Anda di halaman 1dari 50








I would like to thank JINDAL STEEL AND POWER for their great support and help in
providing me the vocational training in their plant at RAIGARH. It was really a worth experience
to be here and work with the engineers, operators and workers in the industry.

I would also like to thank Mr. MRL Sharma ( HOD Power plant unit II) who guided me through
the power plant and helped me learn more. I would also like to thank Mr. Sachin (Engineer in
Power plant II) who also guided me through the instructions and helped me learn about the power

Last but not the least; I would like to thank my friends who helped in going through the training.


Jindal Steel and Power Limited (JSPL) is an Indian steel and energy company based in New
Delhi, India and a division of Jindal Group conglomerate. With annual turnover of over US$4
billion, Jindal Steel & Power Limited (JSPL) is a part of about US$17 billion diversified O. P.
Jindal Group. JSPL is a leading player in steel, power, mining, oil and gas and infrastructure.
Naveen Jindal, the youngest son of the late O P Jindal, drives JSPL and its group companies
Jindal Power Ltd, Jindal Petroleum Ltd., Jindal Cement Ltd. and Jindal Steel Bolivia. The
company professes a belief in the concept of self-sufficiency. The company produces steel and
power through backward integration from its own captive coal and iron-ore mines.

However, in terms of tonnage, it is the third largest steel producer in India. The company
manufactures and sells sponge iron, mild steel slabs, ferro chrome, iron ore, mild steel, structural,
hot rolled plates and coils and coal based sponge iron plant. The company is also involved in
power generation.

Jindal Steel and Power is a part of the Jindal Group, founded by O. P. Jindal (19302005). In
1969, he started Pipe Unit Jindal India Limited at Hisar, India,[2] one of the earlier incarnations
of his business empire. After Jindal's death in 2005, much of his assets were transferred to his
wife, Savitri Jindal. Jindal Group's management was then split among his four sons with Naveen
Jindal as the Chairman of Jindal Steel and Power Limited. His elder brother, Sajjan Jindal, is
currently the head of ASSOCHAM, an influential body of the chambers of commerce, and the
head of JSW Group, part of O.P. Jindal Group.

Some stats on JINDAL GROUP:

Type Private

Traded as BSE: 532286, NSE: JINDALSTEL

BSE SENSEX Constituent

Industry Steel, energy

Founded 1952

Founder(s) O P Jindal

Headquarters New Delhi, India[1]

Key people Naveen Jindal

(Chairman and MD)

Products Steel, iron, electricity generation and distribution

Revenue 138.46 billion (US$2.4 billion) (2011)

Net income 37.54 billion (US$650 million) (2011)

Total assets 283.2 billion (US$4.9 billion) (2011)

Employees 7,669 (2009)

ParentJindal Group


Jindal steel and power limited is situated in raigarh in which I went through the training.

A typical steam power plant works on rankine cycle .For increasing the efficiency of rankine
cycle we can either reheat the steam or we can use the steam again and again in cycle (i.e.
regenerate it) called as regenerative rankine cycle.

The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle


Steam is an important medium of producing mechanical energy. Steam has the advantage
that, it can be raised from water which is available in abundance it does not react much
with the materials of the equipment of power plant and is stable at the temperature required
in the plant. Steam is used to drive steam engines, steam turbines etc. Steam power station
is most suitable where coal is available in abundance.

Thermal electrical power generation is one of the major methods. Out of total power
developed in India about 60% is thermal. For a thermal power plant the range of pressure
may vary from 10 kg/cm2 to super critical pressures and the range of temperature may be
from 250C to 650C.

A steam generator generates steam at the desired rate at the desired pressure
and temperature by burning the fuel in its furnace

It is integration of furnace, super heater, re heater, boiler (evaporator),

economizer, air preheater and with various auxiliaries (pulverizers, burners,
fans, dust collectors, chimney etc.)

Essentials of Steam Power Plant Equipment

A steam power plant must have following equipment:

(a) A furnace to burn the fuel.
(b) Steam generator or boiler containing water. Heat generated in the furnace
is utilized to convert water into steam.
(c) Main power unit such as an engine or turbine to use the heat energy of
steam and perform work.
(d) Piping system to convey steam and water.

In addition to the above equipment the plant requires various auxiliaries and
accessories depending upon the availability of water, fuel and the service for
which the plant is intended.
The flow sheet of a thermal power plant consists of the following four main
(a) Feed water and steam flow circuit.
(b) Coal and ash circuit.
(c) Air and gas circuit.
(d) Cooling water circuit.

A steam power plant using steam as working substance works basically on

Rankine cycle.
Steam is generated in a boiler, expanded in the prime mover and condensed
in the condenser and fed into the boiler again.
The different types of systems and components used in steam power plant
are as follows:

(a) High pressure boiler
(b) Prime mover
(c) Condensers and cooling towers
(d) Coal handling system
(e) Ash and dust handling system
(f) Draught system
(g) Feed water purification plant
(h) Pumping system
(i) Air preheater, economizer, super heater, feed heaters.

Coal received in coal storage yard of power station is transferred in the

furnace by coal handling unit. Heat produced due to burning of coal is
utilized in converting water contained in boiler drum into steam at suitable
pressure and temperature. The steam generated is passed through the super
heater. Superheated steam then flows through the turbine. After doing work
in the turbine the pressure of steam is reduced. Steam leaving the turbine
passes through the condenser which is maintained the low pressure of steam
at the exhaust of turbine. Steam pressure in the condenser depends upon
flow rate and temperature of cooling water and on effectiveness of air
removal equipment. Water circulating through the condenser may be taken
from the various sources such as river, lake or sea. If sufficient quantity of
water is not available the hot water coming out of the condenser may be
cooled in cooling towers and circulated again through the condenser. Bled
steam taken from the turbine at suitable extraction points is sent to low
pressure and high pressure water heaters.

