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Magnetic Particle Testing (MT)

NDT30M

Training and Examination Services


Granta Park, Great Abington
Cambridge CB21 6AL
United Kingdom
Copyright TWI Ltd
Magnetic Particle Testing NDT30M

Contents
Section Subject

Preliminary pages
Standards and Associated Reading
COSHH, H&S, Cautions and Warnings
Introduction to NDT Methods
NDT Certification Schemes

1 The Principles of MPI


1.1 Introduction
1.2 Types of magnetisation - diamagnetism and paramagnetism
1.3 Ferromagnetism and domain theory
1.4 Permanent magnetism
1.5 Electromagnetism
1.6 Magnetic hysteresis
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Flux leakage
2 Methods of Magnetisation
2.1 Portable equipment
2.2 Fixed equipment
3 Detecting Media, UV Light and Other Equipment
3.1 Inks and powders
3.2 Visible or fluorescent
4 Application Techniques and Demagnetisation
4.1 Continuous technique
4.2 Residual technique
4.3 Demagnetisation
4.4 Principle of demagnetisation
4.5 Methods of demagnetisation
5 Current Waveforms
5.1 Direct current
5.2 Alternating current
5.3 Half-wave rectified (HWR) [or HWRAC]
5.4 Full-wave rectified current (single phase [FWRAC]
5.5 Converting between RMS and peak values
6 Assessing Magnetising Force and Amperage
6.1 Portable equipment
6.2 Alternative standards
6.3 Fixed equipment
6.4 Verification of magnetisation
6.5 Factors affecting MPI sensitivity
6.6 Assessment and reporting of indications and test procedure

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7 Control and Maintenance Checks
7.1 Detection media
7.2 Fluorescent ink intensity
7.3 Overall performance check
7.4 Viewing efficiency
7.5 Magnetising units
7.6 Tank levels
7.7 Ultraviolet lamp maintenance
7.8 Ammeters
7.9 Demagnetiser

Glossary of Terms
Product Technology Notes
Coursework

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Standards and Associated Reading

BS EN ISO 1330-1 Non-destructive Testing Terminology


Part 1: List of general terms.

BS EN ISO 1330-2 Non-destructive Testing Terminology


Part 2: Terms common to NDT methods.

BS EN ISO 1330-7 Non-destructive Testing Terminology


Part 7: Terms used in magnetic particle testing.

BS EN ISO 9934-1 Non-destructive Testing Magnetic particle testing


Part 1: General Principles.

BS EN ISO 9934-2 Non-destructive Testing Magnetic particle testing


Part 2: Detection media.

BS EN ISO 9934-3 Non-destructive Testing Magnetic particle testing


Part 3: Equipment.

ASTM E1444-05 Standard Practice for Magnetic Particle Examination.

BS EN 1290 Non-destructive examination of welds Magnetic particle


examination of welds (SUPERSEDED by BS EN ISO 17638).

BS EN 1291 Non-destructive testing of welds. Magnetic particle testing of


welds. Acceptance levels.

BS EN 3059 Non-destructive Testing Penetrant testing and magnetic


particle testing Viewing conditions.

BS EN 10228-1 Non-destructive testing of steel forgings. Magnetic particle


inspection.

BS EN 12062 Non-destructive examination of welds. General rules for metallic


materials.

BS 7773 Code of practice for cleaning and preparation of metal surfaces.


(SUPERSEDED by BS EN ISO 27831 Parts 1 and 2: Metallic and
other inorganic coatings cleaning and preparation of metal
surfaces.
Part 1. Ferrous metals and alloys.
Part 2. Non-ferrous metals and alloys).

BS 4069 Specification for magnetic flaw detection inks and powders


(SUPERSEDED, WITHDRAWN)

BS 5044 Specification for contrast aid paints used in magnetic particle


flaw detection. (SUPERSEDED, WITHDRAWN)

BS 6072 Method for magnetic particle flaw detection.


(SUPERSEDED by BS EN ISO 9934-1)

BS EN ISO 17638 Non-destructive testing of welds. Magnetic particle testing.

BS EN 1369 Founding magnetic particle testing.

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EN 473 Superseded by BS EN ISO 9712.

BS EN ISO 9712 Non-destructive testing qualification and certification of NDT


personnel.

PD 6513 Magnetic particle flaw detection. A guide to the principles and


practice of applying magnetic particle flaw detection in
accordance with BS 6072. (SUPERSEDED by BS EN ISO 9934-1)

Associated Reading

Magnetic Particle Inspection: A Practical Guide. David Lovejoy

Mathematics and formulae in NDT (ISBN 0 903 132 214) published by The British Institute
of Non-destructive Testing, Newton Building, St Georges Avenue, Northampton, NN2 6JB,
UK.

NDT Education and Resource Centre. Magnetic Particle Inspection. http://www.ndt-


ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/MagParticle/cc_mpi_index.htm

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COSHH, H&S, Caution and Warnings Relevant to TWI Training & Examination
Services

Introduction
The use of chemicals in NDT is regulated by law under the Control of Substances
Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 2005. These regulations require the School to
assess and control the risk of health damage from every kind of substance used in
training. Students are also required by the law to co-operate with the Schools risk
management efforts and to comply with the control measures adopted.

Hazard Data Sheets


The School holds Manufacturers Safety Data Sheets for every substance in use. Copies
are readily available for students to read before using any product. The Data Sheets
contain information on:

The trade name of the product; eg Magnaglo, Ardrox, etc.


Hazardous ingredients of the products.
The effect of those ingredients on peoples health.
The hazard category of the substance; eg irritant, harmful, corrosive or toxic, etc.
Special precautions for use; eg the correct Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to
wear.
Instructions for First Aid.
Advice on disposal.

Disposing of chemicals
Personnel Protective Equipment (PPE) must be used at all times according to the
manufactures instructions and including the wearing of safety equipment and clothing
and also recognising that dangerous fumes might be present particularly for solvent
contrast paints, inks and cleaners.

Safety Conditions

Where required carbon filters will be used for the removal of odours, gases and
chemical vapours.
Similarly ultrafiltration can be used for the treatment of rinse water used during
cleaning.
Safety precautions when using UV radiation is cover in Section 3.2.2, Ultraviolet
Lamp Maintenance - Safety precautions and operating instructions of UV light
sources.
Electrical Hazards include the following:
Electrical shock and burns from contact with live parts
Injury from exposure to arcing or fire from faulty equipment
Explosion caused by electrical apparatus (or static electricity)
Electric shocks can lead to other types of injury such as falling from ladders or
scaffolds.
It is therefore important that workers know how to use electrical equipment and that
it should be properly maintained and switched off when cleaning, adjusting or
setting up.
As is the case with all items of test equipment and safety equipment, national
regulations in the country of operation must be adhered to.

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EH40 Occupational Exposure Limits

What is Exposure?

Exposure to a substance is uptake into the body. The exposure routes are by:

Breathing fume, dust, gas or mist.


Skin contact.
Injection into the skin.
Swallowing.

Many thousands of substances are used at work but only about 500 substances have
Workplace Exposure Limits (WELs). Until 2005 it had been normal for HSE to publish a
new edition of EH40, or at least an amendment, each year. However with increasing use
of the website facilities the HSE no longer always publishes a revised hardcopy edition,
or amendment.

The web based list which became applicable from 1st October 2007 can now be found at
http://www.hse.gov.uk/coshh/table1.pdf.

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Introduction to Non Destructive Testing
Non-destructive testing (NDT) is the ability to examine a material (usually for
discontinuities) without degrading it or permanently altering the article being tested as
opposed to destructive testing which renders the product virtually useless after testing.

Other advantages of NDT over destructive testing are that every item can be examined
with no adverse consequences, materials can be examined for conditions internally and
at the surface and most importantly parts can be examined whilst in service making a
good balance between cost effectiveness and quality control. NDT is used in almost
every industry with the majority of applications coming from the aerospace, power
generation, automotive, rail, oil and gas, petrochemical and pipeline markets, safety
being the main priority of these industries. When properly applied, NDT saves money,
time, materials and lives. NDT as it is known today has been developing since around
the 1920s with the methods used today taking shape later with vast technological
advancements being made during the Second World War. The five principal methods,
other than visual inspection, are:

Penetrant testing.
Magnetic particle inspection.
Eddy current testing.
Ultrasonic testing.
Radiography.

In all NDT methods interpretation of results is critical. Much depends on the skill and
experience of the technician, although properly formulated test techniques and
procedures will improve accuracy and consistency.

Visual testing (VT)


With sufficient light and access, visual techniques provide simple, rapid methods of
testing whilst also being the least expensive. Close Visual Testing (CVT) refers to viewing
directly with the eye (with or without magnification) whereas Remote Visual Inspection
(RVI) refers to the use of optical devices such as the boroscope and fibrescope. Visual
testing begins with the eye; however, the first boroscopes used a hollow tube and a
mirror with a small lamp at the end to investigate the bores of rifles and cannon for
problems and discontinuities. In the 1950s, the lamps were replaced by glass fibre
bundles which were used to transmit the light. These became known as fibrescopes
which were also less rigid, increasing the capabilities of testing. With usage expanding,
many users began to suffer from eye fatigue which led to the development of video
technology. This was first used in the 1970s and relies on electronics to transmit the
images rather than fibreoptics.

Further enhancements to video technology include pan, tilt and zoom lenses, mounting
cameras to platforms and wheels, all allowing more parts to be tested and better images
for improved inspection. Video devices also allow recording of inspections to be taken
meaning permanent records can be kept. This has a number of advantages such as
enabling other inspectors to observe the test as it was performed and allowing further
review and evaluation.

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Penetrant testing
Penetrant testing locates surface-breaking discontinuities by covering the item with a
penetrating liquid, which is drawn into the discontinuity by capillary action. After removal
of excess penetrant the indication is made visible by application of a developer. Colour
contrast or fluorescent systems may be used.

Advantages Disadvantages
Applicable to non-ferromagnetics Only detects defects open to the surface
Able to test large parts with a portable kit Careful surface preparation required
Batch testing Not applicable to porous materials
Applicable to small parts with complex Temperature dependant
geometry
Simple, cheap, easy to interpret Cannot retest indefinitely
Sensitivity Compatibility of chemicals

History of penetrant testing


A very early surface inspection technique involved the rubbing of carbon black on glazed
pottery, whereby the carbon black would settle in surface cracks rendering them visible.
Later, it became the practice in railway workshops to examine iron and steel components
by the oil and whiting method. In this method, heavy oil, commonly available in railway
workshops, was diluted with kerosene in large tanks so that locomotive parts such as
wheels could be submerged. After removal and careful cleaning, the surface was then
coated with a fine suspension of chalk in alcohol so that a white surface layer was
formed once the alcohol had evaporated. The object was then vibrated by being struck
with a hammer, causing the residual oil in any surface cracks to seep out and stain the
white coating. This method was in use from the latter part of the 19th century to
approximately 1940, when the magnetic particle method was introduced and found to be
more sensitive for ferromagnetic iron and steels.

A different (though related) method was introduced in the 1940s. The surface under
examination was coated with a lacquer and after
drying, the sample was caused to vibrate by the tap of
a hammer. The vibration causes the brittle lacquer
layer to crack generally around surface defects. The
brittle lacquer (stress coat) has been used primarily to
show the distribution of stresses in a part and not for
finding defects.

Many of these early developments were carried out by


Magnaflux in Chicago, IL, USA in association with
Switzer Bros, Cleveland, OH, USA. More effective
penetrating oils containing highly visible (usually red)
dyes were developed by Magnaflux to enhance flaw
detection capability. This method, known as the visible
or colour contrast dye penetrant method, is still used quite extensively today. In the
1940s, Magnaflux introduced the Zyglo system of penetrant inspection where fluorescent
dyes were added to the liquid penetrant. These dyes would then fluoresce when exposed
to ultraviolet light (sometimes referred to as black light) rendering indications from
cracks and other surface flaws more readily visible to inspectors. UV lights have become
increasingly portable with hand held UV torches now readily available.

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Magnetic particle inspection
Magnetic particle inspection (MPI) is used to locate surface and slightly sub-surface
discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials by introducing a magnetic flux into the
material.

Advantages Disadvantages
Will detect some sub-surface defects Ferromagnetic materials only
Rapid and simple to understand Requirement to test in two directions
Pre-cleaning not as critical as with dye Demagnetisation may be required
penetrant inspection (DPI)
Will work through thin coatings Odd shaped parts difficult to test
Cheap rugged equipment Not suited to batch testing
Direct test method Can damage the component under test

History of magnetic particle inspection (MPI)


The origins of MPI can be traced to the 1860s when cannon barrels were tested for
defects by first magnetising the barrel and then running a compass down the length of
the barrel. By monitoring the needle of the compass, defects within the barrel could be
detected.

