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EE407 Renewable Electrical Energy Resources


4

EE407 Renewable Electrical Energy Resources


Textbook
5

Renewable and efficient


Electric power systems by
Gilbert M Masters

Read Chapter 6 Wind Power


Systems

EE407 Renewable Electrical Energy Resources


Wind ENERGY IN PAKISTAN
Potential, Current Status & Prospects
Alternative Energy Development Board
(AEDB)
Implement policies, programs and projects through
private sector in the field of Alternative Energy
Assist and facilitate development and generation of
Alternative Energy to achieve sustainable economic
growth
Encourage transfer of technology and develop
indigenous manufacturing base for AE Technology
Promote provision of energy services that are based
on Alternative energy resources
Undertake RE projects on commercial scale (AEDB
Act 2010)
Why Alternative Energy For Pakistan?
Reduced dependence on Imported Oil:
2011 Oil Import Bill: $11+ Billion
Energy Cost/Unit
60% of the total Export Earnings
Source
2015 Oil Import Bill US $ 38 Billion (ADB Estimate)
Waste-to- 6-9 Cents
200% of the National Export Earnings Energy

Large Renewable Energy Potential: Small Hydro 6 9 Cents


Wind*: 346,000 MW

Solar*: Large Wind 14.66 Cents


Hydro : 58,000 MW
Solar 20+ Cents
Bagasse : 2,000 MW

Waste to Energy: 2,000 MW


RFO Expensive*
Geothermal 2500 MW
(Thermal)
Off-Grid Application: 10,000 MW
*dependant on fuel oil prices
Alternate Fuels Large TBD
Wind Resource in Pakistan

A total of 346,000 MW potential


Pakistan has a 1,046 Km
coastline in the South

Average wind speed more


than 7 m/s above 60 m in
Gharo Wind Corridor having
estimated wind potential of
more than 50,000 MW
Other sites in Balochistan,
Punjab and Northern Areas
identified
WIND MEASURING SITES IN SIND
1st Phase Wind Power Program in Sindh Province
AREA WHERE WIND POWER PROJECTS ARE BEING EXECUTED
MICRO SITING OF WIND FARMS IN
JHIMPIR BY AEDB EXPERTS
Land Allocation - Jhimpir
Wind MET Masts for Wind Mapping

Agency Quantity Location


IPPs 16 Gharo & Jhimpir (Sindh)
AEDB / UNDP-GEF 10 Gharo Wind Corridor (Sindh)
Barrick Gold Corporation 5 Reko Diq, Balochistan

India has installed 1100 Wind measuring masts for the


development of Wind program.
UNIQUE FEATURES OF RE POLICY 2006

Guaranteed Electricity purchase


Grid provision is the responsibility of the purchaser
Protection against political risk
Attractive Tariff Cost Plus
Upfront Tariff of US$ cents 14.66 per kWh
Return on investment is between 17% to 18%
No Import Duties on Equipment
Zero Sales Tax
No Income Tax
Repatriation of Equity along with dividends freely allowed
Permission to issue corporate registered bonds
Permission to issue shares at discounted prices
Convertibility of PKR into USD
Other Incentives for Wind Project Investors
Standardized Project Documents have been developed keeping in
view norms of international wind industry.

Regional EIA study for Gharo ~ Keti Bandar Wind Corridor has been
conducted and EIA guidelines for EPA are developed

Electrical Studies have been conducted for wind power projects


planned in Gharo ~ Keti Bandar Wind Corridor in short & medium term.

Grid Code amended specific to Wind Energy.

ADB has announced counter guarantee for wind IPPs; thereby resulting
in reducing the credit rating risk of Pakistan for financing.

SBP has announced refinanced facility for RE projects up to 10 MW.


Developing the Wind Sector

Created Enabling Environment:


Feed-in-Tariff as well as Cost Plus tariff with Wind risk available
Grid Code Amended for Wind Power
Streamlined Land Issues by developing standardized, legally vetted documentation

Created Lender / Investor Confidence


Circular Debt Concerns Addressed ADB Counter Guarantee in place
Regained Lenders Confidence OPIC supporting 4, IFC, ADB and IDB 3 Projects.
Lender Acceptable Standardized the Project Documents (PPA / IA / Wheeling) Available
Regional Environment Impact Analysis, approved by donors available to investors

Reduced Lead Times And EPC Contract From Turbine Manufacturers


All major turbine manufacturers now offering 4-6 months delivery and EPC contract

Encouraged Local Manufacturing


DESCON now producing Wind Masts for Nordix Machines. HIT negotiating Turbine Assembly with
CWE.

Inclusive / Cooperative Approach


All Provinces now a full member of AEDB Board, and RE Policy Review team.
New corridors identified. New wind masts installed Sindh, Baluchistan and Punjab through UNDP
asst.
Project In Pipeline
22
Projects in Pipeline:

M/s FFC Energy achieved Financial Close in June 2011.


M/s Zorlu Enerji achieved Financial Close in May 2012
Following IPPs expected to achieve Financial Close for 50 MW each
this year;

i. Fauji Foundation (100 MW)


ii. Three Gorges First Wind Farm Pakistan
iii. Tenaga Genarasi
iv. Lucky Energy
v. Gul Ahmed Power
vi. Metro Power
vii. Sapphire Wind Energy
viii. Dawood Power
First 550 MW WPPs
Project Cost
Name of Project Capacity (MW) (Million USD) Status Financial Closing

Achieved- June 2011


1 Fauji Fertilizer 50 133.56 Under Construction

Achieved- May 2012


2 Zorlu Enerji Pak 56 143.60 Under Construction

Oct - 2012
3 Three Gorges 50 134.75 Under Construction

Foundation 1 Aug - 2012


4 50 128.69 -Tariff Received-

Foundation 2 Aug - 2012


5 50 128.70 -Tariff Received-

Dec 2012
6 Lucky Energy 50 132.53 -Tariff Received-

Dec 2012
7 Sapphire Power 50 128.87 -Tariff Received-

Dec 2012
8 Tenaga Generasi 50 129.67 -Tariff Received-

Dec 2012
9 Metro Power 50 132.56 -Tariff Received-

Dec 2012
10 Gul Ahmed 50 132.87 -Tariff Received-

Feb - 2013
11 Master Energy 50 133.68 -Tariff Awaited-
List of Fast Track Wind Power Projects
Sr. No. Company Name Project Capacity
1. NBT Wind Power (Norway) 500 MW
2. Titan Energy Pakistan (Pvt.) Ltd. 10 MW
3. Tapal Wind Energy (Pvt.) Ltd. 10 MW
4. Ismail Power Limited 10 MW
5. Fina Energy (Turkey) 250 MW
6. FFC Energy 100 MW
7. Japan Green Power (Japan) 50 MW
8. Associate Technologies 100 MW
9. Anadulo Wind Pakistan (Turkey) 50 MW
10. China Sunnec Energy (Pvt.) Ltd 50 MW
11 System Wind Energy (Turkey) 50 MW
12. Hydro China (China) 300 MW
13. HZ Wind Power (China) 100 MW
14. Hartford Energy (USA) 45 MW
1582.4 MW
Pakistan: Investors Choice Destination
(Norway, Turkey, Iran, Germany, USA, China and Japan)

Foreign investment by 2013: (US $ 1.2 US $ 2.7 Billion)


400-450 MW on existing Lands
1000 MW Additional if land is made available immediately.

