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Protocol for Spatially Correlated Massive MIMO

Systems

*Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications,

School of Information and Telecommunication Engineering, Beijing, China

Email: {pbwang, clzhao, liu_xiaokai}@bupt.edu.cn

^The State Radio Monitoring Center Testing Center, Beijing, China

Email: wangjunfeng@srtc.org.cn

AbstractEquipped with large scale antenna arrays, massive uplink and downlink respectively. To get CSI, a common way

multiple input multiple output systems are qualified with several is to occupy part of uplink resources to feed back CSI to the

benefits including enhanced throughput, power efficiency, and BS [4], [5]. This kind of limited feedback mechanism has been

anti-interference ability, etc. The acquisition of such advantages studied for a long time.

requires adequate channel state information at transmitter. In

frequency division duplex multiple input multiple output systems, A large body of literature devoted to accurate CSI acquisi-

channel state information is extracted through channel feedback tion for MIMO FDD systems is presented in [6]. Performance

mechanism which is not easy to implement due to the fact of a series of feedback approaches applied in different sce-

that the feedback overhead is critical with so many antennas. narios is analyzed theoretically and verified by simulations.

However, large scale antenna arrays may introduce correlation

elements into channel state information due to the limit of the base Among these, codebook based feedback algorithms including

station size. Therefore, we propose a wavelet compression based vector quantizaiton approach are the most commonly adopted

channel feedback protocol aiming to reduce the feedback load feedback designs and have gained excellent performance in

by exploiting the correlation features among large scale antenna conventional MIMO systems [7]. When it turns to massive MI-

arrays. We take a point-to-point massive multiple input multiple MO systems, however, due to the fact that feedback overhead,

output system into consideration, and both Jakes correlation storage requirement and codeword searching computational

model and exponential correlation model are applied to make the complexity would be substantial with excess antennas, these

numerical simulations and verify the performance of the proposed codebook based approaches appear to be infeasible. This

wavelet compression based feedback scheme. motivates designing highly efficient CSI feedback mechanisms.

In [8], a new hierarchical codebook and an adaptive se-

I. INTRODUCTION

lection algorithm are proposed to make a tradeoff between

Massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) has attract- the system performance and feedback overhead and to reduce

ed the attention of academia for several years since Marzetta the feedback overhead without impacting the precoding per-

firstly introduced this concept in 2010 [1]. Equipped with an formance in some case. It is worth noting further, the increase-

order of magnitude more elements than systems like long-term ment in the number of antennas with space constraints reduces

evolution (LTE) that is being built today, massive MIMO offers inter-antennas spacing and brings correlation among antennas

a plethora of advantages over conventional MIMO systems [9]. To adapt spatially correlated regime, a noncoherent trellis

including huge improvements in throughput, potential power coded quantization method is developed in [10]. In addition,

savings, inexpensive low-power components, simplification of compression based method provides another view of reducing

the media access control (MAC) layer, robustness to inter- feedback load. Junho Lee used sparse approximation to exploit

ference and others. It thus contains a new research field in the correlation information and project large dimensional CSI

communication theory and propagation theory etc. High di- onto low dimensional random sequences [9]. And compressive

mensional channel vectors bring in overwhelming overhead to sensing (CS) based channel feedback protocols to reduce

acquire channel state information (CSI) [2], [3]. Consequently, feedback overhead are also provided in [11].

obtaining accurate CSI plays a key role in promoting system

performance in massive MIMO systems. In this paper, we propose to adopt wavelet compression

to reduce CSI feedback data size. Wavelets, rooted in ap-

In general, there have two threads to achieve the acquisition proximation theory, are a mathematical tool for hierarchically

of CSI in MTMO systems corresponding to their duplex modes: decomposing functions which have been widely applied to

time division duplex (TDD) mode and frequency division image compression and shown to be pretty effective [12].

duplex (FDD) mode. In TDD mode, the leading advantage However, its rare to see wavelet transformation (WT) based

is base station (BS) can implicitly get CSI profit from channel compression used in channel state acquisition. This paper, to

reciprocity if adequate training method and pilots designed our knowledge, is the first to study how to use WT to exploit

in the uplink [1]. In FDD mode, however, a given range of the sparse structure of CSI with purpose to reduce the feedback

spectrum is divided in two uncorrelated parts allocated to overhead under spatially correlated antenna arrays.

