Dielectric constant

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Dielectric constant

© All Rights Reserved

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CONFIDENTIAL 1

Agenda:

Anisotropy

Copper surface roughness effects

Thickness dependencies

Design Dk examples and more detail

Where to find Design Dk information

CONFIDENTIAL 2

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Overview of frequency dependent dielectric constant

D = E

D is electric displacement vector field, E is electric field intensity, is complex permittivity

When an electric field is applied to a dielectric material, electric dipole moments are

induced within the material

Polarization (P) is due to the material properties and the related dipole moments

D = 0E + P

Bold letters are

vector variables

0 is free space permittivity

CONFIDENTIAL 3

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Overview of frequency dependent dielectric constant

D = 0E + P

Dielectrics used in the high frequency PCB industry are typically a linear dielectric

P = 0 c E

c is electric susceptibility of the material

vector variables

CONFIDENTIAL 4

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Overview of frequency dependent dielectric constant

D = 0E + P = 0 (1+ c) E = E

= j = 0 (1 + c)

is associated with dielectric constant and is associated with dissipation factor (Df) of

the material

Dk = r = /0

vector variables

CONFIDENTIAL 5

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Overview of frequency dependent dielectric constant

Depending on material properties, from about 10 MHz to 300 GHz, most interaction

between electric fields and substrate is due to displacement and rotation of the dipoles

CONFIDENTIAL 6

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Overview of frequency dependent dielectric constant

At low radio frequencies the dipole relaxation has little effect on Dk dispersion

CONFIDENTIAL 7

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Overview of frequency dependent dielectric constant

generic dielectric material

Dipolar and related

relaxation phenomena

less Dk-Frequency slope

CONFIDENTIAL 8

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Overview of frequency dependent dielectric constant

methods on the same

piece of material, the

Dk-Frequency trend is

validated; the Dk

decreases with an

increase in frequency

CONFIDENTIAL 9

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Anisotropy

CONFIDENTIAL 10

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Anisotropy

Anisotropy means the Dk is the not the same on all three axes of the material

compared to the x- or y-axis

With an applied electric field the dipole moments react different on the different

axes of the material

Non-spherical filler particles which naturally orient in certain directions during the

laminate manufacturing process

Material polarization is different on the different axes

CONFIDENTIAL 11

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Anisotropy

As a practical point, the non-diagonal elements are typically not significant and ignored

Additionally, the xx and yy typically have little difference and for modeling (and for

material measurement) purposes it is the r of the x-y plane which is used in conjunction

with the r of the z-axis

CONFIDENTIAL 12

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Anisotropy

For circuit design and modeling, anisotropy is typically not considered in transmission

lines, stubs and other non-edge-coupled components

As general rules:

CONFIDENTIAL 13

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

CONFIDENTIAL 14

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Copper surface roughness effects

The dominate loss component can be different, for the different circuit thicknesses

Three circuit sets made from same material but different thicknesses

Circuit material used was RO4350B laminate

CONFIDENTIAL 15

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Copper surface roughness effects

Using same material of

different thicknesses and

different copper types,

thin circuits are more

impacted by difference in

conductor loss than thick

circuits

surface roughness has

lower conductor loss

is ~ 0.3 microns RMS

has a roughness of ~ 1.8

microns RMS

CONFIDENTIAL RO3003 laminate is a very low loss material: typical Df @ 10 GHz is 0.001 16

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Copper surface roughness effects

Copper surface roughness impacts more than just conductor loss or insertion loss

Copper surface roughness will alter the propagation velocity (phase velocity)

same dielectric material,

same thickness and same

physical length (8), but

different copper types

which have different

copper surface roughness

CONFIDENTIAL 17

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Copper surface roughness effects

In other words

as a wave is slowed the circuit perceived effective Dk is assumed to be higher

CONFIDENTIAL 18

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Copper surface roughness effects

There are other things that can slow the wave besides a substrate with higher Dk

A rough copper surface can slow the wave propagation

Again, a slower wave translates into higher Dk even if the substrate is unchanged

Microstrip Transmission Lines, Allen F. Horn, III, * John

W. Reynolds* and James Rautio+

0157 USA

+Sonnet Software, North Syracuse, NY 13212 USA

CONFIDENTIAL 19

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Copper surface roughness effects