Next Focus: Indigenous Manufacturing

Wind Sector is attracting the largest investment of any


sectors in Pakistan
Under Construction Wind Farm
Turbine Foundation With 62 Ton Steel
Zorlu Wind
Farm
Jhimpir
Roter Weights 72 tonnes
Requires 600 Ton Crane Not Available in Pakistan
PICTURE OF THE WIND BLADES
Zorlu Wind Farm
56.4 MW Wind Power Project of Zorlu Enerji under construction
49.5 MW Wind Power Project of FFC Energy Limited under construction
Construction / civil works at 49.5 MW wind project of M/s Three Gorges
Pakistan
Wind Energy:
A Historical Perspective
Early WINDMILL in Afghanistan (900AD)
Dutch Windmills
as early as 1300
Water Pumpers
Jacobs Turbine 1920 - 1960
Smith-Putnam Turbine
Vermont, 1940's
Modern Windmills
Typesofwindturbine
Insidewindturbine
Windturbinegenerator

WINDTURBINE
46

EE407 Renewable Electrical Energy Resources


Types of Wind Turbine
Technical Application Papers

2 Main components of a wind turbine


To exploit the kinetic energy of the wind, by converting it The converter and the transformer can be installed di-
into electrical energy available to be fed into the network rectly in the nacelle as Figure 2.1 shows, or positioned at
2 Main components of a wind turbine

or to supply loads in parallel, a wind turbine uses differ- the base of the tower. The installation of the transformer
ent components both mechanical as well as electrical. inside the nacelle allows balancing of the rotor weight,
In particular, the rotor (blades and hub) extracts energy while positioning at the base allows a reduction in dimen-
from the wind turning it into mechanical rotation energy sions and weight of the nacelle.
and constitutes the first motor of the wind turbine,
whereas conversion of mechanical energy into electrical In terms of costs, the percentage on the total cost of the
energy is carried out by an electric generator according different components is divided as shown in Figure 2.2.
to suitable configurations to be illustrated in the follow-
ing chapters.

To summarize, the main components constituting hori-


zontal axis wind turbines are (see Figure 2.1):
1. blade Figure 2.2 - Wind turbine component cost (% of total)

2. blade support Generator 3%


3. Pitch angle actuator
4. hub Transformer 4%
Tower 26%
5. spinner
Power converter 5%
6. main support
7. main shaft
Assembly 11%
8. aircraft warning lights
9. gearbox
10. mechanical brakes
11. hydraulic cooling devices
12. generator
13. power converter and electrical control, protection
and disconnection devices
14. anemometers
Gearbox 13%
15. transformer
16. frame of the nacelle
17. supporting tower
18. yaw driving device Other materials 16% Rotor blades 22%

Figure 2.1

1 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

3
4
5

18
17 16

24 Wind power plants


2.1 Rotor on the different sections of the blade and the weight of
the blade itself creates a bending moment on the root

2 Main components of a wind turbine


which alternates at each rotation.
2.1.1 Blades Blades are made from light materials, such as fiber-
The blades are the components which interact with the reinforced plastic materials, which have good properties
wind and are designed with such an airfoil to maximize of resistance to wear and tear.
the aerodynamic efficiency. Fibers are generally made of glass or aluminum for the
Figure 2.3 shows the typical form of a blade and its blades of small and medium size wind turbines, whereas
transversal sections; the blade winds up and the total for larger blades carbon fibers are used in the parts sub-
angle between the root and the tip is about 25. ject to more critical loads.
Since the aerodynamic forces are proportional to the The fibers are incorporated in a matrix of polyester, epoxy
square of the relative speed, they increase rapidly with resin or vinyl ester constituting two shells kept together
the distance from the hub; therefore it is important to and reinforced by an internal matrix.
design the part of the blade near the root so that there The external surface of the blade is covered with a layer
is a good lift and a low aerodynamic resistance. of colored gel to prevent ageing of composite material
due to ultraviolet radiation.
The cross sectional area of the blade is quite large to According to the technology used by the manufacturer,
get the high stiffness necessary to withstand the vari- blades can be equipped with additional elements, such
able mechanical loads present under normal operation as stall controllers to stabilize the air flux, vortex genera-
which contribute to determine the wear and tear of the tors to increase lift or wingtip devices to reduce the lift
blade. In fact, the wind exerts an unsteady force, both loss and the noise.
for the fluctuations due to the turbulence, as well as for Since the main cause of failure is represented by light-
the higher speed as a function of altitude. ning, a protective measure is taken by installing conduc-
Besides, during rotation, a blade when in the high position tors, both on the surface as well as inside the blade (see
is subject to a stronger wind in comparison with the wind Chapter 8).
intensity when it is in the low position, with the conse- The blades and the central hub (which together constitute
quent load fluctuations which recur at each rotation. the rotor) are mounted on the nacelle through suitable
Finally, the centrifugal force due to rotation exerts traction flange bearings.

Figure 2.3

Wind power plants 25


Technical Application Papers

2.1.2 Hub and the switching/protection switchboards are located


2 Main components of a wind turbine

The hub of the wind turbine is the component that con- on the moving part with respect to the main shaft.
nects the blades to the main shaft, transmitting to it
the power extracted from the wind; it includes pitching A hinged hub is, in some ways, a cross between a rigid
systems. hub and a teetering hub and it is basically a rigid hub with
Hubs are generally made of steel or spheroidal graphite hinges for the blades. It is used by downwind turbines to
iron and is protected externally by an oval enclosure called reduce excessive loads in case of strong winds.
spinner. There are three main types of hub (Figure 2.4):
rigid
teetering
hinged
2.2 Gearbox
Figure 2.4 Most drivetrains include a one- or more-stage gearbox
between the rotor, which extracts kinetic energy from
the wind and converts it into mechanical rotation energy,
and the electric generator, which converts the available
mechanical energy into electrical energy.
The gearbox has the purpose of increasing the rotor
speed to adapt it to the values required by conventional
generators (in some turbines the ratio of the gearbox
may exceed 1:100). The gearbox consists of one or more
Rigid Hinged Teetering
gears of epicycloidal or parallel axis type (Figure 2.5).
In the last few years, the development of alternators with
interposed converter has made it possible the construc-
tion of some models of wind turbines without gearbox.
In fact, the gearbox is a source of noise and one of the
elements requiring more maintenance; furthermore it may
cause efficiency losses of the wind turbine.
Therefore the lack of the gearbox implies a simplification
of the mechanical part and thus allowing a reduction in
A rigid hub is designed to keep all major parts in a fixed the size and mass of the nacelle.
position relative to the main shaft. The blade Pitch can
be varied, but no other blade motion is allowed. It is the
type mostly used for rotors with three or more blades.
A rigid hub must be strong enough to withstand all the
loads that can arise from any aerodynamic load on the Figure 2.5

blades as well as those due to yawing.


Teetering hubs are used on nearly all two-bladed wind
turbines and are designed to reduce the aerodynamic
imbalances transmitted to the shaft and typical of two-
bladed rotors; thus the rotor is free to oscillate some
degrees with respect to the direction perpendicular to
the rotation axis of the main shaft.
Teetering hubs have been mainly coupled with turbines
with fixed Pitch angle, but they can be used on variable
pitched turbines as well. Also design of the pitching
system is more complex since the relevant mechanisms

1
For the definition of Pitch angle of a wind blade reference shall be made to the follow- 2
In some cases the gearbox includes also the bearings of the transmission shaft, especially
ing chapter. in turbines with transmission shaft of limited length.

