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GLASS AND GLAZING

GLASS

A hard brittle inorganic substance ordinarily transparent or translucent.


A hard amorphous(non-crystalline) solid material made by melting sand, lime and
varying amount of calcium oxide and silicon dioxide at very high temperatures. It has
no melting point.

Glass Ingredients

Silica
o It is the main raw material in commercial glass production.
o Obtained from beds of fine sand or from pulverized sandstone
Soda Ash (Sodium bicarbonate)
o Another main ingredient in manufacture of glass which lowers the glass
transition
Lime (Calcium Oxide)
o Generally obtained from limestone, is added to provide for a better chemical
durability
Cullet
o Recycled glass
o Broken or refuse glass usually added to new material to facilitate melting in
making glass

Glass Making Process

Batch House

Handles the raw materials from storage silos


Batch housing is used to determine the correct mix of raw materials to
achieve the desired glass composition

Hot End

Handles the main part of the process with the furnaces, annealing ovens, and
forming machines

o Furnace
A device used for heating derives from the Latin word fornax means
oven
The heat energy to fuel a furnace may be supplied directly by fuel
combustion by electricity such as electric arc furnace
It operates at the temperature up to1,575C
o Melting
Raw materials in proper proportions are mixed with cullets. It is finely
powdered and intimate mixture called batch is fused in furnaced at high
temperature of 1800c this charge melts and fuses into a viscous fluid.
After the removal of CO2 decolorizes like MnO2 are added to remove
traces of ferrous compound and Carbon. Heating is continued till clear
molten mass is free from bubbles is obtained and it is then cooled to
about 800C
o Glass Blowing
Glassblowing is a glassforming technique that involves inflating
molten glass into a bubble (or parison), with the aid of a blowpipe (or
blow tube).
air can be blown in manually or by a machine.
o Glass Drawing
Is used to make flat and tabular pieces, such as glass for windows and
test tubes
To make a glass flat it is placed into a tank along with a melted tin.
Tube glass is poured into a spinning mold
o Pressing
In the pressing method of glass making the liquid glass is poured into a
mold and then pressed into a shape by either a machine or special tool.
o Annealing
Glass articles are then allowed to cool gradually at room temperature
by passing through different chambers with descending temperatures.
This reduces the internal strains in the glass

Cold End

Its role is to inspect the product for defects, package the glass for
shipment and label the glass
Automatic machines or sometimes persons, inspect a container for
variety of faults
Manufacturing

Sheet Glass

Sheet glass is made by blowing it is available within 2 to 6 mm thickness

It is mainly used as doors window panels and for all kinds of glazing works

Plate Glass

Plate glass is a type of glass that is cast in a solid plate, typically through a roller
process. The result is extremely flat and free of distortions. Its thickness varies from 6
to 25 mm.

This type of glass is often used to make windows, mirrors, tables, and other objects
that require extremely flat glass.

Float Glass

Is a sheet of glass made by floating molten glass on a bed of molten tin. This method
give the sheet uniform thickness and very flat surfaces.

Most float glass is soda-lime glass, but relatively minor quantities of


specialty borosilicate and flat panel display glass are also produced using the float
glass process.

Types of Glass

Reflective Glass

Low emissivity and good solar control. Reflective properties help eliminate interior
reflection for a perfect look and more design flexibility.

Rolled and rough cast glass

It is produced using the overflowing tub principle: a pair of forming rollers with
patterned sufaces continously pull a glass ribbon out of melt, after which the ribbon is
cooled and cut

It is also known as ornamental glass because of ornamentation of one or both side

Cathedral and Figured Glass


Cathedral glass is the name given commercially to monochromatic sheet glass, which
is thin by comparison with slab glass, may be coloured and is textured on one side.

Figured glass is made by paterned rollers which roll over glass plates while they are
still hot and moldable.it not only providees function of visual screen but also creates
aesthetic senses of changing light and shades

Wired Glass

Wire mesh is inserted during production. This type of glass is mostly used in steel
doors and fire doors.

Wired glass is a type of glass into which a wire mesh is embedded during production.
Wired glass has an impact resistance similar to that of normal glass, but in case of
breakage, the mesh retains the pieces of glass.

Heat Absorbing Plate Glass

A faintly blue-
green plate or float glass, which absorbs 40% of the suns infrared (heat) rays and appr
oximately 25%of the visible rays that pass through it; must be exposed uniformly to su
nlight (without irregular shadows) to avoidcracking due to nonuniform heating.

This type of glass is widely used for glazing in office buildings, school, and hospitals

Tampered Glass

Toughened or tempered glass is a type of safety glass processed by


controlled thermal or chemical treatments to increase its strength compared with
normal glass

Tempering puts the outer surfaces into compression and the inner surfaces into
tension

Vitreous Colored Plate

The term vitreous glass is used to refer to a type of glass which is popular for mosaic
tile work. This type of glass is durable, able to withstand chemicals and the elements,
and comes in an array of colors which can be used for many different types of
projects.

