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AN INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT

AT

KALOL UNIT

Submitted by

SIDDHANT DHIMAN

Pursuing

B.Tech. in Chemical Engineering

PANDIT DEENDAYAL PETROLEUM UNIVERSITY


Raisan, Gandhinagar - 382007

Training Period

05/06/2017 to 20/06/2017

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It gives me pleasure in submitting this in-plant training report at the end of


training period from 05/06/2017 to 20/06/2017 at IFFCO Kalol unit.

I would like to express my heartily gratitude to all those who gave me that
valuable opportunity to understand and complete my industrial training at IFFCO, Kalol.
I would like to thank Indian Farmers Fertilizer Cooperative Limited, KALOL for
providing me this training and for guiding throughout the training and also allowing me
to work in this premier organization and helped to make me stand in this competitive
area. I would like to present my heartiest thanks to the JGM (Technical), Shri O.P.
Dayama Sir and Sr. Manager (Training) Shri M. Srinivas at IFFCO Kalol.

I also thank Dr. Pravin Kodgire Sir (H.O.D. of our department) and Training &
Placement Cell of Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University for permitting me to pursue
summer internship at IFFCO, Kalol. With the support of Operators of different plants and
most helpful library of IFFCO, I was able to complete the Training Report in due time.

Thank you,

SIDDHANT DHIMAN

2
PREFACE

It is true that studies cannot be perfect without practical training and perfection is the
basic necessity of technical students. He must be technically sound as well as enrich with
practical knowledge.

In practical training a person deals with many technical problems. Aim of in-plant
training is to learn process and technology as real and also to learn industrial management
and discipline.

We got a chance to improve life skills like communication skills, self esteem, team work,
creative thinking etc. which are very important for making career.

Thus it is important for every person to be exposed to training in some kind of an


industry or others to enhance their knowledge.

SIDDHANT DHIMAN

3
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter no. Title Page no.

1 Introduction 8

1.1 About IFFCO

1.2 Production Performance

1.3 Overview Of Iffco- Kalol Units

1.4 Various Plants

2 About training plant 11

2.1 Ammonia Plant

2.2 Raw Materials


Products
2.3

3 Process Details 15

3.1 Various Process For Ammonia Production

3.2 At IFFCO Kalol

3.3 Catalyst Used in Process

3.4 Process Description

3.5 Chemical Reaction

3.6 Urea Plant

4 Equipments And Instrumentation 35

4.1 Equipments Detail

4
4.2 Primary Reformer

4.3 Secondary Reformer

4.4 Primary Waste Heat Boiler

4.5 Secondary Waste Heat Boiler

4.6 Shift Convertor

4.6 HT Shift Conversion

4.7 LT Shift Conversion

4.8 CO2 Absorber

5 Process utilities 43

5.1 Utility Plant

6 Health, hazards & safety 54

6.1 Introduction Of Industrial Safety

6.2 Safety

6.3 Accedent

6.4 Accedent Factors

6.5 List Of Safety Equipments

6.6 Safety Precaution

6.7 Fire Hazards

6.8 Principles Of Fire Extingushing

6.9 Color Coad For Pipeline

6.10 Fire Protection

5
7 Bagging And Material Handling 59

7.1 There Are Different Types Of Conveyors, Machines,


Heavy Equipments in This Plant

7.2 Detailed Description

7.3 Effluent Treatment And Disposal

7.4 Type Of Liquid Effluent

8 Environment & Pollution 66

8.1 Control Air Pollution

8.2 Solid Waste

8.3 Water and Noise Pollution

6
CHAPTER 1 :-INTRODUCTION

Fig. 1.1 View of IFFCO

1.1 About IFFCO

The total investment for the plant is around Rs.1150 crores.


IFFCO has modern fertilizer plants,
At Kalol in Gujarat

At Kandla In Gujarat
At Phulpur in Utter Pradesh
At Aonla in Utter Pradesh
They have total annual production capacity of 56.63 lakh tons of fertilizer.

1.2 Production Performance


The production records for all four units are excellent. Since inception, the capacity
utilization achieved is always higher than the national average. IFFCO has won several
awards for the Fertilizer Association of India (FAI), National productivity Council

7
and national and international safety councils for outstanding production performance
and in safety measures.

1.3 Overview Of IFFCO - Kalol Units


The IFFCO Kalol Unit , spread over on 96 hectors of land is located 26 Kms. away from
Ahmedabad on the Ahmedabad Mehsana state highway. The unit started commercial
production in April 1975. The unit consists of plant to produce ammonia, urea, liquid
carbon dioxide and dry ice along with offsite. Originally the 910 tpd ammonia plant was
based on natural gas steam reforming process of M/s. M.W. Kellong, USA and 1200 tpd
urea plant was based on co 2 stripping process of M/S Stamicarbon, The Netherlands.
Both the plant have revamped in 1997 to enhance capacity to 1100 tpd ammonia and
1650 tpd urea. RLNG is used as feed stock for ammonia and associated gas as fuel. Water
is supplied from Narmada Canal from Jaspur. Power is supplied by GEB.

1.4 Various Plants


1.4.1 Ammonia plant
The plant is being designated to produce 1100 tonnes of ammonia per day based on M.W.
Kellogg Steam Reforming Process of USA. RLNG is used for ammonia production is
supplied by Reliance Petrochemicals. From total production, about 950 tonnes ammonia
per day is used in the urea plant and remaining is stored in atmospheric storage tank.

1.4.2 Urea plant


The 1650 tonnes per day plant is based on Stamicarbon CO2 Stripping processs
engineered by Humphreys and Glasgow, U.K. The main raw material ammonia and
carbon dioxide are from ammonia plant.

1.4.3 Utility plant:


Water Treatment Plant

Cooling Towers

Air Compressor and Inert Gas Generation

`Steam Generation

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1.4.5 Offsite Plant
Storage(naphtha,LSHS,NH3)

Narmada Water Treatment Plant

Effluent Treatment Plant

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CHAPTER 2 :- ABOUT TRAINING PLANT

2.1 Ammonia Plant


2.1.1 Introduction:
The plant was commissioned in November, 1974. It was the first large capacity single
stream plant in India.
Name of Process : Steam Hydrocarbon Reforming Process
Designed By : M.W. Kellogg
Capacity : 1100 Tons/Day
Feedstock : RLNG
Fuel : Natural Gas

2.2 Raw Materials


2.2.1 Raw Materials:
Raw materials involved are:
RLNG:

Source: GSPL---Gujarat State Petronet Ltd.


State: gaseous

Pressure: 37 kg
Temperature: 20 deg C
Utility:
Fuel: associated gas
Naphtha: 71915 kg/hr
NAPHTHA
Source: IOCL
State: liquid
Mol.wt.: 92.24

Quantity: 14733 kg/hr


Composition: 100%(mol%)
Sulfur: 100 ppm

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CHEMICAL
a-MEDA solution: 40%
POWER
43Kwh/T

ENERGY
43Gcal/T

2.3 Products
Products produced are:
Ammonia

Carbon Dioxide
2.3.1 Ammonia
2.3.1.1 Physical and Chemical properties:

At Atmospheric temperature & Pressure Ammonia is a sharp colorless gas.


Formula : NH3
Specific Gravity : 0.682
M.W. : 17.03gm/mole
Critical temperature : 132.14 C
Auto ignition temperature : 651 C
Boiling Point : -33.3 C
Freezing point : -77.7 C
Nature : Alkaline
Odor : Colorless
2.3.1.2 Chemical Structure:

Fig. 2.1: Ammonia Structure

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Anhydrous NH2 is present both in the gaseous and liquid under atm pressure and temperature
condition it is present in gaseous foam.

Ammonia readily dissolves in water forming aq. NH3 with liberation of heat.

Ammonia vapor is colorless & has pungent odor NH3 with its own warning agent.

Ammonia is lighter than air & therefore, in open atm it will by dispersed by virtue of its own
burgundy. However, air NH3 vapor form liquid may form NH3 air mixture heavier than air,
which may stay close to the ground for sometimes.

2.3.1.3 Hazardous Properties

When Ammonia stored in closed container NH3 exert to vapor which increase rapidly with
rising temperature.

NH3 will explosive mixture with air and Oxygen.

Moist NH3 will react rapidly with Cu & Zn.

The use of the Hg in contact with NH3 should be avoided since under certain condition
explosive chemical compounds resulting.

NH3 is an irritating gas & will affect muscles, membrane & eye.

2.3.1.4 Hazards Identification:


Color : colorless
Physical form : gas, liquid
Odor : pungent odor
Physical hazards : Containers may rupture

2.3.1.5 Uses of Ammonia:


Ammonia is used directly as fertilizer.

Formulating different nitrogenous & phosphoric fertilizer


For liquid and solid nitrogenous fertilizer like urea, ammonia sulphate, DAP, NaNO 3,
NHNO3, etc.

For chemical compound like crylonitrile, Caprolactum, nylon-6.

A refrigerant for large-scale air conditioning & refrigeration.

12
Formulating granular mixed fertilizer.

Ammonia blue print machine.

2.3.2 Carbon Dioxide


2.3.2.1 Properties of Carbon Dioxide:
At atmospheric temperature and pressure CO2 is colorless gas.
Formula :CO2
M.W : 44
Nature : Acidic in water
Odor : Odorless
Color : Colorless

2.3.2.2 Uses of Carbon Dioxide:


Refrigerant in ice-cream industries, dairies, food product industries, bear
industries, in cold industries etc.

Fire extinguisher

Mfg of salicylic acid, urea, various carbamates etc.

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CHAPTER 3 :- PROCESS DETAILS

3.1 Various Processes For Ammonia Production


For ammonia production synthesis gas is produced by following process.
Low temperature

Non catalytic partial oxidation

Catalytic partial oxidation

Steam hydro carbon reforming process

And ammonia from synthesis gas is produced by following methods:


The Claude Process

The Forster Wheeler-Casale process

The M.W. Kellogg process

Foster Montecatini process

3.2 At IFFCO Kalol


Steam Hydrocarbon Reforming Process is selected for process synthesis and The
M.W. Kellogg Process is selected for ammonia production.
Reasons for Selection Of Steam Reforming Process

From the steam reforming process generate more hydrogen the partial oxidation
process.

