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So

Soff t ware Defined Radio Handbook


Radio
Ninth Edition
Sampling
Principles of SDR
Technology
Products
Applications
Summar
Summaryy
Links

by

Rodger H
H.. Hosking
Vice-President & Cofounder of Pentek, Inc.

Pentek, Inc.
One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904
Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com

Copyright 1998, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 Pentek Inc.
Last updated: July 2011
All rights reserved.
Contents of this publication may not be reproduced in any form without written permission.
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Pentek, GateFlow, ReadyFow and VIM are registered trademarks of Pentek, Inc.

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Software Defined Radio Handbook

Preface

SDR (Software Defined Radio) has revolutionized electronic systems for a


variety of applications including communications, data acquisition and signal processing.

This handbook shows how DDCs (Digital Downconverters) and DUCs (Digital Upconverters),
the fundamental building blocks of SDR, can replace conventional analog receiver designs,
offering significant benefits in performance, density and cost.

In order to fully appreciate the benefits of SDR, a conventional analog receiver


system will be compared to its digital receiver counterpart, highlighting similarities and differences.

The inner workings of the SDR will be explored with an in-depth description of the internal
structure and the devices used. Finally, some actual board- and system-level implementations and available
off-the-shelf SDR products for embedded systems will be described.

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Software Defined Radio Handbook

Sampling

Nyquists Theorem and Sampling A Simple TTechnique


echnique to Visualize Sampling

Before we look at SDR and its various implementa-


tions in embedded systems, well review a theorem
fundamental to sampled data systems such as those Frequency
0 fs/2 fs 3fs/2 2fs 5fs/2 3fs 7fs/2
encountered in software defined radios.

Nyquists Theorem:
Any signal can be represented by discrete Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 6 Zone 7
samples if the sampling frequency is at least twice
the bandwidth of the signal.
Figure 1

Notice that we highlighted the word bandwidth To visualize what happens in sampling, imagine
rather than frequency. In what follows, well attempt to that you are using transparent fan-fold computer
show the implications of this theorem and the correct paper. Use the horizontal edge of the paper as the
interpretation of sampling frequency, also known as frequency axis and scale it so that the paper folds line
sampling rate. up with integer multiples of one-half of the sampling
frequency s. Each sheet of paper now represent what we
will call a Nyquist Zone, as shown in Figure 1.

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Software Defined Radio Handbook

Sampling

Sampling Basics Baseband Sampling

0 fs/2 fs 3fs/2 2fs 5fs/2 3fs 7fs/2 0 fs/2 fs 3fs/2 2fs 5fs/2 3fs 7fs/2
Energy

No Signal Energy

Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 6 Zone 7 Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 6 Zone 7

Figure 2 Figure 4

Use the vertical axis of the fan-fold paper for signal A baseband signal has frequency components that
energy and plot the frequency spectrum of the signal to start at = 0 and extend up to some maximum frequency.
be sampled, as shown in Figure 2. To see the effects of
To prevent data destruction when sampling a baseband
sampling, collapse the transparent fan-fold paper into a
signal, make sure that all the signal energy falls ONY in
stack.
the 1st Nyquist band, as shown in Figure 4.
There are two ways to do this:
0 fs/2 1. Insert a lowpass filter to eliminate all signals
Folded Signals
Fall On Top of
above s /2, or
Each Other 2. Increase the sampling frequency so all signals
present fall below s /2.
Note that s/2 is also known as the folding frequency.

Sampling Bandpass Signals

Lets consider bandpass signals like the IF frequency


Figure 3 of a communications receiver that might have a 70 MHz
center frequency and 10 MHz bandwidth. In this case,
the IF signal contains signal energery from 65 to 75 MHz.
The resulting spectrum can be seen by holding the
transparent stack up to a light and looking through it. If we follow the baseband sampling rules above, we
You can see that signals on all of the sheets or zones are must sample this signal at twice the highest signal
folded or aliased on top of each other and they frequency, meaning a sample rate of at least 150 MHz.
can no longer be separated. However, by taking advantage of a technique called
Once this folding or aliasing occurs during sampling, undersampling, we can use a much lower sampling rate.
the resulting sampled data is corrupted and can never be
recovered. The term aliasing is appropriate because
after sampling, a signal from one of the higher zones
now appears to be at a different frequency.

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Software Defined Radio Handbook

Sampling

Undersampling

Folded signals
still fall on top of
each other - but 0 fs/2
0 fs/2 fs 3fs/2 2fs 5fs/2 3fs 7fs/2
now there is
energy in
only one sheet !

No Signal Energy No Signal Energy

Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 6 Zone 7

Figure 5 Figure 6

Undersampling allows us to use aliasing to our The major rule to follow for successful undersampling
advantage, providing we follow the strict rules of the is to make sure all of the energy falls entirely in one
Nyquist Theorem. Nyquist zone.
In our previous IF signal example, suppose we try a There two ways to do this:
sampling rate of 40 MHz. 1. Insert a bandpass filter to eliminate all signals
outside the one Nyquist zone.
Figure 5 shows a fan-fold paper plot with Fs = 40 MHz.
2. Increase the sampling frequency so all signals
You can see that zone 4 extends from 60 MHz to 80 MHz,
fall entirely within one Nyquist zone.
nicely containing the entire IF signal band of 65 to 75 MHz.
Now when you collapse the fan fold sheets as shown
in Figure 6, you can see that the IF signal is preserved Summar
Summaryy
after sampling because we have no signal energy in any
other zone. Baseband sampling requires the sample frequency to
be at least twice the signal bandwidth. This is the same
Also note that the odd zones fold with the lower
as saying that all of the signals fall within the first
frequency at the left (normal spectrum) and the even
Nyquist zone.
zones fold with the lower frequency at the right (reversed
spectrum). In real life, a good rule of thumb is to use the 80%
relationship:
In this case, the signals from zone 4 are frequency
reversed. This is usually very easy to accommodate in Bandwidth = 0.8 x s/2
the following stages of SDR systems.
Undersampling allows a lower sample rate even though
signal frequencies are high, PROVIDED all of the
signal energy falls within one Nyquist zone.
To repeat the Nyquist theorem: The sampling frequency
must be at least twice the signal bandwidth not the
signal frequency.

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Software Defined Radio Handbook

Principles of SDR

Analog Radio R
Radio eceiver Block Diagram
Receiver Analog Radio R
Radio eceiver Mixer
Receiver

SPEAKER RF INPUT SIGNAL


FROM ANTENNA
ANTENNA
MIXER TRANSLATES Signal
INPUT SIGNAL BAND
ANALOG to IF FREQUENCY
MIXER

RF IF AMP DEMODULATOR AUDIO


AMP (FILTER) (Detector) AMP
ANALOG LOCAL
OSCILLATOR

ANALOG
LOCAL
OSCILLATOR
0 FIF FRF
Figure 7 Figure 8

The conventional heterodyne radio receiver shown The mixer performs an analog multiplication of the
in Figure 7, has been in use for nearly a century. Lets two inputs and generates a difference frequency signal.
review the structure of the analog receiver so comparison
The frequency of the local oscillator is set so that
to a digital receiver becomes apparent.
the difference between the local oscillator frequency and
First the RF signal from the antenna is amplified, the desired input signal (the radio station you want to
typically with a tuned RF stage that amplifies a region receive) equals the IF.
of the frequency band of interest.
For example, if you wanted to receive an FM
This amplified RF signal is then fed into a mixer station at 100.7 MHz and the IF is 10.7 MHz, you would
stage. The other input to the mixer comes from the local tune the local oscillator to:
oscillator whose frequency is determined by the tuning
100.7 - 10.7 = 90 MHz
control of the radio.
This is called downconversion or translation
The mixer translates the desired input signal to the
because a signal at a high frequency is shifted down to a
IF (Intermediate Frequency) as shown in Figure 8.
lower frequency by the mixer.
The IF stage is a bandpass amplifier that only lets
The IF stage acts as a narrowband filter which only
one signal or radio station through. Common center
passes a slice of the translated RF input. The band-
frequencies for IF stages are 455 kHz and 10.7 MHz
width of the IF stage is equal to the bandwidth of the
for commercial AM and FM broadcasts.
signal (or the radio station) that you are trying to
The demodulator recovers the original modulating receive.
signal from the IF output using one of several different
For commercial FM, the bandwidth is about
schemes.
100 kHz and for AM it is about 5 kHz. This is consis-
For example, AM uses an envelope detector and FM tent with channel spacings of 200 kHz and 10 kHz,
uses a frequency discriminator. In a typical home radio, respectively.
the demodulated output is fed to an audio power
amplifier which drives a speaker.

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Software Defined Radio Handbook

Principles of SDR

SDR Receiver Block Diagram


Receiver

DDC
Digital Downconverter
Digital
Analog Analog Digital IF Baseband
RF Signal RF IF Signal A/D Samples DIGITAL LOWPASS Samples
DSP
TUNER CONV MIXER FILTER

DIGITAL
LOCAL
OSC

Figure 9

Figure 9 shows a block diagram of a software SDR Receiver Mixer


Receiver
defined radio receiver. The RF tuner converts analog RF
signals to analog IF frequencies, the same as the first three
CHANNEL
stages of the analog receiver. BANDWIDTH MIXER TRANSLATES
INPUT SIGNAL
BAND to DC IF BW
The A/D converter that follows digitizes the IF signal Signal

thereby converting it into digital samples. These samples


are fed to the next stage which is the digital downconverter DIGITAL LOCAL
(DDC) shown within the dotted lines. OSCILLATOR
FLO = FSIG
The digital downconverter is typically a single
monolithic chip or FPGA IP, and it is a key part of the
SDR system.
0 FSIG
Figure 10
A conventional DDC has three major sections:
A digital mixer
A digital local oscillator At the output of the mixer, the high frequency
wideband signals from the A/D input (shown in Figure
An FIR lowpass filter
10 above) have been translated down to DC as complex I
The digital mixer and local oscillator translate the and Q components with a frequency shift equal to the
digital IF samples down to baseband. The FIR lowpass local oscillator frequency.
filter limits the signal bandwidth and acts as a decimat- This is similar to the analog receiver mixer except
ing lowpass filter. The digital downconverter includes a there, the mixing was done down to an IF frequency.
lot of hardware multipliers, adders and shift register Here, the complex representation of the signal allows us
memories to get the job done. to go right down to DC.
The digital baseband samples are then fed to a block By tuning the local oscillator over its range, any
labeled DSP which performs tasks such as demodulation, portion of the RF input signal can be mixed down to DC.
decoding and other processing tasks.
In effect, the wideband RF signal spectrum can be
Traditionally, these needs have been handled with slid around 0 Hz, left and right, simply by tuning the
dedicated application specific ICs (ASICs), and program- local oscillator. Note that upper and lower sidebands are
mable DSPs. preserved.

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Principles of SDR

DDC LLocal
ocal Oscillator and Decimation DDC Signal PProcessing
rocessing

Translation Filtering

Digital
Digital IF Baseband
A/D Samples DIGITAL LOWPASS Samples
CONV MIXER FILTER
90O

DIGITAL
LOCAL
OSC

Tuning Freq Decimation


F1 F2 F3
Figure 12
Figure 11A Local Oscillator Frequency Switching

This process is called decimation and it means keeping


A/D Sample Rate one out of every N signal samples. If the decimated
(before decimation)
Sample Rate: Fs output sample rate is kept higher than twice the output
bandwidth, no information is lost.
Decimated
Filter Output
The clear benefit is that decimated signals can be
Sample Rate: Fs/N processed easier, can be transmitted at a lower rate, or
stored in less memory. As a result, decimation can
Figure 11B FIR Filter Decimation dramatically reduce system costs!
As shown in Figure 12, the DDC performs two
signal processing operations:
Because the local oscillator uses a digital phase
accumulator, it has some very nice features. It switches 1. Frequency translation with the tuning controlled
between frequencies with phase continuity, so you can by the local oscillator.
generate FSK signals or sweeps very precisely with no
2. Lowpass filtering with the bandwidth controlled
transients as shown in Figure 11A.
by the decimation setting.
The frequency accuracy and stability are determined
We will next turn our attention to the Software
entirely by the A/D clock so its inherently synchronous
Defined Radio Transmitter.
to the sampling frequency. There is no aging, drift or
calibration since its implemented entirely with digital logic.
Since the output of the FIR filter is band limited, the
Nyquist theorem allows us to lower the sample rate. If
we are keeping only one out of every N samples, as shown
in Figure 11B above, we have dropped the sampling rate
by a factor of N.

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Software Defined Radio Handbook

Principles of SDR

SDR TTransmitter
ransmitter Block Diagram

Digital Digital Analog Analog


Baseband Baseband Digital IF IF RF
Samples Samples DIGITAL Samples Signal Signal
INTERPOLATION D/A RF Power
DSP
FILTER MIXER CONV Upconverter Amplifier
Fs/N Fs Fs

DUC DIGITAL
Digital Up LOCAL
Converter OSC

Figure 13

The input to the transmit side of an SDR system is DUC Signal PProcessing
rocessing
a digital baseband signal, typically generated by a DSP
stage as shown in Figure 13 above.
The digital hardware block in the dotted lines is a Digital Digital
DUC (digital upconverter) that translates the baseband Baseband Baseband Digital IF
Samples Samples DIGITAL Samples
signal to the IF frequency. INTERPOLATION
FILTER MIXER
Fs/N Fs Fs
The D/A converter that follows converts the digital
IF samples into the analog IF signal. DUC DIGITAL
Digital Up LOCAL
Next, the RF upconverter converts the analog IF Converter OSC

signal to RF frequencies.
Figure 14
Finally, the power amplifier boosts signal energy to
the antenna.
Inside the DUC shown in Figure 14, the digital
mixer and local oscillator at the right translate baseband
samples up to the IF frequency. The IF translation
frequency is determined by the local oscillator.
The mixer generates one output sample for each of
its two input samples. And, the sample frequency at
the mixer output must be equal to the D/A sample
frequency s .
Therefore, the local oscillator sample rate and the
baseband sample rate must be equal to the D/A sample
frequency s .
The local oscillator already operates at a sample rate
of s , but the input baseband sample frequency at the
left is usually much lower. This problem is solved with
the Interpolation Filter.

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Principles of SDR

Interpolation FFilter:
ilter: Time domain Interpolation FFilter:
ilter: FFrequency
requency Domain

Fs/N Fs Digital Digital


Baseband Baseband Digital IF
I INTERPOLATING I Samples Samples Samples
LOW PASS INTERPOLATION DIGITAL
Q FIR FILTER Q Fs/N FILTER MIXER
Fs Fs
BASEBAND INTER-
INPUT POLATED DUC
OUTPUT DIGITAL
Digital Up LOCAL
Converter OSC
INTERPOLATION
FACTOR = N
INTERPOLATED
BASEBAND INPUT TRANSLATED OUTPUT
Baseband Input
MIXER
Sample Rate: Fs/N

LOCAL
OSCILLATOR
F = IF Freq
Interpolating
Filter Output
Sample Rate: Fs 0 IF Freq

Figure 15 Figure 16

The interpolation filter must boost the baseband Figure 16 is a frequency domain view of the digital
input sample frequency of s /N up to the required mixer upconversion process.
input and D/A output sample frequency of s .
This is exactly the opposite of the frequency domain
The interpolation filter increases the sample frequency view of the DDC in Figure 10.
of the baseband input signal by a factor N, known as
The local oscillator setting is set equal to the
the interpolation factor.
required IF signal frequency, just as with the DDC.
At the bottom of Figure 15, the effect of the
interpolation filter is shown in the time domain.
Notice the baseband signal frequency content is
completely preserved by filling in additional samples in
the spaces between the original input samples.
The signal processing operation performed by the
interpolation filter is the inverse of the decimation filter
we discussed previously in the DDC section.

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Software Defined Radio Handbook

Principles of SDR

DDC PProcessing
rocessing DUC PProcessing
rocessing

Translation Filtering Filtering Translation

A/D DIGITAL LOWPASS INTERPOLATE DIGITAL D/A


DSP DSP
CONV MIXER FILTER FILTER MIXER CONV

Fs Fb Fb Fs
DIGITAL N DIGITAL
LOCAL N LOCAL
OSC OSC

Freq uency Deci mation Inter polation Freq uency

Tuning Bandwidth Bandwidth Tuning


Figure 17 Figure 18

Figure 17 shows the two-step processing performed Figure 18 shows the two-step processing performed
by the digital downconverter. by the digital upconverter:
Frequency translation from IF down to baseband is The ratio between the required output sample rate
performed by the local oscillator and mixer. and the sample rate input baseband sample rate deter-
mines the interpolation factor N.
The tuning knob represents the programmability
of the local oscillator frequency to select the desired Baseband bandwidth = 0.8 x b
signal for downconversion to baseband.
Output sample frequency s = b x N
The baseband signal bandwidth is set by setting
Again, the bandwidth equation assumes a complex
decimation factor N and the lowpass FIR filter:
(I+Q) baseband input and an 80% filter.
Baseband sample frequency b = s /N
The bandwidth knob represents the programma-
Baseband bandwidth = 0.8 x b bility of the interpolation factor to select the desired
input baseband signal bandwidth.
The baseband bandwidth equation reflects a typical
80% passband characteristic, and complex (I+Q) samples. Frequency translation from baseband up to IF is
performed by the local oscillator and mixer.
The bandwidth knob represents the program-
mability of the decimation factor to select the desired The tuning knob represents the programmability
baseband signal bandwidth. of the local oscillator frequency to select the desired IF
frequency for translation up from baseband.

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Software Defined Radio Handbook

Principles of SDR

Key DDC and DUC Benefits SDR TTasks


asks

Digital
Digital IF Baseband
A/D Samples DIGITAL LOWPASS Samples
CONV MIXER FILTER
Fs Fs/N

DIGITAL
DUC
LOCAL Digital Down
OSC Converter

Digital Digital
Baseband Baseband Digital IF
Samples Samples DIGITAL Samples
INTERPOLATION D/A
FILTER MIXER CONV
Fs/N Fs Fs

DUC DIGITAL
Digital Up LOCAL
Converter OSC

Figure 19 Figure 20

Think of the DDC as a hardware preprocessor for Here weve ranked some of the popular signal
programmable DSP or GPP processor. It preselects only processing tasks associated with SDR systems on a two
the signals you are interested in and removes all others. axis graph, with compute Processing Intensity on the
This provides an optimum bandwidth and minimum vertical axis and Flexibility on the horizontal axis.
sampling rate into the processor.
What we mean by process intensity is the degree of
The same applies to the DUC. The processor only highly-repetitive and rather primitive operations. At the
needs to generate and deliver the baseband signals upper left, are dedicated functions like A/D converters
sampled at the baseband sample rate. The DUC then and DDCs that require specialized hardware structures
boosts the sampling rate in the interpolation filter, to complete the operations in real time. ASICs are usually
performs digital frequency translation, and delivers chosen for these functions.
samples to the D/A at a very high sample rate.
Flexibility pertains to the uniqueness or variability
The number of processors required in a system is of the processing and how likely the function may have
directly proportional to the sampling frequency of to be changed or customized for any specific application.
input and output data. As a result, by reducing the At the lower right are tasks like analysis and decision
sampling frequency, you can dramatically reduce the making which are highly variable and often subjective.
cost and complexity of the programmable DSPs or
Programmable general-purpose processors or DSPs
GPPs in your system.
are usually chosen for these tasks since these tasks can be
Not only do DDCs and DUCs reduce the processor easily changed by software.
workload, the reduction of bandwidth and sampling rate
Now lets temporarily step away from the software
helps save time in data transfers to another subsystem. This
radio tasks and take a deeper look at programmable
helps minimize recording time and disk space, and reduces
logic devices.
traffic and bandwidth across communication channels.

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Software Defined Radio Handbook

Technology

Early Roles for FPGAs


Roles Legacy FPGA Design Methodologies

Used primarily to replace discrete digital Tools were oriented to hardware engineers
hardware circuitry for: Schematic processors
Control logic Boolean processors
Glue logic Gates, registers, counters, multipliers

Registers and gates Successful designs required high-level


State machines hardware engineering skills for:
Counters and dividers Critical paths and propagation delays
Devices were selected by hardware engineers Pin assignment and pin locking
Signal loading and drive capabilities
Programmed functions were seldom changed
Clock distribution
after the design went into production Input signal synchronization and skew analysis

Figure 21 Figure 22

As true programmable gate functions became These programmable logic devices were mostly the
available in the 1970s, they were used extensively by domain of hardware engineers and the software tools
hardware engineers to replace control logic, registers, were tailored to meet their needs. You had tools for
gates, and state machines which otherwise would have accepting boolean equations or even schematics to help
required many discrete, dedicated ICs. generate the interconnect pattern for the growing
number of gates.
Often these programmable logic devices were one-
time factory-programmed parts that were soldered down Then, programmable logic vendors started offering
and never changed after the design went into production. predefined logic blocks for flip-flops, registers and
counters that gave the engineer a leg up on popular
hardware functions.
Nevertheless, the hardware engineer was still
intimately involved with testing and evaluating the
design using the same skills he needed for testing
discrete logic designs. He had to worry about propaga-
tion delays, loading, clocking and synchronizingall
tricky problems that usually had to be solved the hard
waywith oscilloscopes or logic analyzers.

