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# Physics 7E Formula Sheet

## Relevant Constants Oscillators Waves, continued

Po = 101,000 Pa Mass Spring: = k / m
2 Wave Intensity and Power
H2O = 1000 kg/m3 Simple Pendulum: = g / L
2 I = P / A generally, or
seawater = 1020 kg/m3 Partially Floating Object: I = P / 4r2 for a spherical wave
air = 1.29 kg/m3 2 = liqgV / m I = v ( smax)2
helium = 0.19 kg/m3 Physical Pendulum: 2 = mgL / I I = P 2max / v
Io = 10-12 W/m2 Torsional Pendulum: 2 = / I = 10 log (I/Io)
vsound = 343 m/s (in air)
c = 3 x 108 m/s Velocity of an oscillator Doppler Shift
nair = 1.00 v = dx/dt; v2 = 2 (A2 x2) fobs = fsource (v vobs) / (v vsource)
Beats
etc, actual exam will Damping fbeat = | f1 f2 |
include any other constants x(t) = Ae-t sin(t + )
you need Standing Waves
2 = 2 2
fn = n * v / 2L for waves on a string
Resonance fn = n * v / 2L for waves in a tube
A= Fext/m .
(both ends open or closed)
Pressure and Fluids fn = n * v / 4L for waves in a tube
- 2)2 + (2 2
2
P=F/A (one end open and one closed)
P = Po + gh Waves
Fb = gV Optics
d2y = v2 d2y v=c/n
dt2 dx2
A1v1 = A2v2 n1sin1 = n2sin2
v2 + gh + P = constant Wave speed:
sincrit = n2 / n1
1/image + 1/object = 1/f
For strings: v2 = T
m = - (image) / (object)
For sound: v2 = B

Interference:
Type Constructive Maxima Destructive Minima
2 sources at diff. x x =m or kx =m x =m+) or kx =m+)
1 source through 2 slits d sin m d sin =m+)
approximate with sin y/R approximate with sin y/R
Reflection from a film

A) film rests on larger nfilm* 2t = air m nfilm* 2t = air (m+)
n material

## B) film rests on smaller nfilm* 2t = air (m+) nfilm* 2t = air m

n material

Diffraction:
Type Constructive Maxima Destructive Minima
a sin =m
single slit diffraction
(Rayleigh Criteria occurs at m = 1)
diffraction grating d sin =m