Steam reforming process requires less feed than partial oxidation process.

Production of ammonia from coal plants is more costly than fro, conventional gas
based processes, because of the extensive solids handling and effluent treatment
facilities required.

From steam reforming process generation of pollution is less than other processes.

3.2.1 Advantages of This Process


Intensive heat recovery

Generation of steam which can be imported.

Less dependency on electricity

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Capital cost is least

3.3 Catalyst Used In Process


Equipments Catalysts
Desulfurizer : Activated Carbon
Primary Reformer : Nickel
Secondary Reformer : (i) Chromium (top)
(ii) Nickel (bottom)
Shift Converter
H. T. Section : Iron Oxide
L. T. Section : Copper and Zinc Oxide
Synthesis Converter : Iron Oxide
Methanator : Nickel
Pre-reformer : Nickel

3.4 Process Description

Fig. 3.1: Flow Diagram of Ammonia and Urea

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3.4.1 Steam reforming process
The manufacturing of AMMONIA involves following operations/processes.
Raw synthesis gas preparation.

RLNG

Primary reformer
Secondary reformer
Co-shift conversion
Synthesis gas purification.

Compression of synthesis gas and ammonia synthesis.

Refrigeration system.

Purge gas recovery system.

Raw Synthesis Gas Preparation


Raw synthesis gas is produced from R-LNG.

Desulphurizing the R-LNG Feed


L.N.G. is supplied at a pressure of 40kg/cm2. It contains sulfur compounds which are
removed by passing the gas through Desulfurizer containing activated carbon. The gas
exit the desulphuriser is expected to contain less than 0.25 RPM of Sulphur. The sulphur
free feed gas is mixed with process steam and the combined stream enters and feed
preheat coil in the convection section of Primary Reformer furnace.

Primary Reformer
Desulphurised gas is mixed with steam and heated to 430 - 465oC in HT convection zone
of balanced draft reformer furnace. The gas is then passed through 336 Nos. tubes filled
with nickel catalyst and heated up to790 - 815oC by external firing from the top. Total
126 Nos. burners are provided at the top for heating the gas. The flue gas at about
1000oC is collected in tunnels and taken to HT convection zone where heat is recovered
in heating the mixed feed and air used in secondary reformer. The flue gas is then mixed
with the flue gas from auxiliary boiler and goes to low temperature zone where heat is
further recovered in super heating the HP steam, heating fuel gas and combustion air. The
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cooled flue gas is discharged through the stack at 140 - 180 oC. From primary reformer a
mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane is obtained.

Secondary Reformer
The process gas at 824Deg.C from primary reformer enters the secondary reformer via
water jacketed transfer line and a chamber near the top of secondary reformer and is
directed down ward through a diffuser ring to enter the combustion zone. Preheated air is
introduced through a nozzle located just below the diffuser ring. The oxygen of the air
burns with hydrogen of process gas and raises the gas temperature. At higher temperature
balance methane reacts- with steam and its content is reduced from 10.3% to 0.32%
approx. The gas enters the chromium and nickel catalyst for reforming. The gases leave
the secondary reformer at 1000Deg.C and split to pass through the shell sides of two
"bayonet type" primary waste heat boiler. From these waste heat boilers the gas at
452Deg.C enters secondary waste heat boiler. The flow through the tube sides of the
waste heat boiler is boiler water. The process gas from waste heat boiler at 371Deg.C
goes to H.T. shift convertor.

CO Shift Conversion
The cooled gas at 330-340OC passes through HT shift converter containing copper
promoted iron catalyst. Part of CO is converted to CO2 and heat of exothermic reaction is
utilized for HP steam generation and process gas / BFW heating.
The cooled gas then passes through LT Guard and LT shift reactors, both containing
copper- zinc catalyst. LT Guard is meant for protecting the LT shift catalyst from
poisoning and thereby increasing its life. CO conversion reaction almost reaches
equilibrium in this reactor. The heat of hot gas leaving the LT shift reactor is utilized for
BFW heating. The exit gas from the LT shift converter contains mainly Hydrogen, CO 2
and Nitrogen with small quantity of CO.

Synthesis Gas Purification

Carbon Dioxide Removal and Recovery

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Removal of CO2 from raw synthesis gas is carried out in two stages of absorption by
counter current contacting of the gas with 30 to 40% by wt. MDEA solution in packed
bed tower. The gas pass through a distributor in the bottom of CO2 absorber. The up
flowing gas passes through four beds of packing and comes out from the top of absorber.
The top two beds contain 38mm. stainless steel slotted (Hypack) rings. The bottom two
layers consists of 50mm. S.S. slotted rings (hypack). As the gas flows up the packing it
contacts down flowing semi lean and lean 30 to 40% by wt. MDEA solution which
absorbs the CO2. The process gas leaving the absorber contains 0.1% CO2. Absorber
operating at 26-29 kg/cm2 pressure and then stripping of CO2 rich solution at 1.6-1.4

kg/cm2 pressure. CO2 free raw gas is fed to methanator and recovered CO2 is sent to
Urea plant after cooling.

Methanation Of Unconverted CO And Unabsorbed CO2


Unconverted CO (about 0.15- 0.3%) and unabsorbed CO2 (400-1100 ppm) in the raw gas
are converted to methane at 275- 300 OC in the methanator. The process gas enters at the
top of methanator after being heated up to 316 C . Methanator contains a bed of nickel
catalyst where traces of CO and CO2 in process gas react with hydrogen to form methane
and water. The temp. of effluent gas leaving the methanator at bottom is raised to 347 C
due to exothermic nature of reactions. The total amount of (CO+CO 2) leaving the
methanator will be about 1 ppm. The cooled gas now called synthesis gas is then
compressed. The purified gas exits the methanator at 310- 318O C.

Compression of Synthesis Gas And Ammonia Synthesis


The purified, cooled synthesis gas is compressed in a four stage centrifugal compressor.
At the fourth suction gas is mixed with recycled gas from the ammonia synthesis section.
The compressed gas is heated up to 130OC and the same is sent to ammonia converter.

The converter has three beds of iron catalyst. The synthesis gas enters top bed at 350 OC
after being heated in the convector. Before entering to the second and third beds, the gas
is quenched to control the rise in temperature due to exothermic ammonia conversion
reaction.

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The exit gas contains about 16% ammonia, which is recovered by cooling the gas in
chillers. After recovery of ammonia, synthesis gas containing about 2.5% ammonia is
recycled. The separated liquid ammonia is warmed and sent to Urea plant at 15-30 OC or
it is chilled and sent to storage at 30 to -33 OC
.
Refrigeration System
Four-stage centrifugal refrigeration compressor is provided for refrigeration in the
ammonia synthesis section. The primary purpose of this is to condense product ammonia
for separating it from the converter feed. Further it is used to cooled make up gas for
separation of water, to condense and recover liquid ammonia from purge gas, to cool the
product to 33 OC and degassing inert.

Letting down its pressure in steps purifies the separated ammonia. A refrigerant
compressor is provided to compress the vapor ammonia used in chillers to cool high-
pressure synthesis gas process. The product ammonia is sent to plant at 40o C and/or

storage tank at -33o C.

Purge Gas Recovery System


As the ammonia conversion is very less, large quantity of unconverted gas is recycled. In
order to avoid buildup of inert in the loop about 10,000 NM3/hr of gas is purged. The
purged gas contains hydrogen, nitrogen, methane and argon. In order to recover hydrogen
and ammonia purge gas recovery plant has been installed

The ammonia is recovered by absorbing and then stripping whereas hydrogen is


recovered by cryogenic cooling. Purge gas after recovery of ammonia and hydrogen is
used as fuel.

3.5 CHEMICAL REACTIONS


3.5.1 Primary Reforming
CH4 + H2O CO+ H2 ;

C2H6 + 3H2O 3CO + 5H2


C3H8 + 3H2O 3CO + 7H2

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n- C4H10 + 4H2O 4CO + 9H2
3.5.2 Secondary Reforming
2H2 + O2 + 3.715N2 2 H2O + 3.715N2
2CH4 + 3.5O2 + 13.003N2 CO2 + 4 H2O + CO + 13.003N2
3.5.3 Shift Conversion
CO+ H2OH2 + CO2
3.5.4 Absorption
CO2 + H2OH2 CO3
3.5.5 Stripping
H2CO3 H2O+ CO2
3.5.6 Methanation
CO + 3H2 CH4 + H 2O
CO2 + 4H2 CH4+ 2H2O
3.5.7 Ammonia Synthisis
N2 + 3H2 2NH3

3.6 Urea Plant


The plant was commissioned in January 1975. It was the first large unit manufacturing
plant in India & plant was further upgraded in 1997. Now a day the plant capacity is 1650
tons/day.

Name of the process : Stamicarbon Stripping Process


Capacity : 1650 tones/day
Feed stock : Ammonia & CO2

3.6.1 The urea process consists of the following steps:


CO2 supply and compression

NH3 supply and pumping

Reaction/High pressure synthesis

Recirculation system
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Evaporation and prilling system

Prills cooling system

Urea hydrolyser and desorber

Steam and condensate

Formation of ammonia carbamate, at 25 0 C:-

2NH3 (g) + CO2 (g) NH4COONH2 (g) -38,086 cal/ g mole


Dehydration of ammonia carbamate to urea, at 25 0C:-
NH4COONH2 (S) NH2CONH2 (l) + H2O (l) +10,330 cal/g mole
Overall reaction at 25 0C:-
2NH3 (g) +CO2 (g) NH2CONH2 (l) + H2 O (l) -27,756 cal/g mol
CO2 Supply and Compression

The CO2 gas is available from ammonia plant at normal pressure of 0.14 to 0.22
kg/cn2 g and at a temperature of 50* to 60* C. This gas is cooled and saturated in
CO2 spray water. CO2 and water flows counter currently through packed bed of
polypropylene pall rings for cooling. A demister pad above the distribution tray is
provided the carryover along with exit CO2 from spray cooler.
Water from the bottom of the spray cooler is sent to the cooling tower by CO2
spray cooler sump pump. The exit saturated CO2 with water vapour enters CO2
knock out drum where the moisture is knocked out and drained.