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Technology

FPGAs: New Device TTechnology


echnology FPGAs: New Development TTools
ools

500+ MHz DSP Slices and Memory Structures


Over 1000 dedicated on-chip hardware multipliers
On-board GHz Serial Transceivers High Level Design Tools
Partial Reconfigurability Maintains Block Diagram System Generators
Operation During Changes Schematic Processors
Switched Fabric Interface Engines High-level language compilers for
Over 330,000 Logic Cells VHDL & Verilog
Gigabit Ethernet media access controllers Advanced simulation tools for modeling speed,
propagation delays, skew and board layout
On-chip 405 PowerPC RISC micro-controller cores
Faster compilers and simulators save time
Memory densities approaching 15 million bits
Graphically-oriented debugging tools
Reduced power with core voltages at 1 volt
IP (Intellectual Property) Cores
Silicon geometries to 65 nanometers
FPGA vendors offer both free and licensed cores
High-density BGA and flip-chip packaging
FPGA vendors promote third party core vendors
Over 1200 user I/O pins
Wide range of IP cores available
Configurable logic and I/O interface standards
Figure 23 Figure 24

Its virtually impossible to keep up to date on FPGA To support such powerful devices, new design tools
technology, since new advancements are being made are appearing that now open up FPGAs to both hard-
every day. ware and software engineers. Instead of just accepting
logic equations and schematics, these new tools accept
The hottest features are processor cores inside the
entire block diagrams as well as VHDL and Verilog
chip, computation clocks to 500 MHz and above, and
definitions.
lower core voltages to keep power and heat down.
Choosing the best FPGA vendor often hinges
About five years ago, dedicated hardware multipliers
heavily on the quality of the design tools available to
started appearing and now youll find literally hundreds
support the parts.
of them on-chip as part of the DSP initiative launched
by virtually all FPGA vendors. Excellent simulation and modeling tools help to
quickly analyze worst case propagation delays and
High memory densities coupled with very flexible
suggest alternate routing strategies to minimize them
memory structures meet a wide range of data flow
within the part. This minimizes some of the tricky
strategies. Logic slices with the equivalent of over ten
timing work for hardware engineers and can save one
million gates result from silicon geometries shrinking
hours of tedious troubleshooting during design verifica-
down to 0.1 micron.
tion and production testing.
BGA and flip-chip packages provide plenty of I/O
In the last few years, a new industry of third party
pins to support on-board gigabit serial transceivers and
IP (Intellectual Property) core vendors now offer
other user-configurable system interfaces.
thousands of application-specific algorithms. These are
New announcements seem to be coming out every ready to drop into the FPGA design process to help beat
day from chip vendors like Xilinx and Altera in a never- the time-to-market crunch and to minimize risk.
ending game of outperforming the competition.

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Technology

FPGAs for SDR FPGAs Bridge the SDR Application Space

Parallel Processing
Hardware Multipliers for DSP
FPGAs can now have over 500 hardware multipliers
Flexible Memory Structures
Dual port RAM, FIFOs, shift registers, look up tables, etc.
Parallel and Pipelined Data Flow
Systolic simultaneous data movement
Flexible I/O
Supports a variety of devices, buses and interface standards
High Speed
Available IP cores optimized for special functions

Figure 25 Figure 26

Like ASICs, all the logic elements in FPGAs can As a result, FPGAs have significantly invaded the
execute in parallel. This includes the hardware multipli- application task space as shown by the center bubble in
ers, and you can now get over 1000 of them on a single the task diagram above.
FPGA.
They offer the advantages of parallel hardware to
This is in sharp contrast to programmable DSPs, handle some of the high process-intensity functions like
which normally have just a handful of multipliers that DDCs and the benefit of programmability to accommo-
must be operated sequentially. date some of the decoding and analysis functions of DSPs.
FPGA memory can now be configured with the These advantages may come at the expense of
design tool to implement just the right structure for increased power dissipation and increased product costs.
tasks that include dual port RAM, FIFOs, shift registers However, these considerations are often secondary to the
and other popular memory types. performance and capabilities of these remarkable devices.
These memories can be distributed along the signal
path or interspersed with the multipliers and math
blocks, so that the whole signal processing task operates
in parallel in a systolic pipelined fashion.
Again, this is dramatically different from sequential
execution and data fetches from external memory as in a
programmable DSP.
As we said, FPGAs now have specialized serial and
parallel interfaces to match requirements for high-speed
peripherals and buses.

15
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Software Defined Radio Handbook

Technology

Typical PPentek
entek PProducts
roducts with Installed SDR IP Cores

Model
Model
7141-430
7141-430 7141-420
7141-420 7142-428
7142-428 7151
7151 7152
7152 7153
7153
Feature
Feature
Input
InputChannels
Channels 11 22 44 44 44 44

Max
MaxSample
SampleRate
Rate 125
125MHz
MHz 125
125MHz
MHz 125
125MHz
MHz 200
200MHz
MHz 200
200MHz
MHz 200
200MHz
MHz

Input
Input Resolution
Resolution 14-Bit
14-Bit 14-Bit
14-Bit 14-Bit
14-Bit 16-Bit
16-Bit 16-Bit
16-Bit 16-Bit
16-Bit

DDC
DDCChannels
Channels 256
256 22or
or44 44 256
256 32
32 22or
or44

Core:
Core:2,4,8,16,32,64
2,4,8,16,32,64 22to
to64K
64K 128
128to
to1024
1024 16
16to
to8192
8192 22Ch:
Ch:22to
to65536
65536
Decimation
DecimationRange
Range 1K-10K
1K-10K GC4016:
GC4016:32to
32to16k
16k Steps
Stepsof of11 Steps
Stepsof
of64
64 Steps
Stepsofof88 44Ch:
Ch:22to
to256
256

No.
No.of
ofFilter
FilterTaps
Taps 24*DEC/512
24*DEC/512 Core:
Core:28*DEC
28*DEC 28*DEC
28*DEC 24*DEC/64
24*DEC/64 28*DEC/8
28*DEC/8 28*DEC
28*DEC

Power
PowerMeters
Meters None
None None
None None
None None
None 32
32 22or
or44

Thresh
ThreshDetectors
Detectors None
None None
None None
None None
None 32
32 22or
or44

Channel
ChannelSummers
Summers None
None None
None None
None None
None 32
32channels
channels 22or
or44channels
channels
I/Q,
I/Q,Offset,
Offset, I/Q,
I/Q, I/Q,
I/Q, I/Q,
I/Q, I/Q,
I/Q,
Output
OutputFormat
Format Normal
NormalI/Q
I/Q Inverse,
Inverse,Real
Real Offset,
Offset,Inverse
Inverse Offset,
Offset,Inverse
Inverse Offset,
Offset,Inverse
Inverse Offset,
Offset,Inverse
Inverse
Output
OutputResolution
Resolution 16-Bit
16-Bit 16-Bit,
16-Bit,24-Bit
24-Bit 16-Bit,
16-Bit,24-Bit
24-Bit 16-Bit,
16-Bit,24-Bit
24-Bit 16-Bit,
16-Bit,24-Bit
24-Bit 16-Bit,
16-Bit,24-Bit
24-Bit

Tuning
TuningFrequency
Frequency 32-bits
32-bits--00to
toFs
Fs 32-bits
32-bits--00to
toFs
Fs 32-bits
32-bits--00to
toFs
Fs 32-bits
32-bits--00to
toFs
Fs 32-bits
32-bits--00to
toFs
Fs 32-bits
32-bits--00to
toFs
Fs

Phase
PhaseOffset
Offset -- 32-bits
32-bits180
180deg
deg 32-bits
32-bits180
180deg
deg 32-bits
32-bits180
180deg
deg 32-bits
32-bits180
180deg
deg 32-bits
32-bits180
180deg
deg

Gain
GainControl
Control 32
32bits
bits 32
32bits
bits 32
32bits
bits 32
32bits
bits 32
32bits
bits 32
32bits
bits

DAC
DAC Interpolation
Interpolation None
None 22--32768
32768 22--32768
32768 None
None None
None None
None

Figure 27

The above chart shows the salient characteristics for Other information thats specific to each core is
some of Penteks SDR products with IP cores installed included as well as an indication of the models that
in their FPGAs. The chart provides information regard- include an interpolation filter and output D/A. As shown
ing the number of input channels, maximum sampling in the chart, some of these models include power meters,
frequency of their A/Ds, and number of DDC channels threshold detectors, and gain along with phase offset
in each one. This information is followed by DDC control for optimizing results in applications such as
characteristics regarding the decimation range and available direction-finding and beamforming.
steps along with the output format and resolution.
All the models shown here are PMC or PMC/XMC
modules. These products are also available in PCI, cPCI,
PCIe and VPX formats as well.

16
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Technology

FPGA Resource Comparison


Resource

Vir tex-II PPro


Virtex-II ro Vir tex-4
Virtex-4 Vir tex-5
Virtex-5 Vir tex-6
Virtex-6
VP50, VP70 FX, LX, SX LXT
LXT,, SXT LXT
LXT,, SXT
Logic Cells 53K74K 41K152K 46K156K 128K476K
Slices* 24K33K 18K68K 7K24K 20K74K
CLB Flip-Flops 47K66K 51K98K 33K97K 160K595K
Block RAM (kb) 4,1765,904 4,1766,768 47528,784 9,50436,304
DSP Hard IP 18x18 Multipliers DSP48 DSP48E DSP48E
DSP Slices 232328 96512 128640 4802,016
Serial Gbit Transceivers 020 1216 20
PCI Express Blocks 2
SelectIO 448768 480640 600
*Virtex-II Pro and Virtex-4 Slices actually require 2.25 Logic Cells;
Virtex-5 and Virtex-6 Slices actually require 6.4 Logic Cells
Figure 28

The above chart compares the available resources in The Virtex-5 family LXT devices offer maximum
the four Xilinx FPGA families that are used in most of logic resources, gigabit serial transceivers, and Ethernet
the Pentek products. media access controllers. The SXT devices push DSP
Virtex-II Pro: VP50 and VP70 capabilities with all of the same extras as the LXT.
Virtex-4: FX, LX and SX

Virtex-5: LXT and SXT


The Virtex-5 devices offer lower power dissipation,
Virtex-6: LXT and SXT
faster clock speeds and enhanced logic slices. They also
improve the clocking features to handle faster memory
The Virtex-II family includes hardware multipliers and gigabit interfaces. They support faster single-ended
that support digital filters, averagers, demodulators and differential parallel I/O buses to handle faster
and FFTsa major benefit for software radio signal peripheral devices.
processing. The Virtex-II Pro family dramatically
The Virtex-6 devices offer higher density, more
increased the number of hardware multipliers and also
processing power, lower power consumption, and
added embedded PowerPC microcontrollers.
updated interface features to match the latest technology
The Virtex-4 family is offered as three subfamilies I/O requirements including PCI Express. Virtex-6
that dramatically boost clock speeds and reduce power supports PCI Express 2.0 in x1 through x8 configurations.
dissipation over previous generations.
The ample DSP slices are responsible for the
The Virtex-4 LX family delivers maximum logic majority of the processing power of the Virtex-6 family.
and I/O pins while the SX family boasts of 512 DSP Increases in operating speed from 500 MHz in V-4 to
slices for maximum DSP performance. The FX family is 550 MHz in V-5 to 600 MHz in V-6 and increasing
a generous mix of all resources and is the only family to density allow more DSP slices to be included in the
offer RocketIO, PowerPC cores, and the newly added same-size package. As shown in the chart, Virtex-6 tops
gigabit Ethenet ports. out at an impressive 2016 DSP slices.

17
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

PMC, XMC, CompactPCI, PCI, PCI Express, OpenVPX, and VMEbus Sof tware R
Software adio
Radio

Half-length
PCI Express Board
3U OpenVPX Boards
COTS and Rugged

PMC/XMC Module

6U CompactPCI Board VMEbus Board


PCI Board Full-length
PCI Express Board

Figure 29

The Pentek family of board-level software radio All Pentek software radio products include multiboard
products is the most comprehensive in the industry. synchronization that facilitates the design of multichannel
Most of these products are available in several formats systems with synchronous clocking, gating and triggering.
to satisfy a wide range of requirements.
Penteks comprehensive software support includes
In addition to their commercial versions, many the ReadyFlow Board Support Package, the GateFlow
software radio products are available in ruggedized and FPGA Design Kit and high-performance factory-
conduction-cooled versions. installed IP cores that expand the features and range
of many Pentek software radio products. In addition,
All of the software radio products include input A/D
Pentek software radio recording systems are supported
converters. Some of these products are software radio
with SystemFlow recording software that features a
receivers in that they include only DDCs. Others are
graphical user interface.
software radio transceivers and they include DDCs as
well as DUCs with output D/A converters. These come A complete listing of these products with active
with independent input and output clocks. links to their datasheets on Penteks website is included
at the end of this handbook.

18
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

Multiband R eceivers
Receivers

Model 7131 PMC Model 7231 6U cPCI Model 7331 3U cPCI


Model 7631A PCI Model 5331 3U VPX

Model 7631A
PCI

Model 5331
Model 7131 3U VPX
PMC Model 7331 Model 7231D
Figure 30 3U cPCI 6U cPCI

The Model 7131, a 16-Channel Multiband Receiver, The unit supports the channel combining mode of
is a PMC module. The 7131 PMC may be attached to a the 4016s such that two or four individual 2.5 MHz
wide range of industry processor platforms equipped channels can be combined for output bandwidths of
with PMC sites. 5 MHz or 10 MHz, respectively.
Two 14-bit 105 MHz A/D Converters accept The sampling clock can be sourced from an internal
transformer-coupled RF inputs through two front panel 100 MHz crystal oscillator or from an external clock supplied
SMA connectors. Both inputs are connected to four through an SMA connector or the LVDS clock/sync bus on
TI/GC4016 quad DDC chips, so that all 16 DDC the front panel. The LVDS bus allows multiple modules to be
channels can independently select either A/D. synchronized with the same sample clock, gating, triggering
and frequency switching signals. Up to 80 modules can be
Four parallel outputs from the four DDCs deliver
synchronized with the Model 9190 Clock and Sync Genera-
data into the Virtex-II FPGA which can be either the
tor. Custom interfaces can be implemented by using the 64
XC2V1000 or XC2V3000. The outputs of the two A/D
user-defined FPGA I/O pins on the P4 connector.
converters are also connected directly to the FPGA to
support the DDC bypass path to the PCI bus and for direct Versions of the 7131 are also available as a PCI
processing of the wideband A/D signals by the FPGA. board (Model 7631A), 6U cPCI (Models 7231 and
7231D dual density), 3U cPCI (Model 7331) and 3U
VPX (Model 5331). All these products have similar
features.

19
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

Multiband TTransceivers
ransceivers with Vir tex-II PPro
Virtex-II ro FPGA

Model 7141 PMC/XMC Model 7241 6U cPCI Model 7341 3U cPCI Model 7641 PCI
Model 7741 Full-length PCIe Model 7841 Half-length PCIe Model 5341 3U VPX
Full-length
Sample
Clock A In RF In RF In RF Out RF Out

TIMING BUS XTL


LVDS Clock A GENERATOR A OSC A RF RF RF XFORMR RF XFORMR
XFORMR XFORMR
LVDS Sync A
Clock/Sync/Gate 16-bit D/A 16-bit D/A
LVDS Gate A SYNC Bus A LTC2255
AD6645 LTC2255
AD6645 DAC5686
TTL Gate/ INTERRUPTS 105
125 MHz 105
125 MHz DIGITAL UPCONVERTER
Trigger & CONTROL Clock/Sync/Gate 14-BIT
14-bit A/D
A/D 14-BIT
14-bit A/D
A/D
Bus B
TTL Sync
14 14 32
GC4016
LVDS Gate B
16 4-CHANNEL FLASH
16 DDC
LVDS Sync B 16 MB
16 24
TIMING BUS XTL 14
LVDS Clock B
16
GENERATOR B OSC B
VIRTEX-II Pro FPGA
FRONT
PANEL To All XC2VP50
Sample
CONNECTOR Sections Control/ DSP Channelizer Digital Delay Demodulation Decoding Control etc.
Clock B In
Status
Model 7141 32 32 32
64 64
PMC/XMC DDR DDR DDR
SDRAM SDRAM SDRAM PCI 2.2 INTERFACE P15 XMC P4 PMC
128 MB 128 MB 256 MB (64 Bits / 66 MHz) VITA 42.0 FPGA I/O
(Serial RapidIO, (Option 104)
PCI BUS
PCI-Express, etc.)
(64 Bits / 66 MHz)

Figure 31

The Model 7141 PMC/XMC module combines baseband signals, developed using Penteks GateFlow
both receive and transmit capabilities with a high- and ReadyFlow development tools.
performance Virtex II-Pro FPGA and supports the
The module includes a TI/GC4016 quad digital
VITA 42 XMC standard with optional switched fabric
downconverter along with a TI DAC5686 digital
interfaces for high-speed I/O.
upconverter with dual D/A converters.
The front end of the module accepts two RF inputs
Each channel in the downconverter can be set with
and transformer-couples them into two 14-bit A/D
an independent tuning frequency and bandwidth. The
converters running at 125 MHz. The digitized output
upconverter translates a real or complex baseband signal to
signals pass to a Virtex-II Pro FPGA for signal process-
any IF center frequency from DC to 160 MHz and can
ing or routing to other module resources.
deliver real or complex (I + Q) analog outputs through
These resources include a quad digital down- its two 16-bit D/A converters. The digital upconverter
converter, a digital upconverter with dual D/A converters, can be bypassed for two interpolated D/A outputs with
512 MB DDR SDRAM delay memory and the PCI sampling rates to 500 MHz.
bus. The FPGA also serves as a control and status
Versions of the 7141 are also available as a PCIe
engine with data and programming interfaces to each of
full-length board (Models 7741 and 7741D dual density),
the on-board resources. Factory-installed FPGA functions
PCIe half-length board (Model 7841), 3U VPX board
include data multiplexing, channel selection, data packing,
(Model 5341), PCI board (Model 7641), 6U cPCI
gating, triggering, and SDRAM memory control.
(Models 7241 and 7241D dual density), and 3U cPCI
In addition to acting as a simple transceiver, the (Model 7341). Model 7141-703 is a conduction-cooled
module can perform user-defined DSP functions on the version.

20
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

Transceivers with Dual W ideband DDC and Interpolation FFilter


Wideband ilter Installed Cores

Model 7141-420 PMC/XMC Model 7241-420 6U cPCI Model 7341-420 3U cPCI


Model 7641-420 PCI Model 7741-420 FFull-length
ull-length PCIe
Model 7841-420 Half-length PCIe Model 5341-420 3U VPX
RF LTC2255
AD6645
CH A DDC C 128 MB DDR
125
105 MHz
RF In XFORMR DDC D SDRAM
14-bit A/D
MEMORY
D/A A
CONTROL 128 MB DDR
WIDEBAND DDC CORE D/A B & SDRAM
A/D A DATA ROUTING
RF LTC2255
AD6645
CH B A/D B 256 MB DDR
125
105 MHz
RF In XFORMR SDRAM
14-bit A/D
A/D A
WIDEBAND MEM W
A/D B M
DIGITAL FIFO
DDC A U
DOWNCONVERTR A
X MEM W
DDC B DECIMATION: 2 64
XTAL MEMORY FIFO
Sample OSC A MEMORY
A B C D A/D A A/D A PCI BUS
Clock A In
WIDEBAND FIFO 64 bit /
MUX A/D B M
CLOCK & DIGITAL 66 MHz
Clock/Sync DDC A U A/D B
SYNC GC4016 DIGITAL DOWNCONVERTR A
Bus X FIFO
GENERATOR DOWNCONVERTR DDC B DECIMATION:.2 64
WB DDC A
Sample DDC A
A B C D DDC A MUX PCI 2.2
Clock B In FIFO
XTAL WB DDC B INTERFACE
OSC B DDC B
DDC B MUX
FIFO
DDC C
FIFO
DDC D
RF 16-bit FIFO
CH A MEMORY
500 MHZ
RF Out XFORMR DAC 5686 MUX D/A A FIFO D/A A
D/A CIC CFIR
DIGITAL MEMORY FIFO
16-bit UPCONVERTER FILTER FILTER
CH B RF MUX D/A B FIFO D/A B
500 MHZ
RF Out XFORMR FIFO
D/A
INTERPOLATION CORE

XC2VP50

Figure 32

The Pentek IP Core 420 includes a dual high- The decimation settings of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64
performance wideband DDC and an interpolation filter. provide output bandwidths from 40 MHz down to 1.25
Factory-installed in the Model 7141 FPGA, they extend MHz for an A/D sampling of 100 MHz. A multiplexer allows
the range of both the GC4016 ASIC DDC and the data to be sourced from either the A/Ds or the GC4016,
DAC5686 DUC. extending the cascaded decimation range to 1,048,576.
Each of the core 420 DDCs translates any frequency The interpolation filter included in the 420 Core,
band within the input bandwidth range down to zero expands the interpolation factor from 2 to 32,768
frequency. A complex FIR low pass filter removes any out- programmable in steps of 2, and relieves the host
of-band frequency components. An output decimator and processor from performing upsampling tasks. Including
formatter deliver either complex or real data. An input gain the DUC, the maximum interpolation factor is 32,768
block scales both I and Q data streams by a 16-bit gain which is comparable to the maximum decimation of the
term. GC4016 narrowband DDC.
The mixer utilizes four 18x18-bit multipliers to Versions of the 7141-420 are also available as a 3U
handle the complex inputs from the NCO and the VPX board (Model 5341-420), PCIe full-length board
complex data input samples. The FIR filter is capable of (Models 7741-420 and 7741D-420 dual density), PCIe
storing and utilizing up to four independent sets of half-length board (Model 7841-420), PCI board (Model
18-bit coefficients for each decimation value. These 7641-420), 6U cPCI (Models 7241-420 and 7241D-420
coefficients are user-programmable by using RAM dual density), or 3U cPCI (Model 7341-420).
structures within the FPGA. Model 7141-703-420 is a conduction-cooled version.

