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ISSN 2319-8885

Vol.04,Issue.39,
September-2015,
Pages:8494-8498
www.ijsetr.com

Power and Hole Healing System for Mobile Communication


AHMED ABDI RAHAMAN TAHIR1, SREEKANTH2, ANIL SOORAM3
1
PG Scholar Dept of ECE, Farah Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, India, E-mail: acw12@hotmail.com.
2
Associate Professor, Dept of ECE, Farah Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, India.
3
Associate Professor, Dept of ECE, Farah Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, India.

Abstract: The volatile popularity of tablets and smart phones has ignited a surging traffic demand for radio access and has been
incurring massive energy loss. Currently, over 80% of the power loss takes place in the radio access networks especially the base
stations. The reason behind this is largely due to that the present BASE STATION placement is on the basis of peak traffic s and
generally stays active irrespective of the heavily dynamic traffic variations. Recently, there has been a substantial body of works
towards traffic -aware BASE STATION adaptation and the authors have validated the possibility of improving energy efficiency
from different perspectives. And some of other research work proposes how to dynamically adjust the status of BS, depending on
the pre-calculated traffic. This paper aim is to cut down the energy loss with traffic variations in radio access networks. In this
paper, we extend the research over BASE STATION switching operations, which should match up with traffic variations. Instead
of depending on the dynamic traffic which is still quite challenging to precisely forecast, we firstly calculate the traffic variations
process. And we design BASE STATION switching operation scheme to minimize the energy loss of RANs. We selected the
domain as Cellular Radio Access Networks.

Keywords: Cellular Network, RAN, Power, BS.

I. INTRODUCTION When location correctly, they allow the available radio


A base station is comprised of an antennas, a mast or other frequencies to be reused in other cells without interference
supporting equipment to hold the antenna and equipment to and which then increases the overall number of calls that the
send, receive and process the radio signals. A base station network can handle at any one time. Base stations have two
can vary in size from a small box attached to a light pole restricting factors one is the capacity of calls that they can
providing mobile phone coverage in a street to a tower handle, and the other is the place that they can cover. In
providing a combination of wireless services over a large places with fewer users, base stations can be quite far apart,
place. Base stations need to be located close to where people but in places where there are many users, the base stations
are using their mobile or wireless devices, because the need to be located much closer to each other. This is because
devices themselves only have restricted coverage within each base station can only manage up to about 100 calls at
which they can communicate. Therefore each base station is the same time. Where there are not so many simultaneous
designed to serve a particular place known as a cell within users, the capacity is not an issue, so the base stations are
the network. placed to maximize their coverage. In places where there are
many users, more base stations will be needed to handle the
call traffic, and as such, are located much closer to each other
to increase overall capacity. Where base stations are located
closer to each other, their output power must be lower to
avoid interference with other base stations in the place.

Our work proposes a reinforcement learning framework


for energy saving in RANs. An RAN usually consists of
multiple BSs while the traffic s of BSs are usually
fluctuating, thus often BSs under-utilization as shown in
Fig.1. We propose the BASE STATION switching operation
is conducted based on one learned strategy and the energy
saving in the whole system tends to be optimized in the long
run as shown in Fig.2. By this proposed system, the system
might come into the same state in two different works,
Fig.1. Network design with BS. whereas the traffic s in the source work might be usually

Copyright @ 2015 IJSETR. All rights reserved.


AHMED ABDI RAHAMAN TAHIR, SREEKANTH, ANIL SOORAM
higher than that in the target one. Hence, instead of staying 10% of the worlds overall power loss [3] and has emerged as
on the chosen action. A in source work, the controller in one of the major contributors to the world-wide CO2
target work can make a more aggressive choice to turn more emission. Besides that, there also exist economical pressures
BSs into sleeping mode, thus saving more energy loss as for cellular network operators to cut down as shown in Fig.4.
shown in Fig.3.

Fig.2. Base Station at rural place with high coverage. Fig.4. Power saving problem due to base station working.

However, to reliably predict the traffic s is still quite


challenging, which makes these works suffering in practical
applications. Besides, it is also found that turning on/off
some of the BSs will immediately affect the associated BASE
STATION of a mobile terminal. Moreover, subsequent
choices of user associations in turn lead to the traffic
differences of BSs. Hence, any two consecutive BASE
STATION switching operations are correlated with each
other and current BASE STATION switching operation will
also further influence the overall energy loss in the long run.