The below figure shows the schematic diagram of the coal based thermal
power plant:

Air taken from the atmosphere is first passed through the air pre-heater, where it is
heated by flue gases. The hot air then passes through the furnace. The flue gases
after passing over boiler and super heater tubes, flow through the dust collector and
then through economizer, air pre-heater and finally they are exhausted to the
atmosphere through the chimney.

Steam condensing system consists of the following:

(a) Condenser

(b) Cooling water

(c) Cooling tower

(d) Hot well

(e) Condenser cooling water pump

(f) Condensate air extraction pump

(g) Air extraction pump

(h) Boiler feed pump

(i) Make up water pump.


Coal delivery equipment is one of the major components of plant cost. The various
steps involved in coal handling are as follows:

(i) Coal delivery

(ii) Unloading
(iii) Preparation
(iv) Transfer
(v) Outdoor storage
(vi) Covered storage
(vii) In plant handling
(viii) Weighing and measuring
(ix) Feeding the coal into furnace.

(i) Coal Delivery: The coal from supply points is delivered by ships or boats to
power stations situated near to sea or river whereas coal is supplied by rail or
trucks to the power stations which are situated away from sea or river. The
transportation of coal by trucks is used if the railway facilities are not available.

(ii) Unloading: The type of equipment to be used for unloading the coal received
at the power station depends on how coal is received at the power station. If coal is
delivered by trucks, there is no need of unloading device as the trucks may dump
the coal to the outdoor storage. Coal is easily handled if the lift trucks with scoop
are used. In case the coal is brought by railway wagons, ships or boats, the
unloading may be done by car shakes, rotary car dumpers, cranes, grab buckets and
coal accelerators. Rotary car dumpers although costly are quite efficient for
unloading closed wagons.

(iii) Preparation: When the coal delivered is in the form of big lumps and it is not
of proper size, the preparation (sizing) of coal can be achieved by crushers,
breakers, seizers, driers and magnetic separators.

(iv) Transfer: After preparation coal is transferred to the dead storage by means of
the following systems:

1. Belt conveyors. 2. Screw conveyors.

3. Bucket elevators. 4. Grab bucket elevators.

5. Skip hoists. 6. Flight conveyor.

1. Belt conveyor: It consists of an endless belt. moving over a pair of end drums
(rollers). At some distance a supporting roller is provided at the center. The belt is
made, up of rubber or canvas. Belt conveyor is suitable for the transfer of coal over

long distances. It is used in medium and large power plants. The initial cost of the
system is not high and power consumption is also low. The inclination at which
coal can be successfully elevated by belt conveyor is about 20. Average speed of
belt conveyors varies between 200-300 r.p.m. This conveyor is preferred than other

Advantages of belt conveyor

1. Its operation is smooth and clean.

2. It requires less power as compared to other types of systems.

3. Large quantities of coal can be discharged quickly and continuously.

4. Material can be transported on moderates inclines.

2. Screw conveyor: It consists of an endless helicoid screw fitted to a shaft. The

screw while rotating in a trough transfers the coal from feeding end to the
discharge end. This system is suitable, where coal is to be transferred over shorter
distance and space limitations exist. The initial cost of the system is low. It suffers
from the drawbacks that the power consumption is high and there is considerable
wear of screw. Rotation of screw varies between 75-125 r.p.m.

3. Bucket elevator: It consists of buckets fixed to a chain. The chain moves over
two wheels. The coal is carried by the buckets from bottom and discharged at the

4. Grab bucket elevator: It lifts and transfers coal on a single rail or track from
one point to the other. The coal lifted by grab buckets is transferred to overhead
bunker or storage. This system requires less power for operation and requires
minimum maintenance.

The grab bucket conveyor can be used with crane or tower. Although the initial
cost of this system is high but operating cost is less.

5. Skip hoist: It consists of a vertical or inclined hoist way a bucket or a car guided
by a frame and a cable for hoisting the bucket. The bucket is held in upright
position. It is simple and compact method of elevating coal or ash.

6. Flight conveyor: It consists of one or two strands of chain to which steel

scraper or flights are attached which scrap the coal through a trough having
identical shape. This coal is discharged in the bottom of trough. It is low in first
cost but has large energy consumption. There is considerable wear. Skip hoist and
bucket elevators lift the coal vertically while Belts and flight conveyors move the
coal horizontally or on inclines. Flight conveyors possess the following

(i) They can be used to transfer coal as well as ash.

(ii) The speed of conveyor can be regulated easily.

(iii) They have a rugged construction.

(iv) They need little operational care.

Disadvantages: Various disadvantages of flight conveyors are as follows :

(i) There is more wear due to dragging action.

(ii) Power consumption is more.

(iii) Maintenance cost is high.

(iv) Due to abrasive nature of material handled the speed of conveyors is low (10 to
30 m/min).

(v) Storage of coal. It is desirable that sufficient quantity of coal should be stored.
Storage of coal gives protection against the interruption of coal supplies when
there is delay in transportation of coal or due to strikes in coal mines. Also when
the prices are low, the coal can be purchased and stored for future use. The amount
of coal to be stored depends on the availability of space for storage, transportation
facilities, the amount of coal that will whether away and nearness to coal mines of
the power station.


In the coal handling plant, the coal is transferred in heaps by stacker, and
reclaimer is used to reclaim the coal from stacks formed by stacker, the
reclaimer transfers coal to the conveyer belts.

The conveyer belt carries the coal to the primary screener where the coal of
max. 6mm size is separated and transferred to the main line whereas the coal
greater than 6mm size is transferred to the impactor; the impactor crushes
the coal to a max. size of 6mm.There are also magnetic separators attached
at various positions above conveyer belt to remove iron particles.

The crushed coal from impactor is transferred to secondary strainer where
coal is once again screened and the greater size coal is transferred once again
to the impactor, this cycle is repeated.

The crushed coal of max. 6mm size is transferred to the boiler by conveyer
belt for the combustion.