21
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

Transceivers with 256- Channel Narrowband DDC Installed Core


256-Channel

Model 7141-430 PMC/XMC Model 7241-430 6U cPCI Model 7341-430 3U cPCI


Model 7641-430 PCI Model 7741-4
7641-43 30 FFull-length
7741-43 ull-length PCIe
Model 7841-430 Half-length PCIe Model 5341-430 3U VPX
7841-43

RF LTC2255
AD6645
CH A MEM W
125
105 MHz
RF In XFORMR FIFO
14-bit A/D
MEM W
FIFO
256 CHANNEL DIGITAL DOWNCONVERTER BANK
LTC2255
AD6645 CORE
CH B RF
125
105 MHz
RF In XFORMR 1 DDC 1
14-bit A/D OUT A
Local Oscillator, Mixer, Filter DDC A
DDC A
FIFO
2 DDC 1
OUT B
MUX Local Oscillator, Mixer, Filter DDC B
XTAL DDC B
M M FIFO
Sample OSC A
A B C D U OUT C U
Clock A In PCI BUS
X X DDC C
DDC C 64 bit /
CLOCK & MUX 255 DDC 255 FIFO
Clock/Sync 66 MHz
SYNC GC4016 DIGITAL Local Oscillator, Mixer, Filter OUT D
Bus DDC D
GENERATOR DOWNCONVERTR . DDC D
Sample 256 DDC 256 FIFO
A B C D PCI 2.2
Clock B In Local Oscillator, Mixer, Filter
XTAL INTERFACE
INT
OSC B

RF 16-bit
CH A
500 MHZ D/A A
RF Out XFORMR DAC 5686
D/A FIFO
DIGITAL
16-bit UPCONVERTER D/A B
CH B RF
500 MHZ FIFO
RF Out XFORMR D/A XC2VP50

Figure 33

For applications that require many channels of cies need not be at fixed intervals, and are independently
narrowband downconverters, Pentek offers the GateFlow programmable to any value.
IP Core 430 256-channel digital downconverter bank.
Core 430 DDC comes factory installed in the Model
Factory installed in the Model 7141 FPGA, Core 430
7141-430. A multiplexer allows data to be sourced from either
creates a flexible, very high-channel count receiver
A/D. At the output, a multiplexer allows for routing either
system in a small footprint.
the output of the GC4016 or the 430 DDC to the PCI Bus.
Unlike classic channelizer methods, the Pentek 430
In addition to the DDC outputs, data from both
core allows for completely independent programmable
A/D channels are presented to the PCI Bus at a rate equal
tuning of each individual channel with 32-bit resolution
to the A/D clock rate divided by any integer value between
as well as filter characteristics comparable to many
1 and 4096. A TI DAC5686 digital upconverter and dual
conventional ASIC DDCs.
D/A accepts baseband real or complex data streams from
Added flexibility comes from programmable global the PCI Bus with signal bandwidths up to 50 MHz.
decimation settings ranging from 1024 to 8192 in steps
Versions of the 7141-430 are also available as a PCIe
of 256, and 18-bit user programmable FIR decimating
full-length board (Models 7741-430 and 7741D-430 dual
filter coefficients for the DDCs. Default DDC filter
density), PCIe half-length board (Model 7841-430), 3U
coefficient sets are included with the core for all possible
VPX board (Model 5341-430), PCI board (Model 7641-
decimation settings.
430), 6U cPCI (Models 7241-430 and 7241D-430 dual
Core 430 utilizes a unique method of channelization. density), or 3U cPCI (Model 7341-430).
It differs from others in that the channel center frequen- Model 7141-703-430 is a conduction-cooled version.

22
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

Multichannel TTransceivers
ransceivers with Vir tex-4 FPGAs
Virtex-4

Model 7142 PMC/XMC Model 724


7142 2 6U cPCI Model 734
7242 73422 3U cPCI Model 7642 PCI
7642
Model 7
77 ull-length PCIe Model 7
742 FFull-length 842 Half-length PCIe Model 534
78 2 3U VPX
342
Sample
Clock In
RF In RF In RF In RF In RF Out

TIMING BUS XTL


LVDS Clock A GENERATOR A OSC A RF RF RF RF RF
XFORMR XFORMR XFORMR XFORMR XFORMR
LVDS Sync A
Clock/Sync/Gate
LVDS Gate A SYNC Bus A 16-bit D/A
LTC2255 LTC2255 LTC2255 LTC2255
TTL Gate/ INTERRUPTS 125MHz 125MHz 125MHz 125MHz DAC5686
Trigger & CONTROL Clock/Sync/Gate 14-bit A/D 14-bit A/D 14-bit A/D 14-bit A/D
DIGITAL
Bus B
TTL Sync UPCONVERTER
14 14 14 14
LVDS Gate B
32
LVDS Sync B

LVDS Clock B TIMING BUS XTL VIRTEX-4 FPGA


GENERATOR B OSC B XC4VSX55
DSP Channelizer Digital Delay Demodulation Decoding Control etc.
To All Control/
Sections Status LOCAL HI-SPEED
32 32 32 64 32 32 32
DDR 2 DDR 2 DDR 2 BUS BUSES
SDRAM SDRAM SDRAM VIRTEX-4 FPGA
256 MB 256 MB 256 MB XC4VFX60 or XC4VFX100
Model 7142 PCI 2.2 SERIAL
PMC/XMC INTERFACE INTERFACE
PCI BUS
64
(64 Bits / 66 MHz)

P15 XMC P4 PMC


VITA 42.0 FPGA I/O
(Option 104)
Figure 34

The Model 7142 is a Multichannel PMC/XMC A 9-channel DMA controller and 64 bit / 66 MHz PCI
module. It includes four 125 MHz 14-bit A/D convert- interface assures efficient transfers to and from the module.
ers and one upconverter with a 500 MHz 16-bit D/A
A high-performance 160 MHz IP core wideband digital
converter to support wideband receive and transmit
downconverter may be factory-installed in the first FPGA.
communication channels.
Two 4X switched serial ports, implemented with the
Two Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGAs are included: an
Xilinx Rocket I/O interfaces, connect the second FPGA
XC4VSX55 or LX100 and an XC4VFX60 or FX100.
to the XMC connector with two 2.5 GB/sec data links
The first FPGA is used for control and signal processing
to the carrier board.
functions, while the second one is used for implement-
ing board interface functions including the XMC interface. A dual bus system timing generator allows separate
clocks, gates and synchronization signals for the A/D
It also features 768 MB of SDRAM for implementing
and D/A converters. It also supports large, multichannel
up to 2.0 sec of transient capture or digital delay memory
applications where the relative phases must be preserved.
for signal intelligence tracking applications at 125 MHz.
Versions of the 7142 are also available as a PCIe full-
A 16 MB flash memory supports the boot code for
length board (Models 7742 and 7742D dual density),
the two on-board IBM 405 PowerPC microcontroller
PCIe half-length board (Model 7842), 3U VPX (Model
cores within the FPGA.
5342), PCI board (Model 7642), 6U cPCI (Models 7242
and 7242D dual density), and 3U cPCI (Model 7342).

23
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

Transceivers with FFour


our Multiband DDCs and Interpolation FFilter
ilter Installed Cores

Model 7142-428 PMC/XMC Model 724


7142-428 2-428 6U cPCI Model 734
7242-428 2-428 3U cPCI
7342-428
Model 7642-428 PCI Model 7742-428 FFull-length
ull-length PCIe
Model 7742-428 Half-length PCIe Model 534
Half-length 2-428 3U VPX
342-428
RF LTC2255
AD6645
CH A A/D A 256 MB DDR
125
105 MHz
RF In XFORMR A/D B SDRAM
14-bit A/D
A/D C MEMORY
256 MB DDR
A/D D CONTROL &
LTC2255 SDRAM
RF DATA ROUTING
CH B
125 MHz A/D A D/A
RF In XFORMR 256 MB DDR
14-bit A/D A/D B DIGITAL DIGITAL
M SDRAM
DOWNCONVERTR A DOWNCONVERTR A
A/D C U
STAGE 1 STAGE 2
A/D D X
RF LTC2255 DECIMATION: 2 256 DECIMATION: 1 256
CH C
125 MHz
RF In XFORMR A/D A MEM W
14-bit A/D
A/D B DIGITAL DIGITAL FIFO
M
DOWNCONVERTR B DOWNCONVERTR B
A/D C U MEM W
LTC2255 STAGE 1 STAGE 2
RF A/D D X FIFO
CH D DECIMATION: 2 256 DECIMATION: 1 256
125 MHz A/D A PCI BUS
RF In XFORMR A/D A
14-bit A/D A/D A DDC A MUX 64 bit /
FIFO
DIGITAL DIGITAL A/D B 66 MHz
A/D B M
DOWNCONVERTR C DOWNCONVERTR
. C A/D B
A/D C U DDC B MUX
STAGE 1 STAGE 2 FIFO
A/D D X A/D C
DECIMATION: 2 256 DECIMATION: 1 256
Sample A/D C PCI 2.2
XTAL DDC C MUX
Clock In A/D A FIFO INTERFACE
CLOCK & OSC A A/D D
A/D B DIGITAL DIGITAL A/D D
SYNC M MUX
Clock/Sync DOWNCONVERTR D DOWNCONVERTR D DDC D
A/D C U FIFO
Bus GENERATOR XTAL STAGE 1 STAGE 2
A/D D X
OSC B DECIMATION: 2 256 DECIMATION: 1 256

DIGITAL DOWNCONVERTER CORE

16-bit
500 MHZ
16-bit
D/A DAC 5686 MEMORY
RF CIC CFIR
RF Out 500 MHZ DIGITAL MUX D/A FIFO D/A
XFORMR FILTER FILTER
D/A UPCONVERTER FIFO

INTERPOLATION CORE XC4VSX55

Figure 35

The Pentek IP Core 428 includes four high- Four identical Core 428 DDCs are factory installed
performance multiband DDCs and an interpolation in the 7142-428 FPGA. An input multiplexer allows
filter. Factory-installed in the Model 7142 FPGA, any DDC to independently select any of the four A/D
they add DDCs to the Model 7142 and extend the sources. The overal decimation range from 2 to 65,536,
range of its DAC5686 DUC. programmable in steps of 1, provides output bandwidths
from 50 MHz down to 1.52 kHz for an A/D sampling
The Core 428 downconverter translates any frequency
rate of 125 MHz and assuming an 80% filter.
band within the input bandwidth range down to zero
frequency. The DDCs consist of two cascaded decimat- The Core 428 interpolation filter increases the sampling
ing FIR filters. The decimation of each DDC can be set rate of real or complex baseband signals by a factor of 16 to
independently. After each filter stage is a post filter gain 2048, programmable in steps of 4, and relieves the host
stage. This gain may be used to amplify small signals processor from performing upsampling tasks. The interpola-
after out-of-band signals have been filtered out. tion filter can be used in series with the DUCs built-in
interpolation, for a maximum interpolation of 32,768.
The NCO provides over 108 dB spurious-free
dynamic range (SFDR). The FIR filter is capable of Versions of the 7142-428 are also available as a PCIe
storing and utilizing two independent sets of 18-bit full-length board (Models 7742-428 and 7742D-428 dual
coefficients. These coefficients are user-programmable by density), PCIe half-length board (Model 7842-428), PCI
using RAM structures within the FPGA. NCO tuning board (Model 7642-428), 6U cPCI (Models 7242-428 and
frequency, decimation and filter coefficients can be 7242D-428 dual density), 3U cPCI (Model 7342-428),
changed dynamically. and 3U VPX (Model 5342-428).

24
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

256- Channel DDC Installed Core with Quad 200 MHz, 16-bit A/D
256-Channel

Model 7151 PMC Model 7251 6U cPCI Model 7351 3U cPCI Model 7651 PCI
Model 7751 FFull-length
ull-length PCIe Model 7851 Half-length PCIe Model 5351 3U VPX
RF ADS5485
AD6645
CH A
200
105 MHz
RF In XFORMR
16-bit
14-bit A/D

ADS5485
CH B RF
200 MHz
RF In XFORMR
16-bit A/D

RF ADS5485
CH C
200 MHz A/D A
RF In XFORMR
16-bit A/D A/D B DIGITAL A/D A
M MUX
DOWNCONVERTR I&Q DDC BANK 1 FIFO
A/D C U
BANK 1: CH 1 - 64
A/D D X
RF ADS5485 DECIMATION: 128 - 1024
CH D
200 MHz PCI BUS
RF In XFORMR A/D A
16-bit A/D A/D B 64 bit /
A/D B DIGITAL A/D B
M MUX 66 MHz
DOWNCONVERTR I&Q DDC BANK 2 FIFO
A/D C U .
BANK 2: CH 65 - 128
A/D D X
DECIMATION: 128 - 1024
PCI 2.2
A/D A
A/D C INTERFACE
Sample A/D B DIGITAL A/D C
M MUX
Clock In DOWNCONVERTR I&Q DDC BANK 3 FIFO
A/D C U
TIMING BUS BANK 3: CH 129 - 192
A/D D X
GENERATOR DECIMATION: 128 - 1024
PPS In
A/D A
Clock / Gate / DIGITAL A/D D
A/D B M A/D D
TTL In Sync / PPS DOWNCONVERTR I&Q DDC BANK 4 MUX
A/D C U FIFO
BANK 4: CH 193 - 256
A/D D X
DECIMATION: 128 - 1024
Sync Bus
XTAL DIGITAL DOWNCONVERTER CORE
OSC

XC5VSX95T

Figure 36

The Model 7151 PMC module is a 4-channel high- supporting as many as four different output bandwidths
speed digitizer with a factory-installed 256-channel for the board.
DDC core. The front end of the module accepts four
The decimating filter for each DDC bank accepts a
RF inputs and transformer-couples them into four
unique set of user-supplied 18-bit coefficients. The 80%
16-bit A/D converters running at 200 MHz. The
default filters deliver an output bandwidth of 0.8*s/N,
digitized output signals pass to a Virtex-5 FPGA for
where N is the decimation setting. The rejection of
routing, formatting and DDC signal processing.
adjacent-band components within the 80% output band-
The Model 7151 employs an advanced FPGA-based width is better than 100 dB.
digital downconverter engine consisting of four identical
Each DDC delivers a complex output stream
64-channel DDC banks. Four independently controllable
consisting of 24-bit I + 24-bit Q samples. Any number
input multiplexers select one of the four A/Ds as the
of channels can be enabled within each bank, selectable
input source for each DDC bank. Each of the 256 DDCs
from 0 to 64. Each bank includes an output sample
has an independent 32-bit tuning frequency setting.
interleaver that delivers a channel-multiplexed stream for
All of the 64 channels within a bank share a common all enabled channels within the bank.
decimation setting that can range from 128 to 1024,
Versions of the 7151 are also available as a PCIe
programmable in steps of 64. For example, with a sampling
full-length board (Models 7751 and 7751D dual density),
rate of 200 MHz, the available output bandwidths
PCIe half-length board (Model 7851), PCI board (Model
range from 156.25 kHz to 1.25 MHz. Each 64-channel
7651), 6U cPCI (Models 7251 and 7251D dual density),
bank can have its own unique decimation setting
3U cPCI (Model 7351), and 3U VPX (Model 5351).

25
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

32- Channel DDC Installed Core with Quad 200 MHz, 16-bit A/D
32-Channel

Model 7152 PMC Model 7252 6U cPCI Model 7352 3U cPCI Model 7652 PCI
ull-length PCIe Model 7852 Half-length PCIe Model 5352 3U VPX
Model 7752 FFull-length
RF ADS5485
AD6645
CH A
200
105 MHz
RF In XFORMR
16-bit
14-bit A/D

RF ADS5485
CH B
200 MHz
RF In XFORMR DIGITAL DOWNCONVERTER CORE 8x4
16-bit A/D SUM
CHANNEL
A/D A SUMMATION A/D B
A/D B DIGITAL MUX A/D A
ADS5485 M
CH C RF DOWNCONVERTR I & Q BANK 1 FIFO
200 MHz A/D C U
RF In XFORMR BANK 1: CH 1 - 8
16-bit A/D A/D D X
DEC: 16 - 8192 POWER
METER &
THRESHOLD
RF ADS5485 A/D A DETECT
CH D
200 MHz DIGITAL A/D B PCI BUS
RF In XFORMR A/D B M A/D B
16-bit A/D DOWNCONVERTR I & Q BANK 2 MUX 64 bit /
A/D C U FIFO
BANK 2: CH 9 - 16 66 MHz
A/D D X
DEC: 16 - 8192 POWER.
METER &
THRESHOLD PCI 2.2
A/D A DETECT
A/D C INTERFACE
Sample A/D B DIGITAL A/D C
M
Clock In DOWNCONVERTR I & Q BANK 3 MUX FIFO
A/D C U
TIMING BUS BANK 3: CH 17 - 24
A/D D X
GENERATOR DEC: 16 - 8192 POWER
PPS In METER &
THRESHOLD
Clock / Gate /
A/D A DETECT
TTL In Sync / PPS DIGITAL A/D D
A/D B M A/D D
DOWNCONVERTR I & Q BANK 4 MUX FIFO
A/D C U
BANK 4: CH 25 - 32
A/D D X POWER
Sync Bus DEC: 16 - 8192
METER &
XTAL THRESHOLD
OSC DETECT

XC5VSX95T

Figure 37

The Model 7152 PMC module is a 4-channel high- have its own unique decimation setting supporting as
speed digitizer with a factory-installed 32-channel DDC many as four different output bandwidths for the board.
core. The front end of the module accepts four RF
The decimating filter for each DDC bank accepts a unique
inputs and transformer-couples them into four
set of user-supplied 18-bit coefficients. The 80% default filters
16-bit A/D converters running at 200 MHz. The
deliver an output bandwidth of 0.8*s/N, where N is the
digitized output signals pass to a Virtex-5 FPGA for
decimation setting. The rejection of adjacent-band components
routing, formatting and DDC signal processing.
within the 80% output band-width is better than 100 dB.
The Model 7152 employs an advanced FPGA-based
Each DDC delivers a complex output stream consist-
digital downconverter engine consisting of four identical
ing of 24-bit I + 24-bit Q samples. Any number of channels
8-channel DDC banks. Four independently controllable
can be enabled within each bank, selectable from 0 to 8.
input multiplexers select one of the four A/Ds as the
Each bank includes an output sample interleaver that
input source for each DDC bank. Each of the 32 DDCs
delivers a channel-multiplexed stream for all enabled
has an independent 32-bit tuning frequency setting.
channels within the bank. Gain and phase control, power
All of the 8 channels within a bank share a common meters and threshold detectors are included.
decimation setting that can range from 16 to 8192,
Versions of the 7152 are also available as a PCIe full-
programmable in steps of 8. For example, with a sampling
length board (Models 7752 and 7752D dual density), PCIe
rate of 200 MHz, the available output bandwidths range
half-length board (Model 7852), PCI board (Model 7652),
from 19.53 kHz to 10.0 MHz. Each 8-channel bank can
6U cPCI (Models 7252 and 7252D dual density), 3U cPCI
(Model 7352), and 3U VPX (Model 5352).

26
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

4- Channel DDC and Beamformer Installed Core with four 200 MHz, 16-bit A/Ds
4-Channel

Model 7153 PMC/XMC Model 7253 6U cPCI Model 7353 3U cPCI Model 7653 PCI
Model 7753 FFull-length
ull-length PCIe Model 7853 Half-length PCIe Model 5353 3U VPX
RF ADS5485
AD6645
CH A
200
105 MHz
RF In XFORMR
16-bit
14-bit A/D

RF ADS5485
CH B DIGITAL DOWNCONVERTER CORE
200 MHz
RF In XFORMR 4
16-bit A/D SUM
CHANNEL
A/D A SUMMATION A/D B
A/D B DIGITAL MUX A/D A
ADS5485 M
CH C RF DOWNCONVERTR I & Q DDC 1 FIFO
200 MHz A/D C U
RF In XFORMR CH 1
16-bit A/D A/D D X
DEC: 2 - 256 POWER
METER &
THRESHOLD
RF ADS5485 A/D A DETECT
CH D
200 MHz DIGITAL A/D B PCI BUS
RF In XFORMR A/D B M A/D B
16-bit A/D DOWNCONVERTR I & Q DDC 2 MUX 64 bit /
A/D C U FIFO
CH 2 66 MHz
A/D D X
DEC: 2 - 256 POWER.
METER &
THRESHOLD PCI 2.2
A/D A DETECT
A/D C INTERFACE
Sample A/D B DIGITAL A/D C
M
Clock In DOWNCONVERTR I & Q DDC 3 MUX FIFO
A/D C U
TIMING BUS CH 3
A/D D X
GENERATOR DEC: 2 - 256 POWER
PPS In METER &
THRESHOLD
Clock / Gate /
A/D A DETECT
TTL In Sync / PPS DIGITAL A/D D
A/D B M A/D D
DOWNCONVERTR I & Q DDC 4 MUX FIFO
A/D C U
CH 4
A/D D X POWER
Sync Bus DEC: 2 - 256
METER &
XTAL THRESHOLD
OSC DETECT

XC5VSX50T

Figure 38

Model 7153 is a 4-channel, high-speed software radio 0.8*s/N, where N is the decimation setting. The
module designed for processing baseband RF or IF signals. rejection of adjacent-band components within the 80%
It features four 200 MHz 16-bit A/Ds supported by a high- output band-width is better than 100 dB.
performance 4-channel DDC (digital downconverter)
In addition to the DDCs, the 7153 features a com-
installed core and a complete set of beamforming functions.
plete beamforming subsystem. Each channel contains
With built-in multiboard synchronization and an Aurora
programable I & Q phase and gain adjustments followed
gigabit serial interface, it provides everything needed for
by a power meter that continuously measures the individual
implementing multichannel beamforming systems.
average power output. The time constant of the averaging
The Model 7153 employs an advanced FPGA-based interval for each meter is programmable up to 8 ksamples.
DDC engine consisting of four identical multiband banks. The power meters present average power measurements for
Four independently controllable input multiplexers select each channel in easy-to-read registers. Each channel also
one of the four A/Ds as the input source for each DDC includes a threshold detector that sends an interrupt to
bank. Each of the 4 DDCs has an independent 32-bit the processor if the average power level of any DDC
tuning frequency setting. falls below or exceeds a programmable threshold.
All four DDCs have a decimation setting that can Versions of the 7153 are also available as a PCIe full-
range from 2 to 256, programmable independenly in length board (Models 7753 and 7753D dual density),
steps of 1. The decimating filter for each DDC bank PCIe half-length board (Model 7853), PCI board (Model
accepts a unique set of user-supplied 18-bit coefficients. 7653), 6U cPCI (Models 7253 and 7253D dual density),
The 80% default filters deliver an output bandwidth of 3U cPCI (Model 7353), and 3U VPX (Model 5353).

