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Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

Question Starts from next Page

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For
Examiners
Use

1 (a) Define gravitational field strength.

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...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(b) An isolated star has radius R. The mass of the star may be considered to be a point
mass at the centre of the star.
The gravitational field strength at the surface of the star is gs.

On Fig. 1.1, sketch a graph to show the variation of the gravitational field strength of the
star with distance from its centre. You should consider distances in the range R to 4R.

1.0gs

0.8gs
gravitational
field strength 0.6gs

0.4gs

0.2gs

0
R 2R 3R 4R
surface distance
of star

Fig. 1.1
[2]

(c) The Earth and the Moon may be considered to be spheres that are isolated in space
with their masses concentrated at their centres.
The masses of the Earth and the Moon are 6.00 1024 kg and 7.40 1022 kg
respectively.
The radius of the Earth is RE and the separation of the centres of the Earth and the
Moon is 60 RE, as illustrated in Fig. 1.2.

RE
Moon
mass
Earth 7.40 x 1022 kg
mass
6.00 x 1024 kg

60 RE

Fig. 1.2 (not to scale)


3

(i) Explain why there is a point between the Earth and the Moon at which the For
gravitational field strength is zero. Examiners
Use

..................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(ii) Determine the distance, in terms of RE, from the centre of the Earth at which the
gravitational field strength is zero.

distance = ...........................................RE [3]

(iii) On the axes of Fig. 1.3, sketch a graph to show the variation of the gravitational
field strength with position between the surface of the Earth and the surface of the
Moon.

gravitational
field strength

0
surface surface distance
of Earth of Moon

Fig. 1.3
[3]
4
For
Examiners
Use
2 (a) (i) The kinetic theory of gases leads to the equation
 m<c 2> =  kT.
Explain the significance of the quantity  m<c 2>.

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...................................................................................................................................

(ii) Use the equation to suggest what is meant by the absolute zero of temperature.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
[3]

(b) Two insulated gas cylinders A and B are connected by a tube of negligible volume, as
shown in Fig. 3.1.

tap

cylinder A cylinder B

Fig. 3.1
5 For
Examiners
Use
Each cylinder has an internal volume of 2.0 102 m3. Initially, the tap is closed and cylinder A
contains 1.2 mol of an ideal gas at a temperature of 37 C. Cylinder B contains the same
ideal gas at pressure 1.2 105 Pa and temperature 37 C.

(i) Calculate the amount, in mol, of the gas in cylinder B.

amount = ......................................... mol

(ii) The tap is opened and some gas flows from cylinder A to cylinder B. Using the fact
that the total amount of gas is constant, determine the final pressure of the gas in
the cylinders.

pressure = ........................................ Pa
[6]

[Turn over
6
For
Examiners
Use
3 (a) State what is meant by an ideal gas.

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................[2]

(b) The product of pressure p and volume V of an ideal gas of density at temperature T is
given by the expressions

p =  <c 2>

and pV = NkT,

where N is the number of molecules and k is the Boltzmann constant.

(i) State the meaning of the symbol <c 2>.

...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii) Deduce that the mean kinetic energy EK of the molecules of an ideal gas is given
by the expression

EK =  kT.

[2]

(c) In order for an atom to escape completely from the Earths gravitational field, it must
have a speed of approximately 1.1 104 m s1 at the top of the Earths atmosphere.

(i) Estimate the temperature at the top of the atmosphere such that helium, assumed
to be an ideal gas, could escape from the Earth. The mass of a helium atom is
6.6 1027 kg.

temperature = ....................................... K [2]

(ii) Suggest why some helium atoms will escape at temperatures below that calculated
in (i).

...................................................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................................[1]
7

4 (a) (i) State the basic assumption of the kinetic theory of gases that leads to the conclusion For
that the potential energy between the atoms of an ideal gas is zero. Examiners
Use

..................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(ii) State what is meant by the internal energy of a substance.

..................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(iii) Explain why an increase in internal energy of an ideal gas is directly related to a
rise in temperature of the gas.

..................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) A fixed mass of an ideal gas undergoes a cycle PQRP of changes as shown in Fig. 2.1.