Boilers are used for power generation (by running steam turbines or steam
engines) utility steam generators
Boilers are used for process heating (refineries, petrochemicals, paper mills,
sugar mills, tire manufacturing, etc.) industrial steam generators, Marine
steam generators.

According to the orientation:

A horizontal boiler axis of the boiler is horizontal inspected and repaired

easily occupies more space.
Vertical boilers axis of the boiler is vertical occupies less area

According to the heat utilization design:

Fire tube boilers hot gases are inside the tubes and the water surrounds the
Water tube boilers the water is inside the tubes and hot gases surround
them Babcock & Wilcox, Sterling, etc.

According to the firing type:

Externally fired the furnace is outside the shell.
Internally fired the furnace is located inside the boiler.

According to the fuel used:

Solid fuel coal, bagasse, wood, saw dust, rice husk etc.

Liquid fuel diesel, kerosene, oil, bio diesel, ethanol etc.
Gaseous fuel - Natural gas, LPG, CNG, Gasifiers (methane), bio
Gas, hydrogen etc.

According to the water circulation:

Forced circulation the circulation of water is done by forced
Natural circulation the circulation of water in the boiler
Takes place due to natural convection.

According to the operating pressure:

High pressure 80 bar and above
Low pressure below 80 bar
According to the No. of tubes:
Single tube boiler
Multi-tube boiler
Stationary boilers high pressure boilers
Mobile boilers locomotive, small units

Selection of a boiler
The working pressure and quality of steam required
Steam generation rate
Floor area available
Accessibility for repair and inspection
Comparative initial cost
Erection facilities
The probable load factor
The fuel and water available
Operating and maintenance costs

Essentials of a good steam boiler
The boiler should produce the maximum weight of steam of the required
quality at minimum expenses.
Steam production rate should be as per requirements.
It should be absolutely reliable
It should occupy minimum space
It should be light in weight
It should capable of quick starting
There should be an easy access to the various parts of the boiler for repair
and inspection.
The boiler components should be transportable without difficulty.
The installation of the boiler should be simple
The tubes of the boiler should not accumulate soot or water deposits
The boiler should be sufficiently strong to allow for wear and corrosion
The water and gas circuits should allow minimum fluid velocity (low
frictional losses).

Boiler Terminologies:
Shell: one or more steel plates cylindrical form riveted or welded together.

Setting: confine heat to the boiler passage for flue gases made of brick

Grate platform in the furnace upon which solid fuel is burnt

Furnace chamber formed by the space above the grate and below the
boiler shell combustion takes place

Water & steam space the volume of the shell occupied by the water &

Mountings a boiler cannot work safely without them stop valves , safety
valves, water level gauges, fusible plug, blow off cock, pressure gauges etc.

Accessories the components which increase the efficiency of the boiler
super heaters, economizers, feed pumps, air preheater, repeater etc.

Refractory a heat insulation material as lining for combustion chamber

fire brick or fire clay.

AFBC (Air Fluidized Bed Combustion)

Coal size 1 10 mm
Air velocity 1.2 to 3.7 m/s
Bed height 0.9 to 1.5 m
Fluidized bed boiler can operate at near atmospheric


There are four boilers in the power plant unit II (Phase I and Phase II). The
capacity of each boiler is 165tph and total capacity is 4* 165tph. There are
two generators each having capacity of 55MW.

The main function of boiler is to vaporize the water to steam. The boiler
used in the industry is A.F.B.C (Atmosphere Fluidization Bed Combustion).
The water after passing through the boiler is having 90kg/cm2 pressure and
535C temperature. The capacity of each boiler used in industry is 165tph.

The boiler consists of furnace. In the furnace, the raw materials needed are
coal, air supply and the demineralized water. These materials are obtained
from various sources.

The water obtained is demineralized and is passed through various

regenerative heat tubes then to the boiler and the coal is obtained from coal
handling plant where the coal is crushed to size of 6mm diameter particles
and is passed through coal bunkers through coal feeders.

The oxygen needed for combustion is obtained from the air is passed
through APH (Air Pre Heater) before passing to the furnace. The air and
water are heated to save energy during combustion

The water is passed to the boiler and is first flown through economizer. The
main purpose of economizer is to heat the water economically. The furnace
consists of shell and tube type heat exchanger where steam is supplied in
shell and water is supplied in tubes.

For the different purposes, the fans are attached at steam plants: PA (primary
air) fan, FD (forced draft) fan, ID (Induced draft) fan. The purpose of PA fan
is for the transportation of the coal at the boiler, the purpose of FD fan is for
fluidization of coal, the ID fan is used for the suction of ash from the top of
furnace to electrostatic precipitators.

The heated water is stored in the drum. Drum consists of saturated steam
water mixture then condensed water in drum is passed back to boiler through
down comer and steam is further superheated in boiler. The boiler consists
of two super heaters, after steam is flown through super heater 1 the
temperature of water is about 380C then after passing through super heater
2 the temperature goes up to 560C then water is sprayed in nozzles to cool

the temperature up to 410C after steam is passed through BET (Bed
Evaporator Tubes), here the final heating of water takes place to 535C and
the required pressured of 90kg/cm2 is obtained from Boiler feed Pump.
The specifications of fans (ID fan, FD fan, PA fan) are as follows:
1. ID Fan:
Fan capacity- 57.89 m3/s
Total head-238 mmwc
Motor make- BHEL
Type- SQ cage induction
Rating- 190KW
Bearings Current-22Amp

2. FD Fan:
Fan capacity- 40.88 m3/s
Total head-935 mmwc
Temperature of medium-45C
Motor make- BHEL
Type- SQ cage induction
Coupling- Pin type Flexible Coupling
Rating- 525KW
Bearings Current-57.5Amp

3. PA Fan:
Make: BHEL
Type: NDV11.08
Motor Rating: 200KW
Lubricant Servo prime:68


A large quantity of ash is, produced in steam power plants using coal. Ash
produced in about 10to 20% of the total coal burnt in the furnace. Handling
of ash is a problem because ash coming out of the furnace is too hot, it is
dusty and irritating to handle and is accompanied by some poisonous gases.
It is desirable to quench the ash before handling due to following reasons:

1. Quenching reduces the temperature of ash.

2. It reduces the corrosive action of ash.
3. Ash forms clinkers by fusing in large lumps and by quenching clinkers
will disintegrate.
4. Quenching reduces the dust accompanying the ash.
Handling of ash includes its removal from the furnace, loading on the
conveyors and delivered to the fill from where it can be disposed off..