This form of NDT became much more common post First World War, in the 1920s, when
William Hoke discovered that flaws in magnetised materials created distortions in the
magnetic field. When a fine ferromagnetic powder was applied to the parts, it was
observed that they built up around the defects providing a visible indication.

Magnetic particle inspection superseded the oil and chalk method in the 1930s as it
proved far more sensitive to surface breaking flaws. Today it is still preferred to the
penetrant method on ferromagnetic material and much of the equipment being used
then, is very similar to today, with the only advances coming in the form of fluorescent
coating to increase the visibility of indications and more portable devices being used. In
the early days battery packs and direct current were the norm and it was some years
before alternating current proved acceptable.

Magnetism
The phenomenon called magnetism is said to have been discovered in the ancient Greek
city of Magnesia, where naturally occurring magnets were found to attract iron.

The use of magnets in navigation goes back to Viking times or maybe earlier, where it
was found that rods of magnetised material, when freely suspended, would always point
in a north-south direction. The end of the rod which pointed towards the North Pole star
became known as the North Pole and consequently the other end became the South
Pole.

Hans Christian Oersted (1777-1851) discovered the connection between electricity and
magnetism, to be followed by Michael Faraday (1791-1867) whose experiments revealed
that magnetic and electrical energy could be interchanged.

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Electromagnetic Testing
Historical perspective
Electromagnetic testing the interaction of magnetic fields with circulating electrical
currents - had its origin in 1831 when Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic
induction. He induced current flow in a secondary coil by switching a battery on and off.
D E Hughes performed the first recorded eddy current test in 1879. He was able to
distinguish between different metals by noting a change in excitation frequency resulting
from effects of test material resistivity and magnetic permeability.

Introduction to electromagnetic testing


Many electromagnetic induction or eddy current comparators were patented in the period
from 1952. Innumerable examples of comparator tests were reported in the literature
and in patents. Many provided simple comparator coil into which round bars or other test
objects were placed, producing simple changes in amplitudes of test signals, or
unbalancing simple bridge circuits. In nearly all cases, particularly where ferromagnetic
test materials were involved, no quantitative analyses of test objects dimensions,
properties, or discontinuities were possible with such instruments. Often, difficulties were
encountered in reproducing test results, for some test circuits were adjusted or balanced
to optimise signal differences between a known good test object and a known defective
test object, for each group of objects to be tested. Little or no correlation could then be
obtained between various types of specimens, each type having been compared to an
arbitrarily selected specimen of the same specific type.

Developments in electromagnetic induction tests


Rapid technological developments in many fields before and during World War 2, (1939-
45) contributed both to the demand for NDT and to the development of advanced test
methods. Radar and sonar systems made acceptable the viewing of test data on the
screens of cathode-ray tubes or oscilloscopes. Developments in electronic
instrumentation and in magnetic sensors used both for degaussing ships and for
actuating magnetic mines, brought a resurgence of activity.

Friedrich Frster
The introduction by Frster of sophisticated, stable, quantitative test equipment and of
practical methods for analysis of quantitative test signals on the complex plane were by
far the most important factors contributing to the rapid development and acceptance of
electromagnetic induction and eddy current testing. Frster is rightly identified as the
father of modern eddy current testing.

By 1950, he had developed a precise theory for many basic types of eddy current tests,
including both absolute and differential or comparator test systems and probe or fork coil
systems used with thin sheets and extended surfaces.

Continued advances in research and development, advanced electronics and digital


equipment have led to eddy currents becoming one of the most versatile of the surface
methods of inspection.

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Eddy current inspection
Eddy current inspection is based on inducing electrical currents in the material being
inspected and observing the interaction between those currents and the material. Eddy
currents are generated by coils in the test probe and monitored simultaneously by
measuring the coils electrical impedance. As it is an electromagnetic induction process,
direct electrical contact with the sample is not required; however, the material must be
an electrical conductor.

Advantages Disadvantages
Sensitive to surface defects Very susceptible to permeability changes
Can detect through several layers Only on conductive materials
Can detect through surface coatings Will not detect defects parallel to surface
Accurate conductivity measurements Not suitable for large areas and/or
complex geometries
Can be automated Signal interpretation required
Little pre-cleaning required No permanent record (unless automated)
Portability

History of eddy current testing


The principles of eddy currents arose in 1831 with Faradays discovery of
electromagnetic induction; eddy current testing methods have their origins in a period
just after the First World War, when materials with a high magnetic permeability were
being developed for electrical power transformer cores and motor armatures. Eddy
currents are a considerable nuisance in electrical engineering they dissipate heat and
efforts to reduce their effect led to a discovery that they could be used to detect material
changes and cracks in magnetic materials. The first eddy current testing devices for NDT
were by Hughes in 1879 who used the principles of eddy currents to conduct
metallurgical sorting tests and the stray flux tube and bar tester.

It was left to Dr. Friedrich Frster in the late 1940s to develop the modern day eddy
current testing equipment and formulate the theories which govern their use.

Since then, eddy current methods have developed into a wide range of uses and are
recognised as being the forerunner of NDT techniques today. From the mid 1980s the
microprocessor based eddy current testing instruments were developed which had many
advantages for inspectors. Modern electronics have made instruments more user
friendly, providing reduced noise levels which made certain test applications very
difficult, but also improving methods of signal presentation and recording capabilities.

Microcomputer chips abound, from giving lift-off suppression in simple crack detection to
providing signal processing for immediate analysis of condenser tube inspection. As with
other testing methods, improvements to the equipment have been made to increase its
portability and computer-based systems now allow easy data manipulation and signal
processing. Eddy current testing is now a widely used and understood inspection method
for flaw detection as well as for thickness and conductivity measurements.

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Ultrasonic testing
Ultrasonic testing measures the time for high frequency (0.5-50MHz) pulses of
ultrasound to travel through the inspection material. If a discontinuity is present, the
ultrasound will return to the probe in a time period other than would be expected of a
fault free specimen.

Advantages Disadvantages
Sensitive to cracks at various orientations No permanent record (unless
automated)
Portability Not easily applied to complex
geometries and rough surfaces.
Safety Unsuited to coarse grained materials
Able to penetrate thick sections Reliant upon defect orientation
Measures depth and through-wall extent

History of ultrasonic testing (UT)


In Medieval times craftsmen casting bells for churches were aware that a properly cast
bell rang true when struck and that a bell with flaws would give out a false note. This
principle was used by wheel-tappers inspecting rolling stock on the railways; they struck
wheels with a hammer and listened to the note given out. A loose tyre sounded wrong.

The origin of modern ultrasonic testing (UT) is the discovery by the Curie brothers in
1880 that quartz crystals cut in a certain way produce an electric potential when
subjected to pressure - the piezo-electric effect, from the Greek piedzein, to press or
strike. In 1881 Lippman theorised that the effect might work in reverse and that quartz
crystals might change shape if an electric current was applied to them. He found this
was so and experimented further. Crystals of quartz vibrate when alternating currents
are applied to them. Crystal microphones in a modern stereo rely on this principle.

When the Titanic sank in 1912, the Admiralty tried to find a way of locating icebergs by
sending out sound waves and listening for an echo. They experimented further with
sound to detect submarines during the First World War. Between the wars, marine echo
sounding was developed and in the Second World War ASDIC (Anti-Submarine Detection
Investigation Committee) was extensively used in the Battle of the Atlantic against the
U-boats.

In 1929 a Russian physicist, Sokolov, experimented with through transmission


techniques of passing vibrations through metals to find flaws; this work was taken up by
the Germans. In the 1930s the cathode ray tube was developed and miniaturised in the
Second World War to fit small airborne radar sets into aircraft. It made the UT set as we
know it possible. Around 1931 Mulhauser obtained a patent for a system using two
probes to detect flaws in solids and following this Firestone (1940) and Simons (1945)
developed pulsed UT using a pulse-echo technique.

In the years after the Second World War researchers in Japan began to experiment on
the use of ultrasound for medical diagnostic purposes. Working largely in isolation until
the 1950s, the Japanese developed techniques for the detection of gallstones, breast
masses and tumours. Japan was also the first country to apply Doppler ultrasound, an
application of ultrasound that detects internal moving objects such as blood coursing
through the heart for cardiovascular investigation.

The first flaw detector was made by Sproule in 1942 while he was working for the
Scottish firm Kelvin & Hughes. Similar work was carried out by Firestone in the USA and
by German physicists. Sproule went on to develop the shear-wave probe.

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Initially UT was limited to testing aircraft, but in the 1950s it was extensively used in the
building of power stations in Britain for examining thick steel components safely and
cheaply. UT was found to have several advantages over radiography in heavy industrial
applications:

It did not have health hazard associated with radiography and a UT technician could
work next to welders and other employees without endangering them of holding up
work.
It was efficient in detecting toe cracks in boilers a major cause of explosions and
lack of fusion in boiler tubes.
It could find planar defects, like laminations, which were sometimes missed by
radiography.
A UT check on a thick component took no more time than a similar check on a thin
component as opposed to long exposure times in radiography.

Over the next twenty years, improvements focused on accurate detection and sizing of
the flaws with limited success, until 1977 when Silk first discovered an accurate
measurement and display of the top and bottom edges of a discontinuity with the Time
of Flight technique (TOFD). Advances in computing technology have now expanded the
use of TOFD as real time analyses of results are now available.

It was also during the 1970s that industries focused on reducing the size and weight of
Ultrasonic flaw detectors and making them more portable. This was achieved by using
semi-conductor technology and during the 1990s microchips were introduced into the
devices to allow calibration parameters and signal traces to be stored. LCD display
panels and digital technology have also contributed to reducing the size and weight of
Ultrasonic flaw detectors. With the development of Ultrasonic Phased Array and
increased computing power, the future for Ultrasonic inspection is very exciting.

Radiography
Radiography monitors the varying transmission of ionising radiation through a material
with the aid of photographic film or fluorescent screens to detect changes in density and
thickness. It will locate internal and surface-breaking defects.

Advantages Disadvantages
Gives a permanent record, the radiograph Radiation health hazard
Detects internal flaws Can be sensitive to defect orientation and
so can miss planar flaws
Detects volumetric flaws readily Limited ability to detect fine cracks
Can be used on most materials Access is required to both sides of the
object
Can check for correct assembly Skilled radiographic interpretation is
required
Gives a direct image of flaws Relatively slow method of inspection
Fluoroscopy can give real time imaging High capital cost
High running cost

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History of radiographic testing
X-rays were discovered in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad
Roentgen (1845-1923) who was a Professor at Wrzburg
University in Germany. Whilst doing some experiments in
which he passed an electric current through Crookes
tubes, an evacuated glass tube with an anode and a
cathode. When a high voltage was applied, the tube
produced a fluorescent glow. Roentgen noticed that some
nearby photographic plates became fogged. This caused
Roentgen to conclude that a new type of ray was being
emitted from the tube. He believed that unknown rays
were passing from the tube and through the plates. He
found that the new ray could pass through most
substances casting shadows of solid objects. Roentgen
also discovered that the ray could pass through the tissue
of humans, but not bones and metal objects. One of
Roentgen's first experiments late in 1895 was a film of the
hand of his wife.

Shortly after the discovery of X-rays, another


form of penetrating rays was discovered. In 1896
French scientist Henri Becquerel discovered
natural radioactivity. Many scientists of the
period were working with cathode rays and other
scientists were gathering evidence on the theory
that the atom could be subdivided. Some of the
new research showed that certain types of atoms
disintegrate by themselves. It was Becquerel who
discovered this phenomenon while investigating
the properties of fluorescent minerals.

One of the minerals Becquerel worked with was a


uranium compound. On a day when it was too
cloudy to expose his samples to direct sunlight,
Becquerel stored some of the compound in a
drawer with photographic plates. Later when he
developed these plates, he discovered that they were fogged (exhibited exposure to
light). Becquerel questioned what would have caused this fogging. He knew he had
wrapped the plates tightly before using them, so the fogging was not due to stray light,
in addition, he noticed that only the plates that were in the drawer with the uranium
compound were fogged. Becquerel concluded that the uranium compound gave off a
type of radiation that could penetrate heavy paper and expose photographic film.
Becquerel continued to test samples of uranium compounds and determined that the
source of radiation was the element uranium. Becquerel did not pursue his discovery of
radioactivity, but others did.