Shown are circuits with the same substrate, but using different copper types

with different surface roughness

Circuits with rougher copper surface (higher RMS) have higher effective Dk

CONFIDENTIAL

The LCP laminate used in this study is the Rogers ULTRALAM 3850 laminate 20

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Thickness dependencies

A thinner circuit will be dominated by conductor properties for loss and phase

Conversely a thicker circuit will be less affected by copper roughness regarding the

circuit perceived effective Dk or the Rogers term of Design Dk

Example: 50 ohm microstrip transmission line circuits evaluated for Design Dk,

using the same substrate and same copper, but different thickness

4mil RO4350BTM laminate has

Design Dk = 3.95

Cross-sectional view of a thin circuit, with

exaggerated copper surface roughness

Design Dk = 3.68

for RO4350B laminate is 3.66

because the substrate Dk,

without copper effects (thick Cross-sectional view of a thick circuit

substrate),

CONFIDENTIAL is 3.66 21

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Thickness dependencies

same substrate and

copper type, however

circuits using different

substrate thicknesses

ohm microstrip

transmission lines

CONFIDENTIAL 22

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Thickness dependencies

and thickness (5mil),

however using different

copper types which have

very different copper

surface roughness

average roughness of

1.8 microns RMS and

the rolled copper has

0.3 microns RMS

on the propagation constant

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

CONFIDENTIAL 24

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Design Dk examples and more details

Design Dk is not a material property, it is a circuit property

Design Dk values should be used for high frequency circuit design and modeling

Thickness of the substrate

Copper surface roughness

Frequency

Once a Design Dk curve (Dk vs. Frequency curve) is defined, other Dk values can

be estimated relatively well

CONFIDENTIAL 25

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Design Dk examples and more details

loss have more

Curve with increased

dispersion

slope (more dispersion)

is higher loss circuit

The high

performance FR-4

circuits are high loss

circuits; Df 0.020

and used reverse

treat foil; relatively

smooth at 0.8

microns RMS

The RO3035

laminate is low loss;

Df of 0.0012 and

used rolled copper

with a roughness of

CONFIDENTIAL

0.3 microns RMS 26

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Design Dk examples and more details

Dk

Recall Dk-Frequency

behavior from slide 8

Df

Due to predictable Dk vs. Frequency behavior, once the slope is defined for a material at

microwave frequencies, the Dk at higher frequencies can be easily estimated

Typically the Dk vs. Frequency slope is defined from about 10 GHz up to 20 or 30 or 40 GHz

Predicted Dk values from a measured slope are usually good up to about 300 GHz

CONFIDENTIAL 27

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Design Dk examples and more details

Example: with the slope defined for 6.6mil RO4350B up to 20 GHz, the Dk can be

estimated at higher frequencies

Measured is orange curve

Estimated is grey curve

CONFIDENTIAL 28

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Design Dk examples and more details

shown to the right validate

the estimated Dk value at

100 GHz

CONFIDENTIAL 29

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Design Dk examples and more details

What is the Design Dk tolerance for a material? There is no easy answer

Since Design Dk is thickness dependent, the tolerance can be different for the same

material but at different thickness, such as 10mils thick as compared to 20mils thick

Since Design Dk is copper surface roughness dependent, the tolerance for the same

material and same thickness, can be different when using different copper

The copper surface roughness has a normal variation associated with the copper; the

roughness variation causes Design Dk variation but its impact is thickness dependent

The substrate has a normal tolerance associated with the intrinsic Dk value

The microstrip differential phase length method used to determine Design Dk has a

normal measurement accuracy which is dependent on the above concerns

Long story made short, the Design Dk tolerance is found by testing a large amount of

circuits made from the same material, same thickness, same copper type and having

normal lot-to-lot variation associated with these materials

CONFIDENTIAL 30

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Design Dk examples and more details

Dk tolerance example using 10mil RO4350B laminate:

Substrate Dk

tolerance is 0.05

Substrate thickness

tolerance is 0.001

Copper surface

roughness can vary from

~ 2 to ~ 3 microns RMS

for oz. copper

with this circuit

construction is 0.005

this construction is 0.115

CONFIDENTIAL 31

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Design Dk examples and more details