Mechanical means are required for the disposal of ash. The handling
equipment should perform the following functions:
(1) Capital investment, operating and maintenance charges of the equipment
should be low.
(2) It should be able to handle large quantities of ash.
(3) Clinkers, soot, dust etc. create troubles, the equipment should be able to
handle them smoothly.
(4) The equipment used should remove the ash from the furnace, load it to
the conveying system to deliver the ash to a dumping site or storage and
finally it should have means to dispose of the stored ash.
(5) The equipment should be corrosion and wear resistant.

Fig.below shows a general layout of ash handling and dust collection

The commonly used ash handling systems are as follows:

(i) Hydraulic system
(ii) Pneumatic system
(iii) Mechanical system.
The commonly used ash discharge equipment is as follows:
(i) Rail road cars
(ii) Motor truck
(iii) Barge.
The various methods used for the disposal of ash are as follows:
(i) Hydraulic System: In this system, ash from the furnace grate falls into a
system of water possessing high velocity and is carried to the sumps. It is
generally used in large power plants. Hydraulic system is of two types
namely low pressure hydraulic system used for continuous removal of ash
and high pressure system which is used for intermittent ash disposal. Fig.
below shows hydraulic system.

In this method water at sufficient pressure is used to take away the ash to
sump where water and ash are separated. The ash is then transferred to the
dump site in wagons, rail cars or trucks. The loading of ash may be through
a belt conveyor, grab buckets. If there is an ash basement with ash hopper
the ash can fall, directly in ash car or conveying system.

(ii) Water Jetting:. In this method a low pressure jet of water coming out of
the quenching nozzle is used to cool the ash. The ash falls into a trough and
is then removed.

(iii) Ash Sluice Ways and Ash Sump System. This system is used as high
pressure (H.P. ) pump to supply high pressure (H.P.) water-jets which carry
ash from the furnace bottom through ash sluices (channels) constructed in
basement floor to ash sump fitted with screen. The screen divides the ash
sump into compartments for coarse and fine ash. The fine ash passes
through the screen and moves into the dust sump (D.S. ). Dust slurry pump
(D.S. pump) carries the dust through dust pump (D.P), suction pipe and dust
delivery (D.D.) pipe to the disposal site. Overhead crane having grab bucket
is used to remove coarse ash. A.F.N represents ash feeding nozzle and
S.B.N. represents sub way booster nozzle and D.A. means draining apron.

(iv) Pneumatic system: In this system ash from the boiler furnace outlet
falls into a crusher where larger ash particles are crushed to small sizes. The
ash is then carried by a high velocity air or steam to the point of delivery.
Air leaving the ash separator is passed through filter to remove dust etc. so
that the exhauster handles clean air which will protect the blades of the
(v) Mechanical ash handling system. Fig. 4.38 shows a mechanical ash
handling system. In this system ash cooled by water seal falls on the belt
conveyor and is carried out continuously to the bunker. The ash is then
removed to the dumping site from the ash bunker with the help of trucks.

Dust Collection
In coal fired boilers smoke, dust, cinder
Smoke - .01 to 1 microns
Dust 1 to 100 microns
Cinder > 100 microns
Due to incomplete combustion
Loss of heating value
Economic loss of power plant
Unhealthy atmosphere
Corrodes metals
Darkens the paint and give lower standard

Dust collectors
Mechanical dust collectors
1. Wet type
2. Dry type
Electrical dust collector

Wet type:

Scrubber water sprays to wash dust from gas

Large quantity of water needed
Waste water need to be treated

Dry Type Dust Collectors:

a: Expansion in cross section area slow down the gas and heavier particles to
settle down
b: Change in flow direction makes the heavier particle to settle down
c: Impingement of solid particles on baffles helping them to settle out

Cyclone separator or Gravitational separator:

Vortex separation rotational effect and gravity used.

Electrostatic Precipitator
Two sets of electrodes
insulated from each other
Electrostatic field is
maintained at high voltage
(30 -60 kV).
Flue gases are made to pass
through the electrodes.
The electric field ionize the
particles, when passes
through the opposite charge,
particle attracted to them.
From collecting rode particle
removed by rapping the
electrode periodically (electromagnetic rapper).


Ash is the waste product obtained after burning the coal. The most thick and
large ash particles are transferred to the drain bed, in the drain bed there is a

convergent nozzle through which high pressure water is supplied and after
mixing of ash to water is transferred to sump tanks. Sump tanks are storage
for wet ash, the wet ash is needed for dumping of mines.

The lesser thicker ash is stored in ash pre heater, the purpose of air pre
heater is to heat the air going to the boiler, so that the efficiency of plant
increases. The ash in APH is transferred to either sump tanks or cello
according to the need. There are valves attached which separate dry ash and
wet ash and are transferred by the pumps.

The finest ash is transferred through ID (Induced Draft) fan. The Id fan
creates suction at top of furnace so that the finest particles are sucked and
are transferred to the wetting unit, the wetting unit wets the needed ash and
rest is kept dry in the cello unit.

The dry ash is used for the purpose of making the bricks and wet ash is used
for the dumping of lands and mines.


A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from

pressurized steam, and converts it into rotary motion.

It has almost completely replaced the reciprocating piston steam engine

primarily because of its greater thermal efficiency and higher power-to-
weight ratio.

Because the turbine generates rotary motion, it is particularly suited to be

used to drive an electrical generator about 80% of all electricity generation
in the world is by use of steam turbines.