Anticorrosion air is injected to maintain the oxygen level of 0.60% in the CO 2


stream for HP equipments activation to prevent corrosion. The CO 2 leaving knock out
drum is compressed in Hitachi make CO2 centrifugal compressor.

Hitachi CO2 compressor consists of two casings LP and HP casings each having two

stages of compression. LP case is directly coupled with turbine running at 7160


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rpm and HP casing runs at 14153 rpm through a step up gearbox. The CO 2 is compressed
from 0.16kg/cm2g to 157 Kg/cm2g.

Drive turbine extraction cum admission condensing type is installed to run compressor
with minimum governor speed of 6375 rpm and maximum speed of 7875 driven by 60
ata steam and 4 ata steam as induction steam.60 ata steam is supplied by generation plant
at about 61.5 ata and 410*C.

The steam after passing through exhaust end section of the turbine is condensed
at a pressure of 0.94 Kg/cm2g at turbine outlet in the surface condenser. Non-
condensable from the condenser are removed by steam ejector system operating by 4
ata steam. The steam exit of the ejectors is condensed in the heat exchangers with
cooling water flowing in the tubes and is pumped to the dearator of the steam
generation plant by the surface condensate pumps, The vacuum in the surface
condensers is maintained by a set of two ejectors in two stages.
NH3 supply and pumping
Liquid ammonia directly from ammonia plant enters the urea plant battery limit at
20Kg/cm2 g and 40*C. The alternate source from ammonia supply is from atmospheric
ammonia storage tank. The cold liquid ammonia is preheated at 40*C in the ammonia
preheater
Liquid ammonia from filter outlet enters the ammonia suction vessel which serves the
purposes of providing a suction volume for HP ammonia pumps and acting as a pulsation
dampener. The liquid ammonia from the ammonia suction vessel is pumped at reaction
pressure of 153 Kg/cm2.
Out of total ammonia discharged by pumps , 90-95% ammonia goes to HP carbamate
condenser and 5-10% goes to autoclave.

Reaction/High Pressure Systems

HP stripper

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CO2 gas with 0.60% oxygen and inert discharged from CO2 compressor at 157 Kg/cm2
and 115 to 120*C enters the stripper. Autoclave overflow line leads to HP stripper at the
top channel. The liquid dividers are fitted over each tube having ferrule. Each ferrule in
the liquid divider has three holes each of 2.6mm diameter through which the liquid flows
into the tubes. This exchanger acts like a falling film counter-current heat exchanger. The
efficiency of exchanger depends on the formation of liquid film. Liquid distribution in the
tube is very important. Liquid starvation in tube may happen when there is loss of liquid
level in autoclave or blockage of ferrules holes. Stripper tubes under this condition will
be over heated resulting in heavy corrosion and tube failures. CO 2 while rising through

the tubes picks up heat from falling solution and strips off NH 3 and CO2 from the

carbamate. From HP stripper top channel CO2 along with liberated NH3 is taken to HP
carbamate condenser. Saturated steam at 21.8 Kg/cm2g and 216*C is introduced at the
shell side of the HP stripper to provide the heat required for stripping.

Urea carbamate solution is collected at the bottom channel of the HP stripper. This
solution is let down from 153Kg/cm2g to 2.3 Kg/cm2g across the level control valve. It is
imperative that to maintain the stripper working efficiency, both gas and liquid flow
through each tube must be continuous and even.

HP condenser
The vapour (NH3 & CO2 ) liberated from the HP stripper flows upwards to the top
channel of HP carbamate condenser below the packed bed. Liquid ammonia from
HP ammonia pump at a pressure of 153 Kg/cm2g and 45*C enters the top
channel. HP stripper exit gas is rich in CO2 and the NH3/ CO2 mole ratios around
1.7. The presence of 2.5% water and slightly higher system pressure makes the
optimum mole ratio to around 3.0.

Dilute carbamate solution generated in LP system is pumped with HP carbamate pumps


to HP condenser and HP scrubber. Dilute carbamate line joins the inlet liquid ammonia
line to HP condenser. About 65% of the carbamate solution is fed to HP condenser. The
remaining carbamate is fed to HP scrubber.

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Carbamate solution joins the liquid ammonia stream and enters HP condenser. The mixed
stream flows through the packed bed, located above the liquid distribution tray. Some of
the vapors (NH3 & CO2 ) enter the packaging and a part of it condensed within the
packaging .Uncondensed vapors flow through the tubes and are condensed to carbamate

Boiler feed water/condensate enters the shell side from 4 ata steam drum through
the four down comers and generated steam rises up through the steam risers and
enters the steam drum. Liquid carbamate solution and uncondensed gas leaves HP
condenser from separate nozzles at the bottom and enters the bottom channel of
autoclave.

At the operating condition prevailing in HP condenser , the rate of carbamate


formation is proportional to the rate of removal of heat of exothermic reaction.
The pressure prevailing in the steam drum should not be brought down below a
certain value otherwise the crystallization temperature of carbamate (153C) would
be reached. 90%(v/v) of the vapors condense in high pressure condenser and the
remaining 10% are condensed in autoclave there by supplying necessary heat for
urea formation from carbamate.

Autoclave Reactor
The carbamate solution and uncondensed NH3 and CO2 from the HP carbamate
condenser are introduced at the bottom of the autoclave .A part of liquid ammonia
from HP ammonia pump is also introduced at the bottom of the autoclave.
Quantity of ammonia required to be introduced into the autoclave is determined
from the process condition and plant load.

Autoclave receives liquid ammonia , carbamate solution and uncondensed NH3, CO2 ,
O2 and inert from HP condenser and carbamate solution from HP scrubber .All
the four streams join at 4 different nozzles at the bottom of autoclave and rises to

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top through 11 sieve trays . Liquid mixture of urea, carbamate , and water
overflows to the down corner to the HP stripper.
A radioactive source (Cobalt-60) is provided for level measurement of autoclave. Loss of
liquid level in autoclave will evidently create a number of problems in the system
. Due to loss of liquid level, CO2 will flow in reverse direction to autoclave via
down comer & pressure rise will be very quick & HP condenser temperature will
fall sharply.

The inert and unconverted NH3 and CO2 exit the autoclave through an overhead
line to HP scrubber. Control Valve, located on the autoclave gas exit line , controls
the autoclave pressure and consequently high pressure system in emergency . To
protect high pressure system from over pressurization , relief values set at 161 ata
are installed on the autoclave top exit gas line.

HP Scrubber:
Uncondensed NH3 and CO2 and non-condensable from the reactor top enter the
bottom of high pressure scrubber, Dilute carbamate through HP carbamate pumps
fed to HP scrubber condensing media in the shell side. NH3 and CO2 get
condensed while bubbling up through the head. A small amount of uncondensed NH3
and CO2 and the inert leave the HP scrubber through inert vent valve to LP
absorber. CO2 is injected above packed bed for purging so as to prohibit any explosion
that may occur due to presence of H2 .

Heat of carbamate formation is removed by a closed condensate circulation system (CCS)


.Carbamate solution formed overflows through a nozzle located above the
U tube bundle to autoclave

LP Absorber And Scrubbing System:


Uncondensed NH3 , CO2 and incondensable from the HP scrubber enter the bottom of
LP absorber. NH3 and CO2 get scrubbed with lean ammonia water while rising up
through the two packed beds. The lean water is supplied by process

25
water pumps from lean ammonia water tank .A small amount of uncondensed NH 3 , CO2
and the inert leaves the LP absorber to ammonia scrubber.
Final scrubbing of the vapors is achieved in ammonia scrubber with lean ammonia
water or DM water before being vent to atmosphere.

Recirculation

Rectifying Column / Separator :-


The urea carbamate solution from the HP stripper is let down to 3.3 kg/cm2 g
across stripper level control valve. As a result of pressure letdown, part of
carbamate in the solution is vaporized to NH3 & CO2 & solution gets cooled up
to 170 to 120 0C. the liquid vapour mixture flows into the top of rectifying
column/separator. The liquid vapour mixture is sprayed over the packed bed of
rushing rings through nozzle & spray breaker in rectifying column.
The upper portion of rectifying column consist of rushing rings bed & the lower
half of the column consist of a vapour liquid separator. The urea carbamate
solution is collected over the cone & flows to the bottom channel of the recirculation
heater. The recirculation heater is essentially a thermo syphoning heater. It
is design to provide min. Residence time to urea solution At the elevated temperature
level, so that biuret formation is limited. All the carbamate is decomposed & the
urea solution Vapour mixture flows to the bottom of rectifying column/separator.
Vapour is stripped off from liquid & rises upwards via packed bed where it
meets descending urea carbamate solution thus rectification of carbamate solution takes
place. Rising vapors are enriched. Heat of vaporization is supplied by the hot rising
vapour. Vapour leaves the rectifying column & enters falling film type LP carbamate
condensers.

Absorber, Condenser & Separator:


The overhead vapours leaving from rectifying column are introduced at the bottom of
falling film type LP carbamate condensers. Part of the NH 3 & CO2 are condensed to
form ammonium carbamate. Lean ammonium carbamate formed in

26
the flask tank condenser is introduced in to the gas inlet line of the LP carbamate
condensers through a sparker by lean carbamate pumps. The carbamate formed in
reflux condenser of hydrolyser system is also taken top of LP condenser.
Provision is also made to introduce measured quantity of liquid nh3 to maintain
NH3/CO2 mole ratio. Heat of condensation is removed by condensate circulation
system.

Carbamate solution From LP carbamate condenser overflows into the LP


carbamate separator which also acts as a suction vessel for HP carbamate pumps.
The pressure control valve on gas exit line to atmosphere scrubber & effectively
controls the recirculation system by pressure by sending vapours to the
atmospheric vent scrubber for further recovery of NH3.