27
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

Dual SDR TTransceivers


ransceivers with 400 MHz A/D, 800 MHz D/A, and Vir tex-5 FPGAs
Virtex-5

Model 7156 PMC/XMC Model 7256 6U cPCI Model 7356 3U cPCI Model 7656 PCI
ull-length PCIe Model 7856 Half-length PCIe Model 5356 3U VPX
Model 7756 FFull-length
RF In RF In RF Out RF Out

RF RF RF RF
XFORMR XFORMR XFORMR XFORMR

Sample Clock In
A/D Clock Bus ADS5474 ADS5474
800 MHz 800 MHz
PPS In TIMING BUS 400 MHz 400 MHz
16-bit D/A 16-bit D/A
GENERATOR 14-bit A/D 14-bit A/D
D/A Clock Bus
TTL Gate / Trig DIGITAL UPCONVERTER
Clock/ Sync /
TTL Sync / PPS Gate / PPS
Sample Clk 14 14
Sync Clk 32
Gate A Control/
Gate B Status
Sync PROCESSING FPGA
PPS VCXO To All VIRTEX 5: LX50T, SX50T, SX95T or FX100T
Sections LVDS GTP GTP GTP
Timing Bus
32 32 16
64 4X 4X 4X
DDR 2 DDR 2
FLASH
SDRAM SDRAM GTP
32 MB
512 MB 512 MB
INTERFACE FPGA
Model 7156 VIRTEX-5: LX30T, SX50T or FX70T
PMC/XMC LVDS PCI-X GTP

32 32 64 4X
P4 PMC PCI-X BUS P15 XMC
FPGA (64 Bits VITA 42.x
I/O 133 MHz) (PCIe, etc.)

Figure 39

Model 7156 is a dual high-speed data converter A high-performance IP core wideband DDC may be
suitable for connection as the HF or IF input of a factory-installed in the processing FPGA.
communications system. It features two 400 MHz 14-bit
A 5-channel DMA controller and 64 bit/100 MHz PCI-
A/Ds, a DUC with two 800 MHz 16-bit D/As, and
X interface assures efficient transfers to and from the module.
two Virtex-5 FPGAs. Model 7156 uses the popular
PMC format and supports the VITA 42 XMC standard Two 4X switched serial ports implemented with the
for switched fabric interfaces. Xilinx Rocket I/O interfaces, connect the FPGA to the
XMC connector with two 2.5 GB/sec data links to the
The Model 7156 architecture includes two Virtex-5
carrier board.
FPGAs. The first FPGA is used primarily for signal
processing while the second one is dedicated to board A dual bus system timing generator allows for
interfaces. All of the boards data and control paths are sample clock synchronization to an external system
accessible by the FPGAs, enabling factory installed reference. It also supports large, multichannel appli-
functions such as data multiplexing, channel selection, data cations where the relative phases must be preserved.
packing, gating, triggering and SDRAM memory control.
Versions of the 7156 are also available as a PCIe full-
Two independent 512 MB banks of DDR2 SDRAM length board (Models 7756 and 7756D dual density),
are available to the signal processing FPGA. Built-in PCIe half-length board (Model 7856), PCI board
memory functions include an A/D data transient capture (Model 7656), 6U cPCI (Models 7256 and 7256D dual
mode with pre- and post-triggering. All memory banks density), 3U cPCI (Model 7356), and 3U VPX (Model
can be easily accessed through the PCI-X interface. 5356). All these products have similar features.

28
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

Dual SDR TTransceivers


ransceivers with 500 MHz A/D, 800 MHz D/A, and Vir tex-5 FPGAs
Virtex-5

Model 7158 PMC/XMC Model 7258 6U cPCI Model 7358 3U cPCI Model 7658 PCI
Model 7758 FFull-length
ull-length PCIe Model 7858 Half-length PCIe Model 5358 3U VPX

RF In RF In RF Out RF Out

RF RF RF RF
XFORMR XFORMR XFORMR XFORMR

Sample Clock /
Reference Clock In A/D Clock Bus ADS5463 ADS5463
800 MHz 800 MHz
PPS In TIMING BUS 500 MHz 500 MHz 16-bit D/A 16-bit D/A
GENERATOR 12-bit A/D 12-bit A/D
D/A Clock Bus
TTL Gate / Trig DIGITAL UPCONVERTER
Clock/ Sync /
TTL Sync / PPS Gate / PPS
Sample Clk 14 14
Sync Clk 32
Gate A Control/
Gate B Status
Sync PROCESSING FPGA
PPS VCXO To All VIRTEX 5: LX50T, LX155T, SX50T, SX95T or FX100T
Sections LVDS GTP GTP GTP
Timing Bus
32 32 16
64 4X 4X 4X
DDR 2 DDR 2
FLASH
SDRAM SDRAM GTP
32 MB
256 MB 256 MB
INTERFACE FPGA
Model 7158 VIRTEX-5: LX30T, SX50T or FX70T
PMC/XMC GTP
LVDS PCI-X

32 32 64 4X
P4 PMC PCI-X BUS P15 XMC
FPGA (64 Bits VITA 42.x
I/O 100 MHz) (PCIe, etc.)

Figure 40

Model 7158 is a dual high-speed data converter A 5-channel DMA controller and 64 bit / 100 MHz
suitable for connection as the HF or IF input of a PCI-X interface assures efficient transfers to and from the
communications system. It features two 500 MHz 12-bit module.
A/Ds, a digital upconverter with two 800 MHz 16-bit
Two 4X switched serial ports implemented with the
D/As, and two Virtex-5 FPGAs. Model 7158 uses the
Xilinx Rocket I/O interfaces, connect the FPGA to the
popular PMC format and supports the VITA 42 XMC
XMC connector with two 2.5 GB/sec data links to the
standard for switched fabric interfaces.
carrier board.
The Model 7158 architecture includes two Virtex-5
A dual bus system timing generator allows for
FPGAs. The first FPGA is used primarily for signal
sample clock synchronization to an external system
processing while the second one is dedicated to board
reference. It also supports large, multichannel appli-
interfaces. All of the boards data and control paths are
cations where the relative phases must be preserved.
accessible by the FPGAs, enabling factory installed
functions such as data multiplexing, channel selection, data Versions of the 7158 are also available as a PCIe full-
packing, gating, triggering and SDRAM memory control. length board (Models 7758 and 7758D dual density),
PCIe half-length board (Model 7858), PCI board
Two independent 256 MB banks of DDR2 SDRAM
(Model 7658), 6U cPCI (Models 7258 and 7258D dual
are available to the signal processing FPGA. Built-in
density), 3U cPCI (Model 7358), and 3U VPX (Model
memory functions include an A/D data transient capture
5358). All these products have similar features.
mode with pre- and post-triggering. All memory banks
can be easily accessed through the PCI-X interface.

29
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

3- Channel 200 MHz A/D, DUC, 2-


3-Channel Channel 800 MHz D/A, Vir
2-Channel tex-6 FPGA
Virtex-6

Model 71620 XMC Model 78620 Half-length PCIe Model 53620 3U VPX
Model 72620 6U cPCI Model 73620 3U cPCI Model 74620 6U cPCI
RF In RF In RF In RF Out RF Out

RF RF RF RF RF
XFORMR XFORMR XFORMR XFORMR XFORMR
Sample Clk /
Reference Clk In A/D
TIMING BUS Clock/Sync
GENERATOR Bus 200 MHz 200 MHz 200 MHz 800 MHz 800 MHz
16-BIT A/D 16-BIT A/D 16-BIT A/D 16-BIT D/A 16-BIT D/A
TTL Gate / Trig Clock / Sync /
DIGITAL
TTL Sync / PPS Gate / PPS
UPCONVERTER
D/A
Sample Clk Clock/Sync 16 16 16
Reset Bus 32
Gate A/D
Gate D/A
Sync / PPS A/D
Sync / PPS D/A VIRTEX-6 FPGA
VCXO
Timing Bus LX130T, LX240T, LX365T, SX315T or SX475T

GTX GTX GTX LVDS

16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16
8X 4X 4X 40
QDRII+ QDRII+ QDRII+ QDRII+ Config
SRAM SRAM SRAM SRAM FLASH
Model 71620 8 MB 8 MB 8 MB 8 MB 64 MB
XMC QDRII+ option 150 QDRII+ option 160 x8 PCIe Gigabit FPGA
DDR3 option 155 DDR3 option 165 Serial I/O GPIO
(option 105) (option 104)
DDR3 DDR3 DDR3 DDR3
SDRAM SDRAM SDRAM SDRAM
512 MB 512 MB 512 MB 512 MB P15 P16 P14
XMC XMC PMC
Memory Banks 1 & 2 Memory Banks 3 & 4

Figure 41

Model 71620 is a member of the Cobalt family of Each member of the Cobalt family is delivered
high performance XMC modules based on the Xilinx with factory-installed applications ideally matched to the
Virtex-6 FPGA. A multichannel, high-speed data boards analog interfaces. The 71620 factory-installed
converter, it is suitable for connection to HF or IF ports functions include an A/D acquisition and a D/A waveform
of a communications or radar system. Its built-in data playback IP module. In addition, IP modules for either
capture and playback features offer an ideal turnkey solution. DDR3 or QDRII+ memories, a controller for all data
It includes three 200 MHz, 16-bit A/Ds, a DUC with clocking and synchronization functions, a test signal
two 800 MHz, 16-bit D/As and four banks of memory. generator and a PCIe interface complete the factory-
In addition to supporting PCI Express Gen. 2 as a installed functions.
native interface, the Model 71620 includes general
Multiple 71620s can be driven from the LVPECL
purpose and gigabit serial connectors for application-
bus master, supporting synchronous sampling and sync
specific I/O .
functions across all connected modules. The architecture
The Pentek Cobalt architecture features a Virtex-6 supports up to four memory banks which can be configured
FPGA. All of the boards data and control paths are acces- with all QDRII+ SRAM, DDR3 SDRAM, or as combina-
sible by the FPGA, enabling factory-installed functions tion of two banks of each type of memory.
including data multiplexing, channel selection, data packing,
Versions of the 71620 are also available as a PCIe half-
gating, triggering and memory control. The Cobalt architec-
length board (Model 78620), 3U VPX (Model 53620), 6U
ture organizes the FPGA as a container for data processing
cPCI (Models 72620 and 74620 dual density), and 3U
applications where each function exists as an intellec-
cPCI (Model 73620).
tual property (IP) module.

30
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

3- Channel 200 MHz A/D, DUC, 2-


3-Channel Channel 800 MHz D/A, Installed IP Cores
2-Channel

Model 71621 XMC Model 78621 Half-length PCIe Model 53621 3U VPX
Model 72621 6U cPCI Model 73621 3U cPCI Model 74621 6U cPCI
from from from to
A/D Ch 1 A/D Ch 2 A/D Ch 3 D/A

D/A loopback
TEST
SIGNAL
INPUT MULTIPLEXER GENERATOR

DDC DDC DDC INTERPOLATOR


DEC: 2 TO 65536 DEC: 2 TO 65536 DEC: 2 TO 65536 2 TO 65536
POWER POWER POWER IP CORE
METER & METER & METER &
THRESHOLD THRESHOLD THRESHOLD DATA UNPACKING
DETECT DETECT DETECT & FLOW CONTROL
MUX
DDC CORE DDC CORE DDC CORE
DATA PACKING & DATA PACKING & DATA PACKING & MUX
FLOW CONTROL FLOW CONTROL FLOW CONTROL
MEMORY MEMORY MEMORY
CONTROL CONTROL CONTROL MEMORY
METADATA METADATA METADATA
GENERATOR MUX GENERATOR MUX CONTROL
to to to GENERATOR MUX
Mem Mem Mem to LINKED-LIST
Bank 1 LINKED-LIST Bank 2 LINKED-LIST Bank 3 LINKED-LIST Mem DMA ENGINE
DMA ENGINE DMA ENGINE DMA ENGINE
Bank 4 D/A
A/D A/D A/D WAVEFORM
ACQUISITION ACQUISITION ACQUISITION PLAYBACK
Model 71621 IP MODULE 1 IP MODULE 2 IP MODULE 3 IP MODULE

XMC

AURORA sum out


GIGABIT S VIRTEX-6 FPGA DATAFLOW DETAIL PCIe INTERFACE
SERIAL SUMMER
INTERFACE sum in
BEAMFORMER CORE
4X 4X 8X
to next from previous
board board PCIe

Figure 42

Model 71621 is a member of the Cobalt family of high the A/D sampling frequency. Each DDC can have its
performance XMC modules based on the Xilinx Virtex-6 own unique decimation setting, supporting as many as
FPGA. A multichannel, high-speed data converter based on three different output bandwidths for the board. Decima-
the Model 71620 described in the previous page, it includes tions can be programmed from 2 to 65,536 providing a
factory-installed IP cores to enhance the performance of the wide range to satisfy most applications.
71620 and address the requirements of many applications.
The 71621 also features a complete beamforming
The 71621 factory-installed functions include three A/D subsystem. Each DDC core contains programable I & Q
acquisition and one D/A waveform playback IP modules. phase and gain adjustments followed by a power meter
Each of the three acquisition IP modules contains a that continuously measures the individual average power
powerful, programmable DDC IP core. The waveform output. The power meters present average power measure-
playback IP module contains an interpolation IP core, ideal ments for each DDC core output in easy-to-read registers. A
for matching playback rates to the data and decimation threshold detector automatically sends an interrupt to
rates of the acquisition modules. IP modules for either the processor if the average power level of any DDC
DDR3 or QDRII+ memories, a controller for all data core falls below or exceeds a programmable threshold.
clocking and synchronization functions, a test signal
Versions of the 71621 are also available as a PCIe half-
generator, an Aurora gigabit serial interface, and a PCIe
length board (Model 78621), 3U VPX (Model 53621), 6U
interface complete the factory-installed functions.
cPCI (Models 72621 and 74621 dual density), and 3U
Each DDC has an independent 32-bit tuning cPCI (Model 73621).
frequency setting that ranges from DC to s, where s is

31
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

1 GHz A/D, 1 GHz D/A, Vir tex-6 FPGA


Virtex-6

Model 78630 Half-length PCIe Model 71630 XMC Model 53630 3U VPX
Model 72630 6U cPCI Model 73630 3U cPCI Model 74630 6U cPCI
RF In RF Out

RF RF
Sample Clk / XFORMR XFORMR
Reference Clk In
TTL
PPS/Gate/Sync TIMING BUS
A/D Clock/Sync Bus 1 GHz
GENERATOR
Gate In 12-BIT A/D
Sync In Clock / Sync / 1 GHz
Gate / PPS 16-BIT D/A
A/D Sync Bus D/A Clock/Sync Bus

Gate In 12
16
Sync In
D/A Sync Bus
VIRTEX-6 FPGA
LX130T, LX240T, LX365T, SX315T or SX475T
VCXO
GTX GTX GTX LVDS

16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16
8X 4X 4X 40
Model 78630
QDRII+
SRAM
QDRII+
SRAM
QDRII+
SRAM
QDRII+
SRAM
Config
FLASH
half-length PCIe
8 MB 8 MB 8 MB 8 MB 64 MB

QDRII+ option 150 QDRII+ option 160 x8 PCIe Gigabit FPGA


DDR3 option 155 DDR3 option 165 Serial I/O GPIO
(option 105) (option 104)
DDR3 DDR3 DDR3 DDR3
SDRAM SDRAM SDRAM SDRAM
512 MB 512 MB 512 MB 512 MB P16 P14
XMC PMC
Memory Banks 1 & 2 Memory Banks 3 & 4 x8 PCI Express

Figure 43

Model 78630 is a member of the Cobalt family of high Each member of the Cobalt family is delivered
performance PCIe boards based on the Xilinx Virtex-6 with factory-installed applications ideally matched to the
FPGA. A high-speed data converter, it is suitable for boards analog interfaces. The 78630 factory-installed
connection to HF or IF ports of a communications or radar functions include an A/D acquisition and a D/A waveform
system. Its built-in data capture and playback features offer playback IP module. In addition, IP modules for either
an ideal turnkey solution as well as a platform for develop- DDR3 or QDRII+ memories, a controller for all data
ing and deploying custom FPGA processing IP. It includes clocking and synchronization functions, a test signal
1 GHz, 12-bit A/D, 1 GHz, 16-bit D/A converters and generator and a PCIe interface complete the factory-
four banks of memory. In addition to supporting PCI installed functions.
Express Gen. 2 as a native interface, the Model 78630
Multiple 78630s can be driven from the LVPECL
includes optional general purpose and gigabit serial card
bus master, supporting synchronous sampling and sync
connectors for application- specific I/O protocols.
functions across all connected boards. The architecture
The Pentek Cobalt architecture features a Virtex-6 supports up to four memory banks which can be configured
FPGA. All of the boards data and control paths are acces- with all QDRII+ SRAM, DDR3 SDRAM, or as combina-
sible by the FPGA, enabling factory-installed functions tion of two banks of each type of memory.
including data multiplexing, channel selection, data packing,
Versions of the 78630 are also available as an XMC
gating, triggering and memory control. The Cobalt architec-
module (Model 71630), 3U VPX (Model 53630), 6U cPCI
ture organizes the FPGA as a container for data process-
(Models 72630 and 74630 dual density), and 3U cPCI
ing applications where each function exists as an intellec-
(Model 73630).
tual property (IP) module.

32
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

1- or 2- Channel 3.6 GHz and 2- or 4-


2-Channel Channel 1.8 GHz, 12-bit A/D, Vir
4-Channel tex-6 FPGA
Virtex-6

Model 72640 6U cPCI Model 73640 3U cPCI Model 74640 6U cPCI


Model 71640 XMC Model 78640 Half-length PCIe Model 53640 3U VPX
RF In RF In
Block Diagram, Model 72640
Model 74640 doubles all resources
except the PCI-to-PCI Bridge
RF RF
XFORMR XFORMR
Sample Clk

TTL
PPS/Gate/Sync TIMING BUS
GENERATOR 3.6 GHz (1 Channel)
A/D Clock/Sync Bus or
Gate In Clock / Sync / 1.8 GHz (2 Channel)
Reset In Gate / PPS 12-Bit A/D
Ref Clk In
Ref Clk Out 12 12
Sync Bus

VIRTEX-6 FPGA
LX130T, LX240T, LX365T, SX315T or SX475T
MODEL 73640
LVDS GTX GTX GTX
INTERFACES ONLY

32 32 32 32 16 From/To Other
VIRTEX-6 FPGA 40 4X 4X 4X
x4 PCIe XMC Module of
LVDS GTX DDR3 DDR3 DDR3 DDR3 Config
SDRAM SDRAM SDRAM SDRAM FLASH MODEL 74640
512 MB 512 MB 512 MB 512 MB 64 MB PCIe
to PCI
40 BRIDGE
PCIe Memory Banks 1 & 2 Memory Banks 3 & 4
Optional to PCI
FPGA I/O BRIDGE Optional Optional PCI Model 74640 Model 73640
to PCI
(option 104) FPGA I/O Serial I/O BRIDGE Dual Density Single Density
(option 104) (option 105)

J2 PCI/PCI-X BUS
32/64-Bit, 33/66 MHz
J3 PCI/PCI-X BUS
One or the Other 32/64-Bit, 33/66 MHz

Figure 44

Models 72640, 73640 and 74640 are members modules. In addition, IP modules for DDR3 memories,
of the Cobalt family of high performance CompactPCI controllers for all data clocking and synchronization
boards based on the Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA. They functions, a test signal generator and a PCIe interface
consist of one or two Model 71640 XMC modules complete the factory-installed functions.
mounted on a cPCI carrier board. These models include one
The front end accepts analog HF or IF inputs on
or two 3.6 GHz, 12-bit A/D converters and four or eight
a pair of front panel SSMC connectors with transformer
banks of memory.
coupling into a National Semiconductor ADC12D1800
The Pentek Cobalt architecture features a Virtex-6 12-bit A/D. The converter operates in single-channel
FPGA. All of the boards data and control paths are interleaved mode with a sampling rate of 3.6 GHz and
accessible by the FPGA, enabling factory-installed an input bandwidth of 1.75 GHz; or, in dual-channel
functions including data multiplexing, channel selec- mode with a sampling rate of 1.8 GHz and input band-
tion, data packing, gating, triggering and memory control. width of 2.8 GHz. The ADC12D1800 provides a program-
The Cobalt architecture organizes the FPGA as a container mable 15-bit gain adjustment allowing these models to have
for data processing applications where each function exists a full scale input range of +2 dBm to +4 dBm.
as an intellectual property (IP) module.
Model 72640 is a 6U cPCI board, while Model
Each member of the Cobalt family is delivered 73640 is a 3U cPCI board; Model 74640 is a dual
with factory-installed applications ideally matched to the density 6U cPCI board. Also available is an XMC module
boards analog interfaces. The factory-installed functions of (Model 71640), PCIe half-length board (Model 78640),
these models include one or two A/D acquisition IP and 3U VPX (Model 53640).