III. PROPOSED WORK PLAN


We planned to do the project by the small modules, they
are given below.
Fig.3. Base station at rural place & urban place. Traffic Prediction
User Localization
II. RELATED WORK Cell Zooming
Currently, over 80% of the power loss takes place in the
radio access networks (RANs), especially the base stations A. Traffic Prediction
(BSs) [5]. The reason behind this is largely due to that the In this first module, we will analyze the traffic usage per
present BASE STATION placement is on the basis of peak day manner. By predicting the traffic, we can get the detail
traffic s and generally stays active irrespective of the heavily when the base station has to be in sleep and awake. And
dynamic traffic variations [6], [7]. Recently, there has been a MSC can know, which base station has the more user and
substantial body of works towards traffic -aware BASE less users as shown in Fig.5.
STATION adaptation [8] and the authors have validated the
possibility of improving energy efficiency from different
perspectives. Luca Chiaraviglio et al. [9] showed the
possibility of energy saving by simulations. [10] And [11]
proposed how to dynamically adjust the working status of
BS, depending on the predicted traffic s. However, to reliably
predict the traffic s is still quite challenging, which makes
these works suffering in practical applications. On the other
hand, [12] and [13] presented dynamic BASE STATION
switching algorithms with the traffic s a prior and
preliminarily proved the effectiveness of energy saving. The
explosive popularity of smart phones and tablets has ignited a
surging traffic demand for radio access and has been
incurring massive energy loss and huge greenhouse gas
emission [1], [2]. Specifically speaking, the information and Fig.5. Traffic prediction per day.
communication technology (ICT) industry accounts for 2% to
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research
Volume.04, IssueNo.39, September-2015, Pages: 8494--8498
Power and Hole Healing System for Mobile Communication
B. User Localization nodes remain connected. The basic formula behind the link
By this second module, the MSC can know the information, expire time, is let make assumption there are two nodes A
the user location and distance from second base station as and B. A is static node and B is mobile node.
shown in Fig.6. By this knowledge, MSC can desire the base
station switching

Fig.8.

Node As coverage is 100 m and A-B distance is 80m and


the B device moving opposite to the A node in the speed of
10m/s . Then the Link Expire Time will be
Fig.6. example for GPS location.
(1)
C. Cell Zooming
Cell zooming is a technique to avoid the coverage hole.
By this basic movement, we can calculate how much time
By knowing the user location information the neighbor base
the node can be connected. In case the node is moving in
station will increase the coverage. And other base station can
different direction/different angle means the formula has to
go to sleep. By this method we can improve the power saving
be modified slightly. The speed and heading of a mobile can
and we can maintain the QoS as shown in Fig.7.
be obtained from the mobile own instruments and sensors
(e.g., compass, odometer, speed sensors). We assume that
two nodes A and B are within the same transmission range r
of each other. We let (x1 , y1 ) be the coordinate for mobile
node A and (x2 , y2 ) be the coordinate for mobile node B. We
let v1 and v2 be the mobility speeds and 1 and 2 (0 1 , 2 <
2 ) be the moving directions for mobile node A and B,
respectively. We can obtain the duration of time D t by using
the following equation

(2)
Note that a = v1 cos 1 v2 cos 2 , b = x1 x2 , c = v1 sin 1
v2 sin 2 , and d = y1 y2 . In addition, the equation cannot
be applied when v1 = v2 and 1 = 2 , and when Dt is . In
order for the information from the GPS to be utilized, the
packets must include extra fields. When a source node sends
Fig.7. Base Station switching. a request packet, the packet appends its location, direction,
and speed. The next hop of the source node receives the
D. Hand Off Control
In this section, we introduce the mobility prediction request packet to predict the link expiration time between
method. This method uses the location information provided itself and the source node. If node Bis the next hop of the
by GPS. We assume a free space propagation model in which packet for node A, node A will insert its location information
the signal strength depends solely on the distance to the in the packet so node B will be able to compute the link
transmitter. The free space propagation model assumes the expiration time between node A and node B. In our
ideal propagation condition that there is only one clear line- enhancement work, the hand off will be depends on the LET
of-sight path between the transmitter and receiver. The free if the user is moving in the specific direction. And if the user
is stands in specific place then the handoff will be done based
space model basically represents the communication range as
a circle around the transmitter. If a receiver is within the on the distance.
circle, it receives all packets. Otherwise, it loses all packets.
Requirements:
We also assume that all nodes have their clocks synchronized
Hardware: Single PC with , 20 Gb Hard disc space,
using the GPS clock. If we know the motion parameters of
1Gb RAM.
two nodes, we can calculate the duration of time these two