The steam turbine is a form of heat engine that derives much of its
improvement in thermodynamic efficiency through the use of multiple
stages in the expansion of the steam, which results in a closer approach to
the ideal reversible process.

Steam Turbine Classification

Steam Turbines have been classified by:

(a) Details of stage design as
(i) Impulse
(ii) Reaction

(b) Steam supply and exhaust conditions as

(i) Condensing
(ii) Back Pressure (Non Condensing)
(iii) Mixed Pressure
(iv) Reheat
(v) Extraction type (Auto or Controlled)
Condensing turbines are most commonly found in electrical power plants.
These turbines exhaust steam in a partially condensed state, typically of a
quality near 90%, at a pressure well below atmospheric to a condenser.
Non-condensing or backpressure turbines are most widely used for process
steam applications. The exhaust pressure is controlled by a regulating valve
to suit the needs of the process steam pressure. These are commonly found
at refineries, district heating units, pulp and paper plants, and desalination
facilities where large amounts of low pressure process steam are available.
Reheat turbines are also used almost exclusively in electrical power plants.
In a reheat turbine, steam flow exits from a high pressure section of the
turbine and is returned to the boiler where additional superheat is added. The
steam then goes back into an intermediate pressure section of the turbine and
continues its expansion.
Extracting type turbines are common in all applications. In an extracting
type turbine, steam is released from various stages of the turbine, and used
for industrial process needs or sent to boiler feed water heaters to improve
overall cycle efficiency. Extraction flows may be controlled with a valve, or
left uncontrolled.

Induction turbines introduce low pressure steam at an intermediate stage to
produce additional power.
(c) Casing or shaft arrangement as
(i) Single Casing
(ii) Tandem compound
(iii) Cross Compound
Single casing units are the most basic style where a single casing and shaft
are coupled to a generator. Tandem compound are used where two or more
casings are directly coupled together to drive a single generator. A cross
compound turbine arrangement features two or more shafts not in line
driving two or more generators that often operate at different speeds. A cross
compound turbine is typically used for many large applications.

(d) Number of Exhaust Stages in Parallel

(e) Direction of steam flow
(f) Steam supply Superheated or saturated.

Difference between impulse and reaction turbine:

1. Impulse Turbine: An impulse turbine has fixed nozzles that orient

the steam flow into high speed jets. These jets contain significant
kinetic energy, which the rotor blades, shaped like buckets, convert
into shaft rotation as the steam jet changes direction. A pressure drop
occurs across only the stationary blades, with a net increase in steam
velocity across the stage.
As the steam flows through the nozzle its pressure falls from inlet
pressure to the exit pressure (atmospheric pressure, or more usually,
the condenser vacuum). Due to this higher ratio of expansion of steam
in the nozzle the steam leaves the nozzle with a very high velocity.
The steam leaving the moving blades is a large portion of the
maximum velocity of the steam when leaving the nozzle. The loss of
energy due to this higher exit velocity is commonly called the carry
over velocity or leaving loss.

2. Reaction Turbine: In the reaction turbine, the rotor blades
themselves are arranged to form convergent nozzles. This type of
turbine makes use of the reaction force produced as the steam
accelerates through the nozzles formed by the rotor. Steam is directed
onto the rotor by the fixed vanes of the stator. It leaves the stator as a
jet that fills the entire circumference of the rotor. The steam then
changes direction and increases its speed relative to the speed of the
blades. A pressure drop occurs across both the stator and the rotor,
with steam accelerating through the stator and decelerating through
the rotor, with no net change in steam velocity across the stage but
with a decrease in both pressure and temperature, reflecting the work
performed in the driving of the rotor.

3. Impulse-Reaction Turbine: In this turbine, the drop in pressure of
steam takes place in fixed (nozzles) as well as moving blades. The
pressure drop suffered by steam while passing through the moving
blades causes a further generation of kinetic energy within the moving
blades, giving rise to reaction and adds to the propelling force which
is applied through the rotor to the turbine shaft. Since this turbine
works on the principle of impulse and reaction both, so it is called
impulse-reaction turbine.
This is achieved by making the blade passage of varying cross-sectional area
(converging type). In general, it may be stated that energy transformation
occurs in both fixed and moving blades. The rotor blades cause both energy
transfer and transformation. Since there is an acceleration of flow in moving
blade passage hence chances of separation of flow is less which results in
higher stage efficiency.

Steam Turbine Working in Industry

Turbine is a device which converts thermal and kinetic energy of steam to

the rotational energy of the shaft. The steam supplied at the turbine is ejected
at pressure of 90kg/cm2 and temperature of 535C.

The steam is inserted in the turbine at 90C to the impeller plates. The shaft
of turbine rotates at 3000rpm and the rotating shaft energy is converted to
electrical energy by the generator.

The steam is extracted at five different locations in the turbine. The feed
water inserted in boiler is through the steam extracted at five locations of the

There are glands attached at the end of turbines inside which Labryintch
cooling system is there in which steam is supplied from outside, this
arrangement is made for avoiding the leakage of steam in the turbine.

The steam is extracted first at LPH1 (Low pressure heater) which even
contains a negative pressure and temperature of about 87C and then at
LPH2 then the water is heated again.

Though the steam is extracted at five locations of turbine but the major part
of steam is passed through to the condenser. The function of condenser is to
condense the steam to water. The condensed water is stored at hot well, in
the condenser there is a negative pressure maintained by the ejector; it is
used for the suction of non-condensable gases and is transferred to

The steam also goes to the DE aerator; its function is to remove O2 from the
water because the presence of O2 in water led to corrosion in pipes.

Then the water is pumped to a pressure of 114kg/cm2 by the BFP (Boiler

Feed Pump) and is then transferred to the HPH4 (High Pressure Heater);
where the water is heated again then HPH5, the water is also passed through
GSC (Gland Steam Condenser) and the drain cooler in the way and the
steam heated up to 282C is passed to the boiler.