33
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

2- Channel 500 MHz A/D, DUC, 2-


2-Channel Channel 800 MHz D/A, Vir
2-Channel tex-6 FPGA
Virtex-6

Model 53650 3U VPX Model 71650 XMC Model 78650 Half-length PCIe
Model 72650 6U cPCI Model 73650 3U cPCI Model 74650 6U cPCI
RF In RF In RF Out RF Out

RF RF RF RF
Sample Clk / XFORMR XFORMR XFORMR XFORMR
Reference Clk In A/D
TTL TIMING BUS Clock/Sync
PPS/Gate/Sync GENERATOR Bus 500 MHz 500 MHz 800 MHz 800 MHz
12-BIT A/D 12-BIT A/D 16-BIT D/A 16-BIT D/A
TTL Gate / Trig Clock / Sync /
DIGITAL
TTL Sync / PPS Gate / PPS
D/A UPCONVERTER
Sample Clk Clock/Sync 16 16
Reset Bus 32
Gate A/D
Gate D/A
Sync / PPS A/D VIRTEX-6 FPGA
VCXO
Sync / PPS D/A LX130T, LX240T, LX365T, SX315T or SX475T
Option -105
Timing Bus Gigabit Serial I/O
LVDS GTX GTX GTX

16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16
40 8X 4X 4X
QDRII+ QDRII+ QDRII+ QDRII+ Config Option -104
SRAM SRAM SRAM SRAM FLASH FPGA x8
8 MB 8 MB 8 MB 8 MB 64 MB PCIe
I/O Model 53650 3U VPX
QDRII+ option 150 QDRII+ option 160 COTS and rugged
This Model is also DDR3 option 155 DDR3 option 165
CROSSBAR
SWITCH
available with 400 MHz, DDR3 DDR3 DDR3 DDR3
14-bit A/Ds SDRAM
512 MB
SDRAM
512 MB
SDRAM
512 MB
SDRAM
512 MB
4X 4X 4X 4X
Gbit Gbit Gbit Gbit
Serial Serial Serial Serial
Memory Banks 1 & 2 Memory Banks 3 & 4
VPX-P2 VPX-P1
VPX BACKPLANE

Figure 45

Model 53650 is a member of the Cobalt family of Each member of the Cobalt family is delivered
high performance 3U VPX boards based on the Xilinx with factory-installed applications ideally matched to the
Virtex-6 FPGA. A two-channel, high-speed data boards analog interfaces. The 53650 factory-installed
converter, it is suitable for connection to HF or IF ports functions include an A/D acquisition and a D/A waveform
of a communications or radar system. Its built-in data playback IP module. In addition, IP modules for either
capture and playback features offer an ideal turnkey DDR3 or QDRII+ memories, a controller for all data
solution as well as a platform for developing and deploying clocking and synchronization functions, a test signal
custom FPGA processing IP. The 53650 includes two generator and a PCIe interface complete the factory-
500 MHz 12-bit A/Ds, one DUC, two 800 MHz 16-bit installed functions.
D/As and four banks of memory. It features built-in
Multiple 53650s can be driven from the LVPECL
support for PCI Express over the 3U VPX backplane.
bus master, supporting synchronous sampling and sync
The Pentek Cobalt architecture features a Virtex-6 functions across all connected boards. The architecture
FPGA. All of the boards data and control paths are acces- supports up to four memory banks which can be configured
sible by the FPGA, enabling factory-installed functions with all QDRII+ SRAM, DDR3 SDRAM, or as combina-
including data multiplexing, channel selection, data packing, tion of two banks of each type of memory.
gating, triggering and memory control. The Cobalt architec-
Versions of the 53650 are also available as an XMC
ture organizes the FPGA as a container for data process-
module (Model 71650), as a PCIe half-length board (Model
ing applications where each function exists as an intellec-
78650), 6U cPCI (Models 72650 and 74650 dual density),
tual property (IP) module.
and 3U cPCI (Model 73650).

34
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

4- Channel 200 MHz 16-bit A/D with Vir


4-Channel tex-6 FPGA
Virtex-6

Model 71660 XMC Model 78660 Half-length PCIe Model 53660 3U VPX
Model 72660 6U cPCI Model 73660 3U cPCI Model 74660 6U cPCI
RF In RF In RF In RF In

RF RF RF RF
XFORMR XFORMR XFORMR XFORMR
Sample Clk /
Reference Clk In
Gate / Trigger / TIMING BUS
Sync / PPS GENERATOR A/D Clock/Sync Bus
200 MHz 200 MHz 200 MHz 200 MHz
16-BIT A/D 16-BIT A/D 16-BIT A/D 16-BIT A/D
TTL Gate / Trig Clock / Sync /
TTL Sync / PPS Gate / PPS

Sample Clk 16 16 16 16
Reset
Gate A
Gate B
Sync / PPS A
Sync / PPS B VIRTEX-6 FPGA
VCXO
Timing Bus LX130T, LX240T, LX365T, SX315T or SX475T

GTX GTX GTX LVDS

16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16
8X 4X 4X 40
QDRII+ QDRII+ QDRII+ QDRII+ Config
SRAM SRAM SRAM SRAM FLASH
Model 71660 8 MB 8 MB 8 MB 8 MB 64 MB

XMC QDRII+ option 150 QDRII+ option 160 x8 PCIe Gigabit FPGA
DDR3 option 155 DDR3 option 165 Serial I/O GPIO
(option 105) (option 104)
DDR3 DDR3 DDR3 DDR3
SDRAM SDRAM SDRAM SDRAM
512 MB 512 MB 512 MB 512 MB P15 P16 P14
XMC XMC PMC
Memory Banks 1 & 2 Memory Banks 3 & 4

Figure 46

Model 71660 is a member of the Cobalt family of Each member of the Cobalt family is delivered
high performance XMC modules based on the Xilinx with factory-installed applications ideally matched to the
Virtex-6 FPGA. A multichannel, high-speed data boards analog interfaces. The 71660 factory-installed
converter, it is suitable for connection to HF or IF ports functions include four A/D acquisition IP modules. In
of a communications or radar system. Its built-in data addition, IP modules for either DDR3 or QDRII+
capture and playback features offer an ideal turnkey solution memories, a controller for all data clocking and syn-
as well as a platform for developing and deploying custom chronization functions, a test signal generator and a
FPGA processing IP. It includes four 200 MHz, 16-bit A/Ds PCIe interface complete the factory-installed functions.
and four banks of memory. In addition to supporting
Multiple 71660s can be driven from the LVPECL
PCI Express Gen. 2 as a native interface, the Model
bus master, supporting synchronous sampling and sync
71660 includes general purpose and gigabit serial connec-
functions across all connected modules. The architecture
tors for application-specific I/O .
supports up to four memory banks which can be configured
The Pentek Cobalt architecture features a Virtex-6 with all QDRII+ SRAM, DDR3 SDRAM, or as combina-
FPGA. All of the boards data and control paths are acces- tion of two banks of each type of memory.
sible by the FPGA, enabling factory-installed functions
Versions of the 71660 are also available as a PCIe half-
including data multiplexing, channel selection, data packing,
length board (Model 78660), 3U VPX (Model 53660), 6U
gating, triggering and memory control. The Cobalt architec-
cPCI (Models 72660 and 74660 dual density), and 3U
ture organizes the FPGA as a container for data processing
cPCI (Model 73660).
applications where each function exists as an intellec-
tual property (IP) module.

35
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

4- Channel 200 MHz 16-bit A/D with Installed IP Cores


4-Channel

Model 71661 XMC Model 78661 Half-length PCIe Model 53661 3U VPX
Model 72661 6U cPCI Model 73661 3U cPCI Model 74661 6U cPCI
from from from from
A/D Ch 1 A/D Ch 2 A/D Ch 3 A/D Ch 4

TEST
SIGNAL INPUT MULTIPLEXER
GENERATOR

DDC DDC DDC DDC


DEC: 2 TO 65536 DEC: 2 TO 65536 DEC: 2 TO 65536 DEC: 2 TO 65536
POWER POWER POWER POWER
METER & METER & METER & METER &
THRESHOLD THRESHOLD THRESHOLD THRESHOLD
DETECT DETECT DETECT DETECT
MUX
DDC CORE DDC CORE DDC CORE DDC CORE
DATA PACKING & DATA PACKING & DATA PACKING & DATA PACKING &
FLOW CONTROL FLOW CONTROL FLOW CONTROL FLOW CONTROL
MEMORY MEMORY MEMORY MEMORY
CONTROL CONTROL CONTROL CONTROL
METADATA METADATA METADATA METADATA
to GENERATOR MUX to GENERATOR MUX to GENERATOR MUX to GENERATOR MUX
Mem Mem Mem Mem
Bank 1 LINKED-LIST Bank 2 LINKED-LIST Bank 3 LINKED-LIST Bank 4 LINKED-LIST
DMA ENGINE DMA ENGINE DMA ENGINE DMA ENGINE
A/D A/D A/D A/D
ACQUISITION ACQUISITION ACQUISITION ACQUISITION
IP MODULE 1 IP MODULE 2 IP MODULE 3 IP MODULE 4

Model 71661
XMC
AURORA
sum out
GIGABIT S VIRTEX-6 FPGA DATAFLOW DETAIL PCIe INTERFACE
SERIAL SUMMER
INTERFACE sum in
BEAMFORMER CORE
4X 4X 8X
to next from previous
board board PCIe

Figure 47

Model 71661 is a member of the Cobalt family of high tions can be programmed from 2 to 65,536 providing a
performance XMC modules based on the Xilinx Virtex-6 wide range to satisfy most applications.
FPGA. A multichannel, high-speed data converter based on
The 71661 also features a complete beamforming
the Model 71660 described in the previous page, it includes
subsystem. Each DDC core contains programable I & Q
factory-installed IP cores to enhance the performance of the
phase and gain adjustments followed by a power meter
71620 and address the requirements of many applications.
that continuously measures the individual average power
The 71661 factory-installed functions include four A/D output. The power meters present average power measure-
acquisition IP modules. Each of the four acquisition IP ments for each DDC core output in easy-to-read registers. A
modules contains a powerful, programmable DDC IP threshold detector automatically sends an interrupt to
core. IP modules for either DDR3 or QDRII+ memo- the processor if the average power level of any DDC
ries, a controller for all data clocking and synchronization core falls below or exceeds a programmable threshold.
functions, a test signal generator, an Aurora gigabit
For larger systems, multiple 71661s can be chained
serial interface, and a PCIe interface complete the
together via the built-in Xilinx Aurora gigabit serial
factory-installed functions.
interface through the P16 XMC connector.
Each DDC has an independent 32-bit tuning
Versions of the 71661 are also available as a PCIe half-
frequency setting that ranges from DC to s, where s is
length board (Model 78661), 3U VPX (Model 53661), 6U
the A/D sampling frequency. Each DDC can have its
cPCI (Models 72661 and 74661 dual density), and 3U
own unique decimation setting, supporting as many as
cPCI (Model 73661).
four different output bandwidths for the board. Decima-

36
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

4- Channel 200 MHz 16-bit A/D with Installed IP Cores


4-Channel

Model 78662 Half-length PCIe Model 71662 XMC Model 53662 3U VPX
Model 72662 6U cPCI Model 73662 3U cPCI Model 74662 6U cPCI
from from from from
A/D Ch 1 A/D Ch 2 A/D Ch 3 A/D Ch 4

TEST
SIGNAL INPUT MULTIPLEXER
GENERATOR

DIGITAL DIGITAL DIGITAL DIGITAL


DOWN- DOWN- DOWN- DOWN-
CONVERTER
.
CONVERTER
.
CONVERTER
.
CONVERTER
.

BANK 1: CH 1-8 BANK 2: CH 9-16 BANK 3: CH 17-24 BANK 4: CH 18-32


DEC: 16 TO 8192 DEC: 16 TO 8192 DEC: 16 TO 8192 DEC: 16 TO 8192
DDC DDC DDC DDC
CORE CORE CORE CORE
DATA PACKING & DATA PACKING & DATA PACKING & DATA PACKING &
FLOW CONTROL FLOW CONTROL FLOW CONTROL FLOW CONTROL
MEMORY MEMORY MEMORY MEMORY
CONTROL CONTROL CONTROL CONTROL
METADATA METADATA METADATA METADATA
to GENERATOR MUX to GENERATOR MUX GENERATOR MUX GENERATOR MUX
to to
Mem Mem Mem Mem
Bank 1 LINKED-LIST Bank 2 LINKED-LIST Bank 3 LINKED-LIST LINKED-LIST
DMA ENGINE DMA ENGINE DMA ENGINE
Bank 4 DMA ENGINE
A/D A/D A/D A/D
ACQUISITION ACQUISITION ACQUISITION ACQUISITION
IP MODULE 1 IP MODULE 2 IP MODULE 3 IP MODULE 4
Model 78662
half-length PCIe
VIRTEX-6 FPGA DATAFLOW DETAIL (supports user installed IP)
PCIe INTERFACE

32 32 32 32 8X 4X 4X 40
Memory Memory Memory Memory PCIe Gigabit FPGA
Bank 1 Bank 2 Bank 3 Bank 4 Serial I/O GPIO

Figure 48

Model 78662 is a member of the Cobalt family of of eight. Each 8-channel bank can have its own unique
high performance PCIe boards based on the Xilinx Virtex-6 decimation setting supporting a different bandwidth
FPGA. Based on the Model 71660 presented previously, associated with each of the four acquisition modules.
this four-channel, high-speed data converter with
The decimating filter for each DDC bank accepts
programmable DDCs is suitable for connection to HF or
a unique set of user-supplied 18-bit coefficients. The 80%
IF ports of a communications or radar system.
default filters deliver an output bandwidth of 0.8*s/N,
The 78662 factory-installed functions include four A/D where N is the decimation setting. The rejection of
acquisition IP modules. Each of the four acquisition IP adjacent-band components within the 80% output
modules contains a powerful, programmable 8-channel bandwidth is better than 100 dB.
DDC IP core. IP modules for either DDR3 or QDRII+
Each DDC delivers a complex output stream consisting
memories, a controller for all data clocking and synchroni-
of 24-bit I + 24-bit Q samples at a rate of s/N. Any
zation functions, a test signal generator, voltage and
number of channels can be enabled within each bank,
temperature monitoring, and a PCIe interface complete the
selectable from 0 to 8. Multiple 78662s can be driven
factory-installed functions.
from the LVPECL bus master, supporting synchronous
Each of the 32 DDC channels has an independent sampling and sync functions across all connected boards.
32-bit tuning frequency setting that ranges from DC to
Versions of the 78662 are also available as an XMC
s, where s is the A/D sampling frequency. All of the
module (Model 71662), 3U VPX (Model 53662), 6U
8 channels within a bank share a common decimation
cPCI (Models 72662 and 74662 dual density), and 3U
setting ranging from 16 to 8192 programmable in steps
cPCI (Model 73662).

37
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

L-Band RF TTuner
uner with 2- Channel 200 MHz A/D and Vir
2-Channel tex-6 FPGA
Virtex-6

Model 53690 3U VPX Model 71690 XMC Model 78690 Half-length PCIe
Model 72690 6U cPCI Model 73690 3U cPCI Model 74690 6U cPCI
Ref RF Ref
In In Out

MAX2112
GC 12-BIT
D/A

XTAL
Sample Clk / Control
OSC
Reference Clk In Ref
Option 100 I Q
Trigger 1 TIMING
Trigger 2 GENERATOR A/D Clock/Sync 200 MHz 200 MHz
Clock / Sync / 16-BIT A/D 16-BIT A/D
TTL Gate / Trig Gate / PPS
TTL Sync / PPS

Sample Clk 16 16 2
Ref In
Gate A 2
IC
Gate B
Sync / PPS A
Sync / PPS B VIRTEX-6 FPGA
VCXO
Timing Bus LX130T, LX240T, LX365T, SX315T or SX475T
Gigabit Serial I/O
LVDS GTX GTX GTX

16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16
40 8X 4X 4X
QDRII+ QDRII+ QDRII+ QDRII+ Config Option -104
SRAM SRAM SRAM SRAM FLASH FPGA x8
8 MB 8 MB 8 MB 8 MB 64 MB PCIe
I/O
Model 53690 3U VPX
QDRII+ option 150 QDRII+ option 160
CROSSBAR
COTS and rugged
DDR3 option 155 DDR3 option 165
SWITCH
DDR3 DDR3 DDR3 DDR3
SDRAM SDRAM SDRAM SDRAM 4X 4X 4X 4X
512 MB 512 MB 512 MB 512 MB
Gbit Gbit Gbit Gbit
Serial Serial Serial Serial
Memory Banks 1 & 2 Memory Banks 3 & 4
VPX-P2 VPX-P1
VPX BACKPLANE

Figure 49

Model 53690 is a member of the Cobalt family of boards analog interfaces. The 53690 factory-installed
high performance 3U VPX boards based on the Xilinx functions include two A/D acquisition IP modules. IP
Virtex-6 FPGA. A 2-Channel high-speed data converter, modules for either DDR3 or QDRII+ memories, a
it is suitable for connection directly to the RF port of a controller for all data clocking and synchronization
communications or radar system. Its built-in data capture functions, a test signal generator, and a PCIe interface
features offer an ideal turnkey solution. The Model 53690 complete the factory-installed functions.
includes an L-Band RF tuner, two 200 MHz, 16-bit
A front panel connector accepts L-Band signals
A/Ds and four banks of memory. It features built-in
between 925 MHz and 2175 MHz from an antenna
support for PCI Express over the 3U VPX backplane.
LNB. A Maxim MAX2112 tuner directly converts
The Pentek Cobalt architecture features a Virtex-6 these signals to baseband using a broadband I/Q
FPGA. All of the boards data and control paths are acces- downconverter. The device includes an RF variable-
sible by the FPGA, enabling factory-installed functions gain LNA (low-noise amplifier), a PLL synthesized
including data multiplexing, channel selection, data packing, local oscillator, quadrature (I + Q) downconverting
gating, triggering and memory control. The Cobalt architec- mixers, baseband lowpass filters and variable-gain
ture organizes the FPGA as a container for data processing baseband amplifiers.
applications where each function exists as an intellec-
Versions of the 53690 are also available as an XMC
tual property (IP) module.
module (Model 71690), as a PCIe half-length board (Model
Each member of the Cobalt family is delivered with 78690), 6U cPCI (Models 72690 and 74690 dual density),
factory-installed applications ideally matched to the and 3U cPCI (Model 73690).