10

8 P

volume
/ 104 m3
6

2 Q R

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
5
pressure / 10 Pa

Fig. 2.1
8

(i) State the change in internal energy of the gas during one complete cycle PQRP. For
Examiners
change = ............................................. J [1] Use

(ii) Calculate the work done on the gas during the change from P to Q.

work done = .............................................. J [2]

(iii) Some energy changes during the cycle PQRP are shown in Fig. 2.2.

work done on gas heating supplied increase in


change
/J to gas / J internal energy / J

P Q ............................. 600 .............................

Q R 0 +720 .............................

R P ............................. +480 .............................

Fig. 2.2

Complete Fig. 2.2 to show all of the energy changes. [3]


9 For
Examiners
Use
5 A student sets out to investigate the oscillation of a mass suspended from the free end of
aspring, as illustrated in Fig. 3.1.

spring

mass oscillation
of mass

Fig. 3.1

The mass is pulled downwards and then released. The variation with time t of the
displacement y of the mass is shown in Fig. 3.2.

y/cm

0
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 t/s
-1

-2

Fig. 3.2

(a) Use information from Fig. 3.2

(i) to explain why the graph suggests that the oscillations are undamped,

...................................................................................................................................
10 For
Examiners
Use
(ii) to calculate the angular frequency of the oscillations,

angular frequency = ........................................ rad s1

(iii) to determine the maximum speed of the oscillating mass.

speed = ........................................ m s1
[6]

(b) (i) Determine the resonant frequency f0 of the mass-spring system.

f0 = ........................................ Hz

(ii) The student finds that if short impulsive forces of frequency  f0 are impressed on
the mass-spring system, a large amplitude of oscillation is obtained. Explain this
observation.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
[3]

[Turn over
11

6 A cylinder and piston, used in a car engine, are illustrated in Fig. 3.1. For
Examiners
Use

cylinder

C D

A B

piston

Fig. 3.1

The vertical motion of the piston in the cylinder is assumed to be simple harmonic.
The top surface of the piston is at AB when it is at its lowest position; it is at CD when at its
highest position, as marked in Fig. 3.1.

(a) The displacement d of the piston may be represented by the equation

d = 4.0 cos(220t )

where d is measured in centimetres.

(i) State the distance between the lowest position AB and the highest position CD of
the top surface of the piston.

distance = .......................................... cm [1]


12

(ii) Determine the number of oscillations made per second by the piston. For
Examiners
Use

number = ................................................ [2]

(iii) On Fig. 3.1, draw a line to represent the top surface of the piston in the position
where the speed of the piston is maximum. [1]

(iv) Calculate the maximum speed of the piston.

speed = ..................................... cm s1 [2]


13

(b) The engine of a car has several cylinders. Three of these cylinders are shown For
in Fig. 3.2. Examiners
Use
X Y Z

C D

A B

Fig. 3.2

X is the same cylinder and piston as in Fig. 3.1.


Y and Z are two further cylinders, with the lowest and the highest positions of the top
surface of each piston indicated.
The pistons in the cylinders each have the same frequency of oscillation, but they are
not in phase.
At a particular instant in time, the position of the top of the piston in cylinder X is as
shown.

(i) In cylinder Y, the oscillations of the piston lead those of the piston in cylinder X by a
phase angle of 120 ( 23 p rad).
Complete the diagram of cylinder Y, for this instant, by drawing

1. a line to show the top surface of the piston, [1]

2. an arrow to show the direction of movement of the piston. [1]


14

(ii) In cylinder Z, the oscillations of the piston lead those of the piston in cylinder X by a For
phase angle of 240 ( 43 p rad). Examiners
Use
Complete the diagram of cylinder Z, for this instant, by drawing

1. a line to show the top surface of the piston, [1]

2. an arrow to show the direction of movement of the piston. [1]

(iii) For the piston in cylinder Y, calculate its speed for this instant.

speed = ..................................... cm s1 [2]


15
Examiner
only
7 (a) The drum of a top-loading washing machine spins around a vertical axis. The drum has a
radius of 0.25 m and spins at a rate of 1 200 revolutions per minute.

0.25 m

towel

Determine the centripetal force on a damp towel, of mass 0.8 kg, on the inner wall of the
drum. [4]
16

Examiner
only
(b) The drum of a front-loading washing machine also has a radius of 0.25 m and spins at the
same rate of 1 200 revolutions per minute.