The maintenance department maintains all the machines and their working.
The maintenance is done by two ways preventive maintenance and
corrective maintenance.

The dissembled system of slurry pump parts was observed:

Slurry pump has following parts:
1. Pulley
2. Bearing housing with bearings
3. Water Thrower
4. Shaft
5. Impeller
6. Sleeve
7. Inner liner and outer cover
The faults in blower include:
Belt Loose
Pulley grooves get widened
Bearings Broken
Clearance in gear meshing
Loosening of internal parts


Functions of Condensers

The main purposes of the condenser are to condense the exhaust steam from the
turbine for reuse in the cycle and to maximize turbine efficiency by maintaining
proper vacuum. As the operating pressure of the condenser is lowered (vacuum is
increased), the enthalpy drop of the expanding steam in the turbine will also
increase. This will increase the amount of available work from the turbine
(electrical output). By lowering the condenser operating pressure, the following
will occur:

(a) Increased turbine output

(b) Increased plant efficiency

(c) Reduced steam flow (for a given plant output)

It is therefore very advantageous to operate the condenser at the lowest possible

pressure (highest vacuum).

Condenser Types

There are two primary types of condensers that can be used in a power plant :

(a) Direct Contact

(b) Surface

Direct contact condensers condense the turbine exhaust steam by mixing it directly
with cooling water. The older type Barometric and Jet-Type condensers operate on
similar principles.

Steam surface condensers are the most commonly used condensers in modern
power plants. The exhaust steam from the turbine flows on the shell side (under
vacuum) of the condenser, while the plants circulating water flows in the tube
side. The source of the circulating water can be either a closed-loop (i.e. cooling
tower, spray pond, etc.) or once through (i.e. from a lake, ocean, or river). The
condensed steam from the turbine, called condensate, is collected in the bottom of
the condenser, which is called a hot well. The condensate is then pumped back to
the steam generator to repeat the cycle.

Surface Condenser

The surface condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger in which cooling water is
circulated through the tubes. The exhaust steam from the low pressure turbine
enters the shell where it is cooled and converted to condensate (water) by flowing

over the tubes as shown in the diagram. Such condensers use steam ejectors or
rotary motor-driven exhausters for continuous removal of air and gases from the
steam side to maintain vacuum.

For best efficiency, the temperature in the condenser must be kept as low as
practical in order to achieve the lowest possible pressure in the condensing steam.
Since the condenser temperature can almost always be kept significantly below
100oC where the vapor pressure of water is much less than atmospheric pressure,
the condenser generally works under vacuum. Thus leaks of non-condensable air
into the closed loop must be prevented.

The condenser generally uses either circulating cooling water from a cooling tower
to reject waste heat to the atmosphere, or once-through water from a river, lake or

Note : Tubes are brass, cupro nickel, titanium or stainless steel. The tubes are
expanded or rolled and bell mouthed at the ends in the tube


The diagram depicts a typical water-cooled surface condenser as used in power
stations to condense the exhaust steam from a steam turbine driving an electrical
generator as well in other applications

Condenser Components and their Functions


The shell is the condenser's outermost body and contains the heat exchanger tubes.
The shell is fabricated from carbon steel plates and is stiffened as needed to
provide rigidity for the shell. When required by the selected design, intermediate
plates are installed to serve as baffle plates that provide the desired flow path of the
condensing steam. The plates also provide support that help prevent sagging of
long tube lengths.

For most water-cooled surface condensers, the shell is under vacuum during
normal operating conditions.

Hot well

At the bottom of the shell, where the condensate collects, an outlet is installed. In
some designs, a sump (often referred to as the hotwell) is provided. Condensate is
pumped from the outlet or the hotwell for reuse as boiler feedwater.

Vacuum System

For a steam ejector, the motive fluid is steam.

For water-cooled surface condensers, the shell's internal vacuum is most

commonly supplied by and maintained by an external steam jet ejector system.
Such an ejector system uses steam as the motive fluid to remove any non-
condensable gases that may be present in the surface condenser. The Venturi
effect, which is a particular case of Bernoulli's principle, applies to the operation of
steam jet ejectors.

Motor driven mechanical vacuum pumps, such as the liquid ring type, are also
popular for this service.

Tube Sheets

At each end of the shell, a sheet of sufficient thickness usually made of stainless
steel is provided, with holes for the tubes to be inserted and rolled. The inlet end of
each tube is also bell mouthed for streamlined entry of water. This is to avoid
eddies at the inlet of each tube giving rise to erosion, and to reduce flow friction.
Some makers also recommend plastic inserts at the entry of tubes to avoid eddies
eroding the inlet end. In smaller units some manufacturers use ferrules to seal the
tube ends instead of rolling. To take care of length wise expansion of tubes some
designs have expansion joint between the shell and the tube sheet allowing the
latter to move longitudinally. In smaller units some sag is given to the tubes to take

care of tube expansion with both end water boxes fixed rigidly to the shell.


Generally the tubes are made of stainless steel, copper alloys such as brass or
bronze, cupro nickel, or titanium depending on several selection criteria. The use
of copper bearing alloys such as brass or cupric nickel is rare in new plants, due to
environmental concerns of toxic copper alloys. Also depending on the steam cycle
water treatment for the boiler, it may be desirable to avoid tube materials
containing copper. Titanium condenser tubes are usually the best technical choice;
however the use of titanium condenser tubes has been virtually eliminated by the
sharp increases in the costs for this material. The tube lengths range to about 17 m
for modern power plants, depending on the size of the condenser. The size chosen
is based on transportability from the manufacturers site and ease of erection at the
installation site.

Water boxes

The tube sheet at each end with tube ends rolled, for each end of the condenser is
closed by a fabricated box cover known as a waterbox, with flanged connection to
the tube sheet or condenser shell. The waterbox is usually provided with man holes
on hinged covers to allow inspection and cleaning.