38
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

215 MHz, 12-bit A/D with W ideband DDCs - VME/VXS


Wideband

Model 6821-422

LVDS
RF Input I/O
215 MHz
50 ohms
12-Bit A/D
AD9430 32 XILINX 32 32
128 MB FPDP-II
VIRTEX-II 128k Out A
Fs SDRAM FIFO
PRO FPGA Slot 1
Ext Clock In 32
50 ohms 16 MB 16 XC2VP50 32 FPDP-II
128k Out C
XTAL FLASH FIFO Slot 2
OSC 64 LVDS
I/O
Fs/2
Front 32 XILINX 32 32 FPDP-II
Panel CLOCK, SYNC 128 MB 128k
VIRTEX-II Out B
LVDS & TRIGGER SDRAM FIFO Slot 1
Timing PRO FPGA
GENERATOR 32 32 FPDP-II
Bus 16 MB 16 XC2VP50 128k
FIFO Out D
FLASH Slot 2
4x Switched 4x Switched
Control and Status Serial Fabric Serial Fabric
VME Slave Interface To All Sections 1.25 GB/sec 1.25 GB/sec
Model 6821
VMEbus VXS Switched Backplane

Figure 50

The Model 6821 is a 6U single slot board with the installed in one or both of the FPGAs to perform this
AD9430 12-bit, 215 MHz A/D converter. function.
Capable of digitizing input signal bandwidths up to Two 128 MB SDRAMs, one for each FPGA,
100 MHz, it is ideal for wideband applications includ- support large memory applications such as swinging
ing radar and spread spectrum communication systems. buffers, digital filters, DSP algorithms, and digital delay
lines for tracking receivers.
The sampling clock can be supplied either from a
front panel input or from an internal crystal oscillator. Either two or four FPDP-II ports connect the FPGAs
Data from the A/D converter flows into two Xilinx to external digital destinations such as processor boards,
Virtex-II Pro FPGAs where optional signal processing memory boards or storage devices.
functions can be performed. The size of the FPGAs can
A VMEbus interface supports configuration of the
range from the XC2VP20 to the XC2VP50.
FPGAs over the backplane and also provides data and
Because the sampling rate is well beyond conven- control paths for runtime applications. A VXS interface
tional ASIC digital downconverters, none are included is optionally available.
on the board.
This Model is available in commercial as well as
Instead, the Pentek GateFlow IP Core 422 Ultra conduction-cooled versions.
Wideband Digital Downconverter can be factory-

39
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

Dual 215 MHz, 12-bit A/D with W ideband DDCs - VME/VXS


Wideband

Model 6822-422

LVDS
RF Input I/O
215 MHz
50 ohms
12-Bit A/D
AD9430 32 XILINX 32 32 FPDP-II
128 MB 128k
VIRTEX-II Out A
SDRAM FIFO
PRO FPGA Slot 1
Fs LVDS Clock 16 XC2VP50 32 32
& Sync Bus 16 MB 128k FPDP-II
Ext Clock In Out C
50 ohms FLASH FIFO Slot 2
XTAL 64 LVDS
OSC CLOCK I/O
GEN
32
Fs/2 128 MB XILINX 32 32 FPDP-II
SDRAM VIRTEX-II 128k Out B
RF Input 215 MHz FIFO
50 ohms PRO FPGA Slot 1
12-Bit A/D 16 XC2VP50 32 32 FPDP-II
AD9430 16 MB 128k Out D
FLASH FIFO Slot 2
4x Switched 4x Switched
Control and Status Serial Fabric Serial Fabric
VME Slave Interface To All Sections 1.25 GB/sec 1.25 GB/sec
Model 6822
VMEbus VXS Switched Backplane

Figure 51

The Model 6822 is a 6U single slot VME board installed in one or both of the FPGAs to perform this
with two AD9430 12-bit 215 MHz A/D converters. function.
Capable of digitizing input signal bandwidths up to Two 128 MB SDRAMs, one for each FPGA,
100 MHz, it is ideal for wideband applications includ- support large memory applications such as swinging
ing radar and spread spectrum communication systems. buffers, digital filters, DSP algorithms, and digital delay
lines for tracking receivers.
The sampling clock can be supplied either from a
front panel input or from an internal crystal oscillator. Either two or four FPDP-II ports connect the FPGAs
Data from each A/D converter flows into a Xilinx to external digital destinations such as processor boards,
Virtex-II Pro FPGA where optional signal processing memory boards or storage devices.
functions can be performed. The size of the FPGAs can
A VMEbus interface supports configuration of the
range from the XC2VP20 to the XC2VP50.
FPGAs over the backplane and also provides data and
Because the sampling rate is well beyond conven- control paths for runtime applications. A VXS interface
tional ASIC digital downconverters, none are included is optionally available.
on the board.
This Model is available in commercial as well as
Instead, the Pentek GateFlow IP Core 422 Ultra conduction-cooled versions.
Wideband Digital Downconverter can be factory-

40
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

Dual 2 GHz, 10-bit A/D with Ver


Ver
eryy High-Speed DDCs - VME/VXS

Model 6826

RF INPUT
50 OHMS 2 GHz 10 4:1 40 2:1 80
32 32 FPDP-II
10-Bit A/D DEMUX DEMUX 128k
AT84AS008 AT84CS001 V4 FPGA FIFO 400 MB/sec

EXT Fs 64 32
512 MB 32 128k FPDP-II
CLOCK XILINX
INPUT DDR RAM FIFO 400 MB/sec
XTAL Fs/4 Fs/8 VIRTEX-II
64 PRO FPGA 16 16 MB
OSC 512 MB
Fs XC2VP70 FLASH
DDR RAM

RF INPUT 32 32
50 OHMS 2 GHz 10 4:1 40 2:1 80 128k FPDP-II
10-Bit A/D DEMUX DEMUX FIFO 400 MB/sec
AT84AS008 AT84CS001 V4 FPGA
32 32 FPDP-II
128k
Fs/4 Fs/8 FIFO 400 MB/sec
Fs/8 IN
Fs/8 OUT GATE 4x SWITCHED 4x SWITCHED
TRIGGER SERIAL FABRIC SERIAL FABRIC Model 6826
FPGA SYNC IN VME SLAVE 1.25 GB/SEC 1.25 GB/SEC
& SYNC
GATE A IN INTERFACE
VMEbus VXS SWITCHED BACKPLANE
GATE B IN

Figure 52

The Model 6826 is a 6U single slot VME board for the Model 6826 can be developed for a customer who
with two Atmel AT84AS008 10-bit 2 GHz A/D is interested in one.
converters.
The customer will be able to incorporate this core
Capable of digitizing input signals at sampling rates into the Model 6826 by ordering it as a factory-installed
up to 2 GHz, it is ideal for extremely wideband option.
applications including radar and spread spectrum
Two 512 MB or 1 GB SDRAMs, support large
communication systems. The sampling clock is an
memory applications such as swinging buffers, digital
externally supplied sinusoidal clock at a frequency from
filters, DSP algorithms, and digital delay lines for
200 MHz to 2 GHz.
tracking receivers.
Data from each of the two A/D converters flows
Either two or four FPDP-II ports connect the FPGA
into an innovative dual-stage demultiplexer that packs
to external digital destinations such as processor boards,
groups of eight data samples into 80-bit words for
memory boards or storage devices.
delivery to the Xilinx Virtex-II Pro XC2VP70 FPGA
at one eighth the sampling frequency. This advanced A VMEbus interface supports configuration of the
circuit features the Atmel AT84CS001 demultiplexer FPGA over the backplane and also provides data and
which represents a significant improvement over previous control paths for runtime applications. A VXS interface
technology. is optionally available.
Because the sampling rate is well beyond conven- This Model is also available in a single-channel
tional digital downconverters, none are included on the version and in commercial as well as conduction-cooled
board. A very high-speed digital downconverter IP core versions.

41
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

2.2 GHz Clock, Sync and Gate Distribution Board

Model 6890 - VME


Front
Panel TTL / PECL Ch 1
Gate SELECTOR Ch 2
Enable LVPECL Ch 3 Front
GATE
CONTROL PROG BUFFER MUX BUFFER Ch 4 Panel
Front DELAY 1:2 2:1 Ch 5 Gate
1:8
Panel TTL / PECL REG Ch 6 Output
Gate SELECTOR Ch 7
Input Ch 8

Ch 1
Ch 2
Front POWER POWER Ch 3 Front
Panel SPLITTER SPLITTER Ch 4 Panel
Clock 1:2 BUFFER Ch 5 Clock
Input 1:8
1:2 Ch 6 Output
Ch 7
Ch 8

Front
Panel TTL / PECL Ch 1
Sync SELECTOR Ch 2
Enable REG LVPECL Ch 3 Front
SYNC BUFFER
CONTROL PROG BUFFER MUX Ch 4 Panel
DELAY 1:2 2:1 Ch 5 Sync
Front 1:8
Panel TTL / PECL Ch 6 Output
Sync SELECTOR Ch 7
Input Ch 8
Model 6890
VME
Figure 53

Model 6890 Clock, Sync and Gate Distribution splitter feeds a 1:2 buffer which distributes the clock
Board synchronizes multiple Pentek I/O boards within a signal to both the gate and synchronization circuits.
system. It enables synchronous sampling and timing
The 6890 features separate inputs for gate/trigger
for a wide range of multichannel high-speed data
and sync signals with user-selectable polarity. Each of
acquisition, DSP and software radio applications. Up
these inputs can be TTL or LVPECL. Separate Gate
to eight boards can be synchronized using the 6890,
Enable and Sync Enable inputs allow the user to enable
each receiving a common clock of up to 2.2 GHz along
or disable these circuits using an external signal.
with timing signals that can be used for synchronizing,
triggering and gating functions. A programmable delay allows the user to make
timing adjustments on the gate and sync signals before
Clock signals are applied from an external source
they are sent to an LVPECL buffer. A bank of eight
such as a high performance sine wave generator. Gate
MMCX connectors at the output of each buffer delivers
and sync signals can come from an external source, or
signals to up to eight boards.
from one supported board set to act as the master.
A 2:1 multiplexer in each circuit allows the gate/
The 6890 accepts clock input at +10 dBm to +14 dBm
trigger and sync signals to be registered with the input
with a frequency range from 800 MHz to 2.2 GHz and
clock signal before output, if desired.
uses a 1:2 power splitter to distribute the clock. The first
output of this power splitter sends the clock signal to a Sets of input and output cables for two to eight
1:8 splitter for distribution to up to eight boards using boards are available from Pentek.
SMA connectors. The second output of the 1:2 power

42
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

System Synchronizer and Distribution Board

Model 6891 - VME


Gate
Clock Sync Bus
Sync Output 1
Ch 1
Ch 2
Front Panel Gate
Ch 3
Gate Enable GATE Clock Sync Bus
Ch 4
GATE
LVPECL to Sync Bus Sync Output 2
PROG BUFFER MUX BUFFER Ch 5
CONTROL DELAY
Outputs 2-8
Front Panel 1:2 2:1 Ch 6
MUX 1:8 Gate
GateInput REG Ch 7
2:1 Ch 8 Clock Sync Bus
Sync Output 3

Ch 1 Gate
Ch 2 Clock Sync Bus
Ch 3 Sync Output 4
CLOCK
Front Panel LVPECL Ch 4
MUX to Sync Bus
Clock Input BUFFER Ch 5 Gate
2:1 Outputs 2-8
1:10
Ch 6 Clock Sync Bus
Ch 7 Sync Output 5
Ch 8
Gate
Clock Sync Bus
Ch 1 Sync Output 6
Front Panel Ch 2
Sync Enable REG Ch 3 Gate
SYNC PROG BUFFER MUX SYNC
LVPECL Ch 4 Clock Sync Bus
CONTROL DELAY 1:2 2:1 BUFFER
to Sync Bus
Front Panel Ch 5 Sync Output 7
MUX
Outputs 2-8
Sync Input Ch 6
1:8
2:1 Ch 7 Gate
Ch 8
Clock Sync Bus
Gate Output 8
Sync
Sync Bus Clock
Input Sync
Model 6891
VME
Figure 54

Model 6891 System Synchronizer and Distribution Clock signals can be applied from an external source
Board synchronizes multiple Pentek I/O modules within a such as a high performance sine-wave generator. Gate/trigger
system. It enables synchronous sampling and timing for a and sync signals can come from an external system source.
wide range of multichannel high-speed data acquisition, Alternately, a Sync Bus connector accepts LVPECL inputs
DSP and software radio applications. from any compatible Pentek products to drive the clock,
sync and gate/trigger signals.
Up to eight modules can be synchronized using the
6891, each receiving a common clock up to 500 MHz The 6891 provides eight front panel Sync Bus output
along with timing signals that can be used for synchroniz- connectors, compatible with a wide range of Pentek I/O
ing, triggering and gating functions. For larger systems, modules. The Sync Bus is distributed through ribbon
up to eight 6891s can be linked together to provide cables, simplifying system design. The 6891 accepts clock
synchronization for up to 64 I/O modules producing input at +10 dBm to +14 dBm with a frequency range
systems with up to 256 channels. from 1 kHz to 800 MHz. This clock is used to register
all sync and gate/trigger signals as well as providing a
Model 6891 accepts three TTL input signals from
sample clock to all connected I/O modules.
external sources: one for clock, one for gate or trigger
and one for a synchronization signal. Two additional A programmable delay allows the user to make
inputs are provided for separate gate and sync enable signals. timing adjustments on the gate and sync signals before
they are sent to an LVPECL buffer for output through
the Sync Bus connectors.

43
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

Multifrequency Clock Synthesizer

Model 7190 PMC Model 7290 6U cPCI Model 7390 3U cPCI Model 7690 PCI
Model 7790 FFull-length
ull-length PCIe Model 7890 Half-length PCIe Model 5390 3U VPX
Reference Clock Out
In CLOCK 1 Out
SYNTHESIZER 1
2
QUAD AND JITTER 4 In C
VCXO CLEANER 8 Clock Out
R 2
A A 16
O
S
Clock Out
S Out
CLOCK 3
1 B
SYNTHESIZER 2 A Clock Out
QUAD AND JITTER 4 In
CLEANER
R 4
VCXO 8
B B 16
S
Clock Out
W Out
5
I
CLOCK 1
SYNTHESIZER T Clock Out
2
AND JITTER 4 C 6
QUAD In
CLEANER 8 H
VCXO
C C 16 Clock Out
Out
7
Supports:
CLOCK any In to any Out,
1
SYNTHESIZER 2 any In to multiple
QUAD AND JITTER 4 In Outs
VCXO CLEANER 8 Clock Out
D 16 Out
Model 7190 D 8
PMC Control
PCI INTERFACE
PCI BUS
32 (32 Bits / 66 MHz)

Figure 55

Model 7190 generates up to eight synthesized clock The CDC7005 includes phase-locking circuitry
signals suitable for driving A/D and D/A converters in that locks the frequency of its associated VCXO to an
high-performance real-time data acquisition and software input reference of 5 MHz to 100 MHz.
radio systems. The clocks offer exceptionally low phase noise
Eight front panel SMC connectors supply synthesized
and jitter to preserve the signal quality of the data converters.
clock outputs driven from the five clock output drivers.
These clocks are synthesized from on-board quad VCXOs
This supports a single identical clock to all eight outputs
and can be phase-locked to an external reference signal.
or up to five different clocks to various outputs. With
The 7190 uses four Texas Instruments CDC7005 clock four independent quad VCXOs and each CDC7005
synthesizer and jitter cleaner devices. Each CDC7005 is paired capable of providing up to five different submultiple
with a dedicated VCXO to provide the base frequency for clocks, a wide range of clock configurations is possible. In
the clock synthesizer. Each of the four VCXOs can be systems where more than five different clock outputs are
independently programmed to generate one of four frequen- required simultaneously, multiple 7190s can be used and
cies between 50 MHz and 700 MHz. phase-locked with the 5 MHz to 100 MHz system reference.
The CDC7005 can output the selected frequency Versions of the 7190 are also available as a PCIe full-
of its associated VCXO, or generate submultiples using length board (Models 7790 and 7790D dual density),
divisors of 2, 4, 8 or 16. The four CDC7005s can output PCIe half-length board (Model 7890), 3U VPX board
up to five frequencies each. The 7190 can be programmed to (Model 5390), PCI board (Model 7690), 6U cPCI
route any of these 20 frequencies to the modules five (Models 7290 and 7290D dual density), or 3U cPCI
output drivers. (Model 7390).

44
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

Programmable Multifrequency Clock Synthesizer

Model 7191 PMC Model 7291 6U cPCI Model 7391 3U cPCI Model 7691 PCI
Model 7791 FFull-length
ull-length PCIe Model 7891 Half-length PCIe Model 5391 3U VPX
Reference Clock Out
In CLOCK 1 Out
SYNTHESIZER 1
2
PROGRAM AND JITTER 4 In C
VCXO CLEANER 8 Clock Out
R 2
A A 16
O
S
Clock Out
S Out
CLOCK 3
1 B
SYNTHESIZER 2 A Clock Out
PROGRAM AND JITTER 4 In
CLEANER
R 4
VCXO 8
B B 16
S
Clock Out
W Out
5
I
CLOCK 1
SYNTHESIZER T Clock Out
2
AND JITTER 4 C 6
PROGRAM In
CLEANER 8 H
VCXO
C C 16 Clock Out
Out
7
Supports:
CLOCK any In to any Out,
1
SYNTHESIZER 2 any In to multiple
PROGRAM AND JITTER 4 In Outs
VCXO CLEANER 8 Clock Out
D 16 Out
Model 7191 D 8
PMC Control
PCI INTERFACE
PCI BUS
32 (32 Bits / 66 MHz)

Figure 56

Model 7191 generates up to eight synthesized clock The CDC7005 includes phase-locking circuitry
signals suitable for driving A/D and D/A converters in that locks the frequency of its associated VCXO to an
high-performance real-time data acquisition and software input reference of 5 MHz to 100 MHz.
radio systems. The clocks offer exceptionally low phase noise
Eight front panel SMC connectors supply synthesized
and jitter to preserve the signal quality of the data converters.
clock outputs driven from the five clock output drivers.
These clocks are synthesized from programmable VCXOs
This supports a single identical clock to all eight outputs
and can be phase-locked to an external reference signal.
or up to five different clocks to various outputs. With
The 7191 uses four Texas Instruments CDC7005 clock four programmable VCXOs and each CDC7005
synthesizer and jitter cleaner devices. Each CDC7005 is paired capable of providing up to five different submultiple
with a dedicated VCXO to provide the base frequency for clocks, a wide range of clock configurations is possible. In
the clock synthesizer. Each of the four VCXOs can be systems where more than five different clock outputs are
independently programmed to a desired frequency between required simultaneously, multiple 7191s can be used and
50 MHz and 700 MHz with 32-bit tuning resolution. phase-locked with the 5 MHz to 100 MHz system reference.
The CDC7005 can output the programmed frequency Versions of the 7191 are also available as a PCIe full-
of its associated VCXO, or generate submultiples using length board (Models 7791 and 7791D dual density),
divisors of 2, 4, 8 or 16. The four CDC7005s can output PCIe half-length board (Model 7891), 3U VPX board
up to five frequencies each. The 7191 can be programmed to (Model 5391), PCI board (Model 7691), 6U cPCI
route any of these 20 frequencies to the modules five (Models 7291 and 7291D dual density), or 3U cPCI
output drivers. (Model 7391).

45
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

Clock and Sync Generator for I/O Modules

Model 9190 - Rack-mount


Rack-mount

Model 9190
LVDS To
DIFF. Module
DRIVERS No. 1
Timing
From Signals Timing
Module LVDS Signals To
DIFF. LVDS
Master RECEIVER DIFF. Module
Source DRIVERS No. 2
Timing
Signals Multiplexer
Front
Switches
Panel LVDS To
LINE Clock
Input DIFF. Module
RCVRS DRIVERS
SMA Ext. Clock No. 80
Connectors

Front
OPTIONAL Panel
INTERNAL LINE
DRIVERS Output
OSCILLATOR
SMA
Connectors

Figure 57

Model 9190 Clock and Sync Generator synchronizes Buffered versions of the clock and five timing
multiple Pentek I/O modules within a system to provide signals are available as outputs on the 9190s front panel
synchronous sampling and timing for a wide range of SMA connectors.
high-speed, multichannel data acquisition, DSP and
Model 9190 is housed in a line-powered, 1.75 in.
software radio applications. Up to 80 I/O modules can
high metal chassis suitable for mounting in a standard
be driven from the Model 9190, each receiving a
19 in. equipment rack, either above or below the cage
common clock and up to five different timing signals
holding the I/O modules.
which can be used for synchronizing, triggering and
gating functions. Separate cable assemblies extend from openings in
the front panel of the 9190 to the front panel clock and
Clock and timing signals can come from six front
sync connectors of each I/O module. Mounted between
panel SMA user inputs or from one I/O module set to act
two standard rack-mount card cages, Model 9190 can
as the timing signal master. (In this case, the master I/O
drive a maximum of 80 clock and sync cables, 40 to the
module will not be synchronous with the slave modules
card cage above and 40 to the card cage below. Fewer
due to delays through the 9190.) Alternately, the master
cables may be installed for smaller systems.
clock can come from a socketed, user-replaceable crystal
oscillator within the Model 9190.