Pressure control in the recirculation system requires a special operating pressure of


the system is around 2.5 to 2.8 kg/cm2 g & controlled by control valve. It so
happens that system pressure is raised when the condensation is incomplete.
Uncondensed gases are taken to reflux condenser of hydrolyser system. Higher pressure
in the recycle system is caused by incomplete condensation co2 & nh3.

Carbamate Solution Recycles:


Carbamate solution from LP carbamate separator is recycled to HP synthesis
section via HP carbamate pumps. Around 35% of solution is pumped to HP
scrubber & the rest to HP carbamate condenser. Carbamate pumps are
reciprocating pumps driven by variable speed motors via gearbox.

Flash Tank Condenser


Urea solution From rectifying column separator at 135 & 2.3kg/cm2 g pressure is flashed
to flash tank separator, which is maintained at pressure of 1.06 kg/cm2 g. Urea solution
from rectifying column is let down across the level control valve to flash tank separator.
Liquid & gas phase are separated in flash tank separator. A considerable amount of water
& NH3 is liberated from the urea solution & this

27
liquid Vapour mixture enters the flash tank separator. Urea solution from the bottom
of separator flows to pre evaporator. Urea solution from the flash tank can be taken
directly to the urea storage tank bypassing pre evaporator.

Vapours from the flash tank separator flows to the flash tank scrubber where
residual urea, NH3 is scrubbed with ammonia water supplied by urea recovery circulation
pups. The vapours leaving the scrubber are sent to the flash tank
condenser where remaining NH3 & CO2 are condensed by cooling water to form
lean carbamate solution Heat of reaction & latent heat of water formation is
removed by circulating cooling water in the tube side of the condenser. Vapours leaving
the flash tank condenser are sent to atmosphere Vent scrubber for further recovery of
NH3 or can be removed by the flash tank ejector when flash tank is operated under
vacuum when pre evaporator section is bypassed. 4 ata steam is used in the ejector. The
air in bleed isolation valve is provided to the flash tank condenser for releasing the
vacuum when prilling section is shut down.

Pre Evaporator:
The urea solution from the flash tank separator about 104 0C & about 1.06 kg/cm2 g
vacuum pressure is flashed to pre evaporator which is maintained at 0.4 kg/cm2 g
vacuum pressure. Urea solution Is heated up to 98.6 0C in two separate heat exchangers,
which are parts of pre evaporator.

Temperature of the exit urea solution is controlled by 4ata steam control valve provided

on 4 atm steam inlet line. Exit urea solution at concentration of 82.6%. Temp 9.6 0C is
drawn to urea solution. Storage tank.

The vapour leaving he pre evaporator mainly consist of water & NH 3 are condensed in
pre evaporator condenser with the help of cooing water passing
through tube side the condensed water is drawn to the rich ammonia water tank.
Uncondensed vapour from the condenser are connected to first evaporator off

28
gases there by vacuum in pre evaporator is maintained with the help of first evaporator
ejector system.

Urea Solution Storage Tanks:


Two urea solution Storage tanks are installed to receive urea solution tank. Urea
solution from the pre evaporator is received in urea solution tank for onward
pumping to the evaporator. Urea storage tank is maintained under atm. Pressure urea
solution Tank also receives recycle solution of evaporation section during startup
& urea dust dissolved solution From prill cooling system & bagging & from
material handling plant via prill cooling system.

Evaporation And Prilling System:


Urea solution having a concentration of 82.6% is pumped from the urea solution
tank to the first evaporator separator by urea solution pump. The evaporator
separator operates under vacuum of 0.31 kg/cm2 g. Urea solution is heated in the shell
& tube type heat exchanger with urea solution flowing in the tubes & 4 atm
0
steam on the shell side the urea solution is heated from 98.6 to 130 C to achieve
urea solution concentration of 95%.

The urea solution From the climbing film single pass evaporator flashes into the separator
mounted directly on the evaporator. The water vapour together with some ammonia is
separated

0
Urea solution at a temp of about 13 C having concentration of 95.5 % then flows
from first evaporator, it is further concentrated to over 98.5% urea melt for prilling
it is heated on tube side by 9 at a steam on shell side. Urea from the second
evaporator flashes directly to the separator. The overhead from it condensed & collected
in ammonia water tanks.

Prills Cooling System:

29
Urea from the second evaporator enters in suction of urea melt pump. Urea melt is
pumped to the prilling equipment on top of prilling tower.

urea in fine droplets. Air is drawn from the bottom of prilling tower, via fixed
openings by 4 prill tower induced fans situated at the prilling tower top & flows
counter current to the flow of urea prills.

During the free fall in the tower the heat of crystallization is being carried away
by air entering at the bottom of tower. The droplets of urea first solidify then
0
cooled to a temp 80 to 90 C. The hot urea prills fall on the scraper at bottom &
there fed to prill tower conveyer.

Material handling :
Urea prills after discharging from product conveyer flows into the fluidized bed
cooler through inlet nozzle. atm air is supplied by inlet air fan for cooling.

During fluidization on perforated plate of fluidized bed cooler heat of hot urea
prills is taken away by air & cooled urea prills flows over discharged nozzle.
Exhaust air along with some fines of prills to dust removal systems after removing
dust clean air is exhausted to atm. by chimney. Dust separated is collected in three
silos.

Urea Hydrolyser & Desorber :


Process water containing 6.2% NH3, 4.3% CO2 & 1.3% urea by wt from strong ammonia
water tank is pumped with desorber feed pump via desorber heat exchanger to the first
desorber. The first desorber is having 20 nos. of sieve trays in order to provide uniform
contact between liquid & vapour. In the first desorber bulk of NH3 & CO2 is stripped off
by means of overhead vapours from second desorber & hydrolyser.

Pre desorber feed water containing about 1% NH3 from the bottom of the first
desorber is pumped by hydrolyser feed pump through the tube side hydrolyser

30
preheater, where its temp. is raised & fed to the top of the hydrolyser. In the
hydrolyser urea in feed water is converted to NH3 & CO2 according to hydrolysis
reaction :

NH2CONH2 + H2O 2NH3 + CO2

The hydrolyser is operated at temp. Of 190 at top & 200 0C at bottom. Heat required for
hydrolysis of urea & raising temp. to 200c is supplied by 23 ata superheated
steam fed into hydrolyser bottom through sparker. The flow of vapour & solution
in hydrolyser is counter current. In the hydrolyser 20 nos. of sieve tray with a
short pipe down comer are fixed at spacing of 1100mmm to provide uniform
contact between. Liquid & vapors. The pressure of NH3 retards hydrolysis reaction.
The ammonia produced as a result of hydrolysis reaction is simultaneously
stripped by the uprising vapours.
The urea concentration of less than 10 ppm in effluent can be achieved in counter
current type of hydrolyser.
0 0
Effluent leaving hydrolyser bottom is cooled from 200 C to 146 C in the
hydrolyser preheater with the hydrolyser feed water & is fed to second desorber
for final striping vapour leaving at top of hydrolyser are fed to first desorber
below 5th tray as supplementary stripping medium & for recovery of ammonia & CO 2.

The overhead vapors from the first desorber are taken to vertical reflux condenser
where it is in almost completely condense in shell side the cooling water is
supplied at tube side of reflux condenser. Ammonia water from the outlet of flash tank
scrubber is pumped by pump & introduced in the of gas line. This will help condensation
in the reflux condenser. Uncondensed gases are separated & fed to the atm vent scrubber
for recovering NH3. Liquid from the reflux level tank is transferred by means of reflux
pump to LP carbamate condenser. A small part of
liquid is fed at top of first desorber as reflux to control the water content I top
product by controlling top temperature of first desorber around 115 0C

31
In second desorber the remaining NH3 & CO2 in the effluents stripped off by
means of saturated LP steam available & the overhead vapours bearing NH3 &
CO2 are fed to the first desorber bottom as stripping medium.

The effluent from second desorber bottom containing less than 10 ppm NH3 ,urea
0
is cooled from 137 to 47 C in the desorber heat exchangers by exchanging heat with
first desorber bottom cooler. The final effluent can be diverted to effluent is sent to
cooling tower directly or it is taken to CO2 spray cooler & then to cooling tower
along with spray cooler water with help of spray cooler pumps.

And Steam Condensate System


Urea plant uses steam at five pressure levels 60ata, 40ata, 23ata, 9ata & 4ata. 60
ata steam is received in urea plant battery limit from steam generation plant.

23 atm steam requirement is met by letting down 60 atm steam from turbines of CO2

compressors. 9 atm steam is produced by letting down 23 atm steam.

4 atm steam is generated from the HP condenser & from back pressure steam
turbines of steam generation plant additional requirement of 4 ata steam if any, is met
by letting down 9 atm steam.

60 atm steam is generated in BHEL boiler & supplied to urea plant at 60 atm &
the steam is utilized in urea plant turbines plant needs about 78 tones of 60 atm
steam to run Hitachi CO2 compressor turbine.

40 atm steams available from utilities at urea plant battery limits for driving the
turbine of main lube oil pump for NP/PB CO2 compressor turbine. It is generated through
letting down 60 ata steam through control valve.

23 atm steam is extracted from CO2 compressor turbine is used in HP stripper.

32
9 atm steam is generated by flashing 23 atm steam condensate from 23 atm steam
saturator. A part of this flashed to form 9 ata steam which flows to consuming
station. A small quantity of 23 atm steam is also spurged into 9 atm saturator to
meet the additional demand for 9 atm steam. It is mainly used in second evaporator.

4 atm steam is produced by natural circulation of condensate to shell side of HP


condenser. It is mainly used in first evaporator, recirculation heater, CO 2 centrifugal
compressor turbines, second desorber & pre evaporator. 63 t/h of 4 atm steam is produced
from HP condenser

33
CHAPTER 4 :- MAJOR EQUPMENTS AND INTRUMENTATION

4.1 Equipments Detail


4.1.1 Natural Gas Desulphuriser

Purpose:
To remove sulfur compounds, which are poisonous for the catalysts, from LNG with
activated carbon by absorption.

