at d\SCounte . tile UK.
with a spee d that matches Fede ral Ex press.
Recentl y, we reported Thomas Hardy' s admi-
ration for early Am eric an high-ri ses.
play. Among them, I recall, were "Elephant
Rut" and "My Italics". Our drummer, Doug,
had, as they say, a lot of shit worked out in 7/8 ,
FREE deliVeCy In Henr y James also had a giddy ex perience but much less in 4/4. He could play 4/4 in multi-
of the skyscraper. Last week , we wrote about ples of 28, and eve ry seve n bars we wo uld
. bOO\<
d adVIce, the recentl y di sco vered cach e of lett ers sent co inci de, lik e those trai ns on the und erground
Assistance an .ft voucllers, to a neighbour in Sussex. In 1910 , James you suddenly find yourself riding parallel with
1 vis ited New York, where he staye d at the for a few seconds, before plunging back into
catal09ues, 9 dat\on S and
omm en Hotel Belmont, on the corn er of Park Avenue the lonely dark.
reC est\onS frO m and For ty-seco nd Str eet. " I write thi s from The Yellow Nib is publi shed by Blackstaff
sU99 ble and the 12th storey of my hot el" , he told Mr s Press, and costs 7 .
wledgea
\<no o\<se\\ers . Franc is Ford with bemu sement , " & there are J .C .
lIelpful bO

T he Tim es Lit er a ry Su pplement Limit ed . 2007. Published and licensed for distribution in electronic and all other 49>
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