46
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

Rack-mount Real-
Real-Time R
eal-Time ecording and Playback TTransceiver
Recording ransceiver Instrument

Model RTS 2701

Gigabit
Ethernet
DIGITAL
CH 1 125 MHz DOWN-
In 14-bit A/D CONVERTER USB
INTEL
DIGITAL PROCESSOR
CH 2 125 MHz DOWN- PS/2
In 14-bit A/D CONVERTER Keyboard
DDR
SYSTEM DRIVE SDRAM PS/2
500 MHz DIGITAL
Out Mouse
16-bit D/AA UPCONVERTER
HOST PROCESSOR
Video
Sample
Output
Clock A In
Sample
Clock B In
CLOCK &
TTL Gate/
SYNC
TriggerIn
GENERATOR
TTL Sync
In
MODEL
DATA DRIVES DATA DRIVES
Clock/Sync 7641-420
Bus
DATA DRIVES DATA DRIVES
XTAL XTAL
OSC B OSC B
RAID

MODEL RTS 2701

Figure 58

The Pentek RTS 2701 is a highly scalable recording applications for analysis, signal processing, and waveform
and playback system in an industrial rack-mount PC server generation. File headers include recording parameter
chassis. Built on the Windows XP professional workstation, settings and time stamping so that the signal viewer
it utilizes the Model 7641-420 multiband transceiver correctly formats and annotates the displayed signals.
PCI module with two 14-bit 125 MHz A/Ds, ASIC
A high-performance PCI Express SATA RAID
DDC, and DUC with two 16-bit 500 MHz D/As.
controller connects to multiple SATA hard drives to
The factory-installed IP core 420 provides a dual support storage to 4 terabytes and real-time sustained
wideband DDC and expands the decimation range of recording rates to 480 MB/sec.
the ASIC DDC. The core also includes an interpolation
Multiple RAID levels, including 0, 1, 5, 6, 10 and
filter that expands the interpolation factor of the ASIC
50, provide a choice for the required level of redundancy.
DUC. The Model 7641-420 combines downconverter and
The Pentek RTS 2701 serves equally well as a develop-
upconverter functions in one PCI module and offers
ment platform for advanced research projects and proof-
recording and playback capabilities.
of-concept prototypes, or as a cost-effective strategy for
Included with this instrument is Penteks SystemFlow deploying high-performance, multichannel embedded
recording software.The RTS 2701 uses a native NTFS systems.
record/playback file format for easy access by user

47
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

Configurable Real-
Real-Time R
eal-Time ecording and Playback Instrument
Recording

Model RTS 2706

2 Gigabit
Ethernet
Channels 200 MHz DIGITAL 6
DOWN- USB 2.0
In 16-bit A/D
0 to 8 CONVERTER
INTEL 2
Channels Decimation: eSATA
PROCESSOR
2 to 65,536
Model RTS 2706
COTS PS/2
DDR Keyboard
SYSTEM DRIVE SDRAM PS/2
Channels 800 MHz DIGITAL Mouse
Out or 1.25 GHz UP- Video
16-bit D/A CONVERTER Output
0 to 8 Decimation: HOST PROCESSOR
GPS
Channels 2 to 65,536 RUNNING SYSTEMFLOW
Antenna
Model RTS 2706 (Optional)
Rugged

DATA DRIVES DATA DRIVES

DATA DRIVES DATA DRIVES

UP TO 20 TB RAID

MODEL RTS 2706

Figure 59

The Pentek RTS 2706 is a turnkey, multiband Included with this instrument is Penteks SystemFlow
recording and playback instrument for recording and recording software. Optional GPS time and position
reproducing high-bandwidth signals. The RTS 2706 stamping allows the user to record this critical signal
uses 16-bit, 200 MHz A/D converters and provides information.
sustained recording rates up to 1600 MB/sec in four-channel
Built on a Windows 7 Professional workstation with
configuration.
high performance Intel CoreTM i7 processor the RTS 2706
The RTS 2706 uses Penteks high-powered Virtex-6-based allows the user to install post processing and analysis
Cobalt modules, that provide flexibility in channel count, tools to operate on the recorded data. The instrument
with optional digital downconversion capabilities. Optional records data to the native NTFS file system, providing
16-bit, 800 MHz D/A converters with digital upconversion immediate access to the recorded data.
allow real-time reproduction of recorded signals.
The RTS 2706 is configured in a 4U 19" rack-mount-
A/D sampling rates, DDC decimations and band- able chassis, with hot-swap data drives, front panel USB
widths, D/A sampling rates and DUC interpolations are ports and I/O connectors on the rear panel. Systems are
among the GUI-selectable system parameters, providing scalable to accommodate multiple chassis to increase
a fully-programmable instrument capable of recording channel counts and aggregate data rates. All recorder
and reproducing a wide range of signals. chassis are connected via Ethernet and can be controlled
from a single GUI either locally or from a remote PC.

48
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Products

Por table R
ortable eal-
Real-Time R
eal-Time ecording and Playback TTransceiver
Recording ransceiver Instrument

Model RTS 2721

Gigabit
Ethernet
DIGITAL HIGH RESOLUTION
CH 1 125 MHz DOWN- VIDEO DISPLAY
In 14-bit A/D CONVERTER USB

DIGITAL
CH 2 125 MHz DOWN- PS/2
In 14-bit A/D INTEL
CONVERTER Keyboard
PROCESSOR

500 MHz DIGITAL PS/2


Out
16-bit D/AA UPCONVERTER Mouse
DDR
SYSTEM DRIVE SDRAM
Sample Aux Video
Clock A In Output
Sample HOST PROCESSOR
Clock B In
CLOCK &
TTL Gate/
SYNC
TriggerIn
GENERATOR
TTL Sync
In
MODEL
DATA DRIVES DATA DRIVES
Clock/Sync 7641-420
Bus
DATA DRIVES DATA DRIVES
XTAL XTAL
OSC B OSC B
RAID

MODEL RTS 2721

Figure 60

The Pentek RTS 2721 is a turnkey real-time record- Fully supported by Penteks SystemFlow recording
ing and playback instrument supplied in a convenient software, the RTS 2721 uses a native NTFS record/play-
briefcase-size package that weighs just 30 pounds. Built back file format for easy access by user applications for
on the Windows XP professional workstation, it includes analysis, signal processing, and waveform generation.
a dual-core Xeon processor, a high-resolution 17-inch File headers include recording parameter settings and
LCD monitor and a high-performance SATA RAID time stamping so that the signal viewer correctly formats
controller. and annotates the displayed signals.
The RTS 2721 utilizes the Model 7641 multiband A high-performance PCI Express SATA RAID
transceiver PCI module with two 14-bit 125 MHz controller connects to multiple SATA hard drives to
A/Ds, ASIC DDC, and DUC with two 16-bit 500 MHz support storage to 3 terabytes and real-time sustained
D/As. The factory-installed IP core 420 provides a recording rates up to 480 MB/sec.
dual wideband DDC and expands the decimation range
Penteks portable recorder instrument provides a
of the ASIC DDC. The core also includes an interpola-
flexible architecture that is easily customized to meet
tion filter that expands the interpolation factor of the
special needs. Multiple RAID levels, including 0, 1, 5,
ASIC DUC.
6, 10 and 50, provide a choice for the required level of
The Model 7641-420 combines downconverter and redundancy. With its wide range of programmable
upconverter functions in one PCI module and offers decimation and interpolation, the system supports signal
real-time recording capabilities. bandwidths from 8 kHz to 60MHz.

49
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Software Defined Radio Handbook

Pentek SystemFlow Recording Sof


Recording tware
Software

Recorder Interface Hardware Configuration


Interface

Signal Viewer

Figure 61

The Pentek SystemFlow Recording Software provides The SystemFlow Signal Viewer includes a virtual
a rich set of function libraries and tools for controlling all oscilloscope and spectrum analyzer for signal monitoring
Pentek RTS real-time data acquisition and recording in both the time and frequency domains. It is extremely
instruments. SystemFlow software allows developers to useful for previewing live inputs prior to recording, and
configure and customize system interfaces and behavior. for monitoring signals as they are being recorded to help
ensure successful recording sessions. The viewer can also
The Recorder Interface includes configuration,
be used to inspect and analyze the recorded files after
record, playback and status screens, each with intuitive
the recording is complete.
controls and indicators. The user can easily move between
screens to set configuration parameters, control and Advanced signal analysis capabilities include automatic
monitor a recording, play back a recorded signal and calculators for signal amplitude and frequency, second
monitor board temperatures and voltage levels. and third harmonic components, THD (total harmonic
distortion) and SINAD (signal to noise and distortion).
The Hardware Configuration Interface provides
With time and frequency zoom, panning modes and dual
entries for input source, center frequency, decimation, as
annotated cursors to mark and measure points of interest,
well as gate and trigger information. All parameters
the SystemFlow Signal Viewer can often eliminate the
contain limit-checking and integrated help to provide an
need for a separate oscilloscope or spectrum analyzer in
easier-to-use out-of-the-box experience.
the field.

50
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Applications

Applications of Sof tware Defined R


Software adio
Radio

Tracking Receiver System


Software Radio Transceiver System
512-Channel SDR System in a single VMEbus Slot
L-Band Signal Processing System
8-Channel Beamforming System

Software Radio can be used in many different systems: tightly-packed frequency division multiplexed voice
channels.
Tracking receivers can be highly automated because
software radio allows DSPs to perform the signal Direction finding and beamforming are ideal
identification and analysis functions as well as the applications for digital receivers because of their excel-
adaptable tuning functions. lent channel-to-channel phase and gain matching and
consistent delay characteristics.
Signal intelligence applications and radar benefit
from the tight coupling of the A/D, DDC, DUC, and As a general capability, any system requiring a
DSP functions to process wideband signals. tunable bandpass filter should be considered a candidate
for using DDCs. Take a look at the following application
Cellular phone applications are one of the strongest
examples to give you some more details.
high-volume applications because of the high density of

51
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Software Defined Radio Handbook

Applications

Tracking Receiver System


Receiver

215 MHz 128 MB Delayed Data


12-Bit A/D SDRAM
AD9430

FPGA
Peaks Power Tuning 32 32
FFT IP PC DDC FIFO
CORE CORE
Controller

16 MB
FLASH

Model 6821 215 MHz A/D Converter with FPGA

System Highlights
A/D data delivered into SDRAM acts as a digital delay memory
A/D data also delivered into a Pentek FFT IP core in FPGA
Model 6821 commercial (left) and
FFT core detects the strength of signals at each analysis frequency conduction-cooled version
PowerPC controller in FPGA sorts signals according to peak strenth
PowerPC controller also tunes DDC IP core in FPGA to the strongest signal frequencies
Delayed data from SDRAM feeds DDC IP core to compensate for FFT calculation time
DDC captures these moving signals in real time and downconverts them to baseband

Figure 62

A tracking receiver locates unknown signals, locks the FPGA, accordingly. The delayed data from the
onto them and tracks them if their frequency changes. circular buffer feeds the input of this DDC core.
As shown above, to implement this receiver, we use The digital delay can be set to match the time it
the 128 MB SDRAM of the Model 6821 to create a takes for the FFT energy detection and the processor
delay memory function. algorithm for the tuning frequency decision, so that
frequency-agile or transient signals can be recovered
Samples from the A/D are sent into a circular buffer
from their onset. The dehopped baseband output is
within the SDRAM and also to a Pentek FFT IP core
delivered to the rest of the system through the FPDP
implemented in the FPGA. The spectral peaks of the FFT
port or, optionally, across a VXS link.
indicate the frequencies of signals of interest present at the
input. This Model is also available in a dual-channel
version as Model 6822. Both Models are available in
The PowerPC microcontroller of the FPGA digests
commercial and conduction-cooled versions.
this frequency list and decides which signals to track. It
then tunes the Pentek DDC core, also implemented in

52
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Applications

4- Channel Sof
4-Channel tware R
Software adio TTransceiver
Radio ransceiver System

CH A PENTEK Model 7141 PENTEK Model 7141 CH A


OUT OUT
CH A IN CH A IN
125 MHz 125 MHz
500 MHz 320 MHz 14bit A/D 14bit A/D 320 MHz 500 MHz
16bit D/A DUC DUC 16bit D/A
CH B IN CH B IN
125 MHz 125 MHz
CH B 32 14bit A/D 14bit A/D CH B
OUT 128 MB 32 128 MB OUT
SDRAM XILINX CLK A XILINX SDRAM
CLK A
128 MB 32
VIRTEX-II VIRTEX-II 32
DUAL TIMING CLK B CLK B DUAL TIMING 128 MB
SDRAM PRO BUS GEN BUS GEN PRO SDRAM
CLOCK CLOCK
256 MB 32 & SYNC & SYNC 32
VP50 VP50 256 MB
SDRAM 4 BUS BUS 4 SDRAM
QUAD QUAD
DDC DDC
64 4 GC4106 4
64
GC4106
PCI INTERFACE PCI INTERFACE
PCI 32 16 MB 16 MB 32
PCI
FLASH FLASH

P14
PENTEK Model 4207

Front Panel MPC8641 Dual Quad


XMC
XMC // Optical Single/Dual Core 1000BT RS- XMC //
XMC
PMC
PMC Site
Site Interface FLASH DDR2
Enet 232C PMC Site
PMC Site
To VME P2 32 MB
FLASH
256 MB SDRAM
1 GB

SRIO 8x
PCI-X Bus 0 4x PCI-X Bus 1
(64 Bits, 100 MHz) (64 Bits, 100 MHz)
PCIe to
PCIe to
PCI-X Bridge
PCI-X Bridge

Dual
Dual
4 Gb
4 Gbit
Fibre
2x Channel
Fibre Channel
Controller
Dual 2x Dual
4x 4x
Zero
Latency
Dual
Crossbar Virtex-4 FPGA
VME64x 4x
Switch XC4VFX60 / FX100
2eSST

Dual FLASH
32 MB DDR2 SDRAM
Gigabit 2x
4x FLASH
128 MB 1 GB
VME64x ENET-x VXS VITA 41

Figure 63

This system accepts four analog inputs from Signal processing resources include the Freescale
baseband or IF signals with bandwidths up to 50 MHz MPC8641 AltiVec processor and an FX60 or FX100
and IF center frequencies up to 150 MHz. A total of Virtex-4 FPGA on the Model 4207 I/O processor, plus
eight DDC channels are independently tunable across a Virtex-II VP-50 FPGA on each PMC module.
the input band and can deliver downconverted output
Using these on-board processing resources this
signal bandwidths from audio up to 2.5 MHz.
powerful system can process analog input data locally
Four analog outputs can deliver baseband or IF and deliver it to the analog outputs. It can also be used
signals with bandwidths up to about 50 MHz and IF as a pre- and post-processing I/O front end for sending
center frequencies up to 100 MHz. The system supports and receiving data to other system boards connected
four independent D/A channels or two upconverted over the VMEbus or through switched fabric links using
channels with real or quadrature outputs. the VXS interface.
Ruggedized and conduction-cooled versions of the
boards used in this system are available.

53
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Software Defined Radio Handbook

Applications

512- Channel Sof


512-Channel tware R
Software adio R
Radio ecording System in a Single VMEbus Slot
Recording

CH A PENTEK Model 7141-430 PENTEK Model 7141-430 CH A


OUT OUT
CH A IN CH A IN
125 MHz 125 MHz
500 MHz 320 MHz 14bit A/D 14bit A/D 320 MHz 500 MHz
16bit D/A DUC XILINX CH B IN CH B IN
XILINX DUC 16bit D/A
VIRTEX-II 125 MHz 125 MHz
CH B
VIRTEX-II CH B
32 14bit A/D 14bit A/D
OUT 128 MB PRO PRO 32 128 MB OUT
SDRAM CLK A SDRAM
VP50 CLK A VP50
128 MB 32 CLK B 32
DUAL TIMING CLK B DUAL TIMING 128 MB
SDRAM IP CORE
CORE BUS GEN BUS GEN SDRAM
IP CLOCK CLOCK IP CORE
256 MB 32 430
430 & SYNC & SYNC 430 32 256 MB
SDRAM 256-CHAN
256-CHAN BUS BUS 256-CHAN
4 4 SDRAM
DIGITAL
DIGITAL QUAD QUAD DIGITAL
DOWN
DOWN DDC JBOD Disk Array DDC DOWN
64 CONVERTER 4 4
CONVERTER GC4106 GC4106 CONVERTER 64
PCI INTERFACE PCI INTERFACE
PCI 32 16 MB 16 MB 32
PCI
FLASH FLASH

P14 2x PENTEK Model 4207

Front Panel MPC8641 Dual Quad


XMC
XMC // Optical Single/Dual Core 1000BT RS- XMC //
XMC
PMC
PMC Site
Site Interface DDR2
Enet 232C PMC Site
PMC Site
To VME P2 FLASH
32 MB
FLASH
256 MB SDRAM
1 GB
8x
PCI-X Bus 0 8x PCI-X Bus 1
(64 Bits, 100 MHz) SRIO (64 Bits, 100 MHz)
PCIe to
PCIe to
PCI-X Bridge
PCI-X Bridge

Dual
Dual
4 Gb
4 Gbit
Fibre
2x Channel Controller
Fibre Channel
Dual 2x Dual
4x 4x
Zero
Latency
Dual
VME64x Crossbar 4x Virtex-4 FPGA
Switch XC4VFX60 / FX100
2eSST

Dual FLASH
32 MB DDR2 SDRAM
Gigabit 2x 4x FLASH
128 MB 1 GB
VME64x ENET-x VXS VITA 41

Figure 64

Each Model 7141 PMC features the Xilinx Virtex-II Penteks SystemFlow software presents an intuitive
Pro VP50 with a Pentek 256-Channel Digital Down- graphical user interface (GUI) to set up the DDC
converter (DDC) IP Core 430. Each channel provides channels and recording mode. The GUI executes on a
independent tuning frequency with a global decimation Windows host PC connected to the 4207 via Ethernet.
from 1024 to 9984. Either one of the two 14-bit A/D
A SystemFlow signal viewer on the PC allows
converters operating at 125 MHz sample rate can feed
previewing of data prior to recording and viewing of
this core producing a range of output bandwidths from
recorded data files in both time and frequency domains.
10 kHz to 100 kHz.
Files can be moved between the Fibre Channel disk and
A dual 4-Gbit Fibre Channel copper interface the PC over Ethernet.
allows wideband A/D data or DDC outputs from all
This system is ideal for downconverting and capturing
512 channels to be recorded in real time to a RAID or
real time signal data from a very large number of
JBOD disk array at aggregate rates up to 640 MB/sec.
channels in an extremely compact, low cost system.

54
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Applications

L-Band Signal PProcessing


rocessing System

Analog Digital
Analog Mixer
L-Band Analog Baseband I
LNA Lowpass A/D
Filter
Baseband Amps
VIRTEX-6
Analog Mixer
RF Input Analog FPGA
Lowpass Baseband Q
A/D
Filter
Q I
Analog Local
Oscillator Maxim
Synthesizer MAX2112 x8 PCIe

Pentek 78690 PCIe Board

WINDOWS
PC

Figure 65

The Cobalt Model 78690 L-Band RF Tuner targets The complex I and Q outputs are digitized by two
reception and processing of digitally-modulated RF 200 MHz 16-bit A/D converters operating synchronously.
signals such as satellite television and terrestrial wireless
The Virtex-6 FPGA is a powerful resource for
communications. The 78690 requires only an antenna
recovering and processing a wide range of signals
and a host computer to form a complete L-band SDR
while supporting decryption, decoding, demodula-
development platform.
tion, detection, and analysis. It is ideal for intercepting
This system receives L-Band signals between 925 MHz or monitoring traffic in SIGINT and COMINT
and 2175 MHz directly from an antenna. Signals above applications. Other applications that benefit include
this range such as C Band, Ku Band and K band can be mobile phones, GPS, satellite terminals, military telem-
downconverted to L-Band through an LNB (Low Noise etry, digital video and audio in TV broadcasting satellites,
Block) downconverter installed in the receiving antenna. and voice, video and data communications.
The Maxim Max2112 L-Band Tuner IC features a This L-Band signal processing system is ideal as a
low-noise amplifier with programmable gain from 0 to front end for government and military systems. Its small
65 dB and a synthesized local oscillator programmable size adderesses space-limited applications. Ruggedized
from 925 to 2175 MHz. The complex analog mixer options are also available from Pentek with the Models
translates the input signals down to DC. Baseband 71690 XMC module and the 53690 OpenVPX board to
amplifiers provide programmable gain from 0 to 15 dB address UAV applications and other severe environments.
in steps of 1 dB. The bandwidth of the baseband lowpass
Development support for this system is provided by
filters can be programmed from 4 to 40 MHz . The
the Pentek ReadyFlow board support package for Windows,
Maxim IC accommodates full-scale input levels of -50 dBm
Linux and VxWorks. Also available is the Pentek GateFlow
to +10 dbm and delivers I and Q complex baseband outputs.
FPGA Design Kit to support custom algorithm development.

55
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Applications

8- Channel OpenVPX Beamforming System


8-Channel

VPX P1
Slot 1 VPX
Model 53661 4X Sum In BACKPLANE
AURORA EP01
BEAMFORM
4X Sum Out
SUMMATION
EP02
4X Aurora
200 MHz DDC 1 FP C
RF Tuner 16-bit A/D G + Phase
x4 PCIe x4 PCIe
200 MHz DDC 2 DP01
RF Tuner 16-bit A/D G + Phase x4
PCIe
200 MHz DDC 3
RF Tuner I/F
16-bit A/D G + Phase

200 MHz DDC 4 VPX P1


RF Tuner 16-bit A/D G + Phase VPX P1
Slot 3 CPU
Slot 2

Model 53661 4X Sum In


AURORA EP01 FP A
BEAMFORM 4X Sum Out
SUMMATION
EP02 FP B
OpenVPX
CPU
200 MHz DDC 1 FPC DP02 Board
RF Tuner 16-bit A/D G + Phase
x4 PCIe x4 PCIe
200 MHz DDC 2 DP01 DP01
RF Tuner 16-bit A/D
x4
G + Phase
PCIe
200 MHz DDC 3 I/F
RF Tuner 16-bit A/D G + Phase

200 MHz DDC 4


RF Tuner 16-bit A/D G + Phase

Figure 66

Two Model 53661 boards are installed in slots 1 and The first four signal channels are processed in the
2 of an OpenVPX backplane, along with a CPU board upper left 53661 board in VPX slot 1, where the 4-channel
in slot 3. Eight dipole antennas designed for receiving beamformed sum is propagated through the 4X Aurora
2.5 GHz signals feed RF Tuners containing low noise Sum Out link across the backplane to the 4X Aurora Sum
amplifiers, local oscillators and mixers. The RF Tuners In port on the second 53661 in slot 2. The 4-channel local
translate the 2.5 GHz antenna frequency signal down summation from the second 53661 is added to the propa-
to an IF frequency of 50 MHz. gated sum from the first board to form the complete 8-channel
sum. This final sum is sent across the x4 PCIe link to the
The 200 MHz 16-bit A/Ds digitize the IF signals
CPU card in slot 3.
and perform further frequency downconversion to baseband,
with a DDC decimation of 128. This provides I+Q complex Assignment of the three OpenVPX 4X links on the
output samples with a bandwidth of about 1.25 MHz. Phase Model 53661 boards is simplified through the use of a
and gain coefficients for each channel are applied to crossbar switch which allows the 53661 to operate with
steer the array for directionality. a wide variety of different backplanes.
The CPU board in VPX slot 3 sends commands Because OpenVPX does not restrict the use of serial
and coefficients across the backplane over two x4 PCIe protocols across the backplane links, mixed protocol
links, or OpenVPX fat pipes. architectures like the one shown are fully supported.