These water boxes on inlet side will also have flanged connections for cooling
water inlet butterfly valves, small vent pipe with hand valve for air venting at
higher level, and hand operated drain valve at bottom to drain the waterbox for
maintenance. Similarly on the outlet waterbox the cooling water connection will
have large flanges, butterfly valves, vent connection also at higher level and drain
connections at lower level. Similarly thermometer pockets are located at inlet and
outlet pipes for local measurements of cooling water temperature.

Elements of Turbines and their Functions

Other than the operating and controlling equipment, similarity exists in both the
impulse and reaction turbines. These include foundations, casings, nozzles, rotors,
bearings, and shaft glands.


Turbine foundations are built up from a structural foundation in the hull to provide
a rigid supporting base. All turbines are subjected to varying degrees of
temperature-from that existing during a secured condition to that existing during
full-power operation. Therefore, means are provided to allow for expansion and

At the forward end of the turbine, there are various ways to give freedom of
movement. Elongated bolt holes or grooved sliding seats are used so that the
forward end of the turbine can move fore and aft as either expansion or contraction
takes place. The forward end of the turbine may also be mounted with a flexible I-
beam that will flex either fore or aft.


The materials used to construct turbines will vary somewhat depending on the
steam and power conditions for which the turbine is designed. Turbine casings are
made of cast carbon steel for non-superheated steam applications. Superheated
applications use casings made of carbon molybdenum steel. For turbine casings
used on submarines, a percentage of chrome stainless steel is used, which is more
resistant to steam erosion than carbon steel. Each casing has a steam chest to
receive the incoming high-pressure steam. This steam chest delivers the steam to
the first set of nozzles or blades.


The primary function of the nozzles is to convert the thermal energy of steam into
kinetic energy. The secondary function of the nozzles is to direct the steam against
the blades.


Rotors (forged wheels and shaft) are manufactured from steel alloys. The primary
purpose of a turbine rotor is to carry the moving blades that convert the steam's
kinetic energy to rotating mechanical energy.

The rotor of every turbine must be positioned radially and axially by bearings.
Radial bearings carry and support the weight of the rotor and maintain the correct
radial clearance between the rotor and casing.

Axial (thrust) bearings limit the fore-and-aft travel of the rotor. Thrust bearings
take care of any axial thrust, which may develop on a turbine rotor and hold the
turbine rotor within definite axial positions.

All main turbines and most auxiliary units have a bearing at each end of the rotor.
Bearings are generally classified

as sliding surface (sleeve and thrust) or as rolling contact (antifriction ball or roller
bearings). Figure shows a typical sliding surface bearing.

Shaft Packing Glands

Shaft packing glands prevent the leaking of steam out of or air into the turbine
casing where the turbine rotor shaft extends through the turbine casing. Labyrinth
and carbon rings are two types of packing. They are used either separately or in

Labyrinth packing consists of rows of metallic strips or fins. The strips fasten to
the gland liner so there is a small space between the strips and the shaft. As the
steam from the turbine casing leaks through the small space between the packing
strips and the shaft, steam pressure gradually reduces

Carbon packing rings restrict the passage of steam along the shaft in much the
same manner as labyrinth packing strips. Carbon packing rings mount around the
shaft and are held in place by springs.

Three or four carbon rings are usually used in each gland. Each ring fits into a
separate compartment of the gland housing and consists of two, three, or four
segments that are butt-jointed to each other. A garter spring is used to hold these
segments together. The use of keepers (lugs or stop pins) prevents the rotation of
the carbon rings when the shaft rotates. The outer carbon ring compartment
connects to a drain line.

Advantages of the Steam Turbine over Reciprocating Engine

(a) Thermal Efficiency of a Steam Turbine is higher than that of a Reciprocating


(b) The Steam Turbine develops power at a uniform rate and hence does not
require Flywheel.

(c) No internal lubrication is required for Steam Turbine as there are no rubbing
parts inside.

(d) No heavy foundation is required for Turbine because of the perfect balancing of
the different parts.

(e) If the Steam Turbine is properly designed and constructed then it is the most
durable Prime Mover.

(f) Much higher speed may be developed and a far greater range of speed is
possible than in the case of Reciprocating Engine.

(g) There are some frictional losses in Reciprocating Engine as some arrangements
are required for conversion of Reciprocating Motion into circular motion. But in
Steam Turbine no friction losses are there.

(h) Steam Turbines are quite suitable for large Thermal Power Plant as they can be
built in size from few Horse Powers to over 200000 HP in single unit.

Advantages of Steam Turbines

(a) High efficiency at full load.

(b) Mechanical simplicity and hence potential reliability.

(c) Conventional reciprocating steam locomotives give a varying torque through

the cycle, resembling a sine characteristic. This makes wheel slip at starting much
more likely.

(d) Conventional steam locomotives have substantial reciprocating masses such as

connecting rods and valve gear. This creates fore-and-aft forces that cannot be
completely balanced without unacceptably increasing the up-and-down forces on
the track.

Disadvantages of Steam Turbines

(a) High efficiency is only obtained at full-load. Naval vessels very often had
cruising turbines which could be run at full output while the main turbines were
shut down.

(b) High efficiency is only obtained when the turbine exhausts into a near-vacuum,
generated by a condenser. These are very large pieces of equipment to carry

(c) Turbines cannot run in reverse. Ships carried separate turbines solely for
reversing, and locomotives had to do the same.

Raw water from the river and pond is first transferred to the pre treatment
plant and then through the DM plant.

In the pretreatment plant, water is passed through clarifiers in which

chemicals like polyelectrolyte, poly aluminum chloride and chlorine gas is
added. PAC act as coagulant, it removes the turbidity in the water. Chlorine
gas is used for killing the algae and bacteria present in water. Then the
sludge settled at bottom is removed by clarifiers.

Water from the clarifiers is passed through RGF( rapid gravity filters) in
water is passed through several layers( first stone particles, then sand) in
water turbidity is decreased up to 5 NTU. Then water is passed to sump

The water from pretreatment plant is passed to DE mineralized water plant.