Laminated Glass
Made of two or more layers of glass separated by an interlayer, usually of plastic. In
the event of breakage, the layers of glass are held in place by the interlayer. It is also a
good acoustic insulator.

Tinted Glass

Widely used for commercial buildings and adapted to applications requiring solar
control.

Texture or Patterned glass

Patterned acid-etched glass provides a wealth of opportunities to architects, interior


designers and decorators.

Insulating Glass

Insulating glass is two or more plies of glass enclosing a hermetically sealed air space.

insulating glass increases a window's thermal performance by reducing the heat gain
or loss.

Satin Glass

With its translucent, satin-like appearance, it admits light while still providing vision
control.

The satin finish is produced by treating the glass with hydrofluoric acid or hydrofluoric
acid fumes

Spandrel Glass

With its ceramic frits applied to the glass surface, this type of glass is used for curtain
walls that are increasingly popular on commercial buildings and is available in many
colors.

Clear Glass

Window Glass

Used for glazing windows doors and storm sash in residential buildings where
goodlight and vision are required at moderate cost.thickness are 0.085 to 0.01 in. and
0.0115 to 0.0133 in.

Heavy Sheet Glass


Used for glazing windows and doors where greater strength is required but where
slight distortion is not objectionable. Commonly used for display cases, shelving,
window ventilators furniture tops and jalousies made of two thickness 3/6 and 7/32.

Picture Glass

Used for covering pictures, photographs ,maps chart operator slides and instrument
dials. Thickness vary from .043 to 0.053 in., 0.058 to 0.068in. and 0.07 to 0.08 in.

Glass Products

Functional

1) light directing block

2) light diffusing block

3)general purposes block

Decorative / architectural glass

Solid glass brick

Important Properties of Glass:

1. It absorbs, refracts or transmits light. It can be made transparent or translucent.

2. It can take excellent polish.

3. It is an excellent electrical insulator.

4. It is strong and brittle.

5. It can be blown, drawn or pressed.

6. It is not affected by atmosphere.

7. It has excellent resistance to chemicals.

8. It is available in various beautiful colours.

9. With the advancement in technology, it is possible to make glass lighter than cork
or stronger than steel.

10. Glass panes can be cleaned easily.


Glazing

the act of furnishing or fitting with glass;

the business or work of a glazier.

panes or sheets of glass set or made to be set in frames, as in


windows, doors, or mirrors. the act of applying a glaze.

METHODS OF GLAZING

Double Glazing

THE INSTALLATION OF TWO PARALLELPANES OF GLASS WITH A SEALED AIR


SPACEBETWEEN TO REDUCE THE TRANSMISSION OFHEAT AND SOUND

Face Glazing

THE SETTING OF A GLASS PANE IN ARABBETED FRAME, HOLDING IT IN PLACE


WITHGLAZIERS POINTS, AND SEALING IT WITH ABEVELED BEAD OF PUTTY OR
GLAZINGCOUMPOUND.

PUTTY- A COMPOUND OF WHITING AND LINSEED OIL, OF DOUGHLIKE CONSISTENCY


WHEN FRESH, USED IN SECURING WINDOWPANES OR PATCHING WOODWORK
DEFECTS.

FACE PUTTY- THE PUTTY OR GLAZING COMPOUND FORMED ON THE EXTERIOR SIDE OF
GLASS AN EVEN BACKING.

BEDDING- A THIN LAYER OF PUTTY LAID IN THE RABBET IN A WOOD SASH TO GIVE A
PANE OF GLASS AN EVEN BACKING.

GLAZIERS POINT- A SMALL, POINTED PIECE OF SHEET METAL FOR HOLDING A GLASS
PANE IN A WOOD SASH UNTIL THE FACE PUTTY HAS HARDENED

WET GLAZING

THE SETTING OF GLASS IN A WINDOWFRAME WITH GLAZING TAPE OR A


LIQUIDSEALANT.

GLAZING TAPE-

A PERFORMED RIBBON OF SYNTHETIC RUBBER HAVING ADHESIVE PROPERTIES


AND USED IN GLAZING TO FORM A WATERTIGHT SEAL BETWEEN GLASS AND FRAME.
CAP SEALANT-

AN ADHESIVE LIQUID OR SYNTHETIC RUBBER INJECTED INTO THE JOINT


BETWEEN A GLASS PANE OR UNIT AND A WINDOW FRAME, CURING TO FORM A
WATERTIGHT SEAL. GLAZING BEAD-A WOOD MOLDING OR METAL SECTION SECURED
AGAINST THE EDGE OF A GLASS PANE OR UNIT TO HOLD IT IN PLACE.