While working in France at the time of Becquerel's discovery, Polish scientist Marie Curie
became very interested in his work. She suspected that a uranium ore known as pitch-
blende contained other radioactive elements. Marie and her husband, French scientist
Pierre Curie, started looking for these other elements. In 1898, the Curies discovered
another radio-active element in pitchblende and named it polonium in honour of Maries
native homeland. Later that year, the Curies discovered another radioactive element
which they named radium, or shining element. Both polonium and radium were more
radioactive than uranium. Due to her lifelong research in this field, Marie Curie is widely
credited with the discovery of gamma radiation and the introduction of the new term:
radio-active.

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Since these discoveries, many other radioactive
elements have been discovered or produced.
Radiography in the form of NDT took shape in the early
1920s when Dr. H.H. Lester began testing on different
materials. Radium became the initial industrial gamma
ray source. The material allowed castings up to 10 to 12
inches thick to be radiographed. During the Second
World War industrial radiography grew tremendously as
part of the Navy's shipbuilding programme. In 1946,
man-made gamma ray sources such as cobalt and
iridium became available. These new sources were far
stronger than radium and much less expensive. The
man-made sources rapidly replaced radium and use of
gamma rays grew quickly in industrial radiography.

William D Coolidge's name is inseparably linked with the


X-ray tube popularly called the Coolidge tube. This
invention completely revolutionised the generation of X-
rays and remains the model upon which all X-ray tubes
for medical applications are patterned. He invented
ductile tungsten, the filament material still used in such
lamps. He was awarded 83 patents.

Although the theories and practices have changed very


little, radiographic equipment has developed. These
developments include better images through higher quality
films and also lighter, more portable equipment.

In addition to conventional film radiography Digital


Radiographic systems are now wide spread within the NDT
industry. The use of Phosphor stimulated imaging plates
(PSP) with photomultipliers to capture image signals and
Analogue to Digital Converters (ADC) to convert to digital
image are used extensively in Computed Radiography
(CR).

Direct radiography systems (DR) are also used based upon complimentary metal oxide
sensor (CMOS) technology and TFT (thin film transistors). These systems have the
ability to directly convert light into digital format, additionally they may be coupled with
a scintillator which coats CMOS and CCD (charged couple device) sensors, the scintillator
converts photon energy to light before the sensor and ADC converts to digital format.
Systems which use scintillators in this way are often referred to as indirect systems.

Quality issues of any digital system are based upon the effective pixel size and the SNR
(signal to noise ratio).The benefits of using Digital systems is the speed of inspection,
the absence of chemical processing requirements and wet film, however, the initial
equipment costs will be high.

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NDT Certification Schemes

CSWIP Certification Scheme for Personnel


Managed by TWI Certification Ltd (TWICL), a TWI Group company
formed in 1993 to separate TWIs activities in the field of
personnel and company certification thus ensuring continued
compliance with international standards for certification bodies
and is accredited by UKAS to ISO 17024.

TWICL establishes and implements certification schemes,


approves training courses and authorises examination bodies and assessors in a large
variety of inspection fields, including; non-destructive testing (NDT), welding and
plant inspectors, welding supervisors, welding coordination, plastic welders,
underwater inspectors, integrity management, general inspection of offshore
facilities, cathodic protection, heat treatment.

TWI Certification Ltd


Granta Park,
Great Abington,
Cambridge CB21 6AL,
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0) 1223 899000
Fax: +44 (0) 1223 894219
Email: twicertification@twi.co.uk
Website: www.cswip.com

PCN Personal Certification in Non-destructive testing


Managed and marketed by the British Institute of Non-Destructive
Testing (BINDT) which owns and operates the PCN Certification Scheme,
it offeres a UKAS accreditied certification of competence for NDT and
condition monitoring in a variety of product sectors.

The British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing


Certification Services Division
Newton Building
St Georges Avenue
Northampton
NN2 6JB,
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)1604 893811
Fax: +44 (0)1604 893868
Email: pcn@bindt.org
Website: http://www.bindt.org/Certification/General_Information

Both schemes offer NDT certification conforming to BS EN ISO 9712 Non- destructive
testing - qualification and certification of NDT personnel.

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The PCN Scheme
A summary of the general requirements for qualification and PCN certification of NDT
personnel as described in PCN/GEN Issue 5 Revision R
PCN Certification is a scheme which covers the qualification of NDT inspection staff to
meet the requirements of European and International Standards. Typically a standard or
procedure will call for the Inspector to be certified in accordance with EN ISO 9712. Non
destructive testing qualification and certification of NDT personnel and/or PCN
requirements. The PCN Gen Document describes how the PCN system works.

The points below cover extracts from this document which are major items, the full
document can be viewed on the BINDT website www.bindt.org/certification/PCN.

References
PCN documents
PSL/4 Examination availability
PSL/8A PCN documents issue status
PSL/30 Log of pre-certification experience
PSL/31 Use of PCN & UKAS logo
PSL/42 Log of pre-certification on-the-job training
PSL/44 Vision requirements
PSL/49 Examination exemptions for holders of certification other than PCN
PSL/51 Acceptable certification for persons supervising PCN candidates gaining
experience prior to certification
PSL/57C Application for certification, experience gained post examination
PSL/67 Supplementary 56 day waiver
PSL/70 Request for L2 certificate issue to a L3 holder
CP9 Requirements for BINDT authorised qualifying bodies
CP16 Renewal and recertification of PCN Levels 1 and 2 certificates
CP17 Renewal and recertification of PCN Level 3 certificates
CP19 Informal access to authorised qualifying bodies by third parties
CP22 Marking and grading PCN examinations
CP25 Guidelines for the preparation of NDT procedures and instructions in PCN
examinations
CP27 Code of ethics for PCN certificate holders
PCN/GEN Appendix ZI NDT training syllabi

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Levels of PCN certification
CSWIP certification operates with similar rules and requirements to PCN. The
requirements for PCN certification are shown here. For a comprehensive view of CSWIP
scheme documents got to www.cswip.com/schemes.

Level 1 personnel are qualified to carry out NDT operations according to written
instructions under the supervision of appropriately qualified Level 2 or 3 personnel.
Within the scope of the competence defined on the certificate, Level 1 personnel may be
authorised by the employer to perform the following in accordance with NDT
instructions:

Set up equipment.
Carry out the test.
Record and classify the results in terms of written criteria.
Report the results.

Level 1 personnel have not demonstrated competence in the choice of test method or
technique to be used, nor for the assessment, characterisation or interpretation of test
results.

Level 2 personnel have demonstrated competence to perform and supervise non-


destructive testing according to established or recognised procedures. Within the scope
of the competence defined on the certificate, Level 2 personnel may be authorised by the
employer to:

Select the NDT technique for the test method to be used.


Define the limitations of application of the testing method.
Translate NDT standards and specifications into NDT instructions.
Set up and verify equipment settings.
Perform and supervise tests.
Interpret and evaluate results according to applicable standards, codes or
specifications.
Prepare written NDT instructions.
Carry out and supervise all Level 1 duties.
Provide guidance for personnel at or below Level 2.
Organise and report the results of non-destructive tests.

Level 3 personnel are qualified to direct any NDT operation for which they are
certificated and may be authorised by the employer to:

Assume full responsibility for a test facility or examination centre and staff.
Establish, review for editorial and technical correctness and validate NDT instructions
and procedures.
Interpret codes, standards, specifications and procedures.
Designate the particular test methods, techniques and procedures to be used.
Within the scope and limitations of any certification held carry out all Level 1 and 2
duties and;
Provide guidance and supervision at all levels.

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Level 3 personnel have demonstrated:

Competence to interpret and evaluate test results in terms of existing codes,


standards and specifications.
Possession of the required level of knowledge in applicable materials, fabrication and
product technology sufficient to enable the selection of NDT methods and techniques
and to assist in the establishment of test criteria where none are otherwise
available.
General familiarity with other NDT methods.

Level 3 certificated personnel may be authorised to carry out, manage and supervise
PCN qualification examinations on behalf of the British Institute of NDT.

Where Level 3 duties require the individual to apply routine NDT by a method(s) within a
particular product or industry sector, the British Institute of NDT strongly recommends
that industry demand that this person should hold and maintain Level 2 certification in
the applicable methods and sectors.

Training

Table 1 Minimum required durations of training.


NDT method Level 1 hours Level 2 hours1 Level 3 hours
ET 40 40 40
PT 16 24 24
MT 16 24 32
RT 40 80 72
RI N/A 56 N/A
UT 40 80 72
VT 16 24 24
BRS 16 N/A N/A
RPS N/A 24 N\A
Basic knowledge (Direct access to Level 3 examination 80
parts A- C)
Note 1: Direct access to Level 2 requires the total number of hours shown in Table 1
for Levels 1 and 2 and direct access to Level 3 requires the total number of hours
shown in Table 1 for Levels 1-3. Up to one third of the total specified in this table may
take the form of OTJ training documented using form PSL/42 provided it is verifiable
and covered practical application of the syllabus detailed in CEN ISO/TR 25107:2006.

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Industrial NDT experience
Industrial NDT experience in the appropriate sector may be acquired prior to or
following success in the qualification examination.
In the event that the experience is sought following successful examination, the
results of the examination shall remain valid for up to two years.
Documentary evidence (in a form acceptable to the British Institute of NDT, ie on
PCN form PSL/30) of experience satisfying the following requirements shall be
confirmed by the employer and submitted to BINDT AQB prior to examination, or
directly to BINDT prior to the award of PCN certification in the event that experience
is gained after examination.

Table 2 Minimum duration of experience for certification.


Experience, months
NDT method
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
ET 3 9 18
MT 1 3 12
PT 1 3 12
RT 3 9 18
UT 3 9 18
RI N/A 6 N/A
VT 1 3 12
Work experience in months is based on a nominal 40hr/week or the legal week of
work. When an individual is working in excess of 40hs/week, he may be credited with
experience based on the total hours, but he shall be required to produce evidence of
this experience.
Direct access to Level 2 requires the total number of hours shown in Table 2 for Levels
1 and 2 and direct access to Level 3 requires the total number of hours shown in Table
2 for Levels 1-3

Qualification examination

Table 3 Numbers of general questions.


NDT method Level 1 Level 2
ET 40 40
PT 30 40
MT 30 40
RT 40 40
RI N/A 40
UT 40 40
VT 30 40
BRS 30 N/A
RPS N/A 20 plus 4 narrative
Note: All Level 1 specific theory papers have 30 questions.
All Level 2 specific theory papers have 30 questions.

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Re-examination
a A candidate who fails to obtain the pass grade for any examination part (general,
specific or practical) may be re-examined twice in the failed part(s), provided the re-
examination takes place not sooner than one month, unless further training
acceptable to BINDT is satisfactorily completed, nor later than twelve months after
the original examination.

b A candidate who achieves a passing grade of 70% in each of the examination parts
(general, specific or practical) but whose average score is less than the required
80% may be re-examined a maximum of two times in any or all of the examination
parts in order to achieve an overall average score of 80%, provided the re-
examination takes place not sooner than one month, unless further training
acceptable to BINDT is satisfactorily completed, nor later than twelve months after
the original examination.

c A candidate who fails all permitted re-examinations shall apply for and take the
initial examination according to the procedure established for new candidates.

d A candidate whose examination results have not been accepted for reason of fraud
or unethical behaviour shall wait at least twelve months before re-applying for
examination.

Summary
The PCN scheme is managed and administered by the British Institute of NDT (BINDT)
on behalf of its stakeholders. It meets or exceeds the criteria of EN ISO 9712.

There are 6 appendices covering various industry and product sectors,

1 Aerospace.
2 Castings.
3 Welds.
4 Wrought Products and Forgings.
5 Pre and in-service inspection (multi sector).
6 Railway.

There are many additional supporting documents varying from vision requirements
PSL44 to renewal and recertification (Levels 1 and 2 CP16; Level 3 CP17) and so on.