26 Wind power plants


2.3 Brakes Furthermore, in the event of a failure in the gearbox,

2 Main components of a wind turbine


brakes on the high-speed side might be excluded and
Nearly all wind turbines employ mechanical brakes not able to slow the rotor.
mounted on the drivetrain, in addition to an aerodynamic Besides, the quality of the material of the brake discs on
brake. In many cases, mechanical brakes can stop the the high-speed shaft is a more critical issue because of
rotor under adverse weather conditions besides being the intensity of the centrifugal forces developed.
used as parking brakes to keep the rotor from turning Brakes intended to stop a rotor must be able to exert
when the turbine is not operating. a brake torque in excess of what could probably be
There are two types of mechanical brakes in common expected to originate from the rotor, with braking times
usage: usually lower than 5s, and they must be able to function
disc brakes also if their external power supply fails.
clutch brakes Besides, they must be able to keep the rotor in the full
stop position for the defined wind conditions for at least
one hour after the brake is applied (CEI EN 61400-1).
The disc brake operates in a manner similar to that on
cars: a metal disc is affixed to the shaft to be braked.
During braking a hydraulically actuated caliper pushes
brake pads against the disc, thus creating a torque op- 2.4 Electric generator
posing to the motion one (Figure 2.6).
2.4.1 Asynchronous generator
It is essentially an induction three-phase motor charac-
terized by a synchronous speed which depends on the
Figure 2.6
number of poles and on the network frequency.
If the mechanical torque acting on the rotor shaft is mo-
Caliper
tive instead of resistant and makes the rotation speed
increase and exceed the synchronous speed, the asyn-
chronous machine stops working as a motor and starts
working as a generator, thus putting electrical energy
into the grid.
The relative difference between the synchronous speed
and the effective rotation speed is called slip (s), which
is negative when the machine is operated as a genera-
tor. In traditional asynchronous generators with squirrel
cage rotor (short-circuit rotor), the slip is about 1% so
that such devices are actually considered as having
constant rotation speed.
The magnetizing current of the stator, which generates
the rotating magnetic field in the air-gap, is supplied by
Disc
the grid.
Besides, such generator consumes a certain amount of
Clutch-type brakes consist of at least one pressure plate reactive power, which shall be supplied by compensation
and one fiction disc. systems, such as capacitors.
Actuation of this type of brakes is normally via springs When a gust of wind hits a wind turbine equipped with
applying a proper pressure; they are released either by a rotor asynchronous generator under short circuit, as
compressed air or hydraulic fluid. the rotation speed is constant, there is a sudden varia-
Mechanical brakes can be located on either the low- tion of the torque and the consequent quick variation of
speed or high-speed side of the gearbox. the power output. If the short circuit power of the grid to
However, it is important to note that brakes on the low- which the wind turbine is connected is low, voltage fluc-
speed side must be able to exert a much higher torque,
while if the brakes are on the high-speed side they will 3
The rotation speed of the main shaft varies from zero to the rated dimensioning speed
act through the gearbox, possibly increasing the gear- as a function of the speed of the incident wind, but it cannot be controlled and varied
voluntarily by a control system as it occurs instead for variable speed systems.
box wear.

Wind power plants 27


Technical Application Papers

tuations may occur on the electrical devices connected


nearby and these fluctuations may cause malfunctioning
2.5 Transformer
2 Main components of a wind turbine

of these devices.
Moreover, it is possible to notice the quick variation of The electric power output from generators is usually in
low voltage and shall be transformed into medium voltage
the luminous flux emitted by the lamps, generating that
through a transformer to reduce transmission losses by
disturbing fluttering known as flicker.
connection to the MV distribution network.
For this reason too, research has gone towards the de- The transformer is installed on the nacelle or at the base
velopment of variable speed systems which allow also of the tower.
the torque pull on the rotor to be reduced and the rotor The electric cables connecting the nacelle to the base
to work at the point of maximum aerodynamic efficiency of the tower form a ring under the nacelle so that yaw
over a wide range of wind speed4. movements are allowed.
Variable speed solutions realized with induction genera- These movements are controlled and, in case of exces-
tors are obtained by interposing a frequency converter sive rotation, the nacelle is yawned in the opposite direc-
between the stator of the generator with squirrel cage tion to prevent cables from entangling.
rotor and the grid, or by using a wound rotor asynchro- These cables must have such an increased length that the
nous generator in which the rotor is supplied by an in- wind turbine shall be able to make up to three complete
turns for alignment.
dependent alternating current delivered by a frequency
converter: thus, the synchronous speed results to be a
function of the difference between the grid frequency
and the frequency of the rotor current and it is possible 2.6 Yaw system
to reach 30% speed variation.
The nacelle is made to rotate on the top of the tower
by an active yaw control system consisting of electrical
actuators and relevant reduction gears (Figure 2.7), so
2.4.2 Synchronous generator that the rotor is always transversal to wind.
The direction and speed of the wind are continuously
In this type of generator, also called alternator, the rotor controlled by the sensors connected on the roof of the
consists of a direct current electromagnet or of perma- nacelle.
nent magnets. The rotor is generally positioned according to the average
The frequency of the voltage induced on the stator (and direction of the wind, calculated over a 10min period by
consequently of the generated current) is directly pro- the turbine control system.
portional to the rotation speed of the rotor. Figure 2.7
To allow functioning at variable speed, a frequency
converter is interposed between alternator and grid; at
first it transforms the current at variable frequency (as a
function of the rotor speed and therefore of wind) com-
ing out of the generator into direct current through an
electronic rectifier, and then reconverts the direct current
into alternating current at the network frequency through
an inverter.
Thus the frequency of the generated current is released
from the grid frequency, which may also result into the
abolition of the gearbox.
Thanks to the synchronous motor and to the frequency
converter, when the wind strength suddenly increases, For horizontal axis turbines with downwind rotors, a yaw
the rotor is let free to accelerate for some seconds: the system is not necessary, since the turbine is intrinsically
increase in the rotation speed accumulates kinetic energy self-orienting and follows the wind direction as a wind
in the rotor itself and allows constant power supply. vane.
Vice versa, when the wind falls, the energy stored in the Instead, upwind turbines have either a rear orientation
tail (small and medium size wind turbines) or active yaw
rotor is released while the rotor itself is slowing down.
control; therefore, the supporting tower shall be properly
dimensioned also to withstand the torsional loads result-
ing from the use of yaw systems.

4
For a given wind speed, the rotation speed may be varied to maximize the aerodynamic
efficiency of the blades (see the following chapter).

28 Wind power plants


2.7 Tower In onshore plants the nacelle is usually at a height equal
to 1 or 1.2 times the rotor diameter, whereas in offshore

2 Main components of a wind turbine


plants the height is equal to 0.8 times the rotor diam-
There are two main types of towers commonly used eter.
horizontal axis wind turbines (Figure 2.8): Tubular towers are usually made of rolled steel, although
free-standing lattice (truss) sometimes reinforced concrete is used.
tubular They are cone-shaped, with the base diameter longer
than that on the top where the nacelle is positioned.
Figure 2.8 The different sections are joined and fixed together by
bolted flanges.
These types of towers generate a remarkable downwind
wake; that is why in most cases the rotor is positioned
upwind.
Moreover, they are very visible structures and therefore
they must not show signs of corrosion over many years:
to this purpose, adequate coating must be chosen.
The towers are set into the ground through foundations
generally consisting in reinforced concrete plinths placed
at a certain depth.