Here, the water is passed through Activated carbon filter then through
layered bed cation then through degasser water tank, then weak base anion
then strong base anion then finally through mixed bed.

ACF outlet: Residual chlorine (0.1ppm max)

LBC outlet: Hardness: NIL

Conductivity ratio above 0.5
DGT outlet: free CO2- Below 5ppm
SBA outlet: Conductivity< 2S/m
MB outlet: : Conductivity< 0.2S/m
PH: 6.5 to 7.2
Silica: 20ppm


Basic Components of a Control System

Most control functions are implemented by means of a computer-based system, so

we shall now briefly look at a typical configuration known as DCS.

DCS stands for distributed control system. The term distributed means that
several processors are operating together. This is usually achieved by dedicating
tasks to different machines. It does not necessarily mean that the separate
computers are physically located in different areas of the plant.

Termination and Marshaling

It is important to understand that the grouping of inputs and outputs on the I/O
cards does not always correspond with the grouping of signals into multi pair
cables, which is dictated by the physical arrangement of equipment on the plant.
While it is sensible to avoid mixing different control systems (e.g. feed water -
control and combustion control) onto a single card, the signals associated with a
single system will not necessarily all be carried in the same cable. The result is that
a certain degree of cross connection or 'marshaling' is always required.

Operator Workstations

The operator workstations consist of screens on which plant information can be

observed, plus keyboards, trackballs or mouse devices allowing the operator to
send commands to the system. They also comprise printers for operational records,
logging of events (such as start-up of a pump), or alarms. Some systems also
provide plotters.

Control Room (CR) Instrumentation

For installations with a large central power plant, on-site instrumentation and
controls shall be provided in the CR to centralize operation of the on-site utilities.
Instrumentation in the CR shall be microprocessor-based systems and shall permit
the power plant operator to monitor the operating status of all equipment, operate
the equipment, and evaluate system conditions affecting delivery of electric power
and coolant to the site equipment and the facility. Additionally, monitoring and
control of auxiliary equipment and of all equipment required to regulate the
environment of the site shall be performed in the CR. Operators shall be able to
measure operating conditions, which shall permit analysis of the thermodynamic
and mechanical performance of the power plant on a continuous basis. Abnormal
incipient failures and failure conditions shall be annunciated in the CR. Mimic
status boards and/or CRT color graphic displays shall indicate, by color coded
groups arranged graphically, the status of all power generation equipment,
commercial power primary substation medium-voltage switchgear, coolant pumps,
and other critical items. Printout on a periodic basis and under alarm conditions

shall be provided for all critical equipment and plant conditions. Remote CRTs and
printouts shall be provided for operation officers or the facility engineer.

Working of Feed Water System and Steam Temperature Control System

Feed water Control

Feed water systems are available in many forms. Very small boilers may contain a
constant-speed pump with on-off control. While this is an inexpensive solution, it
does not provide the best efficiency because it tends to interfere with the
combustion control system. However, on small systems, this solution may be the
most economical.

On more complex systems, some sort of variable feed water flow needs to be
realized. This can be achieved through a variable speed pump or by utilizing a
constant-speed pump with a proportional valve at its output. As the boiler system
gets larger, there is more of a need for complex feed water control. Digital control
systems are now widely used in this application because of the precise control and
greater flexibility that they provide. Many utility users are also purchasing fault-
tolerant feed water controls in order to minimize the possibility of a mainline unit
shut down due to feed water control problems.

Instrumentation department in industry

Instrumentation refers to as work performed by instruments instead of

human being. By Automation, we give system a brain by which it can think
and control the instruments according to requirement.

The instrumentation Control system consists of open loop system and closed
loop system. The closed loop system has facility for the feedback also
whereas there is no feedback possibility in open loop, the signal once sent
cant be known whether required function has been done or not.

The various field parameters to be detected in field with their instruments

are as follows:
Temperature (Resistive temperature detector, thermocouple)
Pressure ( Pressure gauges, transmitters)
Draught: ( Vacuum gauges, draught transmitters)
Flow: ( Flow Transmitters, Rota meter)
Level: ( level transmitter, level gauge, hydra step)
Speed sensors
Vibration Sensors
Flame Detector
PH and conductivity sensor
Silica Analyzer
Chlorine detector
O2 Analyzer
SOx, NOx analyzers
Opacity Meters( chimney usage)

There are also gates attached in each of the fans for their closing and
opening. There are gates which can be closed in percentage for which analog
signals are used and there are gates which are either open or closed for
which digital signals are used.


Turbine is rotated by the steam kinetic energy, the rotating shaft is utilized
for the purpose of generation of electricity.

The rotating shaft is connected to main generator, there the electricity is

produced, then the AC is rectified to DC by rectifier there is also a exciter
which excites means the voltage is increased then through permanent

There is a AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulator) i.e. feedback system for the
generator is there between permanent magnets and the main exciter.

Then the produced AC current is passed through the transformers for the

The ratings of various electrical devices are as follows:

1. Exciter:
Make : BHEL
Speed: 3000RPM
Phase: 3AC
Type: EAP 39/2-30/6
Frequency: 150Hz
2. Turbo generator:
Make: BHEL
Phase: 3AC
Current: 3508A
Cooling: CACW
Duty: Continuous
3. Unit Auxiliary Transformer:
KV (No load) HV: 11
KV (No load) LV: 6.9
Amp (HV): 839.78
Amp (LV): 1338.78
Phases :3AC
Frequency: 50Hz
Type of Cooling : ONAN
4. Boiler Feed Pump:
Duty: Continuous
Make: BHEL
Power: 2100KW
Speed : 490RPM
Connection: Star
Rotor type: Cage Rotor
Stator Temp: 216C.


Power plant engineering by A.K. Raja,.Amit P. Srivastava ,Manish Dwivedi.

An analysis of a thermal power plant working on a Rankine cycle: A
theoretical investigation
Power plant Engineering by P.K NAG.