The document defines many terms used in certification of NDT personnel (PCN Gen
Section 3)

The certification body (BINDT) meets the requirements of ISO 17024 (PCN Gen section
5)

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BINDT approves authorised qualifying bodies (AQBs) to carry out the examinations (PCN
Gen Section 5)

a The document sets out the Levels of PCN certification and what each level of
personnel is qualified to do (PCN Gen section 6). There are 3 Levels of PCN
certification.
b Candidates for examination must have successfully completed a BINDT validated
course of training at a BINDT authorised training organisation (PCN Gen Section 7).
c Table 1 shows the minimum required duration of training for all Levels and methods
plus a section of notes.
d Table 2 gives the minimum duration of experience for each Level and method.
e A candidate is required to have a vision test of colour perception and a near vision
test (Jaeger Number 1 or N4.5). PCN Gen Section a the near vision test to be
taken annually.
f Examination applications are made directly with the AQB.
g PCN Level 1s and 2 initial exams comprise general; specific and practical parts.
h Table 3 shows the number of general questions at Levels 1 and 2 examinations.
i There are 30 specific questions on the Level 1 papers.
j There are 30 questions on the Level 2 specific papers.
k A variety of practical samples are tested depending on the method and sector.
l A Level 3 examination comprises a basic and a method examination however the
basic examination needs to be passed only once. Table 4 shows the number of basic
examination questions. Table 5 shows the number of Level 3 examination questions.
m Pass is obtained where each part is 70% or over with an average grade of 80% or
over.
n A PCN certificate is valid for 5 years.
o Renewal and recertification requirements are covered in CP16 for Level 1 and Level
2 and CP17 for Level 3.

Table 4 Number of basic examination questions.

Part Examination Number of


questions
A Materials technology and science, including typical defects in a 30
wide range of products including castings welds and wrought
products.
B Qualification and certification procedure in accordance with this 10
document
C 15 general questions at Level 2 standard for each of four NDT 60
methods chosen by the candidate, including at least one
volumetric NDT method (UT or RT).

Table 5 Main method examination.

Part Subject Number of


questions
D Level 3 knowledge relating to the test method applied 30
E Application of the NDT method in the sector concerned, 20
including the applicable codes, standards and specifications.
This may be an open book examination in relation to codes,
standards and specifications.
F Drafting of one or more NDT procedures in the relevant sector.
The applicable codes, standards and specifications shall be
available to the candidate.

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Section 1

The Principles of MPI


1 The Principles of MPI
1.1 Introduction
MPI is a quick, simple, sensitive and inexpensive NDT method that can be used
for the detection of surface (and under favourable conditions near surface)
cracks in ferromagnetic materials (eg low alloy steels). It can be used on
painted surfaces providing it is not thick and can be used on large or small
components and is not restricted by component size providing that the test
surface is accessible. It does not need elaborate pre-cleaning but for the best
results two directions of near perpendicular magnetic flux flow are to be applied
for a satisfactory test. Most MPI test methods need an electrical supply for shop
or site work, and it is not always evident whether the magnetic field is
sufficiently strong to give a good defect indication. Spurious or non-relevant
indications are not unusual and therefore interpretation can be a skilled task.
Some detecting media used, ie paints and particle suspension fluids can emit
fumes and be a potential fire hazard and extreme care should be exercised
when the method is used in confined spaces. Factors affecting MPI test
sensitivity are given in section 6.4 of these training notes.

1.2 Types of Magnetisation - diamagnetism and paramagnetism


All materials are affected by magnetic fields, to a greater or lesser degree. The
change or orbital motion of the electrons in the atoms of the substance
concerned relates to the degree of magnetisation.

Those materials which are termed:

Diamagnetic are repelled by a magnetic force and have a small negative


susceptibility to magnetism.
Paramagnetic are lightly attracted by a magnetic force and have a small
positive susceptibility to magnetism.
Ferromagnetic are strongly attracted by a magnetic field.

Table 1.1 Magnetic properties exhibited by selected materials.


Ferromagnetic Paramagnetic Diamagnetic
Iron Platinum Bismuth
Steel Palladium Antimony
Cobalt Most non-ferrous metals Most non-metals
Nickel Oxygen Concrete

1.3 Ferromagnetism and domain theory


Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI) is an NDT method used for the location of
surface and subsurface discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials where, in the
presence of a magnetic field, the discontinuity causes magnetic flux leakage
that can be detected by the application of finely divided ferromagnetic particles
to the test surface.

Ferromagnetic materials are strongly attracted by magnetic fields. These are


the materials that can be magnetised and thus tested by MPI.

Ferromagnetism can be explained using the idea of the magnetic domain.


Domains can be considered to be minute internal magnets, each perhaps
comprising 1015-1020 atoms. In ferromagnetic atoms, the configuration
dictates that more electrons spin one way than the other. The resultant
magnetic moment of a group of atoms means that an internal polarity is
created, simply, a very small internal magnet, having a north and south pole.

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The general principles of MPI as applied to ferromagnetic engineering materials
is given in BS EN ISO 9934-1, Non destructive testing magnetic particle
testing part 1 general principles.

Unmagnetised state
Domains randomly
orientated.

Magnetic field

Magnetised state.
Domains orientated
in external magnetic
field.

Magnetic field

Magnetic field

Saturated state.
Domains orientated
in strong external
field.

Magnetic field

Residual state.
Domains remaining
orientated in
absence of external
field.

Magnetic field

Demagnetised
state.
Domains randomly
orientated in
opposing field.
Magnetic field

Figure 1.1 Stages of magnetisation.

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1.4 Permanent magnetism
When the external magnetising force is removed from a ferromagnetic material
the domains will remain in a partial alignment dependent on a number of
factors, such as:

Alloying elements.
Carbon content.
Heat treatment.
Temperature.

Strong permanent magnets used in MPI are commonly made of iron alloyed
with aluminium, nickel and cobalt. Hence such trade names as: Alnico or
Alcomax.

If a bar magnet is placed under a flat sheet of paper and iron filings are
sprinkled on to the paper, a visual field is created. This is called a
magnetograph and the filings are orientated by the magnetic field created by
the lines of force running between the poles of the bar magnet.

N S

Figure 1.2a Permanent magnet.

Figure 1.2(b) Magnetic poles: Like poles repel; unlike poles attract.

For a horseshoe magnet the lines of magnetic flux flow between the magnets
poles (see figure 1.2). If a ferromagnetic material (eg flat steel bar) were
placed across the poles of the horseshoe magnet the magnetic flux would be
contaminated fully within the magnet and the steel bar, no flux would be
detected externally in air.

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Below are a number of rules relating to lines of force:

They never cross.


Repel each other laterally.
Are in a constant state of tension.
Take the path of least magnetic resistance.
All have the same strength.
Are more numerous where the field intensity is greatest.
Their density decreases when they move from an area of higher
permeability to an area of lower permeability.
Their density decreases with increasing distance from the poles.
By convention flow from north to south outside the material and south to
north inside.

1.5 Electromagnetism
When an electric current flows through a conductor, a magnetic field is set up
around the conductor in a direction at 90 to the electric current. This is
explained by the right hand rule.

Current

Magnetic field
(circular)
Figure 1.3 Linear conductor.

If the thumb of the right hand is extended in the direction in which the current
is flowing, then the direction of the magnetic field is represented by the fingers.

Figure 1.4 Right hand rule.

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When the conductor carries an electrical current, strong magnetic flux lines are
created, (also in the direction of the fingers as with the right hand rule) this is
called circular magnetism. Circular magnetism is not polar and cannot be
detected externally on a round symmetrical specimen.

The magnetic field strength varies from zero at the centre of the conductor to a
maximum at the conductor surface with the field strength outside the conductor
being directly proportional to the current. For a long uniform conductor, the field
strength deceases with radial distance from the conductor surface.

A long rectilinear current carrying conductor will similarly have an associated


magnetic field but in this case it will not be uniform but be distorted consistent
with the shape of the conductor.

Now, if the original conductor carrying the current is bent into a loop, the
magnetic field around the conductor will pass through the loop in one direction.

Figure 1.5 Coiled conductor.

The field within the loop has direction: one side will be a north pole and the
other a south pole. By increasing the number of loops, a long (relative to its
diameter) coil, or solenoid, is created and the strength of the field passing
through the coil is proportional to the current passing through the conductor in
amperes multiplied by the number of turns in the solenoid.

When a ferromagnetic specimen is placed in an energised coil, the magnetic


field is concentrated in the specimen. One end of the specimen is a north pole
and the other a south pole. This is called longitudinal magnetism.

Longitudinal magnetism has polarity and is therefore readily detectable. Only


one type of field can exist in a material at one time; the stronger will wipe out
the weaker. Normally in magnetic particle inspection, circular tests are carried
out before longitudinal ones.
Magnetic field
(longitudinal)

S N

Figure 1.6 Coil magnetisation.

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1.6 Magnetic hysteresis
When a ferromagnetic material is influenced by an alternating magnetising
force (H), the variation of magnetic flux density (B) in it is related to a
phenomenon known as magnetic hysteresis.

The word hysteresis is derived from the Greek word for delayed and is used to
describe one quantity lagging behind another. The variation of B-H follows a
hysteresis loop and is characteristic to a particular ferromagnetic material.

The figure below is a typical hysteresis loop where the co-ordinates represent
magnetising force (H) on the horizontal axis and flux density (B) on the vertical
axis.

Figure 1.7 Hysteresis loop.

When an unmagnetised ferromagnetic material is exposed to a gradually


increasing magnetising force, the corresponding flux density can be plotted
along the dotted line o-a (curve of first magnetisation). The level of flux density
is increased until point a is reached and a further increase of magnetising force
produces no increase in flux density. The specimen is saturated with flux and
indeed, point a is called the saturation point.

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The dotted line o-a is often referred to as the virgin curve. Point a towards
point b is where the hysteresis loop begins. As the magnetising force is reduced
the flux density does not fall back to zero but follows the line a-b. So at b there
is a zero magnetising force but a flux density o-b remains. The flux is lagging
behind the force and this is what gives ferromagnetic materials their permanent
magnetism.

To reduce the flux density to zero, or demagnetise the specimen, a negative


magnetising force c has to be applied and maintained. So as the force increases
to produce the relationship of B-H, it follows the line b-c. The force o-c
required to demagnetise the specimen is called the coercive force.

Increasing the negative magnetising force still further produces a B-H


relationship along the curve c-d. Point d is exactly opposite point a and
represents negative saturation.

As the negative force is reduced, point e is reached, exactly opposite point b


and reversal to a positive magnetising force achieves a zero flux density at
point f, exactly opposite c.

The loop is completed by increasing the magnetising force, giving a B-H ratio
along curve f-a. Note that once the virgin curve is produced the hysteresis loop
does not pass through o again.

The specimen will not be demagnetised until special steps are taken to achieve
that state.

Hard and soft ferromagnetics


As stated earlier, a hysteresis loop is characteristic to a particular ferromagnetic
material. The inner of the two curves shown is characteristic of materials such
as low carbon steel defined as a soft ferromagnetic, whilst the outer would be
typical of a hard ferromagnetic material such as high carbon steel.

Modern permanent magnets are generally made from the latter and are of low
permeability/high retentivity alloys that have been subjected to large
magnetising forces.

Hard ferromagnetic
(high retentivity)

Soft ferromagnetic

Figure 1.8 Hysteresis loop for hard and soft ferromagnetic materials.

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Soft ferromagnetic Hard ferromagnetic
Typically low carbon steel Typically high carbon steel
High permeability Lower permeability
Easy to magnetise More difficult to magnetism
Low residual magnetism High levels of residual magnetism

The various properties of a ferromagnetic material can be altered by the


addition of various alloying elements. The table below gives examples of some
of these and their effects.

Alloying Hysteresis Permeability Coercive Remanence Loss of


element force power

Silicon

Chromium

Nickel with
pearlitic
steels
Aluminium

Tungsten

Cobalt

Molybdenum

Increase
(The more arrows the more intense the effect.)
Decrease

From the law of continuity the normal component of the electric flux density
(BN) vector and the tangential magnetic flux density(HT) vector must be
continuous across the boundary between the two media, ie the conductor
carrying the current and the component subjected to the magnetic flux.

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1.7 Definition of terms
Knowledge of some of the physical terms related to magnetisation is essential.
However, the following definitions are not meant to be exhaustive but only
those which are considered relevant to understanding the practice of MPI.
Comprehensive glossaries of terms relevant to MPI and NDT in general can be
found in the following standards:

BS EN ISO 1330-1
Non Destructive Testing Terminology - Part 1 General terms.
BS EN ISO 1330-2
Non Destructive Testing Terminology - Part 2 Terms common to NDT
methods.
BS EN ISO 1330-7
Non Destructive Testing Terminology - Terms used in magnetic particle
testing.

Flux density
The number of magnetic flux lines per unit area

Symbol = B
SI unit = Tesla = T

It has replaced the Gauss and 1Tesla = 10,000 Gauss.

Magnetising force
The total force tending to set up a magnetic flux in a magnetic circuit.

Symbol = H
SI unit = ampere per metre = Am-1

Permeability
The ease with which a magnetic field or flux can be set up in a magnetic circuit.