2.8 Control and protection/disconnection


systems
Truss tower Tubular tower

The first wind turbines were on free-standing lattice tow- These systems are the brain of the wind turbine and
ers, commonly used until the mid-1980s. Nowadays provide the control logic to command start up and shut
wind turbines are mostly of tubular type since they offer a down procedures of the turbine and to guarantee turbine
number of advantages in comparison with the truss one. functioning in a defined range of operation parameters,
In particular, tubular towers do not require many bolted by protecting the rotor, in particular, against overspeed,
connections which need to be periodically checked; and the different parts of the electric circuit against over-
they provide a protected area to access the turbine and currents and overvoltages.
climbing to the nacelle is made safer and easier thanks The logic of control is usually programmed in a PLC. In
to internal stairway or lift in case of larger turbines.
particular, the protection/disconnection systems discon-
Furthermore, they are aesthetically more acceptable in
comparison with truss towers. nect the turbine from the grid in case of malfunctioning,
There is a third type of tower, guyed lattice tower (Figure thus allowing proper operation of the other wind turbines
2.9), but they are little used for medium and large size in the wind power plant.
power plants.

Figure 2.9
2.9 Auxiliary devices
The main auxiliary circuits mounted inside the nacelle
comprise a hydraulic device to lubricate the gearbox
or the other mechanical parts and also heat exchang-
ers to cool the oil and the generator, pumps and fans
included.
On the top of the nacelle there are anemometers and
wanes for turbine control, aircraft warning lights and a
possible platform for helicopters landing (for the access
to offshore turbines). In order to improve the reliability
of the wind turbine, different sensors are used to moni-
tor the status of the various components and to signal
any possible malfunctioning which needs maintenance
operations.
The tower height depends on the wind regime at the This is particularly true for offshore wind power plants,
installation site. the access to which is not easy.

Wind power plants 29


Technical Application Papers

3 Theory of wind turbines


3.1 Power of the fluid vein Therefore, the available specific power results equal to:
3 Theory of wind turbines


Electric power production through wind turbines depends [3.4]
on the interaction between the blades of the rotor and
the wind by transforming the kinetic energy of the wind
into rotation mechanical energy and then by converting As it can be noticed Pavailable varies according to the cube
it into electrical energy. of the wind speed v1.
The kinetic energy Ec of an air mass m moving at constant For example, with a standard air density at sea level
speed v1 is given by: , it is:

[3.1]

Therefore, the available specific power Pavailable of an air


mass with capacity is:
Therefore, with an increase of the wind speed of about
1 m/s only, the available specific power rises of about
[3.2] 60-70%.
Besides, taking as reference the available specific power
The capacity can be expressed by the formula: (Pavailable=210W/m2) of the fluid vein relevant to the speed
v1=7 m/s, it is possible to determine the area and the
diameter of such fluid vein for different values of usable
[3.3]
power (Figure 3.1):
called continuity equation, where:
r is the air density
A is the cross-sectional area of the stream tube of
the air under consideration.

Figure 3.1

Fluid vein at v1 = 7 m/s


D = 9.4 m
P = 14.6 kW

D = 6.4 m
P = 6.8 kW

D = 5.5 m
P = 5.0 kW

D = 4.6 m
D = 4.3 m P = 3.5 kW
P = 3.0 kW
D = 3.6 m
D = 3.4 m P = 2.5 kW
P = 1.9 kW D = 3.0 m
P = 2.1 kW
D = 2.6 m D = 2.5 m
P = 1.1 kW P = 1.0 kW
D = 2.1 m
P = 0.7 kW
D = 1.8 m

30 Wind power plants


Horizontal Axis
Upwind turbine Downwind turbine
Complex yaw control Let the wind control left
system. right motion (the yaw).
Keepblade facingwind. Orient itself correctly to
Operate more smoothly. wind direction.
Deliver more power. Wind shadowing effect by
the tower, cause the blade
to flex.
Increasenoiseandreduce
poweroutput.

17
NumberofBlades
Multibladewindmillneedhigh
startingtorqueandlowwindspeed
forcontinuouswaterpumping
function.
Asrpmincreases,turbulencecaused
byone
bladeaffectsefficiencyoftheblade
thatfollows
Fewerbladesallowtheturbineto
spinfaster=>
28 February 2012 EE4511: Wind Energy by P. Jirutitijaroen 18
smallergenerator.
http://www.windenergythefacts.org/images/fig/chap1/34.jpg http://www.climatechangeconnection.org/Solutions/Windenergy.htm
http://www.sti.nasa.gov/tto/Spinoff2009/images/Aerostar_2.jpg
http://www.windpowerengineering.com/wpcontent/uploads/2009/07/windflowTeRereHauwindfarm300x200.jpg
Vertical Axis

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4uJCiJmVbjM&feature=p http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NxMh18SGhyA&feature=
layer_embedded player_embedded
Orientation
Wind Turbines (WT) can be categorized into two
overarching classes based on the orientation of
the rotor
Vertical Axis(VAWT) Horizontal Axis(HAWT)
Horizontal Axis
Wind Turbines
Rotors are
usually Up-wind
of tower
Some machines
have down-wind
rotors, but only
commercially
available ones
are small
turbines
Types of Electricity Generating Windmills

Small (10 kW)


Homes Intermediate
Farms (10-250 kW)
Remote Applications Village Power
(e.g. water pumping, Hybrid Systems
telecom sites,
icemaking) Distributed Power

Large (250 kW - 2+MW)


Central Station Wind Farms
Distributed Power
Modern Small Wind Turbines:
High Tech, High Reliability, Low Maintenance

Technically Advanced
Only 2-3 Moving Parts
Very Low Maintenance
Requirements
10 kW
Proven: ~ 5,000 On-Grid 50
kW
American Companies
are the Market and
Technology Leaders
400 W
900 W
(Not to scale)
Large Wind Turbines

450 base to blade


Each blade 112
Span greater than 747
163+ tons total
Foundation 20+ feet
deep
Rated at 1.5 5
megawatt
Supply at least 350
homes
Large Wind Turbines

Each blade 112


Large Wind Turbines

Each blade 112


Low-power wind generation
Power output of each generation unit in the order of a few kW. Power profile is
predominately stochastic.

Originally they were used for nautical and rural applications with dc
generators. Cost is relatively low.

More modern systems use permanent-magnet generators.

SW Windpower Air-X 400 LNP 6.4-5000


Whisper 200 400 W 5 kW
1 kW Rotor diameter: 1.15 m Rotor diameter: 6.4 m
Rotor diameter: 2.7 m
Low-power wind generation

Bergey Excel SW Windpower


7.5 kW Whisper 500
Rotor diameter: 6.4 m 3 kW Solerner
Rotor diameter: 4.5 m 3 kW

YM-CZ3kW Wind generators


3 kW In Tokyo
Generators: Synchronous machine
Output: ac. Electric frequency depends on the rotor angular speed.

Requires a dc input.

Ideally Pmec,in = Pelect,out


Generators: Dynamos (Brushed dc generator)
Output: ac + dc. AC component electric frequency depends on the rotor
angular speed.

Important maintenance and reliability issues caused by the brushes

Ideally Pmec,in = Pelect,out


Brushless/Permanent magnet generators
Output: ac. Electric frequency depends on the rotor angular speed.

No issues with brushes

Ideally Pmec,in = Pelect,out


Wind generators model
The output in all types of generators have an ac component.
The frequency of the ac component depends on the angular speed of the wind
turbine, which does not necessarily matches the required speed to obtain an
output electric frequency equal to that of the grid.
For this reason, the output of the generator is always rectified.
The rectification stage can also be used to regulate the output voltage.
If ac power at a given frequency is needed, an inverter must be also added.
There are 2 dynamic effects in the model: the generator dynamics and the
wind dynamics.
Reference
Chapter6WindPowerSystems

3
Worlds FirstWindTurbine
DanePoul La Courin 1864 Build in 1891.
First wind turbine to generate
electricity.
He was an inventor and a high
school teacher back then.
Use electricity generated from
his wind turbine to electrolyze
water, producing hydrogen for
gas lights in the school house.
Windturbine
Source:http://www.poullacour.dk/engelsk/menu.htm
buildingin2004
5
Early UseofWindTurbines
Earlyuseofwindturbinesisforagriculturalpurposesforgrain
grindingandwaterpumping.