Operating conditions:
LNG contains about 0.5 to 3ppm sulfur. Sulfur is absorbed by activated carbon. The outlet
gas should contain 0.2ppm sulfur.

Description:
The feed gas contains about 0.5 to 3ppm sulfur compounds in the form of sulphides,
disulphides, thiophenes etc, and these should be removed as they are poisonous for the
process to follow. There are two desulpharisers out of which one is online while the other
is a stand by which is used when the first one is regenerations.

The process employed here is adsorption. For desulphurization activated carbon catalyst
is used. There are two beds of catalyst-at the top and bottom. It adsorbs the sulphur
compound. RLNG enters the desulpharisers at the top and is removed from the bottom
with a sulphar impurity of about 0.2ppm. The gas then enters the Knock-out drum in
which the liquid hydrocarbons, if any are knocked out.

4.2 Primary Reformer

Purpose:
To react liquefied natural gas with steam in presence of nickel catalyst to get H 2 for
synthesis of NH3.

Pressure: 31.3 kg
Temperature:818 de

34
Fig. 4.1 Primary Reformer
Description:
Reforming is an initial process of forming Hydrogen and Nitrogen in ammonia plant after
the process of desulphurization. The primary reforming is carried out in the primary
reforming(furnace). The gas from the desulphuriser is first preheated in the feed
preheated in the convection section. The inlet and outlet temperatures are 93C and
232C respectively.

The above natural gas is mixed with super- heated steam to get a steam to carbon ratio of
3.5:1. The mixer at 295C is then passed through the second feed pre heater coil in the
convection section to achieve a temperature up to 525C. The final mixer goes to the
primary reformer.

The primary reformer is rectangular in shape. Outside is consisting of S.S body and there
are insulator bricks inside. It consists of tubes packed with nickel which is used as
catalyst. These tubes are vertically with the help of spring suspension and between the
vertical rows of these tubes the burners are installed which use natural gas and associated
gas as a fuel for heating the tubes. The spring suspensions are made provide for the

35
expansions and contractions of the tube material. There are in total 336 tubes and 126
burners.

Inside primary reformer endothermic reaction takes place at about 818C. The product
each raw of tubes is connected at the bottom. The product from each of 42 tubes meets at
the centre and forms the single line called Transfer line which rises upward. The
temperature of the gases inside the tube is 852C. The Transfer Line directs the flow to
the secondary reformer.

4.3 Secondary Reformer:


Purpose:
To complete the reforming of methane, which comes out from primary reformer.
Also nitrogen is introduced in the process by burning a part of reformed gas with oxygen
contained in the air at the top section of secondary reformer.
Pressure: 31.0 kg
Temperature: 820 deg C

36
Fig. 4.2 Secondary Reformer

Description:
The partially reformed gas from primary reformer entered the secondary reformer at a
temperature of 820C. The flow is downward a centrally located air inlet pipe, air
supplied by process. Air compressor is preheated with steam. A small quantity of steam is
mixed at air inlet to the air pre heater coil to ensure continuous flow into the secondary
reformer

The process is namely exothermic and the temperature in the combustion zone is about
995C. In the secondary reformer the working pressure is about 31 kgf/cm2. The purpose
of the secondary reformer is to complete the reforming of methane which comes out from
37
the primary reformer. Also nitrogen is introduced in the process by mixing a part of
reformed gas with oxygen contained in air the section of secondary reformer.

The hot gases pass through the bed of nickel catalyst and their temperature is around
992C. The heat is recovered from the reformed gas by use of waste heat boiler and the
steam produced is again used in the other operations.

4.4 Primary Waste Heat Boiler:

Purpose:
Steam generation from secondary reformer effluent gases.
Pressure: 30.9 kg
Temperature: 996.7 deg C

4.5 Secondary Waste Heat Boiler:


The reformed gas from primary reformers enters the top of the secondary reformer,
which is mixed with air by John Zive Air Mixer.

Nitrogen is introduced in the process by burning of part of the performed in the air at
HT top section.

The heat of combustion is made available for the endothermic reaction of the methane
reforming at elevated temperature at bottom
section. Pressure: 105.4 kg
Temperature: 313.90 deg C

4.6 Shift Convertor:


Purpose:
To convert CO of reformer gas to gain one mole of H2 per mole of CO for ammonia
synthesis.
Design And Operating Details:
Table 4.1 High Pressure Section

Operating pressure 31.8 kg/cm2

38
Design pressure 34.1 kg/cm2
Vessel design temperature 482.2c
Inlet gas temperature 355c
Outlet gas temperature 422c

Table 4.2 Low Pressure Section

Operating pressure 29.1 kg/cm2


Design pressure 34.1 kg/cm2
Vessel design temperature 301.7c
Inlet gas temperature 204c
Outlet gas temperature 221c
Max. allowable pressure drop through beds(total) 2.0

4.7 Ht Shift Conversion:


The reformed gas enters the HT section of the shift convertor at a temperature of
345C and flows through the catalyst bed. The bypass is provided to control the HT
shift converter feed inlet temperature. The catalyst used here is iron oxide.

By the reaction most of the carbon monoxide is converted to carbon dioxide also
gives out heat. Above reaction is reversible and carbon monoxide is converted back
into carbon dioxide which is favored at low temperature.

4.8 Lt Shift Conversion:


The gas coming out of the HT shift converter still contains about 2.5% carbon monoxide.
The removal of this CO is done in this section. The temperature of the gas in the LT shit
converter is about 200C. The catalyst used here is copper. The heat is recovered from
the gas before it is sent to the carbon dioxide removal section at low temperature.

The gas is first cooled by a desulphur heater with a spray of recycled process condensate
pumped by pump from the raw gas separator. The quenching is done with the desulphur
heater as the excessive high temp. can cause degradation of a-MDEA(aqueous-Methyl
Diethanol Amine)

39
4.9 CO2 Absorber:
Purpose:
To remove the carbon dioxide contained in the raw synthesis gas by scrubbing it with
30% to 40% MDEA solution.
Pressure: 27.4 kg
Temperature: 75 deg C

Description:
In this section the bulk of CO2 in the raw synthesis gas is removed by absorption using
40% MDEA solution at high pressure and low temperature. The absorption of CO 2
involves the reaction of dissolved CO2 in water.

With a-MDEA to form a loose chemical compound which can be easily dissolved at high
temp. and low pressure. The raw synthesis gas at a pressure of 27.3 kg/cm2 .g and a temp.
of 63C contains about 18% dry volume of CO 2 is introduced at the bottom of CO2
absorber.

4.10 CO2 Stripper:


Purpose:
To regenerate rich MDEA solution by steam stripper with the help of reboiler and there
by realizing CO2.
Pressure: 0.74 kg
Temperature: 75 deg

Description:
In this section the bulk of CO2 in the raw synthesis gas is removed by absorption, using
at 40% aqueous methyl ethanol amine solution at relatively high pressure and low
temperature.
The CO2 is sent to urea plant , dry ice and balance if any is vented by atmosphere. The
lean a-MDEA solution form the bottom of strippers is reused after cooling , for
absorption of CO2 in absorber.

40
4.11 Methanator:
Purpose:
To convert small quantity of CO and CO2 to methane by reacting with hydrogen in
presenc4e of highly active nickel catalyst.
Pressure: 26.7 kg
Temperature: 375.6 deg C

4.12 Synthesis Convertor:


Purpose:
In synthesis converter, H2 and N2 contained in the converter feed combine to form
ammonia in presence of promoted iron catalyst at the prevailing temperature and pressure
of 420c and 135 kg/cm2 respectively.
Pressure: 146.2 kg
Temperature: top head=283.9 deg C
Startup heater outlet=537.8 deg C
Others part=146.1 deg C

4.13 Ammonia Separator:


Purpose:
To separate and remove maximum amount from recycle gas and slight traces of water,
CO, CO2 contained in the makeup gas which are chilled to 28.9 C.

Table 4.3 Operating Condition

Temperature -28.9c

Pressure 147.7 kg/cm2

41
CHAPTER:5 PROCESS UTILITIES
5.1 Utility Plant:
5.1.1 Narmada Water System:

Generally fertilizer plants require a lot of water for the process. An industry may
have raw water supply from river , lake , pond , sea or subsoil resources, canal.

Narmada Water System In IFFCO (Kalol Unit):

IFFCO Kalol plant is away from the river and no lake is available in the nearby vicinity.
Thus the water required is received from SSNNL (Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam
Limited) Dholka branch canal near Jaspur village. Raw water is required in the plant
mainly for.

Cooling tower (CT) make up water after partial treatment in WTP.

Blending to cooling tower make up water.

Boiler feed water make up tower after treatment in WTP.

Drinking water.

Fire water.

Service water & other miscellaneous uses.

Water to township.
This plant is designed for the treatment of 4 MGD = 1800M3/Day water which is
received from SSNNL (Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Ltd.) Dholka branch canal near
Jaspur village. The water from Narmada canal is stored in raw water reservoir capacity
4900 M3 is pumped to site in water treatment plant. This water is again stored in raw
water reservoir capacity 20000 M3. From this reservoir we are treating the water in
water treatment plant. Turbidity, suspended solids and microbiological growth is
controlled by addition of Poly aluminum chloride and chlorine and then it pass to
clarifoculator and sand filter. The clear water from sand stored in clear water sump
capacity 10000 M3 is supplied to DM plant, cooling tower and for the domestic water
us

42
5.1.2 Water Treatment Plant:
Narmada water is supplied by Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Limited from Jaspur
village to pre-treatment plant and then to water treatment plant. The water treatment plant
consists of cation, anion, storage base anion (SBA) and secondary mixed bed (SMB)
units. The advantage of property of resin material to exchange in ion in its structure, for
an ion in solution is utilized in the process of water treatment plant

The Water Treatment Process Consists Of Following Five Steps:


1. Exchange of Cations in Strong acid cation exchangers
2. Exchange of anions in weak base anion exchangers
3. Dissociation of carbonic acid in degasser unit.
4. Strong base anion (SBA) exchangers and
5. Degassing:

For removing the carbonic acid formed by the removal of cations of carbonates a
degasser is provided which will remove H2CO3 by the process of stripping with air.