0.25 m

L
towel

By considering the forces on the towel, determine the force exerted by the wall of the
drum on the towel when the towel is at its:

(i) lowest point in the rotation (L); [2]

(ii) highest point in the rotation (H). [1]

(c) As the drum spins, the lid of a nearby saucepan is heard to vibrate. The vibration reduces
when the spinning rate decreases. Explain both of these effects. [2]

Turn over.
17

8 (a) State what is meant by the Avogadro constant NA. For


Examiners
.......................................................................................................................................... Use

..........................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]
18

9 (a) Define specific latent heat.

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.............................................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) An electrical heater is immersed in some melting ice that is contained in a funnel, as shown in
Fig. 3.1.

heater
melting
ice

water

Fig. 3.1

The heater is switched on and, when the ice is melting at a constant rate, the mass m of
ice melted in 5.0 minutes is noted, together with the power P of the heater. The power P of
the heater is then increased. A new reading for the mass m of ice melted in 5.0 minutes is
recorded when the ice is melting at a constant rate.

Data for the power P and the mass m are shown in Fig. 3.2.

power of heater mass m melted in mass m melted


P/ W 5.0 minutes / g per second / g s1

70 78 .................................

110 114 .................................

Fig. 3.2
19

(i) Complete Fig. 3.2 to determine the mass melted per second for each power of the heater.
[2]
(ii) Use the data in the completed Fig. 3.2 to determine

1. a value for the specific latent heat of fusion L of ice,

L = ................................................ J g1 [3]

2. the rate h of thermal energy gained by the ice from the surroundings.

h = .................................................... W [2]

[Turn over
20

10 (a) The first law of thermodynamics may be expressed in the form For
Examiners
U = q + w. Use

Explain the symbols in this expression.

+ U .................................................................................................................................

+ q ....................................................................................................................................

+ w ...................................................................................................................................
[3]

(b) Use the first law of thermodynamics to explain why the specific latent heat of
vaporisation is greater than the specific latent heat of fusion for a particular
substance.

..................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................ [3]

[Turn over
21 For
Examiners
Use
11 The electrical resistance of a thermistor is to be used to measure temperatures in the range
12 C to 24 C. Fig. 3.1 shows the variation with temperature, measured in degrees Celsius,
of the resistance of the thermistor.

2400

2200
resistance
/

2000

1800

1600

1400
12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26
temperature /

Fig. 3.1

(a) State and explain the feature of Fig. 3.1 which shows that the thermometer has a
sensitivity that varies with temperature.

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................... [2]

(b) At one particular temperature, the resistance of the thermistor is 2040 20 .


Determine this temperature, in kelvin, to an appropriate number of decimal places.

temperature = K [3]
[Turn over
22

12 (a) (i) State what is meant by the acoustic impedance of a medium. For
Examiners
.................................................................................................................................. Use

.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(ii) Data for some media are given in Fig. 10.1.

medium speed of ultrasound acoustic impedance


/ m s1 / kg m2 s1
air 330 4.3 102
gel 1500 1.5 106
soft tissue 1600 1.6 106
bone 4100 7.0 106

Fig. 10.1

Use data from Fig. 10.1 to calculate a value for the density of bone.

density = .................................... kg m3 [1]

(b) A parallel beam of ultrasound has intensity I. It is incident at right-angles to a boundary


between two media, as shown in Fig. 10.2.

boundary

incident
intensity I
transmitted
intensity IT
reflected
intensity IR
acoustic impedance Z1 acoustic impedance Z2

Fig. 10.2

The media have acoustic impedances of Z1 and Z2. The transmitted intensity of the
ultrasound beam is IT and the reflected intensity is IR.

(i) State the relation between I, IT and IR.

.............................................................................................................................. [1]
23

(ii) The reflection coefficient a is given by the expression For


Examiners
Use
(Z2 Z1)2
a= .
(Z2 + Z1)2

Use data from Fig. 10.1 to determine the reflection coefficient a for a boundary
between

1. gel and soft tissue,

a = .................................................. [2]

2. air and soft tissue.

a = .................................................. [1]

(c) By reference to your answers in (b)(ii), explain the use of a gel on the surface of skin
during ultrasound diagnosis.

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...................................................................................................................................... [3]

[The End]