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Neutrinos are spin , neutral leptons

Relatively tiny mass compared to other leptons

Neutrinos & photons are the most abundant elementary particles in the universe
They experience weak force and gravity only, so theyre hard to detect
Their weak interactions are successfully described by the standard model

Neutrino flavour change (neutrino oscillation)

At least three neutrino flavours: electron, muon and tau neutrino

This is defined in terms of W boson decays:

When a neutrino interacts to make a charged lepton, the charged lepton is always of the
same flavour as the neutrino.

However if u send a muon neutrino on a long journey it can change to a tau neutrino -> a
flavour change occurs
The neutrinos of definite flavour must be superpositions of the mass eigenstates.
There must be at least 3 mass eigenstates vi, because there are 3 orthogonal neutrinos of
definite flavour valpha. (alpha could be e, mu or tau)

Theres some mixing matrix which is unitary if the neutrino masses r described by an
extension of the SM, and there are no new leptons.

Flavour change requires leptonic mixing

Neutrinos oscillate -> they mix

Neutrino oscillation is a quantum mechanical phenomenon whereby a neutrino created
with a specific lepton flavour (electron, muon, or tau) can later be measured to have a
different flavour. The probability of measuring a particular flavour for a neutrino varies
periodically as it propagates through space.

Neutrino oscillation arises from a mixture between the flavour and mass eigenstates of
neutrinos. That is, the three neutrino states that interact with the charged leptons in weak
interactions are each a different superposition of the three neutrino states of definite mass.
Neutrinos are created in weak processes in their flavour eigenstates. As a neutrino
propagates through space, the quantum mechanical phases of the three mass states
advance at slightly different rates due to the slight differences in the neutrino masses. This
results in a changing mixture of mass states as the neutrino travels, but a different mixture
of mass states corresponds to a different mixture of flavour states. So a neutrino born as,
say, an electron neutrino will be some mixture of electron, mu, and tau neutrino after
traveling some distance. Since the quantum mechanical phase advances in a periodic
fashion, after some distance the state will nearly return to the original mixture, and the
neutrino will be again mostly electron neutrino. The electron flavour content of the neutrino
will then continue to oscillate as long as the quantum mechanical state
maintains coherence. Since mass differences between neutrino flavours are small in
comparison with long coherence length for neutrino oscillations this microscopic quantum
effect becomes observable over macroscopic distance.

Neutrinos can be sterile which does not interact with any of the known forces except for
Each neutrino of definite flavour is a superposition of the mass eigenstate OR the other way
around ?

We know that the masses of these three types of neutrinos are small. We know that the
flavour mixture of the first neutrino mass state is heavy on electron flavour. We know that
the second is more of an even blend of electron, muon and tau. And we know that the third
is mostly muon and tau.
We know that the masses of the first two neutrinos are close together and that the third is
the odd one out. What we dont know is whether the third one is lighter or heavier than the

In physical cosmology, leptogenesis is the generic term for hypothetical physical processes
that produced an asymmetry between leptons and antileptons in the very early universe,
resulting in the dominance of leptons over antileptons.

In nuclear physics, double beta decay is a type of radioactive decay in which two protons are
simultaneously transformed into two neutrons, or vice versa, inside an atomic nucleus.
In neutrinoless double beta decay, a hypothesized process that has never been observed,
only electrons would be emitted.
If the neutrino is a Majorana particle (meaning that the antineutrino and the neutrino are
actually the same particle), and at least one type of neutrino has non-zero mass (which has
been established by the neutrino oscillation experiments), then it is possible for
neutrinoless double beta decay to occur. In the simplest theoretical treatment, known as
light neutrino exchange, the two neutrinos annihilate each other, or equivalently,
a nucleon absorbs the neutrino emitted by another nucleon.

a Majorana particle is a fermion that is its own antiparticle.

Cherenkov radiation

Is EM radiation emitted when a charged particle passes through a dielectric (electrically

polarisable) medium at a speed greater than the phase velocity of light in that medium