The reaction is as follows. No additional chemical is used in this process.


H2CO3 H2O + CO2

Strong Bed Anion Exchange:


Degassed water passes through a bed of strong base anion exchange resin. Strong basic
anion exchangers will remove silica, sulphides and carbonates as well as the other
common anions. For this reasons, direct silica removal is possible. The removal of silica
by strong basic anion exchanger resin can be represented as follows.

ReOH + H2SiO3 ReHSiO3+ H2O

At IFFCO (Kalol), water treatment plant (WTP) is broadly divided into two

43
categories:
1. Water treatment plant consisting of five units of strong acidic cation exchangers and
weak base anion exchangers (DM Stream) for partially treated water as cooling tower
makeup water.
2. Boiler feed water (BFW) treatment plant consisting of one common degasser unit, four
units each consisting of one strong basic anion bed exchangers (MB Steams).

Mixed Bed Exchange Unit:


In MB exchange unit water is passed through a bed of mixed resin i.e. cation resin and
strong base anion resin. Here any residual cation and anion of the salts in water are
removed. Chemical reaction for service and regeneration are sane as in case of cation and
strong base anion (SBA) exchangers.

Cation Exchange Resin:


Some synthetic resins acts as cation exchange resins. These resinous substances reacts
with water containing salts, replace the metallic cation of these salts by hydrogen ions n
the resinous substance. Such resinous substance when exhausted can again be regenerated
by acids having hydrogen ions.
If such a resinous substance is expressed as H 2Re, the chemical action can be
written as follows:
H2Re + CaSO4 CaRe + H2SO4
H2Re + MgCl2 MgRe + 2HCl
H2Re + Ca (HCO3)2 CaRe + 2H2CO3

H2Re + 2NaNO3 Na2Re + 2HNO3

In the equation, Ca, Ma and Na are retained in the cation exchange resins and respective
mineral acids are provided, separating thereby Ca, Ma and Na from the water. At kalol,
Unit steam of 4% HCI is passed through the bed of cation resin and following reactions
will take place.

Ca-Re+2HCI H2Re + CaCl2

44
Mg-Re + 2HCI H2Re + MgCl2

Anion Exchange Resin:


Some synthetic resins act as anion exchange resins. These resins remove negative ions
such as chlorides, nitrates and sulphates from water by replacing OH ions. If we represent
these resins as OH-Re, the chemical equation can be represented as

follows.

OH-Re + HCI Cl Re + H2O

SO4Re2+ 2H2O
2OH-Re+

NO3Re + H2O
H2SO4
OH-Re + HNO3
When alkali is passed through the bed of anion unit, the following reaction take
place.
NH4OH + Cl-Re NH4Cl + OH-Re
2NH4OH + SO4Re2 (NH4)2SO4 + 2OH-Re
NaOH + Cl-Re NaCl + OH-Re
2NaOH + SO4Re2 Na2SO4 + 2OH-Re
The original resin from OH-Re is regained by regeneration of the anion unit with alkali
and so the resin is ready for, further anion ion exchange.

Cooling Tower Make-Up Water Generation:


The Narmada water from pre-treatment plant is pumped to cation exchanger. The water
first enters the cooling tower makeup-boiler feed water pretreated section consisting of
five nos. of DM streams. In cation exchanger, where the water first enters, the salts
presents in the raw are converted to their corresponding acid e.g. sulphuric acid,
hydrochloric acid. The acidic water then passes through the resin trap where the entrained
resin is retained. Water then enters the exchanger where all the anions are removed by the
weak basic anion exchanger resin. The water is again passed through a resin trap for
removing any carry over of resin.

The demineralized water, as it comes out of the trap after anion exchanger, contains

45
chlorides less than 0.5 ppm and suitable for consumption as cooling tower make up. This
water is stored. in cooling tower make up water sump from where it is taken to the
cooling tower through a cooling tower makeup water pump. The cooling tower make up
water is degassed in a degassing cell of cooling towers.

The strong acid cation exchanger is filled with strongly acidic cation exchange resin,
suitable for regeneration with 4% hydrochloric acid. The weak base anion exchanger is
filled with weak base anion exchange resin, suitable for regeneration with 4% ammonium
hydroxide or 4 % sodium
Hydroxide.
When water equivalent to the designed capacity if one stream has passed through one
stream, as indicated by the flow integrator mounted on the panel, or the conductivity of
the service water increases as indicated by the conductivity indicator mounted on the top
panel, the unit will be shut down for regeneration purpose.

Up BFW Make Water Generation:


The water required for boiler feed purpose is to be degassed before introduction into
the SBA units of the mixed bed section. The outlet water from the weak base anion
unit goes to the top of an air blown degasser. The carbonic acid formed in the strong
base cation exchanger is removed from the water in the degasser.

The degassed water from the degasser sump is pumped by degasser pumps to boiler feed
water section consisting of four streams of strong basic anion & secondary mixed bed
unit.

The strong acid cation resin is suitable for regeneration with 4 % hydrochloric acid and
strong base anion exchange resin is suitable for regeneration with 4 % sodium hydroxide.
The cation exchange resin exchanges hydrogen (H+) ions with positive charges contained
in the water, while the anion exchange resin exchanges hydroxyl (OH') ions for the ions
with negative charges. The net result for this process is the replacement of the dissolved
salts with an equivalent quantity of water. The residual salts from cooling

46
water boiler feed water section and silica in water is removed in the strong base anion
bed and secondary mixed bed (SMB) unit.

When an equivalent quantity of water to the designed figure, as indicated by the flow
integrator, has passed through the mixed beds, or the conductivity/silica exceeds the set
limit, the stream will be manually shut down for regeneration.

5.1.3 Cooling Towers


Most industrial processes need cooling medium for efficient and proper operation.
Water is the most effective cooling medium used today because,

It is normally plentiful
It is easy to handle and can carry large amount of heat per unit volume
It does not decompose

It is normally readily available and is in-expensive


The system using water as coolant is called as cooling water systems. During process, the
cooling water gets heated up and must be either cooled before it can be used again or
replaced with fresh water. In most industrial localities fresh water is too scarce to permit
its unlimited use as a cooling medium.

The tendency of water tables for the bore wells is forcing the industries to conserve the
water wherever possible and reusing the water to a maximum extent.-For reusing the
cooling after, it must be cooled back to nearly ambient direct contact cooling tower where
it is cooled with air In the cooling tower, ordinary the fresh cooling water requirement is
by about 1.5 to 2.5 % of the circulation rate.

There are three basic cooling water systems.

1. Closed Recirculating System:


2. This system uses the same cooling water repeatedly in continuous cycle. First the water
absorbs heat from process fluid, and then releases it in another heat exchanger. In this
system, an evaporative cooling tower is not included.
3. Once Through Systems:

47
In these systems, the cooling water passes through heat exchanger equipment only once.
The mineral content of the cooling water remains practically unchanged, as it passes
through the systems

Open Recirculation System:


It consists of cooling tower, pumps and heat exchangers. The pumps keep the water
circulating through heat exchangers where it picks up heat in the cooling tower heat is
released from the water through evaporation. Thus the heated water gets cooled in the
cooling tower with naturl or mechanical draft provided in the tower. Because of
evaporation, the water in open recirculation system undergoes changes in its basic.
Spray pounds

Cooling tower

Evaporative condensers

This system permits great economy in makeup water requirement and average
operating temperature range is 5 C to 17 C.

Principle Of Cooling Tower:


The cooling tower is one type of heat exchanger which cools hot water with air. It is
basically a tower containing treated wood as feeling material. Filling material is piled up
in the tower from the distribution basin. Water falls on the filling and breaks into fine
droplets. The function of the filling (internals) is to increase the contact surface between
the water and air. The filling at IFFCO-Kalol is replaced arranged in such a way that the
water entering the distribution trays near the top of the tower. Fan mounted on top of the
tower induces air into the tower through air inlet, placed on either side of the tower.
Across this air flow, water drops fall through fillings.

When the water droplets existing in air evaporates, the quantity of heat about 540 kcal/kg
is taken from the surrounding as latent heat of evaporation. In case that the temperature of
hot water is higher than that of surrounding air, the heat removed from water and
transferred to air is the sum of the sensible heat and latent heat of evaporation. The
sensible heat is less as compared to latent heat.

48
Types Of Cooling Tower:
Cooling towers are classified according to the means by which air is supplied to the tower
and the method of contact between water and air. There are two types of cooling towers.
1. Atmospheric and natural draft cooling tower
2. Mechanical draft tower

Atmospheric cooling tower:


The atmospheric tower works on the atmospheric wind current. The air blows through the
lower sides in one direction at a time, which shifts as per the season of the year and other
atmospheric conditions. Since the atmospheric currents must penetrate the entire width of
tower, the towers are made very narrow in compression with other type and must be very
long to afford equal capacity.

Natural draft cooling towers:


These types of cooling towers operate in same way as a furnace chimney. Air is heated in
the tower by hot water, so that its density is lower. The difference between the density of
the air in the tower and outside the tower causes a natural flow of cold air into the tower
must be tall for sufficient buoyancy and must have large section because of low rate at
which the air circulates. Natural draft towers consume more pumping power.

The mechanical draft towers is subdivided into two types:

(i) Forced draft towers


(ii) Included draft towers

Forced Draft Towers:


Forced draft cooling towers are the oldest types of mechanical draft towers. The fan
being-located at the base of the tower so that they force the air into the sides of the tower
and flows upwards through the falling water and out at the top of the tower.

The air Distribution is poor since the air must make a 90 deg turn while at high velocity.

49
In forced draft tower the air is discharged at low velocity from a large opening at the top
of the tower. Under this condition the air possess a small velocity head and tends to settle
into the path of fan intake. This means that fresh air is contaminated by partially saturated
air which has already passed through the tower. This condition is known as recirculation
and reduces the performances of cooling tower.