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research


Volume.04, IssueNo.39, September-2015, Pages: 8494-8498
AHMED ABDI RAHAMAN TAHIR, SREEKANTH, ANIL SOORAM
Software: We used the software in Linux OS (Ubuntu V. CONCLUSION
10.04), NS2.34. In this paper, we have developed a learning framework for
Languages: We have used the TCL (Front end type BASE STATION energy saving. We specifically formulated
project only) to develop our algorithm. the BASE STATION switching operations under varying
traffic s as a Markov decision process. Besides, we adopt the
IV. RESULT actor-critic method, a reinforcement learning algorithm, to
We have tested our proposed work with ns2 and results as give the BASE STATION switching solution to decrease the
shown in Figs. 9 to 11. overall energy loss. Afterwards, to fully exploit the temporal
relevancy in traffic s, we propose a transfer actor-critic
algorithm to improve the strategies by taking advantage of
learned knowledge from historical periods. Our proposed
algorithm provably converges given certain restrictions that
arise during the learning process, and the extensive
simulation results manifest the effectiveness and robustness
of our energy saving schemes under various practical
configurations. The work performed has some restrictions.
The technique developed is theoretical in nature and has to be
implemented on ground. Although the technique is shown to
perform well at a particular speed and it has to be tested to
verify performance. The speed restrict in this case can be
adjusted according to what the error constraints are. We have
tested our handover controlling algorithm successfully. In our
future work we will study the inter connection process b/w
LET and WiFi.
VI. REFERENCES
Fig.9. All the base stations working in less traffic. [1] J. Wu, S. Rangan, and H. Zhang, Eds., Green
Communications: Theoretical Fundamentals, Algorithms and
Applications, 1st ed. CRC Press, 2012.
[2] H. Zhang, A. Gladisch, M. Pickavet, Z. Tao, and W.
Mohr, Energy efficiency in communications, IEEE
Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 4849, Nov. 2010.
[3] M. Marsan, L. Chiaraviglio, D. Ciullo, and M. Meo,
Optimal energy savings in cellular networks, in Proc. 2009
IEEE ICC Workshops.
[4] China Mobile Research Institute, C-RAN: road towards
green radio access network, Tech. Rep., 2010.
[5] G. P. Fettweis and E. Zimmermann, ICT energy loss-
trends and challenges, in Proc. 2008 WPMC, vol. 4.
[6] K. Son, H. Kim, Y. Yi, and B. Krishnamachari, Base
station operation and user association mechanisms for
energy-delay tradeoffs in green cellular networks, IEEE J.
Sel. Places Commun., vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 15251536, Sept.
2011.
[7] C. Peng, S.-B. Lee, S. Lu, H. Luo, and H. Li, Traffic-
Fig.10. Base station switched to one with low traffic. driven power savings in operational 3G cellular networks, in
Proc. 2011 ACM Mobicom.
[8] Z. Niu, TANGO: traffic-aware network planning and
green operation, IEEE Wireless Commun., vol. 18, no. 5,
pp. 2529, Oct. 2011.
[9] L. Chiaraviglio, D. Ciullo, M. Meo, M. Marsan, and I.
Torino, Energyaware UMTS access networks, in Proc.
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[10] Z. Niu, Y. Wu, J. Gong, and Z. Yang, Cell zooming for
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Authors Profile:
Ahmed Abdirehman Tahir, Graduated
B.Tech in Electronic and communication
Engineering in 2013 from Jawaharlal Nehru
Technological University Hyderabad
Fig.11. power saved compare than old method. (JNTUH). Presently, He is pursuing his
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research
Volume.04, IssueNo.39, September-2015, Pages: 8494--8498
Power and Hole Healing System for Mobile Communication
Masters degree in M.Tech of Wireless and mobile
communication in Farah Institute of Technology affiliated to
JNTUH, Chevella, R.R. Dist Telangana State, India. His
research interests include Wireless Communications,
Network system.
Sreekanth Graduated in B.Tech ECE in
2008 from JNTU Hyd. He received Masters
Degree in M.Tech [ECE] from JNTUH
University, Hyderabad. Presently he is
working as Associate Professor in ECE
Dept. In Farah Institute of Technology,
Chevella, R.R. Dist Telangana State, India.
His research interests include Wireless Communications,
Embedded Systems.
Anil Sooram Graduated in B.Tech ECE in
2007 from JNTU Hyd. He received Masters
Degree in M.Tech [ECE] from JNTUH
University, Hyderabad. Presently he is
working as Associate Professor in ECE Dept.
Telangana State, India. His research interests
include Wireless Communications, Embedded Systems. He
has published 3 research papers in International Conferences,
Journals. He has received best Teacher award from Farah
Group.

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research


Volume.04, IssueNo.39, September-2015, Pages: 8494-8498