ThefirstuseoflargewindmillinCleveland,Ohio,1888to
generateelectricity.Rotordiameterwas17meters.The
windmillproduced12kW.

Source: http://www.telosnet.com/wind/early.html

6
History ofUSWind Energy
1930sand1940s,smallwindsystem
usedinruralareas.
GrandpasKnobinVermont,1941,
1250kW,175ftdiameter,failedin
1945.
Asutilitygridexpandedand
becomemorereliable,electricity
pricedeclined.
Windenergypopularityfluctuates
withthepriceoffossilfuels.
AfterWorldWarII,oilprices
declined
soasthewindenergypopularity.
Oilcrisisinthe1970sstimulated Source:
worldwideinterestinwindturbine http://www1.eere.energy.gov/windandhydro/wind_
history.html
generators.
7
US Wind Map

http://www.nrel.gov/
8
Capital Costs of WindTurbine
Capitalcostsofwindsystemsincluding
turbine,tower,gridconnection,
sitepreparation,controls,andland

10
Environmental Issues

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8NAAzBArYdw http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cRWHr2ek_BQ&feature=related
Noise fromWind Turbines

www.vestas.com
WindEnergyTerminology
Winddrivengenerator
Windgenerator
Windturbine
Windturbine generator (WTG)
Wind energy conversion system (WECS)
Inside Wind Turbine

Source: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/multimedia/video_wind_turbines.html
Wind Turbine: How It Works
(Video)
Wind TurbineGenerator
Synchronous generator Asynchronous generator
Operateatconstant Verycommonforwind
rotationalspeedtocreate turbine.
constantvoltagefrequency. Magneticfieldisinduced
RequireDCcircuitto fromACvoltagesources.
generatemagneticfields. Donotoperateatfixspeed.
Requireslipringsand Donotrequiresliprings and
brushes,addsto brushes.
maintenanceroutine
Lessmaintenancecost.
requiredbythemachine.
Synchronous Generator

Toincreaserotationalspeedinorderto TosupplyDCcurrent
produce50/60Hzvoltagefrequency forfieldwinding
Asynchronous Generator
Rotatingmagneticfieldisgeneratedin
theairgapfromACvoltageatthe
stator.
Use(squirrel)cagerotormadefroma
numberofaluminumbarsshorted
togetherattheirends,formingacage.
Operateataspeedhigherthan
synchronousspeed.
Adifferencebetweensynchronous
speed(Ns)androtorspeed(Nr)is
calledslip.
Wind Turbines
Change in WindSpeed
Synchronous generator Asynchronous generator
Gearbox needs to be Slipvariesaccordingtothe
adjusted to maintain windspeed,helpstoabsorb
constant voltage frequency. shockstomechanical
equipment.
Turbineaerodynamics
Forceonarotorblade
Angleofattackandstall
HOWROTORBLADEEXTRACT
ENERGYFROMTHEWIND
How Rotor Turns?

Airfoil

Air moving over top of airfoil has


moredistancetotravel Air
pressureontopislowerthan
thatunderairfoil create
Lift!

Source: http://greenenergycenter.blogspot.com/2008/07/windturbinebladedesigndesigning.html
Force on a RotorBlade
Wind

Resulting wind Relative wind


duetoblade
motion
Rotor Speed AlongtheBlade

Foraconstant
rotationalspeed,the
speedoftherotor
alongthebladeis
proportionaltothe
distance from the hub.
Thenearertothetip
(furtherfromthehub),
thefasterthespeedis.
http://guidedtour.windpower.org/en/tour/wtrb/rotor.htm
Angle of Attack and Stall

Angleofattack Toohigh angle ofattack can


improveslift causestall,i.e.windontop
oftheairfoilnolonger
attachtothesurface
Force on a RotorBlade
Wind

Resultingwind Relativewinddue
toblademotion

Relativewindspeeddependsonthedistancefrom
base.
Windspeedatthetipisfasterthanatthehub.
Inordertokeeptheanglesright,theblademustbe
twistedtokeeptheanglesright.
Too Strong Wind

Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u14tBwO5QVQ
Powerdensity
Temperaturecorrectionforairdensity
Altitudecorrectionforairdensity
Impactoftowerheight

POWER IN THE WIND

28 February 2012 EE4511: Wind Energy by P. Jirutitijaroen 35


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Wind power
Consider a mass m of air moving at a speed v. The kinetic energy is
1
WK mv 2
2
Then power is
dWK 1 dm 2
P v
dt 2 dt

The last expression assumes an static wind behavior (i.e. v is constant)

The mass flow rate dm/dt is


dm
1 Av
P Av 3 dt
Thus, 2
Typical Power-speed characteristics

SW Windpower
Whisper 200
1 kW
Rotor diameter: 2.7 m

SW Windpower
Whisper 500
3 kW
Rotor diameter: 4.5 m
Conversion efficiency
In the previous slide, power does not varies with the cube of the wind speed.
Why?

Because not all the wind power is transmitted through the blades into the
generator.

Consider the next figure:


vb Downwind
vd

Upwind Rotor area


vu
A
Conversion efficiency
The wind energy absorbed by the wind turbine rotor equals the kinetic
energy lost by the wind as it pass through the blades. Hence, the energy
transmitted by the wind to the rotor blades is the difference between the upwind
and the downwind kinetic energies:
d ( Eu Ed ) 1 dm 2 2
Pb (vu vd )
dt 2 dt

In the last equation it is assumed that there is no turbulence and the air passes
through the rotor as a steady rate.

If it is assumed that vb is the average between vu and vd, then the mass flow
rate is
dm v v
A u d
dt 2

If we define the ratio vd



vu
Conversion efficiency
Then
1 v vu 2 1 3 1 2
Pb A u (vu vd ) Avu (1 )(1 )
2 2

2 2 2 2

Power in Fraction
the wind extracte
rotor tip speed rpm D d
(TSR )
wind speed 60vb
Rotor
efficiency
Cpvalue, Cp is
The rotor efficiency is maximum when is 1/3. For this
0.593=16/27.

Still, we still need to know how much of the absorbed power by the blades is
transmitted to the generator. This conversion stage is characterized based on
the tip-speed ration (TSR):
Power Produced by the Rotor

P Energy flow in - Energy flow out


1 1
m V 2 m V 2v
2

2 2
2m vV v
V2 v 2 v
2 AV v v A
2
41
2 V V

A
V2
2

41 a a
2

where, a v/V
To determine when power reaches its maximum value,
P
set 0
a
We get the result : a 1/3
1 16
Pmax AV 3
2 27
Thus at best only 16/27 of the inflowing energy may be converted into power.
This is called Betz limit.
Conversion efficiency

From the courses recommended book


Variable rotor speeds

From the courses recommended book

The maximum power point changes as the rotor speed changes.


Wind stochastic nature
Wind speed probability (then generated power, too) is an stochastic function.

Wind speed probability can be represented using a Rayleigh distribution,


which is a special case of a Weibull distribution.

The Rayleigh distribution appears when a 2-dimentional vector has


characteristics that:
are normally distributed
are uncorrelated
have equal variance.