Induced Draft Towers:


This tower efficiently and thoroughly eliminates the difficulties experienced from the
forced draft type. The fan being located at the top of the tower, flows upwards through
the falling water and discharges to atmosphere. In induced draft tower, air is discharged
through the fan at a high velocity and thus prevents air from settling of the induced draft
tower causes entrainment loss or drift loss of water.

In these induced draft towers, air flow may be either cross flow counter current. At
IFFCO-Kalol unit cooling towers are induced draft, cross flow type.

5.1.4 STEAM GENERATION PLANT:


The modem steam generator is an integrated assembly of several essential components its
function is to convert water into steam at a predetermined pressure and temperature. It is
a physical change of state, accomplished by transferring heat produced by combustion: of
a fuel, to water. Commonly it is a constant pressure process. The steam generator is
pressure vessel into which liquid water is pumped at the operating pressure. After heat
has vaporized the liquid, the resulting steam is then ready either for delivery to the use or
for flirter heating in a super heater.
At IFFCO-Kalol plant, a BHEL make boiler of 80 t/h (net) capacity was
commissioned on 5th October 1982 and is in operation since then.
The BHEL boiler is water tube, bid rum, forced draft furnace. It is oil and/or gas

fired boiler of 80 t/h capacity at 61.5 Kg/cm2g pressure and 410(+/-5) C


temperature.

Principles Of Steam Generation And Circulation:

50
Within the steam generation, the steam formation of steam is hinged upon a successful
transfer of heat. Once this transfer is made, steam formation will start. Steam formation
can describe by use of a simple drum heated from beneath. Steam forms in bubbles to the
surface where .the steam is released into the space above. Here in simplest form, three
part cycles is common to every steam generator.
Flow water to the heated areas

Flow of steam and heated water to upper areas

Release of steam

There is a drum which has connected to it a loop of tubing, one of which is heated
and the other unheated. Steam bubbles from in the heated leg, generally called a
riser. The resulting steam water mixture is displaced by the relatively heavy water in
the unheated leg or down comer and circulation flow of water is established. Under
operating conditions, there is a continuous flow of water from the drum where steam
releases. The factors influencing circulation are that the column of water in the
down comer leg weight more than equal column of steam water mixture in the down
comer leg. This difference represents the force available to overcome friction and
maintain circulation.
As actual steam generator consist of many tubular circuits, with a drum or drums
acting as a distributing and collecting device and releasing point for steam.
However, actual steam, generators are not built up by merely multiplying the
number of simple individual loops, the circuits are more complex and the number of
individual paths for steam water flow varies from point to point. The three system of
circulation adopted in boiler are

Natural circulation system

Controlled circulation system

Combined circulation system


Cooling tower make up water is drawn after weak base anion exchangers and
the boiler feed makeup water is supplied after removal of silica and traces of
cation and anions mixed bed units. The deposit layer is non-conductive and
insulator instead if good. conductor which is very essential for maximizing
thermal efficiency of the boiler and heat' exchangers. Modem high pressure

51
boilers need feed water, which should be of high degree of conditioned with certain
chemicals.
The water from Narmada contains turbidity but contains mineral salts e.g.
chlorides, sulphates, and carbonates of calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron salts
& sand in suspension. The level of chlorides in water is very less. The
hardness is classified into two viz. temporary hardness and permanent hardness.
The temporary hardness due to carbonates and bicarbonates of calcium and
magnesium. Permanent hardness is caused by chlorides and sulphates of calcium
magnesium. Bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium and sulphate of calcium
from hard scales on boiler tubes resulting in tube failure. Also, silica present
in the water has property of volatizing at higher pressure and temperature.
Chlorides and carbonates are responsible for corrosion in boiler system.
Water treatment plant (WTP) is required to treat Narmada water for producing
specified quality of cooling tower make-up water and boiler feed make up
water. A demineralization based water treatment plant has been provided to
generate the entire quality of make-up water for cooling tower and boiler feed
water of high quality for high pressure from the raw water

5.1.5 Offsite Plant:


1. Ammonia Storage & handling
2. Naphtha storage
3. E.T.P. (Effluent treatment plant)
4. Diesel power generating set (DG SET)

1. Ammonia Storage & Handling:

10,000 tone ammonia storage tank:


10,000 tone liquid NH3 storage tank was built by M/s Vijay tanks & vessels Pvt.
Ltd. It is a single wall cylindrical vessel with a fixed self- supporting cone roof &
insulated with polyurethane foam. Its diameter is 30m & height is 21.5m. The tank
is provided with refrigeration system & sufficient safety gadgets.

52
CHAPTER 6 :- HELTH.HAZARDS AND SAFETY
6.1 Introduction To Industrial Safety:
Safety is becoming very important with every management as it has come to play a very
vital role in the modern development. Before many years, accidents were considered as
acts of God and nature.

Scientific minded people have analyzed accidents and developed a separate engineering
branch of accident prevention. This analysis was required due to
Rising trend of accidents
Increased use of machinery
Increased material handling
Lack of safety standard
Lack of training
Better reporting of accidents

6.2 Safety:
Safe use of man, material and machine by safe system method of work is to achieve
zero accidents which results in higher productivity.

6.3 Accident:
An accident is unplanned and unexpected events which interfere or interrupts the
planned process of work and results in personal injury.

6.4 Accident Factors:


A personal accident injury occurs as a result of an accident
An accident due to unsafe act and/or unsafe condition
Unsafe act/unsafe condition exists due to fault of persons
Fault of persons are due to negligence.
Thus, if we can remove fault of persons we can prevent 98% accidents.
6.5 List Of Safty Equipments:

53
6.5.1 Respiratory Personal Protective Equipments
Self-contained breathing apparatus sets of 30 minutes and 10 minutes

Continuous airline masks.

Trolley mounted self-contained breathing apparatus set 2.5 hours

Canister gas mask. Dust mask/cloth mask. (Air purifying respirator)

6.5.2 Non-Respiratory Personal Protective Equipments


Helmet

Ear muff and ear plugs

Goggles

Face shield

Hand gloves

Aprons

Safety Shoes

Suits

Safety harness

6.5.3 Warning Instruments


Oxygen, carbon dioxide, chlorine, ammonia indicator with replaceable sensors.
Explosive meters for measuring explosive range.
Fire fly instrument for confined space entry.

6.5.4 Gas Leakage Protection Installation


Safety Showers

Manual water sprinklers

Communication systems

6.5.5 First Aid Boxes


IFFCO kalol is maintaining the dispensary around the clock at plant over & above
we have provided first aid boxes at all shop floor where employees are working

54
6.6 Safety Precautions:
When taking samples of anhydrous ammonia and when operating or working on
ammonia valves, equipment containing ammonia such as ammonia feed pumps,
operators, laboratory and maintenance personnel must wear overalls, safety goggles
and rubber gloves. If any part of the skin has been exposed to ammonia, wash
immediately and thoroughly with water.

Work on the ammonia equipment should be done from the upwind side of the
equipment to avoid or minimize contact with escaping ammonia.

The location of fire hydrants, safety showers, eyewash fountains ammonia canisters
gas mask, emergency air breathing apparatus should be well known to all person.

Instruments containing mercury must not be used if ammonia is likely to come in


contact with the mercury.

Heavy leakage of ammonia can be dealt by spraying large quantity of water with
spray nozzles.

6.7 Fire Hazards:


The general types of fire are encountered in the process plants. One involves
common combustible material such as wood, rags, paper, etc. (Class A fires), the
next flammable liquids and gases such as lubrication oils and solvents, ammonia
vapors etc. (Class B fires) and the third involve electrical equipment (Class C
fires).

In general three things are required to make a fire

Something which will burn egg., a combustible material

Oxygen-air

A source of ignition or existence of a temperature at or above which a material will


start burning spontaneously.

6.8 Principles Of Fire Extinguishing:

55
Fire may be extinguished by withdrawing of flammable contents, interrupting
flammable flow, isolating fuel from air, heat removal to below reaction temperature
or by dispersal.

In the event of fire on electrical mains or apparatus, the affected part shall be
immediately isolated from its source of supply of electrical energy.

Carbon tetrachloride extinguishers and Carbon dioxide extinguishers are intended


mostly for use on electrical fires and may be used on energized electrical equipment
without danger to operator provides. They are properly maintaining no moisture.

It is dangerous to throw a stream of water, a wet blanket or a stream from an


ordinary soda acid or foam type fire extinguishers on line main apparatus. When
found necessary to use them, have all neighboring mains or apparatus made dead.

In case of fire, it is the duty of the operating personnel to protect life and property
and to extinguish the fire as quickly as possible.

The greatest cause of fire is welding which may be required during plant operation.
It should be a stringent rule of the plant that no welding without permission of the
supervisor.

Fire and safety equipment, under conditions of extreme exertion provide protection
only for a few minutes. Equipment must be cleaned, replenished and inspected for
damage before being returned to service. Equipment should be maintained in
excellent condition and inspected frequently so that they are available in case of
emergency.

6.9 Color Code For Pipeline:


Green---ordinary hazard

Red---high level hazard

Black---foam

6.4 Fire Fighting Appliances:


Type of Class A Class B Class C
extinguisher
Carbon Suitable for surface Suitable. Does not Suitable. Non-
dioxide fires only leave residue or conductor and

56
affect equipment or does not damage
food stuff. equipment.
Dry Suitable for small Suitable. Chemical Suitable.
chemical fire releases smothering Chemical is non-
gas and shields conductor or dry
operator from heat. chemical shields
operator from
heat.
Foam Suitable. Has both Suitable. Unsuitable. Foam
smothering effect Smothering blanket being a conductor
and wetting action. does not dissipate, should not be
floats on top of used on live
spilled liquid. equipment.
Water Suitable. Water Unsuitable. Water Unsuitable. Water
saturates material a will spread and not being conductor

6.10 Fire Protection:


Segregation buildings, fire resistant walls, flame arrestor, automatic fire
extinguishers.

Portable extinguishers, hydrants, sprinklers, fire water and trailer pump,


firefighting team and drills.

Safe access for firefighting, protection against lightening and ignition and detailed
provisions of fire exists.

Safety from gas cylinders and flammable liquids, dust gas, vapor and waste.

