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MBE3106 Advanced Thermofluids

Lecture 1

Instructor: Wenzhong Zhou, Ph.D.


Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering
City University of Hong Kong

September 4, 2017

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Conservation Laws vs Governing Equations

Conservation of Mass
Continuity Equation
Motion of a Fluid Particle (Kinematics)
Conservation of Momentum
Navier-Stokes Equations
Conservation of Energy
Energy Equation
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Relation of System Derivatives to the Control Volume Formulation

Reynolds Transport Theorem

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Conservation of Mass

Basic Law for a System

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Conservation of Mass

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Conservation of Mass

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Conservation of Mass

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Conservation of Mass

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Conservation of Mass

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Example
Example 5.1 Integration of Two-Dimensional Differential Continuity Equation
For a two-dimensional flow in the xy-plane, the x-component of velocity is
given by u=Ax. Determine a possible y component for incompressible flow.
How many y-components are possible?

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Example

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Example

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Conservation of Mass

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Conservation of Mass

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Conservation of Mass

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Conservation of Mass

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Example
Example 5.3 Differential Continuity Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates

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Conservation of Mass

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Conservation of Mass

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Relation of System Derivatives to the Control Volume Formulation

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Motion of a Fluid Particle (Kinematics)

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Motion of a Fluid Particle (Kinematics)

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Motion of a Fluid Particle (Kinematics)

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Motion of a Fluid Particle (Kinematics)

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Momentum Equation

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Relation of System Derivatives to the Control Volume Formulation

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Momentum Equation

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Momentum Equation

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Momentum Equation
Forces Acting on a Fluid Particle
Body force
Surface force

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Momentum Equation

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Momentum Equation
Newtonian Fluid: Navier-Stokes Equations

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Momentum Equation

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Momentum Equation

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Example
Example 5.9 A liquid flows down an inclined plane surface in a steady, fully
developed laminar film of thickness h. Simplify the continuity and Navier-Stokes
equations to model this flow field. Obtain expressions for the liquid velocity profile,
the shear stress distribution, the volume flow rate, and the average velocity. Relate
the liquid film thickness to the volume flow rate per unit depth of surface normal to the
flow. Calculate the volume flow rate in a film of water h=1 mm thick, flowing on a
surface b=1 m wide, inclined at =15 to the horizontal.

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Example

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Example
Example 5.10 A viscous liquid fills the annular gap between vertical concentric
cylinders. The inner cylinder is stationary, and the outer cylinder rotates at constant
speed. The flow is laminar. Simplify the continuity, Navier-Stokes, and the tangential
shear stress equations to model this flow field. Obtain expressions for the liquid
velocity profile and the shear stress distribution. Compare the shear stress at the
surface of the inner cylinder with that computed from a planar approximation obtained
by unwrapping the annulus into a plant and assuming a linear velocity profile across
the gap. Determine the ratio of cylinder radii for which the planar approximation
predicts the correct shear stress at the surface of the inner cylinder within 1 percent.

Assumptions

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