A typical probability density distribution


for wind speed is shown next. Rayleigh
distributions approximates these curves.
Wind stochastic nature
The Rayleigh probability density function is given by
2
v
2v
f (v ) e c

where c is a parameter. c2
The average value of the random variable (wind speed v) is

v v. f (v)dv c
0 2

The average power is


1
Pavg A(v 3 ) avg
2
If
3 6
(v 3 ) avg v 3 f (v) dv c 3 v 3
0 4
Then
61
Pavg Av 3
2
Power in theWind

Kinetic energy

?
PowerDensity
Massflowrate:

= Air density (kg/m) = 1.225kg/mat15C and1 atm

is power inthewind (watts)


Power density(specificpower)=powerpersquaremeter
(Watts/m)
Observations fromPower Equation
Power in thewind depends on,
Airdensity,
Areathatwindflowthrough(i.e.sweptareaof
theturbinerotor),and
Windspeed.
Powerincreasesasthecubeofwindspeed.
Willitbecorrecttocalculatepowerusing
averagewindspeed?
Example6.1
Comparetheenergyat15C,1
atmpressure,containedin1
mofthefollowingwind
regimes:
a. 100 hours of 6m/s winds (13.4 mph),
b.50 hours at 3 m/s plus 50 hours at 9 m/s (i.e.,
an average wind speed of 6m/s)
Power VS Wind Speed

40
PowerVsSweptArea
Powerincreasesasproportional
toswept area
oftherotor.

This implies that power is proportionalto


squareofthediameter;thebigger, thebetter.
Thisexplainseconomiesofscaleofwind
turbines.
Observations fromPower Equation
Power in thewind depends on,
Airdensity,
Areathatwindflowthrough (i.e. swept area of
the turbine rotor), and
Wind speed.
Air Density
At15Cand1atmosphere, = 1.225 kg/m.

Density = weight/volume,
IdealGasLaw
Airdensity variesaccording to ideal gas law,

P: absolutepressure(atm)
V: volume(m)
n: mass(mol)
R: idealgasconstant(matmKmol)
T: absolutetemperature(K,K=C+273.13 )

Intuitiveideaaboutidealgaslaw:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WScwPIPqZa0
Air Density VS Temperature

n P

V RT
Molecularweightofaircanbeapproximated.Airisamixofmolecules,
78.08%Nitrogen(N=28.02),20.95%Oxygen(O=28.02),0.93%Argon(Ar
=39.95),0.035%Carbondioxide(CO=44.01),0.0018%Neon(Ne=20.18).
Equivalentmolecularweightofairis28.97.
Air DensityVS Altitude
Airdensityalso
dependson
atmosphericpressure.
Atmospheric pressure is a
function of altitude.

g = gravitational constant (9.806 m/s)


Air Pressure VS Altitude

Assume temperature constant throughout the air column,


Example6.3
Findtheairdensity
(a),at15C(288.15 K), at an elevation of2000 m
(6562ft).
(b) find it assuming an air temperature of 5C at
2000 m.
Temperature and Altitude Corrections
Impactof Tower Height
Windspeednearthegroundisgreatly
affectedbythefrictionthatair

experiences.
Smoothsurface,suchassea>less
friction.
Roughsurface,suchascitywith tall buildings
>morefriction.
Windspeedasafunction of,
Height,
Earthssurface.

28 February 2012 EE4511: Wind Energy by P. Jirutitijaroen 50


Characterized by(some)Law
Power law, often used Alternativelawused in
inUS. Europe.

H= referenceheightof z =roughness length


10m.
v=referencewind
speedatH.
=frictioncoefficient
Thesearejustapproximation, nothing is better than
actualsitemeasurement!!
Friction Coefficient

52
Roughness Class
Wind Speed and Power Ratio

54
Example6.5
Ananemometermountedataheightof 10m
aboveasurfacewithcrops,hedges,
and shrubsshowsawind speed of5 m/s.
Estimate
the wind speed and thespecificpower in the
wind at aheight of 50 m. Assume 15C and 1
atm of pressure.

28 February 2012 EE4511: Wind Energy by P. Jirutitijaroen 55


Example 6.6
Awindturbinewitha30m
rotordiameterismounted
withitshubat50mabove
agroundsurfacethatis
characterizedbyshrubs
andhedges.Estimatethe
ratioofspecificpowerin
thewindatthehighest
pointthatarotorbladetip
reachestothelowestpoint
thatitfallsto.
Theresultingflexingofabladecanincreasethenoiseandmaycontributetobladefatigue,
whichcanultimatelycausebladefailure.
Average power inthe wind
Chapter 6: 6.5, 6.79

Rotor Speed AlongtheBlade

Foraconstant
rotationalspeed,the
speedoftherotor
alongthebladeis
proportionaltothe
distance from the hub.
Thenearertothetip
(furtherfromthehub),
thefasterthespeedis.
http://guidedtour.windpower.org/en/tour/wtrb/rotor.htm

8
Power VS Wind Speed

7 March 2012 EE4511: Wind Energy by P. Jirutitijaroen 12


Power in the Wind

A: Sweptarea (m) :Airdensity(kg/m) v : wind speed(m/s)

Theareathatthewind Theairdensity Windspeedalso


passthroughdepends dependsonthe dependsonthetower
onthesizeofthewind temperatureand height.Thehigherup
turbine. altitude. thebetterthewind
speed.
Impactof Tower Height
Power law, often used Alternativelaw used in
inUS. Europe.

H= referenceheightof z =roughness length


10m.
v=referencewind
speedatH.
=frictioncoefficient
Thesearejustapproximation, nothing is better than
actualsitemeasurement!!
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Example 6.6
Awindturbinewitha30m
rotordiameterismounted
withitshubat50mabove
agroundsurfacethatis
characterizedbyshrubs
andhedges.Estimatethe
ratioofspecificpowerin
thewindatthehighest
pointthatarotorbladetip
reachestothelowestpoint
thatitfallsto.
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Rotorefficiency
Maximumrotorefficiency
Tipspeedratio(TSR)

POWER EXTRACTED FROM THE


WIND

19
Albert Betzs Formulation
Thatwaseasy!

Steam Tube

AlbertBetz,
Germanphysicist,18851968
Power Extracted fromthe Wind
Assumethatthevelocityofwindvbisjusttheaverageofthe
upwindanddownwindspeed,

Denote the ratio betweenupwind and downwind speed by

Substitute vd, thenwe have,


RotorEfficiency
We can find maximum possible rotor efficiency!
Define Rotor efficiency as,

Fundamentalrelationshipfor
powerdeliveredbyrotor,

Howshouldwedesignsothat
wecanhavebetterrotor
efficiency?
Maximum Rotor Efficiency

Thebladeefficiency ismaximum whenthe downwind


speed isonethird of the upwindspeed,

We can now find the maximum rotor efficiency,

7 March 2012 EE4511: Wind Energy by P. Jirutitijaroen 23


137
TipSpeed Ratio
Foragivenwindspeed,
rotorefficiencyisa
functionoftherateat
whicharotorturn.
Rotorturnstooslow
lettingtoomuchwind
pass>efficiencydrop.
Rotorturnstoofast
causingturbulence>
efficiencydrop.
TSRisthespeedat
rotortipdividedbythe
windspeed.
139
Example 6.7(a),(b)
(a) TSR=4.0, wind speed of14 m/s,findrpm.

rpm D TSR 60v 4 60 14


TSR rpm 26.7 rev/min
60v D 40

(b) Tip speed of therotor.

TSR =

Rotortipspeed=TSR Wind speed = 4 14=56m/s


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Variablerotorspeeds
Polechanginginductiongenerators
Multiplegearboxes
Variableslipinductiongenerator
Indirectgridconnectionsystems

SPEEDCONTROL FOR MAXIMUM


POWER
Variable RotorSpeed
Formaximumefficiency,turbine
bladesshould
change their speed as wind speed changes.