Dk tolerance example using 10.7mil RO4350B LoPro laminate:

Substrate Dk

tolerance is 0.05

Substrate thickness

tolerance is 0.001

Copper surface

roughness can vary from

~ 0.7 to ~ 0.9 microns

RMS for oz. copper

with this circuit

construction is 0.005

this construction is 0.063 Smoother copper has

CONFIDENTIAL tighter Design Dk tolerance 32

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Design Dk examples and more details

length ratio

Circuits are:

physical length

are made in very near proximity

of each other on the same panel

50 ohm characteristic impedance

CONFIDENTIAL 33

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Design Dk examples and more details

Phase measurements are taken on each circuit, across a wide frequency range

The microstrip phase response formula is modified to account for the two circuits of

different length

Using MWI-2016 or a field solver, combined with inputted circuit dimensions, the Dk of the

material at that specific frequency is found by a convergence of the modeled effective Dk to

the measured effective dielectric constant

The frequency is incremented and the procedure is performed again repetitively to get a Dk

vs. frequency curve

CONFIDENTIAL 34

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Design Dk examples and more details

Extremely wideband

Dk vs. Frequency

CONFIDENTIAL 35

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Design Dk examples and more details

The Design Dk values can be used as approximate values for Grounded Coplanar

Waveguide (GCPW) circuits

Tightly coupled GCPW will have lower Design Dk due to less roughness effect

Design Dk will be relatively accurate for moderately and loosely coupled GCPW

coplanar sidewalls and less in the copper-substrate region

where surface roughness impact phase velocity

CONFIDENTIAL 36

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Design Dk examples and more details

Design Dk for other constructions, Stripline

Design Dk values can be used for stripline, however there are more variables to consider

Very often the prepreg used to bond layers together will have a different intrinsic

Dk value than the laminate

will have different copper surface roughness

The Design Dk value used for the prepreg can be complicated by how the prepreg is

used

If the prepreg is used between two blank cores, there is no copper influence

so the Design Dk of the prepreg would be the intrinsic Dk value of the material

If the prepreg is used with only copper on one side then the Design Dk value

needs to be adjusted some, because Design Dk assumes copper on 2 sides

CONFIDENTIAL 37

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Design Dk examples and more details

A core construction can be different than a foil lam construction for copper roughness effects

4 copper-substrate interfaces Core construction

copper-substrate the same

have 2 of the 4 copper-substrate

interfaces the same

CONFIDENTIAL 38

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

CONFIDENTIAL 39

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Where to find Design Dk information

For some high volume Rogers circuit materials we have a Design Reference

thicknesses of that particular material

For Rogers materials where less Design Dk measurements have been made,

we can still offer educated estimates which should be helpful

Example on the following pages are from the Design Reference for RO4350B

(RO4835) and RO4350B LoPro (RO4835 LoPro) laminates

CONFIDENTIAL 40

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Where to find Design Dk information

Frequency dependent

applications

Laminates:

RO4350BTM

RO4350B LoPro

RO4835TM

RO4835 LoPro

CONFIDENTIAL 41

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Where to find Design Dk information

These Design Dk values are typically used for determining characteristic impedance for PCBs

It is considered a wideband Design Dk and not frequency dependent

These values are used for time domain applications

Example of conductor width differences between RO4350B and RO4350B LoPro materials

CONFIDENTIAL 42

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Where to find Design Dk information

10mil RO4350B and

charts for Frequency Dependent

10.7mil RO4350B LoPro laminate

Design Dk using different thicknesses

20.7mil RO4350B LoPro laminate

30.7mil RO4350B LoPro laminate

CONFIDENTIAL 43

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Where to find Design Dk information

Select the desired material, thickness and frequency, then the Design Dk will be shown

This is an example of

Design Dk for a

frequency dependent

application at 3 GHz

Use RF Design

Design Dk Dk values

CONFIDENTIAL 44

Critical Aspects of Dielectric Constant Properties for

High Frequency Circuit Design

Where to find Design Dk information

Select the desired material and thickness, then the Design Dk will be shown

This is an example of

Design Dk for

determining

characteristic

impedance or for a

digital or wideband

application

Design Dk

CONFIDENTIAL 45

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CONFIDENTIAL 46

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