DRY GLAZING

THE SETTING OF A GLASS IN AWINDOW FRAME WITH COMPRESSIONGASKET INSTEAD


OF GLAZING TAPE OR ALIQUID SEALANT.

COMPRESSION GASKET-

A PERFORMED STRIP OF SYNTHETIC RUBBER OR PLASTIC COMPRESSED


BETWEEN A GLASS PNAE OR UNIT AND A WINDOW FRAME.

LOCKSTRIP GASKET-

A performed gasket of synthetic rubber for securing a glass pane or unit in a


window frame or opening held in compression by forcing a keyed locking strip into groove in
the gasket.

Glazing System

Framed System

Framed systems support the glass continuously along two or four sides. There are
many variations of framed systems, most of which fall into two general categories.
Conventional unitized curtain wall systems are seldom used with structural glass
facades.

Stick

Stick-built glass facades are a method of curtain wall construction where much of the
fabrication and assembly takes place in the field. Mullions of extruded aluminum may
be prefabricated, but are delivered as unassembled sticks to the building site.
Mullions are then installed onto the building face to create a frame for the glass,
which is installed subsequently. Economical off-the-shelf stick curtain wall products
are available from various manufacturers that may be suitable for application in
structural glass facades, primarily on truss systems.
Veneer

Truss systems can be designed with an outer chord of square or rectangular tubing,
and may include transom components of similar material, presenting a uniform flat
grid installed to high tolerances. Such a system can provide continuous support to the
simplest and most minimal off-the-shelf glazing system, thus combining relatively high
transparency with excellent economy. A veneer glazing system is essentially a stick-
built curtain wall system designed for continuous support and representing a higher
level of system integration with resulting efficiencies. Variations can include 4-sided
capture, 2-sided capture, structurally glazed and unitized systems

Panel/ Cassette

Panel systems are typically constructed from a framed glass lite. The framed panel can
then be point-supported by a supporting structural system, while the glass remains
continuously supported on two or four sides. This also allows the panel to be stepped
away from the support system a practice that visually lightens the facade. Panel
systems can be prefabricated, benefiting from assembly under factory-controlled
conditions.
Cassette systems combine properties of stick, veneer and panel systems. While
variations exist, the predominant makeup of a cassette system is comprised of a
primary structural mullion system, which is stick built. These provide the support and
facilitate the attachment of the glass panels. The glass lites are factory assembled into
minimal frames, which form an integral connection with the primary mullion system.
A cassette system can be designed to be fully shop-glazed, requiring no application of
sealant during field installation.

Frameless

Frameless systems utilize glass panes that are fixed to a structural system at discrete
points, usually near the corners of the glass panel (point-fixed). The glass is directly
supported without the use of perimeter framing elements. Glass used in point-fixed
applications is typically heat-treated.

PointFixed Bolted

The most popular (and often most expensive) glass system for application in structural
glass facades is the bolted version. The glass panel requires perforations to
accommodate specialized bolting hardware. Specially designed off-the-shelf hardware
systems are readily available, or custom components can be designed. Cast stainless
steel spider fittings are most commonly used to tie the glass to the supporting
structure, although custom fittings are often developed for larger facade projects. The
glass must be designed to accommodate bending loads and deflections resulting from
the fixing method. For overhead applications, insulated-laminated glass panels require
the fabrication of 12 holes per panel, which can represent a cost constraint on some
projects.

POINT FIXED CLAMPED

Point-fixed clamped systems are a solution for point fixing without the perforations in
glass. In the case of a spider type fitting, the spider is rotated 45 degrees from the
bolted position so that its arms align with glass seams. A thin blade penetrates
through the seam between adjacent pieces of glass. An exterior plate attaches to the
blade and clamps the glass in place. The bolted systems present an uninterrupted
glass surface, while the clamped systems expose the small exterior clamp plate. Some
facade designers prefer the exposed hardware aesthetic. While clamped systems have
the potential for greater economy by eliminating the need for glass perforations, the
cost of the clamping hardware may offset at least some savings, depending upon the
efficiency of the design.

Glass size (glazing size) the size of a glass pane or unit required for glazing an
opening, allowing for adequate edge clearance.

edge block- (centering shim, spacer) one of the small blocks of synthetic rubber
placed between the side edges of a glass pane or unit and a frame to center it.

face clearance- the distance between the face of a glass pane or unit and the nearest
face of its frame or stop.,measured normal to the plane of the glass. bite- the
amount of overlap between the edge of a glass pane or unit and a window frame.

edge clearance- the distance between the edge of a glass pane or unit and a window
frame.

setting block- one of the small blocks of lead or synthetic rubber placed under the
low edge of a glass pane or unit to support it within a frame.