Rotation speed changesaswind speed changes Threestep rotational speed adjustment


Thechallengeistodesignmachinethataccommodatevariable
motorspeedatfixedgeneratorspeed!
PoleChangingInductionGenerator
Externalconnectionsthatswitchnumberofpoles,
by changing the circuit at the stator winding. There is
no change to the rotor.

2 poles 4 poles

Source:http://openbookproject.net/electricCircuits/AC/AC_13.html
EE4511:WindEnergybyP.Jirutitijaroen
Multiple Gearbox
Gearboxesinwindturbinedonot
typicallychange
gear. Two gearboxes with separate generators for low
wind speed and high wind speed gear.

1.5MW
gearboxfor
1.5MWwind
turbine
http://guidedtour.windpower.org/en/tour/wtrb/powtrain.htm
Variable slipinduction generator
Adjustableresistor
Useslipasanadjustable
resistancetovaryspeedofthe
rotor.
Recallthatthecurrentcan
easilypassthroughthe
aluminumbaratthecagerotor.
Themagnitudeofthecurrent
willdeterminethespeedofthe
rotor(reviewgeneratorconcept Opti Slip
onpage328334).
Optical fiber link to adjust resistor
Ifthecurrentmagnitudeis
adjusted,thespeedoftherotor Circuitattached
canbechanged. onrotorwith
Thisvariableslipinduction electroniccontrol
generatorutilizethistechnique system
toadjustthespeedoftherotor.
Indirect grid connection systems

Potential harmonics
Typical wind statistics
Probability concept
Weibull distribution
Rayleigh distribution
REVIEW OF PROBABILITY CONCEPT
Wind Speed Data (m/s)

monitoring
surfacemelt
overlarge
areasoftheice
sheetmargin
inGreenland

http://www.geus.dk/departments/quaternarymarine
geol/icemon/stationnuukuk.htm
Typical Wind Speed Histogram
Probability Measure

Aprobabilityisdefinedasaquantitative
measure.Inthiscase,arelativefrequency
offractionsoftime.

Aprobabilityneedsto satisfy the following


properties:
1. 0 P(anevent)1
2. P(all possible events) =1
Probability Density Function

Afunction that givesprobabilities associated


withallpossiblevalues.

Discrete function. Continuous function.


Pr v 1 0.1 f v
Pr 2 v 3
f v dv
3

0.3 0.3 2
0.2

0.1 0.1 1 2 3 4 5 Wind speed

Wind speed
1 2 3 4 5
Wind Speed P.D.F.
Weibull Distribution
WaloddiWeibull,
Swedishengineerand
scientist,
18871979
Amazing,right?
Iknow.

k =shapeparameter
c = scale parameter

When k=2,called
Rayleigh distribution.
Rayleigh Distribution

c =scale parameter

Seehow
beautiful
the
curveis!

JohnWilliamStrutt,thirdBaronRayleigh,LordRayleigh,
WinnerofThe1904NobelPrizeinPhysics,
18421919
Powerinthewind
Discretewindspeedhistogram
Averagewindspeedcalculation
Windspeedprobabilitydensity
function

AVERAGEPOWERIN THE WIND

7 March 2012 EE4511: Wind Energy by P. Jirutitijaroen 43


Power in the Wind

=Airdensity(kg/m)

??
Average WindSpeed Calculation
Total speed dividedby the total time of that speed. For
example, for 10h period,
3 hr, nowind
3 hr, 5mph
4 hr, 10 mph

Probability that the speed is vi!!


Avg. Wind Speed in Probabilistic Terms
Example 6.9
Find the average wind speed and average power in the
wind (W/m).
(average power per area)
Wind Speed P.D.F.
Discrete histogram continuous function, called Probability
density function
Mathematically

Normalized from 8760 to 1


Discrete VS Continuous
Weibulldistribution
Rayleighdistribution
AveragewindspeedwithRayleigh
statistics
AveragepowerinthewindwithRayleigh
statistics

WINDSPEEDSTATISTICS
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Weibull Distribution

k=shapeparameter
c=scaleparameter

k=1,toomuch
oflowspeed
k=3, Toosymmetric.
k=2, Justaboutright!

When k=2,called
Rayleigh distribution.
Rayleigh Distribution
c =scaleparameter

Theaveragewindspeedis
higherasthescale
parameterincreases.
Wouldtherebeany
relationshipbetweenaverage
windspeedandscale
parameter,c?
Avg. Wind Speed: Rayleigh
From

We can alsowrite,

TheRayleigh probability density functioncan be written in


terms ofaverage wind speed.
Avg. Power in the Wind: Rayleigh

Substitute

Thismeansthattheaveragepowerinthewindcanbefoundinterms
ofaveragewindspeed.Theaveragepowerisequalto1.91timesthe
averagepowerfoundattheaveragewindspeed.
Example 6.10
Estimate the average power in the wind(W/m)
at a height of 50 m when the wind speedat10m
averages 6 m/s. Assume:
Rayleigh statistics.
Standard frictioncoefficient =1/7.
Standard airdensity = 1.225 kg/m.
1
v H 50 7
v50 6 7.55 m/s
v0 H 0 10
6 1
P 1.225 7.553 504 W/m 2
2
Impactof Tower Height
Power law, often used Alternativelaw used in
inUS. Europe.

H= referenceheightof z = roughness length


10m.
v=referencewind
speedatH.
=frictioncoefficient
Alternative Solution to Example 6.10

Powerdensity
persquare
meter!
WindSpeed PDF at Altamont Pass, CA
Notmuchofwindmostof
theyear.

Highwindhotsummer
afternoon
Standard Wind Power Classification

Measure wind speed at Estimate wind speed and


10m height above the power density at50 m.
ground.
Wind Power Classification from NREL

US National Renewable Energy Laboratory: http://www.nrel.gov/wind


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Fromwindtoelectricity
Annualenergyestimateusingaveragewindturbine
efficiency
Windfarms

SIMPLEESTIMATESOFWIND
TURBINEENERGY
FromWindtoElectricity
Power Extracted from the wind

Powerinthe Electricity:
wind Howmuch?

Terrain,surface Turbineefficiency,rotor,
roughnessofthe gearbox,generator,tower,
ground,wind electroniccircuitcontrol
velocity
Overall Efficiency
Assume that rotor bladeshas45% efficiency andgearbox and
generator has2/3 efficiency

Average Powerextracted Electricalpower


fromthewind output(W/m),
power in the
wind (W/m) (W/m),depending dependingonthe
turbineblade gearboxand
(rotor)efficiency generatorefficiency

Overall efficiency
100% 45% = 30%!!
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Tower Spacing Study

2 x2 square array

Largernumberofarray greaterinterference
Largerspacing lessinterference

4 x4 square array

Predicted output
Array efficiency =
Outputwith no interference
Recommended Spacing
Rectangular with a few long rows facing wind, each
row with many turbines.

Offsetting/staggerring
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Powerinthewind
Overallefficiency
Idealizedpowercurve
Actualpowercurve
Howtoshadewindpower

ACTUALELECTRICAL POWER
OUTPUT
Power in the Wind
Overall Efficiency

Average Powerextracted Electricalpower


fromthewind output(W/m),
power in the
wind (W/m) (W/m),depending dependingonthe
turbineblade gearboxand
(rotor)efficiency generatorefficiency
Power Extracted fromthe Wind

Similar curve
as power in
the wind?
Reality Is

Cutout
Cutinwind
wind speed:
speed:Wind
Wind
turbinestarts
turbine stop
operating operatingto
protect the
machine.