22nd International Conference on Telecommunications (ICT 2015)

The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section B. Brief Illustration of Wavelet Compression Based Channel

II introduces the system model and illustrates how to realize Feedback

wavelet compression feedback briefly. Section i n provides

the detail design of the channel feedback mechanism and In this paper, we consider a single-user MIMO (SU-

the analysis of the performance theoretically. In section IV, MIMO) regime with large scale antenna arrays. We focus

simulation results are presented. Finally, section V concludes on H as the target signal going to be processed by the

the paper. proposed feedback mechanism. CSI matrice H should be

processed and returned as a whole at receiver. In this case,

two-dimensional (2D) wavelet analysis should be considered.

II. SYSTEM DISCRIPTION

In 2D wavelet analysis the signal to analyze is a matrice, so

In this paper, we focus on a point-to-point massive MIMO at every level of decomposition the horizontal data is filtered

system. Antenna arrays at both ends are assumed to be uniform and the approximation and details produced from this are

linear arrays (ULA) that are spatially correlated with equal afterwards filtered on columns. Consequently, four sub-signals

antenna spacing. Optimal precoding scheme is adopted at the are produced [13].

transmitter and the feedback channel is assumed to be an ideal

(error-free, zero delay) channel. Further, temporal channel Note that these sub-signals can be vectorized to form a

correlation is ignored here. We also assume perfect CSI can vector as the output of wavelet analysis which is namely the

be estimated at the receiver considering CSI compression is coefficients we desire to get. A minority of the coefficients

our main focus. concentrate on some critical values, while others are distributed

near zero. We could discard all but feed back the T largest

A. System Model coefficients along with their indexes which can provide a

compression ratio of roughly 2T/P. Here, P denotes the total

The input-output relation of the MIMO system is described number of the coefficients. At the transmitter, the received

by the following vector notation: vector with 2T elements can be matriculated to reconstruct the

yt = Hxt + nt (1) original signal by performing inverse wavelet transform. This

is the compression strategy we adopt in this paper to reduce

NtXl

where t is the discrete time index, xt C and yt e the feedback load. The schematic of the proposed feedback

CNrXl are the signal vector transmitted and received at time t. mechanism is illustrated in Figure 1.

nt ~ AA(0,1) denotes the AWGN noise with zero-mean and

unit variance. The correlated channel matrix can be formulated

III. WAVELET COMPRESSION BASED FEEDBACK

as:

PROTOCOL ANALYSIS

H RR HufiRj, (2)

A. Implementation of Wavelet Compression Based Feedback

where Hud, representing a Nrx Nt matrix with independent

and identically distributed (i.i.d) complex zero-mean, unit vari- As aforementioned, we take the full channel matrix H to be

ance and Gaussian random entries, is the Rayleigh block fading the target signal. For the sake of convenience, we use notation

propagation channel between antenna arrays at both ends. RT H to denote the target signal matrice in rest of the paper,

and RR are the spatial correlations corresponding to transmit which represents either the real part or imaginary part. In

antenna arrays and receive antenna arrays, respectively. And practical implement, the discrete form of wavelet transform

R,{ denotes the square root of R(.y (DWT) is mostly considered. And we consider 2D wavelet

transformation due to reasons that the target signal is a matrix.

Here, we take into account two commonly used spatial The scaling and wavelet functions are functions with two

correlation models. The first is the Jakes model, thus any variables, denoted by <j>(x,y) and i/j(x,y). They are defined

element of RT and RR (the correlation coefficient between as

the ith and j t h antenna in an antenna array) is

(l>j,m,n(x>y) = 22 0(2 J x -m,23y-n) (6)

nj = J0(2irdij/d0) (3)

where d\j is the distance between the marked antennas, do

$,m,n(*.V) = zh^Vx-rn, Vy-n), = {H, V,D} (7)

is the carrier wavelength, and Jo(-) denotes the zeroth-order where m and x range from 0 to M 1; n and y range

Bessel function of first kind. And the second is the exponential from 0 to N 1, assuming the target signal is a M x N

model which is given as matrix [14]. Formula (7) contains three wavelet functions

.Nt-1 of separable directions, i/jH(x,y) along horizontal direction,

a tpv(x, y) along vertical direction and ipD(x, y) along diagonal

1 direction.