Absolute magnetic permeability in Henry per metre ( ).


B Magnetic flux density in tesla (T).
H Magnetic field strength in Amperes per metre ( ).

For air and non-magnetic materials, is constant and denoted by o.

o = 4 x 10 Henries/metre

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For ferromagnetic materials it varies considerably according to the value of H.
For convenience we use relative permeability r:

Relative permeability is therefore a dimensionless ratio that relates the


permeability of the material to that of air.

Saturation
The stage at which any increase in the magnetising force H applied to a
specimen, produces no significant gain in flux density B.

Effectively it is at point a on diagram of the hysteresis loop. Saturation on a test


specimen can be recognised by a high ink background caused by clumping,
furring or blushing of the particles.

Coercive force
The reverse magnetising force required to remove residual magnetism from a
material. On the diagram of the hysteresis loop it is represented by o-c.

Remanence
The magnetic flux density remaining in a material after the magnetising force
has been removed. On the hysteresis diagram it can be any value of B, between
b and e, when,

H=0

Residual magnetic field


The magnetic field remaining in a material after the magnetising force has been
reduced to zero.

Reluctance
A measure of the degree of difficulty with which a component can be
magnetised that is analogous to resistance in an electrical circuit. It is the
reciprocal of permeability.

Retentivity
The magnetic flux density remaining in a material after the magnetising force
has been removed, synonymous to remanence. However, McGraw-Hill,
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, defines retentivity as the residual
flux density corresponding to the saturation induction of a magnetic material.
This corresponds to point b in the maximum remanence.

Curie Point/Curie Temperature

The Temperature above which ferromagnetic materials can no longer be


magnetised or retain their residual magnetism. For iron the curie temperature is
770C.

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1.8 Flux leakage
A flux leakage is a break or a discontinuity in a magnetic circuit. Any abrupt
change of permeability within a magnetic specimen will change the number of
flux lines that can flow and thus there will be a diversion of the field.

Figure 1.9 Magnetic flux leakage.

Magnetic particle inspection relies on flux leakage fields being seen on the
surface of a ferromagnetic specimen under test. All defects produce flux
leakage but not all flux leakage fields are created by defects.

Magnetic particle inspection relies on:

Magnetising the specimen to an adequate flux density.


Applying fine ferromagnetic particles over the surface of the specimen.
Being able to see the magnetic particles that gather at flux leakage fields.

The magnetic field must run in a direction so that it can be interrupted by the
defect, thus producing a flux leakage field. Also the degree of distortion at the
leakage must allow the magnetic particles to provide an adequate degree of
contrast between the leakage and the adjacent material surface, so that it is
readily visible.

Flux lines will take the path of least resistance, hence the highest permeability.
The figure below shows flux lines flowing in a ferromagnetic bar but having to
divert around an air gap, creating a flux leakage.

However, if ferromagnetic particles are sprinkled on the bar they will start to
form a magnetic bridge across the flux leakage and a highly preferred path. If
the flux leakage is strong, such as a surface-breaking crack in the optimum
direction, then the visual indication will be clear.

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Figure 1.10 Magnetic Flux leakage due to a defect.

Whether a flux leakage is made into a visual indication depends on a number of


factors, such as:

Size of defect.
Shape of defect.
Volume of defect.
Orientation of defect.
Depth below surface.
Permeability of material (hard or soft ferromagnetic).
Coating thickness (MPI may be carried out through non-ferromagnetic
coatings up to 50 microns thickness providing they are unbroken and tightly
adherent).

1.8.1 Indications
Indications are any particle indications that are seen on the specimen under
test. Just as not all flux leakage fields are defects, not all indications are due to
flux leakage.

Indications can be further subdivided into:

Relevant.
Non-relevant.
Spurious.

Prior to beginning MPI areas to be tested should be free from dirt, scale, loose
rust, weld spatter, grease, oil and any other foreign matter that may affect the
test sensitivity. The surface quality requirements are dependent upon the size
and orientation of the discontinuity to be detected. The surface should be
prepared so that relevant indications can be clearly distinguished from false
ones.

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1.8.2 Relevant indications
Relevant indications are discontinuities or flaws, which in turn are unwanted
imperfections.

When it is considered that a relevant indication will affect the fitness-for-


purpose of a test specimen, then it is classified as a defect, but not all defects
are cracks.

Product and process knowledge (knowledge of product technology and the


processes that a test specimen has been through) is necessary to define and
interpret defects more closely. It is perhaps safer, without that knowledge, to
categorise indications by their:

Size.
Shape.
Orientation.

BS EN ISO 9934-1 classifies indications as either linear or spherical based


upon the ratio between their length and width.

Linear indications: Length > 3 times width

Spherical indications: Length < or equal to 3 times width

1.8.3 Non-relevant indications


Non-relevant indications are true magnetic particle patterns formed and held in
place by leakage fields. However, they are caused by design features and the
structure of the specimen and only in exceptional cases will they affect the
fitness-for-purpose of the specimen.

Below is a non-exhaustive list:

Tool marks.
Scores and scratches.
Key ways.
Internal splines and drillings.
Abrupt changes of section/geometry.
Fine threads.
Dissimilar magnetic material (HAZ or heat treated material).
Forging flow lines.
Grain boundaries.
Cold working.

Figure 1.11 Flux leakage due to geometry.

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1.8.4 Spurious Indications
Indications that are not held on the surface by a flux leakage are termed
spurious. Lint, scale, dirt, hairs, drainage lines are examples.

However, there is one spurious indication called magnetic writing that is a little
different. If two pieces of steel touch when one of them is in a magnetised
condition local poles are created at the areas of contact. If magnetic particles
are then sprinkled on the surface the local poles become visible as fuzzy lines.

1.8.5 Longitudinal field


It has already been stated that magnetic flux lines must run in a direction so
they can be interrupted at a defect causing a flux leakage. So to detect defects,
the flux lines should ideally be at 90 to the direction of potential defects.

In the figure overleaf the magnetic lines of force are longitudinal in a bar and
thus the bar has magnetic poles. Transverse flaws will easily show; but
longitudinal defects such as seams, which are very straight, will not show.
However, it is accepted that flaws up to 30 from the flux lines will also be
shown. In fact, longitudinal flaws having a transverse component, such as
jagged cracks, will almost certainly show.

Figure 1.12 Longitudinal field.

1.8.6 Circular field


The longitudinal magnetising field in the bar is now replaced by a longitudinal
current, which creates a magnetic field at 90 to itself. In fact, the current has
produced a circular non-polar field around the bar. Under normal circumstances
the circular field is not detected due to it having no external poles, but a
longitudinal surface flaw at 90 creates a flux leakage, creating miniature poles
and is thus detectable with magnetic particles. The figure below shows the
effect of flaw orientation in a circularly magnetised bar.

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Figure 1.13 Circular magnetism.

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Section 2

Methods of Magnetisation
2 Methods of Magnetisation
The equipment used for MPI can be divided according to size and purpose. The
magnetising force may be supplied by anything from a small permanent magnet
to a highly sophisticated fixed installation, utilising high values of rectified
current and finely calibrated meters.

When electricity is introduced into a specimen in order to magnetise, it is


usually transformed into a low voltage, high amperage supply. Therefore there
is no danger from electrocution; however, specimens do get hot due to
electrical resistance if the supply is applied for more than a couple of seconds.
Magnetising equipment must meet the requirements of and be used in
accordance with BS EN ISO 9934 Part 3.

Equipment falls into two categories: portable and fixed.

2.1 Portable equipment


2.1.1 Permanent magnets
Permanent magnets produce a longitudinal magnetic field between the poles.
Modern variants of the horseshoe magnet have adjustable arms and may have
variable geometry removable pole ends. Optimum defect detectability is at 90
to the poles. Permanent magnets do not usually achieve the flux levels required
by BS EN ISO 9934 Part 1 and as such should only be used by agreement with
the customer.

N S

Figure 2.1 Permanent horse shoe magnets.

Advantages Disadvantages
No power supply needed Direct field only
Cling to vertical surfaces Deteriorate with wear
No electrical contact problems Have to be pulled from test surface
Inexpensive No control over field strength
No damage to test piece Magnetic particles attracted to poles
Lightweight Legs (poles) must have area contact
May have to be recharged

2.1.2 Electromagnets
Electromagnets are made from soft iron laminates to reduce eddy current
losses, if powered by alternating current (AC). The yoke laminates are encased
in a multi-turn coil usually powered by mains electricity. The legs of modern
equipment are normally articulated to allow area contact on uneven surfaces.

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Figure 2.2 Electromagnet/yoke with adjustable pole pieces (legs).

Electromagnets produce a longitudinal field with the test area being a circle
inscribed by the poles. Defect orientation is the same as when using a
permanent magnet. Rectified AC current or DC current from a battery may be
used. DC is not favoured as a magnetising method as it is not considered to
achieve the flux levels required by BS EN ISO 9934 Part 1 within the specimen.

The lift test should confirm that the electromagnet can lift 4.5kg at their
recommended pole spacing (usually about 300mm).

Advantages Disadvantages
AC, rectified or DC operation Needs power supply
Controllable magnetic field strength Longitudinal field only
Run direct from mains electricity Carry mains voltage
supply
Can be switched on and off allowing Poles attract magnetic particles
easy removal
No harm to test piece Legs (poles) must have contact
Lightweight
Can be used to demagnetise on AC

2.1.3 Prods
Prods induce a circular magnetic field by sending a high amperage (typically
1000A) current through the test piece. The high amperage can cause arcing
between the electrodes and test surface. Contact points must be carefully
cleaned, and electrode materials chosen to prevent contamination of the test
piece.

They produce a distorted circular magnetic field with defects showing at a


maximum when orientated along a line between the prod tips.

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Figure 2.3 Current flow prod technique.

Advantages Disadvantages
Variable field strength Danger of arcing
AC or DC fields Danger of overheating
Useful in confined spaces Heavy transformer required

Low voltages Possible to switch on without creating


field
No poles to attract particles Possible contamination of the test
piece by the electrode
Control of amperage Must have good electrical contact
AAs with all current flow inspection techniques, particular care has to be taken
to avoid surface damage of the component under test due to burning or
contamination. Any areas where arcing or excessive heating have occurred are
considered to be defects and if they require further inspection it will be by a
different technique to that first used (not the prods again).

2.1.4 Flexible coil


In this technique the current-carrying cable is wound tightly around the
component. It is a longitudinal magnetisation method and will find defects lying
parallel to the cable. The area to be tested is considered to lie between the
turns of the coil.

Figure 2.4 Typical use of a flexible coil.

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Split coils with quick release fasteners are commercially available to allow coils
to be fixed and removed more quickly.

Advantages Disadvantages
Simple to operate Difficult to keep turns apart
No danger of burning Limited inspection cover
AC and rectified current High current capacity sometimes
Magnetising force is the product of
amps needed multiplied by turns
Current is adjustable

2.1.5 Adjacent conductor


Working from the basic principle that a current must create a magnetic field
around the conductor, the flexible cable is a useful means of testing welded
constructions, large castings and forgings.

The technique requires one or more insulated cables to be laid parallel to the
surface of the component, adjacent to the area to be tested and supported a
distance d above it as shown below. The width of the test area is considered to
be 2d and the return cable for the electrical current must be arranged so as to
be greater than 10d from the testing zone.

d
d
d

Figure 2.5 Adjacent conductor technique.

When used as a single or a multi-turn threading cable, the conductor is passed


through openings of interest and defects will be found radially around the hole
or longitudinally in the bore. When used on a pipe, defects will be found parallel
to the cable internally and externally, as well as radially on the ends.

The parallel closed loop is a novel variation, which has found some favour in
underwater inspection and the gas industry:

Cables or conductors are kept apart by insulators.


Direction of current in each cable must be complementary, not opposing.
Defects will be found within the grid, parallel to the conductors.

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Advantages Disadvantages
Simple application May require long cables
Variable field strength High current draw sometimes
Can cover large areas Difficult to keep cable in position

2.1.6 Clamps and leeches


Where prods are not suitable because heat damage may be caused or the item
is too large and awkward, it is often still possible to pass a current into a
specimen. Special crocodile clips with copper woven braiding on them are one
alternative. Another possibility is to use permanent magnets as leeches to
clamp on the job so that the operator's hands are free to apply the ink or
powder. The current is passed through the leeches and does not affect the
permanent magnetism.

2.1.7 Mobile equipment


As the name implies, mobile equipment is too bulky and heavy to carry and yet
needs to be moved to the work. Some mobile units are capable of supplying
output currents up to 20,000A, although 5000A is more normal.