57
CHAPTER 7 :- BAGGING & MATERIAL HANDELING

Storage silo with a capacity of 30,000 tones urea has been provided to ensure continuous
operation in the event of non-availability of wagons or irregular seasonal demand for the
fertilizer. Urea is bagged in polyethylene laminated jute bags. Bagging and material
handling plant is a section of the production department. This is the plant where packing
of urea product is done in bags and then it is loaded in trucks / wagons and sent to the
market.

7.1 Types Of Conveyors, Machines, Heavy Equipments In This Plant


1. Product conveyor
2. Silo ingoing conveyor
3. Silo outgoing conveyor
4. Dust conveyor
5. Mini conveyor
6. Bagging plant conveyor
7. Hopper conveyor
8. UBM hopper conveyor.

7.1.1 Conveyors
They are made up of 4 ply Dunlop rubber joined by vulcanization. There are carrying
rollers, return rollers, idlers, guide rollers and impact rollers. The conveyors are driven by
a motor or gear box. There are rope switches for immediate stopping of the belt. There
are skirt guards to prevent spillage and scrappers to clean the conveyor belt.
Product Conveyor:
This conveyor is inclined. It takes material from the urea plant and delivers to silo
ingoing conveyor or bagging plant conveyor through a flap valve.

Silo Ingoing Conveyor:


This conveyor receives material from the product conveyor through a flap valve and
delivers in silo.

58
Silo Outgoing Conveyor:
This conveyor is used to transfer reclaimed material from silo to bagging.
plant conveyor through vibrator screens.

Dust Conveyor:
This conveyor is used to deliver dust received from vibrator screen to silo.

Mini Conveyor:
This conveyor is used to feed material on bagging plant conveyor.

Vibrating Screens:
There are 4 screens to carry out screening of reclaimed material. Screen overflow (good
material) is fed to bagging plant conveyor. The screens are manufactured by Pennwalt
India Ltd. Screen size is 84. The screens have a capacity of 26 ton per hours.

Transfer Tower:
The area where product conveyor material is delivered on the bagging plant conveyor tail
end and the screens are located is called the transfer tower.

Silo:
It is a go down where urea material is stored.
Shape : Parabolic
Purpose : Storage of loose urea prills
Capacity : 30000 tons
Length : 210 meters
Width : 37 meters
Height : 18.5 meters

7.2 Detailed Description:

7.2.1 Conveying System:


The conveying section consists of three routes which are listed below:

59
From prill tower to urea storage building.

From urea storage to bagging machines.

From prill to bagging machines.

The control circulation for the control gear provides for remote starting of any of
the pre-selected route for prilled urea all the drives of the conveying system are
electricity inter locked.

7.2.2 Empty Bag Handling:


Empty bag bales are lifted through two openings in the floor of empty bag store.
Bags with the help of two half tones cranes M-2133 A & B and one crane is
second empty bag store. Besides lifting the bag bales, these cranes can be used for
stacking empty bag bales in empty bag store.

7.2.3 Reclaim Machine:


This machine is used to reclaim the material from the silo and deliver it to the silo
outgoing conveyor. The main parts of the reclaim machine are the scrapper
bottom, bucket elevator and link conveyor. By using scrapper bottom, material is
scrapped and delivered to the buckets from where the material is transferred to the
link conveyor from the vertical bucket elevator.

The reclaim machine length of bulk urea storage building. Bulk urea is reclaimed
via scrapper, bucket elevator and belt conveyor and discharge on the reclaim
conveyor M-2117.travels along the

Process:
There are 6 packer scale (P/S) or Bagging and Weighing machine along with six hoppers.
Each hopper has a capacity of 12 Ton. One new P/S known as UBM (Universal Bagging
Machine) which is fully automatic has also been installed.

When the machine is stopped, 45kg material is fed in the bucket through opening of two
feed gates. Then one gate is closed which has a hole in the centre through which
remaining 5 kg material is fed.

60
Then the second gate closes. When the bag is applied to the sock gap assembly, the
bottom flapper of the bucket opens and the material is fed in the bag. The bag is then
released and it moves on the slat conveyor. Stitching of the bag is done and then the bag
falls on the platform through chutes. The bag is then loaded into bucket / wagons or
stacked on platform.
Specification Of The Empty Bag

Length : 915 mm
Width : 610 mm
Weight : 130 gm (+ or 3%)
Material : HDPE
Color : Milky white with blue ton
Lamination : Inside laminations with 100 gauge thick. This is
done to protect urea from moisture as it is a
hygroscopic material.
Stitching : stitching thread green in colour
Strength : Width wise
Bottom seam : 32 kgf

Fig.7.1: Urea Bag

61
Rail tanker loading:
The surplus liquid NH3 from tanks is dispatched to IFFCO (Kandla Unit) through rail
tankers. For loading into rail tankers, five loading points are provided. At a time batch of
five tankers wagons, each having capacity of 32 tone can be loaded to NH3 loading
pumps each having discharge capacity of 105 tone/hr at a pressure of 21.00 kg/cm2 are
installed.

Refrigeration system:
The NH3 storage tanks are fully & designed for maximum boil off of 0.04% per day.

Vapor pressure of NH3 is high even at atmospheric condition. To maintain nearly


atmospheric pressure in tank, the vapour generated has to be condensed. This is done by
taking the generated vapour from storage tank to the refrigeration system where the
vapour are compressed, liquefied & returned to the tank in liquid form.

One refrigeration compressor having capacity of 540 kg/hr was installed with 10,000 tone
NH3 storage tank. Two more NH3 refrigeration compressors having identical capacity
were added with installation of 5000 tone NH3 storage tank. These three refrigeration
compressors are integrated to draw vapour from both the storage tanks. Also 150 mm NB
pipe line is provided to take about 200 kg/hr vapour from both the storage tanks to NH 3
plant refrigeration system through pressure control valve.

7.3 Effluent Treatment & Disposal:


Approximately 18000m3/day of raw water is utilized at IFFCO kalol mainly for
process water & boiler feed water generation. Effluent treatment facilities have
3 3
been installed to handle the 3500-4000m /day bulk & 50-600m /day strong effluent
coming out of various out of various plants every day.

Equipment specification:-
Strong effluent tanks

Bulk effluent tanks

62
Balancing ponds

Effluent pit
H2SO4 storage tanks

Effluent treatment system is installed to control the undesirable element in the liquid
effluent before discharging outside IFFCO premises.

Effluent discharge outside IFFCO should statutory requires norms imposed by state &
central pollution control boards.

7.4 Types Of Liquid Effluent:


The total effluent generated within the plants is divided into two categories & treated
separately
Strong effluent: - Having higher concentration of dissolved compounds.

Bulk effluent: - Having comparatively less amount of concentrated dissolved solids.


This effluent is collected either into strong effluent tanks or bulk effluent tanks. Water
from urea plant drains & washing is collected in separate tanks known as
balancing ponds diverted to bulk or strong effluent as per its analysis.

Strong effluent & disposal:


The concentrated effluent from water plant is collected in strong effluent tank &
discharged to solar evaporation lagoons inside IFFCO premise with the help of strong
effluent pumps. Nearly 600m3/day of strong effluent is generated, collected in strong
effluent storage tanks, mixed & then pumped to polythene lined solar evaporation
lagoons having area about 15 hecters.

Bulk effluent treatment & disposal:


Effluent water containing comparatively very low concentration of pollutant is called
bulk effluent. The effluent from following source is collected in bulk effluent storage
tank.

Water treatment plant with low concentration of salts


Inert gas generation plants
63
Cooling water blow down
From hydrolyser system during upset condition
Sand filter backwash oil separator
Domestic effluent
HCL fumes scrubber water
Open channels domestic water collected at effluent pit is diverted to bulk effluent. Bulk
effluent segregated from the water treatment plant is collected only in bulk effluent
tank B & allowed to mix into tank A for better neutralization effect.
Weak effluent collected & mixed in weak effluent storage tanks to form bulk/combined
effluent. Bulk effluent elements are controlled by adjusting the dilution water flow in
normal operation.

About 3000m3/day combined effluent is pumped outside IFFCO premise. The effluent
quality is continuously monitored within plant before final discharge to meet statutory
requirement of pollution control board.

64
CHAPTER 8 :- ENVIROMENT & POLLUTION CONTROL

It accepts its duty to exercise care for health of employees & others which may be
affected by operation & pollution. It gives equal importance to pollution control as any
other activity.

8.1 Air Pollution:


The main source of air pollution from ammonia plant at IFFCO kalol are emition from
stack of furnaces & boiler.
Primary reformer

Secondary reformer

Boiler
The concentration of sulphur being negligible in the RLNG & associated gas obtained
from nearby well & flue gas remains below specified limit. However unit has SO 2, NOx,
CO analyzer for analyzing flue gas quality of ammonia plant & utility

8.2 Solid Waste:


Waste means any substance which constitute scrap material or an effluent oran other
unwanted surplus sub. arising from app. of any process

In ammonia plant at kalol mainly two types of solid waste are generated

Spent catalyst from plant

ETP sludge

8.2.1 Disposal Of Solid Waste:


Spent catalyst are stored in drum & sell too gather company who has GPSB
authorized

ETP sludge collected from strong effluent tank mainly salt of Ca & Mg are filled in
bags & damped in GPSB approved site

Waste can also be removed by other methods like dilution ,incineration,


bioremediation, stabilization

8.3 Water & Noise Pollution:

65
To control the water pollution a centralized effluent treatment plant is installed. All the
streams are collected in pond. After treatment & confirming by GPSB norms & standards
it is discharged outside plant premise this water is utilized by farmers for irrigation

Mainly 18000m3/d Narmada water is utilized in plant for process water & boiler feed
water generation. effluent facilities have been installed to handle 3500-4000m3/d bulk &
500-600m3/d strong effluent coming out of various plants every day

ETP contains

Strong effluent tanks

Bulk effluent tanks

Balancing ponds

Effluent pit

H2SO4 storage tanks

ETP is installed to controlled the undesirable element in the liquid effluent before
discharging outside IFFCO

66