Ri (4)

Nt-1 Thus wavelet analysis of the target signal can be formulated

La as

-Nr-1 M-liV-l

1 a

a 1 W(j>{jQ,m,n) = ^2 ^2 H(x,y)cf>jo,mtn(x,y) (8)

RR = (5) x=0 j/=0

-,Nr-l M-lN-1

Wj(i.m,n) = J2 H(x,y^i^x,y) i = {H, V, D}

where 0 < a < 1 is the correlation parameter which is a real x=0 y=0

number. (9)

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22nd International Conference on Telecommunications (ICT 2015)

AWGN

X Detection &

Modulation Decoding

VX H

AWGN

Matriculated Extract real and imaginary parts

Inverse 2D Wavelet Transformation 2D Wavelet Compression

Combine real and imaginary parts Vectorization

SVD

Finite Feedback Channel

where H(x,y) represents the target signal elements and energy to full expansion coefficients energy to get the energy

{H, V, D} denote horizontal, vertical and diagonal direc- loss performance of the wavelet compression method. Suppose

tion respectively. So {W^(jo,m,n)} and {W^(j,m,n)\i = the T largest elements of w(/3) is denoted by WT(/3). The

H,V,D} consist of the coefficients which are the sparse energy loss ratio at the given compression ratio /3 is

representation of H.

Eio..(P) = 1

iitMAir (12)

The inverse wavelet transformation is formulated as:

\w\

H{x, y)=^2^2 W^ijo, m, n)4>j0im<n(x, y) C. Sum-Rate Capacity Performance Analysis

Assuming it's a rayleigh block fading channel that may re-

],m,n\xiV) main approximately constant for one block period and change

i=H,V,D j=jo *n n independently in next period. The feedback channel is assumed

(10) to be ideal and without delay. Thus the transmitter can get the

error-free compressed CSI information sent by the receiver. In

The wavelet transformation coefficient matrix of H is SU-MIMO systems, the singular value decomposition (SVD)

denoted as W. And we denote the vectorization of the original has been proved to yield the optimum precoding solution [16].

CSI H and that of the sparse CSI W as h and w respectively. To illustrate, the SVD of i f is i f = *7EV f , where U is the

After the T largest elements of w along with their indexes Nr x Nr left singular matrix and V is the Nt x Nt right singular

are received at the transmitter, they can be matriculated to matrix and S is the Nr x Nt singular value matrix with rank

approximately reconstruct CSI matrix denoted as H by inverse r. And with the precoding operation, the NT x Nt channel can

be transformed into r (1 < r < min(Nr,Nt)) parallel single

wavelet transformation shown in formula (10).

input single output (SISO) subchannels, where r is the rank of

the channel matrix. Consequently, the input-output relationship

B. Compression and Reconstruction Performance Analysis becomes

The wavelet compression we adopted above is a kind of

lossy compression method, because the coefficients we neglect yt =Sa; t + ht (13)

are around zero though, they still contain some energy. So the

CSI we reconstruct cannot be identical to the practical CSI Then we get

if the compression ratio j3 is smaller than 200%(compression At k 1,-

ratio is denoted as the number of coefficients remained divided Vt (14)

k JVr

by that of the total coefficients). We can use Grassmannian

subspace packing to verify the restore performance of the where x\ are the bits transmitted through the kth sub-channel

compression scheme [15]. Denote the vectorization of the at time t. The total sum-rate capacity is the sum of the r sub-

reconstructed H(/3) as h(/3) under the given compression ratio channels' rate. The transmitter transmits multiple independent

/3, then the chordal distance between the two lines generated zero mean complex Gaussian data streams simultaneously with

from h and h{fl) can be expressed as waterfilling power allocation mechanism. Assume the transmit

power allocated to the kth antenna is pk (i.e., E(xk xk) = pk)

and the overall transmit power constraint requires YH:=i Pk =

\\tih{P)\\

dis{p) =

i i-

\\h\w\Hm

(ii) P. The transmit power over the parallel channels can be

expressed as

where |||| denotes the Frobenius norm. Meanwhile, we can

compute the ratio of the remained expansion coefficients Pfe = ( M - ^ ) + l<k<r (15)