The current required to test a job may be quite low but losses due to cable
length or bulk of specimen may mean that a portable set cannot produce
enough. Sections 2.1.3-2.1.6 are relevant to mobile units as well as portables.

In addition to the normal features on a portable unit, the mobile is likely to


have better current control and a step control to allow demagnetising.

2.2 Fixed equipment


2.2.1 Bench units
Bench units are fixed installations used to test large numbers of manufactured
specimens. They range in size and output from those able to test small
components at no more than a few amperes to large cranks and gun barrels
capable of 10-20,000A.

Among the features normally found on bench units are:

Adjustable head and tailstock on a fixed bed.


Agitated ink trough or reservoir.
Recirculating ink supply from reservoir to spray gun.
AC and rectified current facilities.
Large area copper gauze covered electrodes on head and tailstock to allow
current flow, for circular magnetisation.
Magnetic flow solenoids on head and tailstocks and/or rigid coil on the bed,
for longitudinal magnetisation.
Calibrated meters.
Controls to vary magnetising force values.
Foot and hand switches to operate controls.
UV-A (black light) and white lights (optional).
Timers to adjust operating duty cycle (optional).

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2.2.2 Magnetic flow
Energised solenoids in the bench heads create a longitudinal magnetic field in a
component, which is clamped between the heads, completing the magnetic
circle. Defects, where the major axes lie transverse to a line joining the heads,
are found best and the method is most applicable for are short simple shapes.
The solenoids on bench equipment are energised by Full-wave rectified current.

Detection of transverse defects or


discontinuity in component

Figure 2.6 Magnetic flow bench unit with test component inserter between
head stocks.

Where there are large differences between the size of the bench heads and the
ends of the component, shaped extenders may have to be used to ensure that
the flux is smoothed into the ends of the component. If this is not done,
clumping of magnetic particles on the component will prevent defect detection.

2.2.3 Axial current flow


The component is fixed firmly between contact heads having soft conductive
surfaces providing good electrical contact, such as copper braiding. A low
voltage, high amperage current is passed through the component creating a
circular magnetic field around it. The method favours detection of defects lying
in line with the contact heads and not more than 60 from the ideal. The
strength of the current used determined by the peripheral dimensions of the
component to be inspected.

Possible hazards include excessive heating, burning and arcing which can cause
metallurgical damage to the component.

Detection of axial defects or


discontinuity in component.

Figure 2.7 Current flow bench unit.

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2.2.4 Threading bar
Magnetisation by the threading bar technique is induced by passing current
through an insulated non-magnetic conductor (aluminium, copper or brass are
usual) which is placed in a bore or aperture in the component. Hollow
components such as tubes and rings, are normally tested by the threading bar
technique. In practice a number of small parts, such as rings, can be tested at
the same time, providing they are not allowed to touch each other.

Figure 2.8 Threading bar bench unit.

The threading bar technique induces circular magnetisation and defects in the
same direction as the current will be found, externally, internally, and on end
faces. Defects deviating up to 60 from the ideal will also be found.

2.2.5 Rigid coil


The component is placed in a current-carrying rigid coil with its longitudinal axis
at 90 to the direction of the windings on the coil. Four to eight turn coils are
usual and the specimen is placed in the bottom of the coil wherever possible.

Longitudinal magnetism is induced into the component, so the method basically


favours transverse defects. Long and slender components are best tested in
coils, although a long component may have to be re-tested along its length.
300mm is about the longest that one can expect to inspect at any one time.
Pole extenders should be used on short components, having a length/diameter
ratio less than 5:1.

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Transverse
discontinuity

Figure 2.9 Different rigid coil arrangements.


2.2.6 Induced current
The induced current technique is not normally a feature of standard bench
equipment but is applicable to particular components, such as high quality finish
bearing races, where arcing would ruin the part.

The technique induces a circumferential current flow in a ring specimen by


making it the secondary winding of a transformer. Therefore only alternating
current may be used and only surface defects are revealed.

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Figure 2.10 Induced current into test object.
It is a novel but extremely useful technique, as it eliminates the possibility of
overheating the component under test. There are many variations, as often the
technique has to be tailored to suit a specific component's inspection need.

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Section 3

Detecting Media, UV Light


and Other Equipment
3 Detecting Media, UV Light and Other Equipment
The magnetic particle test method may be classified as:

Wet or dry (based upon the detecting media used).


Continuous or residual (according to when the detecting media is applied
with relation to the magnetising force).
Visible or fluorescent (according to the nature of the viewing conditions).

3.1 Inks and powders


BS EN ISO 9934 Part 2 defines mandatory and recommended tests that are to
be carried out before or periodically during an inspection including a sensitivity
check using a suitable reference test piece.

Powders comprise finely ground ferromagnetic particles, often iron, coated or


heated to a temperature which will give a distinctive colour. BS EN ISO 9934
Part 2 specifies that 90% of the particles in a sample of dry powder are larger
than 40 m. There is no specified upper limit, but it is typically 200m.

Ideally the particle shape should be elongated. However, to allow dry powders
to flow from the dispenser, a mixture of rod shaped particles and globular ones
is used. Typical colours for powders are:

Black.
Red.
Grey.
Yellow.

Dry powders are dispersed on to the test component either through a puffer or
a dry spray can. The chosen colour is the one that gives the best contrast
against the specimen background.

Powders are usually applicable to site work such as welds and castings, often as
an initial check on a weld root pass, where wet materials would cause
contamination. Generally they can be used for testing hot components up to
300C but fluorescent powders may lose their brightness if heated, so should be
used at ambient temperature. It is advisable that manufacturers'
recommendations shall be followed. Invariably powders are treated as
disposable and should not be re-used, due to the danger of contamination by
dirt and moisture.

To summarise:

Iron powder or magnetic iron oxide (magnetite).


40-200 m (typically, although not specified in BS 9934-2).
Rounded and elongated shapes.
Colours vary for contrast against component.
Can be used on hot surfaces.
Poor particle mobility, HWDC best, DC or permanent magnets must never
be used.
Greater operator skill required.
Difficult to apply to overhead surfaces especially in field conditions.
Generally less sensitive to fine surface discontinuities than wet particles.

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Magnetic inks consist of finely divided coloured fluorescent particles in a
suitable carrier fluid that forms a uniform suspension when agitated. The carrier
fluid is usually either kerosene or water with corrosion inhibitors added in the
latter case. Inks can be supplied as concentrates, or ready for use.

Water-based inks are becoming more popular because of:

Price.
Odour reduction.
Health and safety implications.

The ink is comprised of finely ground oxides of iron, having high permeability
and low retentivity and BS EN ISO 9934 Part 2 specifies that the particle size
shall be within the range of 1.5-40 m.

Inks are usually sprayed, flooded or ladled on to the specimen. Kerosene-


based materials are also sold in aerosols. Water-based inks, when used on site,
are often sprayed from garden dispensers and when used in bench machines
the tanks should be stainless steel. Although a wetting agent and corrosion
inhibitor is added to the concentrate, the effects of contamination of the ink by
corrosion products cannot be ignored. Water-based inks are sold as a
concentrate and then mixed.

To enhance the contrast a white strippable contrast paint may be sprayed or


painted on the specimen. If this is applied lightly, not more than 50 m
thickness, however sensitivity will be reduced.

Kerosene-based inks are supplied in bulk but to maintain the solid content at
the correct level a small amount of concentrate is added at intervals. It is not
recommended that magnetic inks are made up with normal kerosene, especially
fluorescent inks since:

The fire risk is greater. The previous standard, BS 4069, stated a minimum
flash point of 65C, BS EN ISO 9934-2 states that the flash point of the
carrier fluid shall be measured by the open cup method and reported.
There will be a higher odour level.
Almost certainly there will be high background fluorescence under UV/A
light.

Of paramount importance is the maintenance of the ink strength. The solid


content must be constantly monitored as detailed in control checks and the ink
must be constantly agitated to keep the solid content in suspension. Although
not stated in current standards, previous standards stated that the solid content
levels should be between 0.1-0.3% for fluorescent ink and 1.25-3.5% for visible
(black) ink.

Ink concentration is determined using a Sutherland Flask.

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Figure 3.1 Settling flask to measure solids content in MPI inks.

BS EN ISO 9934-2 calls for in-service testing utilising a reference block and for
the manufacturer to specify a maximum recommended particle content in
grams per litre.

Magnetic iron oxide (magnetite) or iron powder.


80% of particle to be between 1.5-40 m.
Rounded and elongated shapes.
Colour contrast or fluorescent.
Water or kerosene-based.
Good particle mobility.

BS EN ISO 9934-2 specifies a number of requirements for magnetic detection


media, these include:

Particle colour.
Viscosity of carrier fluid.
Particle size.
Mechanical stability.
Temperature resistance.
Foaming.
Fluorescent coefficient and stability.
pH (acidity or alkalinity).
Fluorescence of carrier fluid.
Storage ability.
Corrosion properties.
Solid content.
Sulphur and halogen content.

3.2 Visible or fluorescent


Fluorescence is the property of some materials to absorb electromagnetic
energy of one wavelength and re-emit the energy at another. The ultraviolet
and visible light section of the spectrum, which is of interest in MPI, lies
between 100 and 800nm. (A nanometre (nm) is 1 millionth of a mm.) In MPI
long wavelength ultraviolet (black light) light sources are used having a
waveband between 315-400nm. This is UV-A radiation. Fluorescent inks absorb
energy at approximately 365nm and re-emit at about 550nm.

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Industrial
radiography

Microwaves Electric waves

Ultraviolet Infrared TV

10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 1cm 102 104 106 108
Wavelength

Figure 3.2 Electromagnetic spectrum.

3.2.1 Types of UV-A lamp


By far the most common type of light source used to inspect components tested
with fluorescent ink is the mercury vapour arc lamp. In fact, the mercury arc
lamp is a street or workshop lamp which has a filter over it to reduce the visible
light to a minimum but allow the UV-A to be transmitted. The filter is called a
Woods in the UK and a Kopps in the US.

Figure 3.3 Mercury vapour arc lamp.

The mercury arc is drawn between electrodes enclosed in a quartz tube. The
resistor limits the amount of current in the starting electrode. The quartz tube is
mounted and enclosed in the outer glass envelope which serves to protect it
and filter out any possible hazardous radiations.

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NOTE: A MERCURY VAPOUR BULB EMITS UV(A), UV(B) & UV(C) !!!

What the different UV light can cause


A Ageing
B Burns
C Cancer

Figure 3.4 Electromagnetic spectrum (UV through to IR).

400W mercury vapour arc flood lamps can be used where very large
components are tested or to give background illumination in an inspection area.
However, UV strip lights can provide background light more economically in a
darkened area.

3.2.2 Safety precautions and operating instructions


Under normal working conditions, there are no known long term harmful effects
arising from the use of UV-A (black light) sources, providing simple safety
precautions and operating instructions are observed. The precautions and
instructions in these notes are general. For full advice the manufacturers' data
on a particular light should be followed.

Safety precautions when using a UV-A mercury vapour arc lamp:

Avoid looking directly at the light source.


The light must not be used without a correctly fitted filter.
Do not operate the light with a chipped or cracked filter.
Some people may experience temporary health problems such as eyeball
fluorescence. (The human eye contains a jelly which begins to fluoresce if
exposed for long periods to UVA light. It causes clouded vision but the effect
is temporary.)
Avoid contact with the lamp housing as it becomes hot.
Keep the light cables away from liquids, to avoid contamination or shorting.
Ensure that regular electrical earth continuity checks are carried out on the
lamp unit.

When working with UVA light for prolonged periods, sodium goggles can protect
the eyes. They block UV light while allowing visible light to pass.

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Figure 3.5 Sodium safety googles.

3.2.3 Operating instructions for a UV-A lamp


Allow 10 minutes warm up period after switch on to allow the light to reach
full intensity before inspecting with the lamp.
If the lamp is switched off and then immediately switched on again, allow a
minimum of 10 minutes before recommencing inspection. The bulb will not
relight until its temperature reduces.
Avoid repeated switching on and off, as this will reduce bulb life
significantly.
Angle the light with respect to the specimen being inspected, to avoid
reflections which reduce inspection efficiency.
Clean the lamp filter regularly, with lint-free material moistened with a mild
detergent/water solution.
Check the light output of the lamp regularly. This should be done in
accordance with BS EN ISO 3059. Non-destructive testing. Penetrant testing
and magnetic particle testing viewing conditions. The lamp must achieve a
UV-A irradiance level of 10W/cm2 (1000W/cm2) at the testing surface,
using a radiometer (irradiance meter) which must be in calibration.