56
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Applications

8- Channel OpenVPX Beamforming Demo system


8-Channel

Beamforming Demo Control Panel Theoretical 7-lobe Beamforming Patern Real-Life Beamforming Patern

Figure 67

Beamforming Demo System sensitivity across arrival angles from -90O to +90O
perpendicular to the plane of the array.
The beamforming demo system is equipped with a
Control Panel that runs under Windows on the CPU The classic 7-lobe pattern for an ideal 8-element
board. It includes an automatic signal scanner to detect array for a signal arriving at 0O angle (directly in front of
the strongest signal frequency arriving from a test the array) is shown above. Below the lobe pattern is a
transmitter. This frequency is centered around the polar plot showing a single vector pointing to the
50 MHz IF frequency of the RF downconverter. Once computed angle of arrival. This is derived from identify-
the frequency is identified, the eight DDCs are set ing the lobe with the maximum response.
accordingly to bring that signal down to 0 Hz for
summation. An actual plot of a real-life transmitter is also shown
for a source directly in front of the display. In this case
The control panel software also allows specific the perfect lobe pattern is affected by physical objects,
hardware settings for all of the parameters for the eight reflections, cable length variations and minor differences
channels including gain, phase, and sync delay. in the antennas. Nevertheless, the directional information
is computed quite well. As the signal source is moved left
An additional display shows the beam-formed pattern of
and right in front of the array, the peak lobe moves with
the array. This display is formed by adjusting the phase
it, changing the computed angle of arrival.
shift of each of the eight channels to provide maximum
This demo system is available online at Pentek. If
you are interested in viewing a live demonstration, please
let us know of your interest by clicking on this link:
Beamforming Demo.

57
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Summar
Summaryy

DSP Boards for VMEbus SDR Benefits

Freescale Altivec G4 Benefits of Software Defined Radio:


PowerPC
Texas Instruments Reduction of DSP processing demands
C6000 DSPs Very fast tuning
Single, Dual, Quad and Fast bandwidth selection
Octal Processor versions
PMC, PMC/XMC, PCI Zero frequency drift and error
and cPCI I/O peripherals Precise, stable filter characteristics
VME/VXS platforms Excellent dynamic range

Figure 68 Figure 69

Pentek offers a comprehensive array of VMEbus To summarize, we restate the major benefits:
DSP boards featuring the AltiVec G4 PowerPC from
SDRs can dramatically reduce the DSP requirements for
Freescale and the TMS320C6000 family of processor
systems which need to process signals contained within a certain
products from Texas Instruments.
frequency band of a wideband signal.
On-board processor densities range from one to
The fast tuning of the digital local oscillator and the
eight DSPs with many different memory and interface
easy bandwidth selection in the decimating digital filter
options available.
and interpolation filter make the SDR easy to control.
The Models 4205 and 4207 I/O processor boards
Since the entire circuitry uses digital signal process-
feature the latest G4 PowerPCs, accept PMC mezzanines
ing, the characteristics are precise, predictable, and will
and include built-in Fibre Channel interfaces.
not drift with time, temperature or aging. This also
The Models 4294 and 4295 processor boards feature means excellent channel-to-channel matching and no need
four MPC74xx G4 PowerPC processors utilizing the for calibration, alignment or maintenance.
AltiVec vector processor capable of delivering several
With the addition of FPGA technology, dramatic
GFLOPS of processing power.
increases in system density have been coupled with a
The Models 4292 and 4293 processor boards feature significantly lower cost per channel. Furthermore,
the Texas Instruments latest TMS320C6000 family of FPGA technology allows one to incorporate custom
fixed-point DSPs that represent a 10-fold increase in algorithms right at the front end of these systems.
processing power over previous designs.
As we have seen, there are inherently many benefits
Once again, the ability of the system designer to and advantages to when using SDR. We hope that this
freely choose the most appropriate DSP processor for introduction has been informative. We stand ready to
each software radio application, facilitates system discuss your requirements and help you configure a
requirement changes and performance upgrades. complete SDR system.
Full software development tools are available for work- For all the latest information about Pentek SDRs,
stations running Windows and Linux with many different DSP boards and data acquisition products, be sure to
development system configurations available. visit Penteks comprehensive website regularly.

58
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Links

The following links provide you with additional information about the Pentek products
presented in this handbook: just click on the model number. Links are also provided to other
handbooks or catalogs that may be of interest in your software radio development projects.

Model Description Page


7131 Multiband Receiver - PMC 19
7231 Multiband Receiver - 6U cPCI 19
7331 Multiband Receiver - 3U cPCI 19
7631A Multiband Receiver - PCI 19
5331 Multiband Receiver - 3U VPX 19
7141 Multiband Transceiver with Virtex-II Pro FPGA - PMC/XMC 20
7141-703 Conduction-cooled Multiband Transceiver with Virtex-II FPGA - PMC/XMC 20
7241 Multiband Transceiver with Virtex-II Pro FPGA - 6U cPCI 20
7341 Multiband Transceiver with Virtex-II Pro FPGA - 3U cPCI 20
7641 Multiband Transceiver with Virtex-II Pro FPGA - PCI 20
7741 Multiband Transceiver with Virtex-II Pro FPGA - Full-length PCIe 20
7841 Multiband Transceiver with Virtex-II Pro FPGA - Half-length PCIe 20
5341 Multiband Transceiver with Virtex-II Pro FPGA - 3U VPX 20
7141-420 Transceiver w. Dual Wideband DDC and Interpolation Filter - PMC/XMC 21
7241-420 Transceiver w. Dual Wideband DDC and Interpolation Filter - 6U cPCI 21
7341-420 Transceiver w. Dual Wideband DDC and Interpolation Filter - 3U cPCI 21
7641-420 Transceiver w. Dual Wideband DDC and Interpolation Filter - PCI 21
7741-420 Transceiver w. Dual Wideband DDC and Interpolation Filter - Full-length PCIe 21
7841-420 Transceiver w. Dual Wideband DDC and Interpolation Filter - Half-length PCIe 21
5341-420 Transceiver w. Dual Wideband DDC and Interpolation Filter - 3U VPX 21
7141-430 Transceiver w. 256-Channel Narrowband DDC - PMC/XMC 22
7241-430 Transceiver w. 256-Channel Narrowband DDC - 6U cPCI 22
7341-430 Transceiver w. 256-Channel Narrowband DDC - 3U cPCI 22
7641-430 Transceiver w. 256-Channel Narrowband DDC - PCI 22
7741-430 Transceiver w. 256-Channel Narrowband DDC - Full-length PCIe 22
7841-430 Transceiver w. 256-Channel Narrowband DDC - Half-length PCIe 22
5341-430 Transceiver w. 256-Channel Narrowband DDC - 3U VPX 22
7142 Multichannel Transceiver with Virtex-4 FPGAs - PMC/XMC 23
7242 Multichannel Transceiver with Virtex-4 FPGAs - 6U cPCI 23
7342 Multichannel Transceiver with Virtex-4 FPGAs - 3U cPCI 23
7642 Multichannel Transceiver with Virtex-4 FPGAs - PCI 23
7742 Multichannel Transceiver with Virtex-4 FPGAs - Full-length PCIe 23
7842 Multichannel Transceiver with Virtex-4 FPGAs - Half-length PCIe 23
5342 Multichannel Transceiver with Virtex-4 FPGAs - 3U VPX 23
7142-428 Multichannel Transceiver w. Four Multiband DDCs and Interpolation Filter - PMC/XMC 24
7242-428 Multichannel Transceiver w. Four Multiband DDCs and Interpolation Filter- 6U cPCI 24
7342-428 Multichannel Transceiver w. Four Multiband DDCs and Interpolation Filter- 3U cPCI 24
7642-428 Multichannel Transceiver w. Four Multiband DDCs and Interpolation Filter- PCI 24
7742-428 Multichannel Transceiver w. Four Multiband DDCs and Interpolation Filter- Full-length PCIe 24
7842-428 Multichannel Transceiver w. Four Multiband DDCs and Interpolation Filter- Half-length PCIe 24
5342-428 Multichannel Transceiver w. Four Multiband DDCs and Interpolation Filter- 3U VPX 24

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59
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Links

Model Description Page


7151 256-Channel DDC with Quad 200 MHz, 16-bit A/D - PMC 25
7251 256-Channel DDC with Quad 200 MHz, 16-bit A/D - 6U cPCI 25
7351 256-Channel DDC with Quad 200 MHz, 16-bit A/D - 3U cPCI 25
7651 256-Channel DDC with Quad 200 MHz, 16-bit A/D - PCI 25
7751 256-Channel DDC with Quad 200 MHz, 16-bit A/D - Full-length PCIe 25
7851 256-Channel DDC with Quad 200 MHz, 16-bit A/D - Half-length PCIe 25
5351 256-Channel DDC with Quad 200 MHz, 16-bit A/D - 3U VPX 25
7152 32-Channel DDC with Quad 200 MHz, 16-bit A/D - PMC 26
7252 32-Channel DDC with Quad 200 MHz, 16-bit A/D - 6U cPCI 26
7352 32-Channel DDC with Quad 200 MHz, 16-bit A/D - 3U cPCI 26
7652 32-Channel DDC with Quad 200 MHz, 16-bit A/D - PCI 26
7752 32-Channel DDC with Quad 200 MHz, 16-bit A/D - Full-length PCIe 26
7852 32-Channel DDC with Quad 200 MHz, 16-bit A/D - Half-length PCIe 26
5352 32-Channel DDC with Quad 200 MHz, 16-bit A/D - 3U VPX 26
7153 4-Channel DDC with Quad 200 MHz, 16-bit A/D - PMC/XMC 27
7253 4-Channel DDC with Quad 200 MHz, 16-bit A/D - 6U cPCI 27
7353 4-Channel DDC with Quad 200 MHz, 16-bit A/D - 3U cPCI 27
7653 4-Channel DDC with Quad 200 MHz, 16-bit A/D - PCI 27
7753 4-Channel DDC with Quad 200 MHz, 16-bit A/D - Full-length PCIe 27
7853 4-Channel DDC with Quad 200 MHz, 16-bit A/D - Half-length PCIe 27
5353 4-Channel DDC with Quad 200 MHz, 16-bit A/D - 3U VPX 27
7156 Dual SDR Transceiver, 400 MHz A/D, 800 MHz D/A, Virtex-5 FPGAs - PMC/XMC 28
7256 Dual SDR Transceiver, 400 MHz A/D, 800 MHz D/A, Virtex-5 FPGAs - 6U cPCI 28
7356 Dual SDR Transceiver, 400 MHz A/D, 800 MHz D/A, Virtex-5 FPGAs - 3U cPCI 28
7656 Dual SDR Transceiver, 400 MHz A/D, 800 MHz D/A, Virtex-5 FPGAs - PCI 28
7756 Dual SDR Transceiver, 400 MHz A/D, 800 MHz D/A, Virtex-5 FPGAs - Full-length PCIe 28
7856 Dual SDR Transceiver, 400 MHz A/D, 800 MHz D/A, Virtex-5 FPGAs - Half-length PCIe 28
5356 Dual SDR Transceiver, 400 MHz A/D, 800 MHz D/A, Virtex-5 FPGAs - 3U VPX 28
7158 Dual SDR Transceiver, 500 MHz A/D, 800 MHz D/A, Virtex-5 FPGAs - PMC/XMC 29
7258 Dual SDR Transceiver, 500 MHz A/D, 800 MHz D/A, Virtex-5 FPGAs - 6U cPCI 29
7358 Dual SDR Transceiver, 500 MHz A/D, 800 MHz D/A, Virtex-5 FPGAs - 3U cPCI 29
7658 Dual SDR Transceiver, 500 MHz A/D, 800 MHz D/A, Virtex-5 FPGAs - PCI 29
7758 Dual SDR Transceiver, 500 MHz A/D, 800 MHz D/A, Virtex-5 FPGAs - Full-length PCIe 29
7858 Dual SDR Transceiver, 500 MHz A/D, 800 MHz D/A, Virtex-5 FPGAs - Half-length PCIe 29
5358 Dual SDR Transceiver, 500 MHz A/D, 800 MHz D/A, Virtex-5 FPGAs - 3U VPX 29
71620 3-Channel 200 MHz A/D, DUC, 2-Channel 800 MHz D/A, Virtex-6 FPGA - XMC 30
78620 3-Channel 200 MHz A/D, DUC, 2-Channel 800 MHz D/A, Virtex-6 FPGA - PCIe 30
53620 3-Channel 200 MHz A/D, DUC, 2-Channel 800 MHz D/A, Virtex-6 FPGA - 3U VPX 30
72620 3-Channel 200 MHz A/D, DUC, 2-Channel 800 MHz D/A, Virtex-6 FPGA - 6U cPCI 30
73620 3-Channel 200 MHz A/D, DUC, 2-Channel 800 MHz D/A, Virtex-6 FPGA - 3U cPCI 30
74620 6-Channel 200 MHz A/D, DUC, 4-Channel 800 MHz D/A, Two Virtex-6 FPGAs - 6U cPCI 30

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60
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Links

Model Description Page


71621 3-Channel 200 MHz A/D, DUC, 2-Channel 800 MHz D/A, Installed IP Cores - XMC 31
78621 3-Channel 200 MHz A/D, DUC, 2-Channel 800 MHz D/A, Installed IP Cores - PCIe 31
53621 3-Channel 200 MHz A/D, DUC, 2-Channel 800 MHz D/A, Installed IP Cores - 3U VPX 31
72621 3-Channel 200 MHz A/D, DUC, 2-Channel 800 MHz D/A, Installed IP Cores - 6U cPCI 31
73621 3-Channel 200 MHz A/D, DUC, 2-Channel 800 MHz D/A, Installed IP Cores - 3U cPCI 31
74621 4-Channel 200 MHz A/D, DUC, 4-Channel 800 MHz D/A, Installed IP Cores - 6U cPCI 31
78630 1 GHz A/D, 1 GHz D/A, Virtex-6 FPGA - PCIe 32
71630 1 GHz A/D, 1 GHz D/A, Virtex-6 FPGA - XMC 32
53630 1 GHz A/D, 1 GHz D/A, Virtex-6 FPGA - 3U VPX 32
72630 1 GHz A/D, 1 GHz D/A, Virtex-6 FPGA - 6U cPCI 32
73630 1 GHz A/D, 1 GHz D/A, Virtex-6 FPGA - 3U cPCI 32
74630 Two 1 GHz A/Ds, Two 1 GHz D/As, Two Virtex-6 FPGAs - 6U cPCI 32
72640 1-Channel 3.6 GHz and 2-Channel 1.8 GHz, 12-bit A/D, Virtex-6 FPGA - 6U cPCI 33
73640 1-Channel 3.6 GHz and 2-Channel 1.8 GHz, 12-bit A/D, Virtex-6 FPGA - 3U cPCI 33
74640 2-Channel 3.6 GHz and 4-Channel 1.8 GHz, 12-bit A/D, Virtex-6 FPGAs - 6U cPCI 33
71640 1-Channel 3.6 GHz and 2-Channel 1.8 GHz, 12-bit A/D, Virtex-6 FPGA - XMC 33
78640 1-Channel 3.6 GHz and 2-Channel 1.8 GHz, 12-bit A/D, Virtex-6 FPGA - PCIe 33
53640 1-Channel 3.6 GHz and 2-Channel 1.8 GHz, 12-bit A/D, Virtex-6 FPGA - 3U VPX 33
53650 2-Channel 500 MHz A/D, DUC, 2-Channel 800 MHz D/A, Virtex-6 FPGA - 3U VPX 34
71650 2-Channel 500 MHz A/D, DUC, 2-Channel 800 MHz D/A, Virtex-6 FPGA - XMC 34
78650 2-Channel 500 MHz A/D, DUC, 2-Channel 800 MHz D/A, Virtex-6 FPGA - PCIe 34
72650 2-Channel 500 MHz A/D, DUC, 2-Channel 800 MHz D/A, Virtex-6 FPGA - 6U cPCI 34
73650 2-Channel 500 MHz A/D, DUC, 2-Channel 800 MHz D/A, Virtex-6 FPGA - 3U cPCI 34
74650 4-Channel 500 MHz A/D, DUC, 4-Channel 800 MHz D/A, Two Virtex-6 FPGAs - 6U cPCI 34
71660 4-Channel 200 MHz 16-bit A/D with Virtex-6 FPGA - XMC 35
78660 4-Channel 200 MHz 16-bit A/D with Virtex-6 FPGA - PCIe 35
53660 4-Channel 200 MHz 16-bit A/D with Virtex-6 FPGA - 3U VPX 35
72660 4-Channel 200 MHz 16-bit A/D with Virtex-6 FPGA - 6U cPCI 35
73660 4-Channel 200 MHz 16-bit A/D with Virtex-6 FPGAs - 3U cPCI 35
74660 8-Channel 200 MHz 16-bit A/D with Two Virtex-6 FPGAs - 6U cPCI 35
71661 4-Channel 200 MHz 16-bit A/D with Installed IP Cores - XMC 36
78661 4-Channel 200 MHz 16-bit A/D with Installed IP Cores - PCIe 36
53661 4-Channel 200 MHz 16-bit A/D with Installed IP Cores - 3U VPX 36
72661 4-Channel 200 MHz 16-bit A/D with Installed IP Cores - 6U cPCI 36
73661 4-Channel 200 MHz 16-bit A/D with Installed IP Cores - 3U cPCI 36
74661 8-Channel 200 MHz 16-bit A/D with Installed IP Cores - 6U cPCI 36
78662 4-Channel 200 MHz 16-bit A/D with Installed IP Cores - PCIe 37
71662 4-Channel 200 MHz 16-bit A/D with Installed IP Cores - XMC 37
53662 4-Channel 200 MHz 16-bit A/D with Installed IP Cores - 3U VPX 37
72662 4-Channel 200 MHz 16-bit A/D with Installed IP Cores - 6U cPCI 37
73662 4-Channel 200 MHz 16-bit A/D with Installed IP Cores - 3U cPCI 37
74662 8-Channel 200 MHz 16-bit A/D with Installed IP Cores - 6U cPCI 37

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61
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com
Software Defined Radio Handbook

Links

Model Description Page


53690 L-Band RF Tuner with 2-Channel 200 MHz A/D and Virtex-6 FPGA - 3U VPX 38
71690 L-Band RF Tuner with 2-Channel 200 MHz A/D and Virtex-6 FPGA - XMC 38
78690 L-Band RF Tuner with 2-Channel 200 MHz A/D and Virtex-6 FPGA - PCIe 38
72690 L-Band RF Tuner with 2-Channel 200 MHz A/D and Virtex-6 FPGA - 6U cPCI 38
73690 L-Band RF Tuner with 2-Channel 200 MHz A/D and Virtex-6 FPGA - 3U cPCI 38
74690 Dual L-Band RF Tuner with 4-Channel 200 MHz A/D and Two Virtex-6 FPGAs - 6U cPCI 38
6821-422 215 MHz, 12-bit A/D with Wideband DDCs - VME/VXS 39
6822-422 Dual 215 MHz, 12-bit A/D with Wideband DDCs - VME/VXS 40
6826 Dual 2 GHz 10-bit A/D - VME/VXS 41
6890 2.2 GHz Clock, Sync and Gate Distribution Board - VME 42
6891 System Synchronizer and Distribution Board - VME 43
7190 Multifrequency Clock Synthesizer - PMC 44
7290 Multifrequency Clock Synthesizer - 6U cPCI 44
7390 Multifrequency Clock Synthesizer - 3U cPCI 44
7690 Multifrequency Clock Synthesizer - PCI 44
7790 Multifrequency Clock Synthesizer - Full-length PCIe 44
7890 Multifrequency Clock Synthesizer - Half-length PCIe 44
5390 Multifrequency Clock Synthesizer - 3U VPX 44
7191 Programmable Multifrequency Clock Synthesizer - PMC 45
7291 Programmable Multifrequency Clock Synthesizer - 6U cPCI 45
7391 Programmable Multifrequency Clock Synthesizer - 3U cPCI 45
7691 Programmable Multifrequency Clock Synthesizer - PCI 45
7791 Programmable Multifrequency Clock Synthesizer - Full-length PCIe 45
7891 Programmable Multifrequency Clock Synthesizer - Half-length PCIe 45
5391 Programmable Multifrequency Clock Synthesizer - 3U VPX 45
9190 Clock and Sync Generator for I/O Modules 46
RTS 2701 Rack-Mount Real-Time Recording and Playback Transceiver Instrument 47
RTS 2706 Configurable Real-Time Recording and Playback Instrument 48
RTS 2721 Portable Real-Time Recording and Playback Transceiver Instrument 49
Pentek SystemFlow Recording Software 50
4207 PowerPC and FPGA I/O Processor - VME/VXS 53

Handbooks, Catalogs and Brochures


Click here Putting FPGAs to Work in Software Radio Systems Handbook
Click here Critical Techniques for High-Speed A/D Converters in Real-Time Systems Handbook
Click here High-Speed Switched Serial Fabrics Improve System Design Handbook
Click here Cobalt Virtex-6 Product Catalog
Click here Pentek Product Catalog
Click here Model 4207 PowerPC and FPGA I/O Processor Board Brochure

62
Pentek, Inc. One Park Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Tel: (201) 818-5900 Fax: (201) 818-5904 Email: info@pentek.com http://www.pentek.com