Wind speed(m/s)
Idealized Power Curve
Rated wind speed,
start to shed some of
wind power.

Need to overcome friction Machinemustbeshut


in the drive train and some down.Abovethisspeed,
electrical losses outputpoweriszero.
Real Power Curve

Itisdifficulttofindrated
windspeedforalargewind
turbine.
Discrepancyfrominability
topreciselyshadingthe
wind.
Ratedwindspeedisused
lessoftenthesedays.

Howtoshedwindpower!?
Needtounderstand
turbineaerodynamic.
Rated power/rotor diameter
HowtoShade Wind Power
Pitchcontrolledturbines.
Activecontrolbyreducing ?? How?
angleofattack
Stallcontrolledturbines.
Passivecontrolusingpure
aerodynamicdesign.
Activestallcontrol.
Inducestallforlargewind
turbinebyincreasingangleof
attack.
Passiveyawcontrol
SmallkWsizeturbine,
causing
axisofturbinetomoveoff
thewind.
PitchControlled Turbine
ToreduceAngleofattackusing hydraulic system to slowly
rotatetheblades.
Controlthebladebymonitoring
generatoroutputpowerusing
electronicsystem Activecontrol

http://www.markrichey.com/what_we_do/windturbinefactorytrip.cfm

http://www.popsci.com/technology/article/201003/nextgenwindturbine
StallControlled Turbine
Aerodynamicdesignofthe
bladetoautomaticallyreduce
efficiency.

No moving parts Passive control!

http://www.gepower.com/prod_serv/products/wind_turbines/en/index.htm
Passive Yaw Control

Usingwindvanetohelprotating
machineawayfromhighwind.

http://www.energyeducation.tx.gov/renewables/section_4/topics/windmills_or_turbines/e.html
Design Consideration
Two possibility to increase
output power according to
the wind speed statistics.
Increaserotordiameterto
capturepoweratlower
windspeed.
Increasegeneratorratingto
capturepowerathigher
windspeed.
Somemanufacturersallow
choiceofrotorand
generatorsizeaccordingto
usersrequest.
Rotor Diameter VS Gen.RatedPower
Withthesamerotordiameter,rated
Withthesamegenerator,ratedpower
powerisincreasedtonewrated
isreachedatlowerwindspeed.
power

Thisstrategyincreasesoutput
powerforlowerspeedwinds. Thisstrategyincreasesoutput
powerforhigherspeedwinds.
Frompowerto
energy
Yearlyenergy
produced
Capacityfactor
ELECTRICAL ENERGY OUTPUT
ESTIMATE
FromPowertoEnergy
Energy=powerxtime.
Powercurvegivesarelationship
betweenoutputelectricalpowerasa
functionofwindspeed.
Windspeedisalsoafunctionoftime,
representedbyWeibullorRayleigh
statistics.
Energy Produced byWindTurbine
Windspeedvariesaccordingto
WeibullandRayleighstatistics

Knowpowerdeliveredatany
givenspeed.

Needtocombinepowerproducedatanywindspeedwiththehoursofthatwind
speedtofindtotalenergyproducedinayear
Weibull Distribution

k=shapeparameter
c=scaleparameter

k=1,toomuch
oflowspeed
k=3, Toosymmetric.
k=2, Justaboutright!

When k=2,called
Rayleigh distribution.
Rayleigh Distribution
Theaveragewindspeedishigherasthescaleparameter
increases.
206

EE407 Renewable Electrical Energy Resources


Example 6.15(a)
Assumption:Rayleighwindstatisticswith
averagewindspeedof7m/sathubheight.

Step 1:Findthe probabilityof each wind speed. How???

Step 2:Findthe energy produced ateachwindspeed.

Step3:Annualenergygenerated=summationof
energyproducedateachwindspeed
Probability Approximation
Statisticallyspeaking,itdoesnotmake
sensetofindprobabilityofthewind
blowsatsomespecificspeedv.
ItNEVERblowsatexactlyspeedv!!

Its ok to just usethis:

Example6.14illustratessmallerrorintheapproximation.
Example6.15(a)
Letsfindtheenergyproducedatwind6m/s.
FromRayleighstatistics,theprobabilitythatwindblowsat6
m/s,
Example6.15(b)
Fromtheresult,findtheoverallaverageefficiencyof
thisturbineinthesewinds.

Averagepowerextractedfromwind,using
Rayleighstatistics:
Example 6.15: Hours and MW per Year

Little/no energy produced during lowspeedwind.


Example 6.15(a)
Assumption:Rayleighwindstatisticswith
averagewindspeedof7m/sathubheight.

Step 1:Findthe probabilityof each wind speed.

Step 2:Findthe energy produced ateachwindspeed.

Step3:Annualenergygenerated=summationof
energyproducedateachwindspeed

Quiteatediouswaytocalculateenergyproduced
inayear!!,anothersimplerwayistousecapacity
factor.
Capacityfactor
Linearapproximationofcapacityfactor
ALTERNATIVEWAYTOESTIMATE
ANNUALENERGYOUTPUT
CapacityFactor
A measure of the fractionof actual energy delivered to the
rated energy output in one year

Dimensionless quantity between0and1.


Example 6.16
Whatisthecapacityfactor for the NEG Micon
1000/60 in Example 6.15?

Actually, thecapacity factor is meant forcalculating


actualenergydeliveredgiventhatweknowthe
ratedpower.
CF for NEG Micon 1000/60
Atthisregion,moreandmorewindsare
abovethecutoutwindspeedandmakethe
CFleveloutandevendrops.

AssumeRayleighwind
statisticsandvary
averagewindspeed.
CFvariesquitelinearly
withaveragewind
speed.
CapacityFactor Curve
Assumption:Windstatistics(WeibullorRayleigh)
withaveragewindspeedofXm/sathubheight.
Step 1:Findtheprobabilityofeachwindspeed.
Thisstepdependsonwindsite.
Step 2:Findtheenergyproducedateachwindspeed.
Thisstepdependsonmachinepowercurve.
Step 3:Annualenergygenerated=summation
of energy producedat each windspeed
Linear ApproximationofCFCurve
For NEG Micon
1000/60,
Rated power = 1000 kW.
Rotor diameter =60 m.

Nice coincidence!
Estimated Capacity Factor
Only the following
information needed.
Average windspeed
Rated power
Rotor diameter
Quite useful relationship
when little data of wind
speed andturbineare
known.
If the data isavailable, this
is still not suitable to
replace thespreadsheet
method!!
Example 6.17
TheWhisperH900 windturbine hasa 900W
generator with2.13m blades. In anarea with
6m/saverage wind speed,estimate the
approximatedenergy delivered.

Using data fromTable 6.7together with spreadsheet analysis, the (more


accurate) estimated energy should be 2695 kWh/yr, which is 6% higher thanthe
approximated one.
Capacity Factor as Economic Indicator?

Canwe use capacityfactorto indicate


economics ofwind turbine?
Small capacity factor Bad?
Large capacity factor Good?
Summary
We can find annual energy estimate using simple wind speed
statistics and perform simple cost analysis of wind farms.
In reality, the wind turbine does not operate at ALL wind speed.
The cut in wind speed is the speed that the mechanical energy
input exceeds frictions and the wind turbine starts to operate and
produces electricity.
It is too dangerous to operate wind turbine during high wind speed
called cut out wind speed.
Actual electrical power output of each wind turbine is given in wind
power curve.
During one year, electrical energy output can be estimated using
either spreadsheet or approximated by Capacity factor.