Radiometer Combined meter


UV/White light

Figure 3.6 Monitor for UV light.

3.2.4 Field indicators


These are devices used to check residual magnetism prior to and after Magnetic
Particle Testing they are also known as gaussmeters or magnetometers with the
SI measurement being made in the unit, Tesla. These are small mechanical
devices that utilise a small soft iron vane that is deflected by a magnetic field.
The vane is attached to a needle which rotates and moves a pointer set on a
graduated scale. Field indicators can be adjusted and calibrated, so that
quantitative information can be obtained.

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Generally the greater the deflection of the needle the greater the residual
magnetic force. The limited range of the Field Indicator shown in Figure 3.7
means that they are best suited for the detection and measurement of any
residual magnetic field that may be present after demagnetisation.

However the measurement range of a field indicator is usually small due to the
mechanics of the device. Gauss meters are also called tesla meters (SI units).

The minimum flux density in the component surface shall be 1 tesla (1 T). This
flux density is achieved in low alloy and low carbon steels with high relative
permeability with a tangential field strength of 2kA/m (2A/mm). For other
steels, with lower permeability, a higher tangential field strength may be
necessary. If magnetisation is too high, spurious background indications may
appear, which could mask relevant indications.

Figure 3.7 Magnetic field indicators.

3.2.5 Flux density meters/gauss meter with hall effect probe


These are normally battery powered instruments with analogue or digital direct
reading dials, normally graduated in gauss. They determine whether a magnetic
field is of adequate strength as well as showing its direction. Knowing the
direction of a magnetic field is a fundamental requirement of Magnetic Particle
Inspection, because the field should be as close to the perpendicular position of
a defect indication as possible and no more than 45 degrees from the normal.

The ability to show field strength and direction is especially important when
carrying out Magnetic Particle Inspections when using a multi-directional testing
machine, because when the fields are not balanced properly, a vector field will
be produced that may not, detect some defects.

A gauss/tesla Meter with a Hall Effect Probe is commonly used to measure the
tangential field strength on the surface of the part being tested when a
magnetising force is applied. The Hall Effect is the transverse electric field
created in a conductor when placed in a magnetic field. The tesla is the SI unit
for the measurement of magnetic field strength or magnetic flux density. 1
tesla is equal to 10,000 gauss.

Advantages of the Hall Effect instruments are that they provide a quantitive
measure of the tangential magnetising force at the surface of the item under
inspection as well as being used for the measurement of residual magnetic
fields and the instrument can be used repetitively.

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The main disadvantages of Hall Effect instruments are that they require
periodical calibration, cannot be used to establish the balance of fields in multi-
directional applications and the Hall Effect probes can be very fragile and easily
damaged and are very costly to replace.

Figure 3.8 Field strength meter (with hall effect sensor).

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Section 4

Application Techniques and


Demagnetisation
4 Application Techniques and Demagnetisation
Before applying MPI a thorough knowledge of the component to be tested is
essential in terms of its material composition and properties, surface condition
and preparation, types of defects/discontinuities, manufacturing method (ie
wrought, cast, weld) and in-service conditions. These important issues are
covered in detail in the attached TWI 'Product Technology Training Course
Notes'.

4.1 Continuous technique


The continuous technique implies that the detecting media is applied before the
magnetising force, to a component and continued during the period of
magnetisation. However, ink or powder application should be stopped before
magnetisation is stopped.

Indeed, on low retentivity components it is important to inspect at the same


time as magnetisation and ink application. A classic case of reporting a spurious
indication as a defect is where ink is allowed to run down the toe of a weld after
a test. The solid content forms a visible line, exactly conforming to the shape of
the toe and this line is often enhanced by the residual magnetism of the heat
affected zone.

What is worse is that the inspector notes the indication as spurious but fails to
see small toe defects that are now masked by that spurious indication.

To avoid overheating the component and the equipment, magnetisation times


should be limited to 2-3 seconds. In fact some equipment have shot timers on
them to avoid the duty cycle being exceeded.

The table below lists the steps in a one shot continuous technique. It should be
pointed out that if full cover of a component is envisaged, a number of shots
would be required.

1 Demagnetise if specified
2 Clean
3 Apply contrast paint if specified
4 Affix magnetising contacts
5 Apply detecting media
6 Apply magnetising force, 2-3sec duration
7 Stop detecting media
8 Stop magnetising force
9 Inspect - this should start at operation 5 and end at 8
10 Demagnetise, if specified
11 Clean
12 Protect
13 Report

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and Demagnetism 4-1 Copyright TWI Ltd
If demagnetisation is called for, circular magnetising tests are done first
followed by longitudinal. This is so because it is probable that a residual
circular field is not detectable but that residual field will be removed by
longitudinal test applied later. Therefore, the final residual field to be removed
is a longitudinal one, which is detectable with a field indicator. All current
waveforms are applicable to continuous techniques, depending on the defect
morphology.

4.2 Residual technique


The residual technique (also known as the remanence technique) uses
only DC or rectified forms of AC to magnetise a component because it is
the residual flux density which is relied upon to attract magnetic particles to the
flux leakage created by defects. Direct current and rectified AC produces a full
cross-sectional magnetisation, whereas AC will only create an effective flux
density in the skin, hence skin effect. Direct current (DC) and rectified AC
provide a deeper level penetration of the magnetic field dependant on the
material properties and magnetic strength. Thus, the residual field from AC is
not considered adequate for the residual technique.

Also, the residual technique is only applicable on components, which


have high retentivity ie high carbon equivalent steels. It usually follows that
components suitable for the residual technique are high tensile machine parts,
when the types of flaws being sought are; corners, or thread roots etc. If the
continuous technique is used on these parts there will be a high build up of
detecting media across such features and these non-relevant indications are
likely to mask an actual defect beneath them. For best defect sensitivity the
detecting media is applied after magnetisation and to allow time for the
particles to migrate. Inspection takes place a short time after that.

The table lists the steps in a one shot residual technique. The magnetising
values should be the higher ones recommended for aerospace, using the
appropriate electrical current waveform. Again, circular magnetism shots should
be carried out before longitudinal, as invariably demagnetisation will be
necessary.

1 Demagnetise
2 Clean
3 Apply contrast paint if specified
3 Affix magnetising contacts
4 Apply magnetising force, not AC, 2-3sec
5 Apply detecting media, spray or dip
6 Wait, 30sec - 1 min
7 Inspect
8 Demagnetise
9 Clean
10 Protect
11 Report

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Application Techniques
and Demagnetism 4-2 Copyright TWI Ltd
4.3 Demagnetisation
BS EN ISO 9934-1 recommends that demagnetisation should be carried out if
specifically requested at the time of enquiry of order. In certain industries the
consequences of not demagnetising can be catastrophic.

Demagnetisation can be carried out:

Before testing, if residual fields could affect test results.


Between tests except for when a similar shot is to be applied but at a higher
amperage. An exception can be made if a subsequent shot is to be applied
at 90 to the original and the original field strength is to be exceeded.
After testing, when applicable.

Post demagnetising must be done:

On aircraft parts, where magnetic compasses and electronic equipment may


be affected.
On rotating parts, where magnetic debris might adhere and cause excess
wear.
Where automatic arc or electron beam welding is to be carried out and arc
wander may be caused by residual magnetic fields.
If residual magnetic fields could affect subsequent machining processes.
Reamers and taps become magnetic as well and thus can break in use, if
swarf is not cleared from flutes.
When a high quality finish, such as electroplating is to be applied. The
particles attracted will prevent or reduce adhesion.

It is not usually necessary to demagnetise specimens that are to be heat


treated, provided that the heat treatment is beyond the Curie point, about
700C. At and above the Curie point, ferromagnetic materials become
paramagnetic.

Often it is not possible or practical to demagnetise a specimen completely,


especially when it has been magnetised with using DC. Therefore a maximum
residual field level must be agreed. An agreed maximum deflection on a
magnetic field indicator is the most common method to ensure proper
demagnetisation.

Figure 4.1 Magnetic field indicator.

For critical situations a compass test is recommended. The component under


test is positioned at an agreed distance from a suitable compass and rotated
through 360. The compass needle must deflect by less than 1. (No longer in
BS EN 9934-1, detailed in previous standard BS 6072).

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and Demagnetism 4-3 Copyright TWI Ltd
4.4 Principle of demagnetisation
Looking at a typical hysteresis loop for a ferromagnetic material, after the initial
magnetising force is applied and then removed, it is virtually impossible to end
the test with a zero flux density. Even if a negative coercive force is applied it
will only keep the flux density at zero, as long as it continues to be applied.

The figure shows that the key to demagnetisation is that a reversing and
reducing magnetising force must be applied, so that the hysteresis loop
reduces until all the parameters achieve zero. There are a number of ways to
achieve this.

Magnetic
flux density
(B)

Field
strength (H)

Figure 4.2 Demagnetisation process.

4.5 Methods of demagnetisation


4.5.1 Aperture coil, removal
The component is passed through an aperture type coil, which has its major
axis aligned in an east-west direction and is carrying AC. The component is
removed from the coil to a minimum distance of 1.5m before the current is
switched off.

Special demagnetisers of this type are usually multi-turn coil, working directly
from a single phase AC supply. However, a hand held coil made from a portable
unit cable may be adequate for site use. If the component cannot be passed
through the demagnetising coil there is no reason why the coil should not be
passed over the component to achieve the same result.

When using AC to demagnetise by any of the techniques listed the initial field
strength should be equal to or greater than that used for magnetisation.

NDT30M-60615
Application Techniques
and Demagnetism 4-4 Copyright TWI Ltd
4.5.2 Aperture coil, reducing AC
Where it is not possible to remove either the component or the coil from the
influence of each other, then the AC can be reduced to zero to achieve the
same demagnetising effect. Modern units use a capacitor discharging to achieve
an almost instantaneous result.

4.5.3 Aperture coil, reversing DC


Sometimes if a component has been magnetised using DC or rectified AC, it is
nearly impossible to reduce the residual flux density to a satisfactory level using
AC. This is especially true if the component is a complex shape.

Therefore, a reversing and reducing DC, or more usually full-wave rectified and
smoothed AC, is used. The component is usually left in the coil but with long
components the operation is carried out several times along its length.

Each reduction of current should be 50% of the preceding one, down to a


reasonable minimum.

4.5.4 Electromagnet, reversing DC


The same principles apply as with the reversing DC aperture coil method, but in
this case the component is clamped between the poles of an electromagnet in a
field strong enough to saturate it magnetically. The field is then reduced and
reversed in 50% increments to near zero.

4.5.5 Electromagnet, AC yoke


A most useful way to remove local residual fields on components in situ, on a
structure than cannot easily be moved or removed is by means of a portable AC
powered electromagnet. The energised yoke is pulled over and off the
component, to a distance of about 450mm and then switched off. If the level
achieved is not adequate, the operation is repeated in the same way and
direction until the residual field is removed.

Approximately 450mm
then switch off

Figure 4.3. Demagnetisation using an AC yoke.

NDT30M-60615
Application Techniques
and Demagnetism 4-5 Copyright TWI Ltd
Section 5

Current Waveforms
5 Current Waveforms
It has been explained that different current wave terms are used in MPI, but not
why. Alternating current is simple to transform, and employ when taken from
the electrical mains. Because the polarity is changing fifty times a second the
magnetic particles are constantly reversing their direction and this causes them
to migrate or walk to areas of flux leakage. This is excellent because it gives
bright clear indications.

However, because of the skin effect phenomenon the magnetism is


concentrated near to the surface of a component. Therefore only surface
defects can be found using alternating current.

If it is considered that sub-surface defects are critical and it is believed that


they are likely to be orientated in a way that makes detection possible, then DC
or rectified current must be used. HWR (half-wave rectified) circuits will give full
depth magnetic penetration with a pulse effect to help the particles migrate.

Complicated machined specimens with fine threads or key ways might be


difficult to interpret due to flux leakage across changes of section. It is often
possible to use the residual magnetism to produce fine line indications and
reduce the incidence of non-relevant indications. This is called the residual
technique and when employed, rectified current or DC must be used.

Thus, before selecting a magnetising value and waveform for a job, the type,
orientation and depth of likely defects must be deduced.

It is the value of peak current that creates the maximum magnetising force and
therefore the most drive to the magnetic particles to migrate to a flux leakage.
However, few ammeters are calibrated in peak values. In fact they read some
other quantity such as root mean square (RMS), mean or average. For time-
varying current forms such as alternating or half wave rectified the RMS value,
not the peak, is the required quantity. The table below shows the relationship
between the peak current and the RMS, value for the various waveforms.