305

22nd International Conference on Telecommunications (ICT 2015)

where (j, is the waterfill level, x+ is defined as max(x, 0). If Fig.2.(a) and Fig.3.(a) show the chordal distance perfor-

the feedback channel is ideal without compression scheme, the mance between the perfect CSI vector before compression

ergodic sum-rate capacity can be computed: and the reconstructed CSI vector after compression. With

the decrease of the antenna spacing or the growth of the

correlation parameter, the correlation level of the CSI matrix

Cideal=Ej2log2(l + ^ ) (16)

becomes strong. Consequently, at a given compression ratio,

k=l the reconstructed CSI is more approximated to the perfect CSI

where the additive noise covariance matrix of the r sub- which can produce a relatively smaller chordal distance in both

channels is assumed to be Rfr a2Ir. However, wavelet correlation models.

compression is a lossy compression method, so the CSI matrix

Fig.2.(b) and Fig.3.(b) present the energy loss performance

H reconstructed is not ideal, thus the parallel data-pipes are

of the compressed CSI compared to that before wavelet

degraded due to the interference from other channels. With a

compression. Stronger correlation level means energy can be

given compression ratio /3, the received signal bit at the kth

concentrated on a smaller amount of coefficients. So with a

sub-stream is

given compression ratio, the energy loss performance decreases

as the antenna spacing reduces or correlation parameter rises.

We can also notice that the energy performance goes in

> ~ ' rrr coincidence with the chordal distance performance.

signal desired

interference

(17)

Fig.2.(c) and Fig.3.(c) say the performance gap between the

+ fikt k,l = 1, ,r sum-rate with perfect CSI and that with the reconstructed CSI,

respectively. We can conclude that with a strong correlation

noise

level, the sum-rate loss is tiny. The sum-rate loss increases

where Vk(P) is the kth column of the right singular matrix of as the antenna spacing grows or the correlation parameter

the reconstructed CSI matrix H(/3) at the given compression decreases. Further, sum-rate loss decreases with the growth

ratio p. According to Shannon theory, the capacity of the kth of compression ratio due to the reasons that more feedback

sub-channel is load can be used to reconstruct better CSI. However, because

half of the feedback load is occupied by the index of the mass

C(k,/3) = log2(l + llv^lW)lf ) (18)

coefficients, the sum-rate loss is not able to touch 0 although

the compression ratio reaches 1.

Ullv>!wii +*

The compressed sum-rate is V. CONCLUSION

Ccom(/3) = E^C(k,p) feedback strategy for spatially correlated point-to-point mas-

fe=i sive MIMO systems. Wavelet compression is able to com-

r press the CSI estimated at the receiver. The outputted sparse

= EY,log2{l + representation would be sent to transmitter aiming to be

fe=i

EUI|V^^^(^)||2 + CT2 reconstructed and enhance the system performance. Simulation

(19) results reveal the compression and reconstruction performance

of wavelet compression scheme and analyze the system perfor-

The sum-rate loss is mance under different compression ratios and varying corre-

lation level using two kinds of correlation models. In general,

Closs\P) = Cideal ~ Ccom(p) (20) this paper provides a novel mechanism to reduce the feedback

load in spatially correlated massive MIMO systems.

which calculates the sum-rate loss using the wavelet compres-

sion feedback scheme when compared to the ideal feedback

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

channel.

This work was supported by the National Natural Science

IV. NUMERICAL SIMULATION Foundation of China (F010301).

ber of transmit and receive antenna arrays is set to be

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22nd International Conference on Telecommunications (ICT 2015)

10.4

0.9 , .J24-

antenna spacing spacing antenna spacing

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Fig. 2: Feedback Protocol's Performance Under the Jakes Spatial Correlation Model in a 128 x 128 SU-MIMO system

correlation parameter

comprssskmiallD compression ratio compression ratio

(a) Chordal Distance (b) Energy Loss (c) Sum Rate Loss

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