NDT30M-60615
Current Waveforms 5-1 Copyright TWI Ltd
Table 5.1 BS EN 9934-1:2001.

A meter can read the apparently simple ampere in many different ways and it is
necessary to be aware of this. It is intended to look at the more common
current waveforms and usual ways of reading their outputs. In view of the
many ammeter variations, the safest thing for operators to do is to check with
the equipment manufacturer as to what type of ammeter is fitted, then print
the peak to actual readout ratio on the meter scale.

BS EN 9934-1 stipulates that where time varying currents are used, then RMS
is to be used.

NDT30M-60615
Current Waveforms 5-2 Copyright TWI Ltd
5.1 Direct current (DC)
An electrical current flowing in one direction only and effectively free from
pulsation. Therefore, after a small build-up period the current is at a constant
peak value and this is what the meter reads.

Figure 5.1 Direct current.

Direct current is either supplied from a battery pack or a DC generator. In the


early days of MPI, DC was almost universally used. This is not so today.

Advantages Disadvantages
Sub-surface defects No agitation
Availability from batteries Less sensitive to surface defects
Field strength

Distance

Flux Leakage

Figure 5.2 Magnetic flux distribution for DC.

NDT30M-60615
Current Waveforms 5-3 Copyright TWI Ltd
5.2 Alternating current (AC)
Alternating current is a form of electricity which, after reaching a maximum
value in one direction, decreases, reverses direction and reaches a maximum in
the opposite direction before returning to zero. It is cyclic and the cycle is
repeated continuously.
Peak current
Root Mean Square (RMS)

Figure 5.3 Alternating current.

It is, of course, the peak current which creates the maximum magnetising
force, but in reality the meter reads the RMS value as the current is reversing
between equal but opposite peak values. It is therefore impossible to measure
the mean value.

By plotting the squares of the current values we can find an average, since
negative as well as positive values become positive. To measure the square of
the current we use a moving iron ammeter. This type of ammeter consists of
two iron rods which are forced apart as they are magnetised. Their level of
magnetisation is proportional to the current and therefore the force between
them is roughly proportional to the square of the current. The meter is
calibrated to read the root of the mean of the square values and is therefore
non-linear. The peak current is given as the meter reading x 1.414.

Advantages Disadvantages
Availability Will not detect sub-surface
Sensitivity to surface defects defects
Agitation of particles
Demagnetisation

The phenomenon that causes the magnetisation produced by alternating


current to be contained near the surface of a ferromagnetic component is called
skin effect. Therefore, if the magnetic field produced by AC only exists at or
just under the surface of the component AC will reveal only surface-breaking
defects.

NDT30M-60615
Current Waveforms 5-4 Copyright TWI Ltd
Field strength Skin Effect

Distance

Flux Leakage

Figure 5.4 Magnetic flux distribution for AC.

If sub-surface defects are of interest, rectified or DC current must be used


because they produce an even flux density through the cross-section of the
component.

5.3 Half-wave rectified (HWR) [or HWRAC]


This is a pulsed unidirectional current produced by clipping a half-cycle from
single-phase alternating current. As a result there are intervals when no current
is flowing. It is the least expensive form of rectification, used on cars and
motorcycles. In the UK it is common in portable, mobile and bench units.

Figure 5.5 Half-wave rectified current.

NDT30M-60615
Current Waveforms 5-5 Copyright TWI Ltd
Advantages Disadvantages
Penetration like DC Lower sensitivity to surface
Agitation defects than AC

5.4 Full-wave rectified current (single phase) (FWRAC)


This is a form of current where the negative half-wave of an alternating current
is converted into a positive wave, so that both halves of the swing are able to
deliver unidirectional current.

Full-wave rectified equipment is unlikely to be even nominally portable, due to


the weight of electrical equipment within them. Bench units using this waveform
are most likely to be found where codes from the USA prevail.

Figure 5.6 Full-wave rectified current.

Advantages Disadvantages
Penetration like DC Lower sensitivity to surface
Agitation defects than AC

5.5 Converting between RMS and peak values


The amperage calculations described in BS-EN-9934-1 Annex A in most cases
give results in Amps RMS. While some items of MPI equipment give the RMS
reading, others provide the Peak Amp reading. In order to utilise calculated
values a conversion is required.

From Peak to RMS


IR

x
0
.
7
0
7
IP
M
S

=
E
A
K

From RMS to Peak


IP

IR

0.707
E
A
K

M
S
IR
IP

M
S

(or = x 1.414 )
E
A
K

Point to remember: The Peak value is always higher than the RMS value.

NDT30M-60615
Current Waveforms 5-6 Copyright TWI Ltd
Section 6

Assessing Magnetising
Force and Amperage
6 Assessing Magnetising Force and Amperage
Magnetic particle inspection practice in the UK and Europe is based on research
that recommends that a minimum flux density of 1 tesla must be achieved. This
flux density is achieved in low alloy and carbon steels, with relatively high
permeability, with tangential field strength of 2000 Amps per metre (2kA/m).
For steels with lower permeability higher tangential field strength may be
necessary. Too high a magnetisation could, however, lead to spurious
background indications that could mask out relevant indications.

6.1 Portable equipment


6.1.1 Permanent magnets and DC electromagnets
As mentioned earlier according to the latest European standards permanent
magnets and DC electromagnets should only be used by agreement with the
customer at the time of enquiry and order due to their inability to meet the
magnetisation requirements laid down in those standards (eg EN ISO 9934-1).
Previous standards laid down criteria for their performance based upon their
lifting power specifying that they should be able to lift at least 18kg of ferritic
steel with the poles between 75 and 150mm apart.

6.1.2 AC electromagnets
The performance of AC powered portable electromagnet can be determined by
measuring the tangential field strength produced at the midpoint between the
two poles. Periodic functional checks on such equipment may also be carried
out by this means or by a lift test. AC electromagnets should be capable of
lifting a mass of 4.5kg with the poles at their recommended spacing.

Figure 6.1 Electromagnet.

6.1.3 Prods
The current to be used depends upon whether the test zone to be inspected
between the prods is considered to be rectangular or circular as shown.

To inspect a rectangular test zone

I = 2.5 H x d

Where: I = Current in amperas


H = Tangential Field Strength (kA )
d = Prod spacing (mm) for d upto 200mm

NDT30M-60615
Assessing Magnetising Force
and Amperage 6-1 Copyright TWI Ltd
To inspect a circle inscribed between the two prods:

I=3Hxd

In the case of a circular test zone this excludes the area within 25mm of each
prod and in both cases the formulae are only reliable when the radius of
curvature of the inspection surface exceeds half the prod spacing.

If a flat area is to be tested then a pattern similar to that in the figure below is
used.

CF1
CF1 CF2 CF2

CF3 CF3

Figure 6.2 Prod test pattern.

6.1.4 Flexible coil


BS EN ISO 9934-1 specifies:

Using direct or rectified current, the RMS value of the current flowing in a cable
shall have a minimum value of:

I = 3H [T + (Y2/4T)]

Where:

I = RMS current.
T = wall thickness (in mm) or radius of component if round.
Y = the spacing (in mm) between adjacent windings in the coil.

NDT30M-60615
Assessing Magnetising Force
and Amperage 6-2 Copyright TWI Ltd
Using alternating current, the RMS value of the current flowing in the cable shall
have a minimum value of:

I = 3H[10 + Y2/40]

Where:

I = rms current.
Y = the spacing (in mm) between adjacent windings in the coil.

Figure 6.3 Coil formed by flexible cable.

6.2 Alternative standards


The UK system requires the cable windings to be spaced. But in the USA it is
accepted that spacing the windings is extremely difficult and thus the formula in
ASME V shown below, applies to flexible close turn coils:

K
NI
L
2
D

Where:

I = coil current.
N = number of turns in the coil or cable wrap.
L = part length.
D = part diameter.
K = 35000.

Note: The maximum L/D ratio for calculations is limited to 15:1. The effective
field extends on either side of the coil to a distance approximately equal to its
radius.

6.2.1 Adjacent conductor


To achieve most efficient magnetisation the cable should be mounted at a
distance from the test surface. The width of the effective inspection area on
each side of the cable centre-line is then also d and is related to the peak
current value (I) in the cable by:

I = 4 d H

Where

I = rms current (amperas)


d = distance of cable above surface (mm)
H = Tangential Field Strength (k )

NDT30M-60615
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and Amperage 6-3 Copyright TWI Ltd
Figure 6.4 Adjacent conductor technique.

When testing cylindrical components or radiused corners the cable can be


wrapped around the surface of the component and several turns may be
bunched in the form of a close wrapped coil. In this case the inspected area lies
within a distance d of the windings where:

d = NI / 4 H

Where

NI = ampere turns.

Figure 6.5 Multiturn cable wrap coil.

6.3 Fixed equipment


6.3.1 Magnetic flow
Magnetic flow with benches may be achieved either by an electromagnetic yoke
or a fixed coil. There are no formulae for calculating the required magnetising
force rather the tangential field strength within the item under inspection should
be measured at its mid-point.

6.3.2 Axial current flow


The formula current flow application is given below. When components having
varying cross-section are tested, a single current value can be used if the
current values to inspect the largest and smallest sections are within a ratio of
1.5:1. The large diameter governs the value.

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Assessing Magnetising Force
and Amperage 6-4 Copyright TWI Ltd
Figure 6.6 Axial current flow for varying cross-section.

If the cross-section variation is greater than 1.5:1 then each section is tested in
turn, starting with the smallest.

I = H x perimeter

Where:

I = Current in amperes.
H = Tangential field strength in kilo-amperes per metre.
p = Perimeter in millimetres.

Note: For low alloy carbon steels the tangential field strength is taken as 2 kilo-
amperes/metre.

6.3.3 Threading bar


When the threading bar is placed centrally the current is calculated by the
formula below.

I = H x perimeter

Where:

I = Current in amperes.
H = Tangential field strength in kilo-amperes per metre.
p = Perimeter in millimetres.

If the component to be tested is a hollow pipe or ring the current is calculated


according to the outside surface when inspecting the outer surface and the
inside diameter when testing the inner surface.

Alternatively, and when the threading bar is offset from the centre, the surface
under test shall lie totally within a circle centred on the threading bar. When the
conductor is non-central the field strength will be verified by measurement.

When large rings, etc have to be tested a number of shots, equi-distant around
the circumference may be necessary.

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Assessing Magnetising Force
and Amperage 6-5 Copyright TWI Ltd
Test 1
Test 2

Test 5

Test 3
Test 4

Figure 6.7 Threading bar test coverage.

6.3.4 Rigid coil


The formulae given by BS EN ISO 9934-1 is:
0
.
4L D
H
K

O
4 xD
.
H N
K
N
I

o
r
I

Where:

I is the current value.


H is the tangential field strength.
N is the number of coil turns.
L is the test piece length.
D is the test piece diameter.
K = 22000 for an AC source (RMS value).
K = 32000 for a full-wave rectified current [FWRAC] (mean value).
K = 11000 for half-wave rectified current [HWRAC] (mean value).

Note: For FWRAC and HWRAC, the answer to calculation is in given Mean
Amps.

To use the formula, the following conditions apply:

The cross-sectional area (r2) of the test piece must be less than 10% of
the cross-sectional area (r2) of the coil aperture.
The test piece should lie against the side or bottom of the coil.
L/D ratio of the part must be greater than 5:1 if not pole extenders can be
clamped to the ends of the test piece. (see diagram).
If the L/D ratio exceeds 20, then the ampere turn value for a 20:1 ratio
should be used. The test should be repeated at coil length intervals.
The major axis of the test piece should be parallel with the axis of the coil.
When using rigid coils of helical form the pitch of the helix shall be less than
25% of the coil diameter.
BS EN ISO 9934-1 implies that only the section in the coil is tested and the
test must be repeated at coil length intervals. In US instructions the test
area extends 6 beyond the coil on each side.

NDT30M-60615
Assessing Magnetising Force
and Amperage 6-6 Copyright TWI Ltd
Figure 6.8 Using pole extenders.

6.3.5 Induced current


A clamp meter is required to find out the value of current induced into a
component. If one is available then the current values used for current flow
apply. However, if the correct type of ammeter is not to hand, a flux indicator is
the alternative.

The required current is given by the formula:

I = H x perimeter

Where:

I = Current in amperes.
H = Tangential field strength in kilo amperes per metre.
p = Perimeter in millimetres.

Note: For low alloy carbon steels, the transential field strength is taken as 2 kilo
amperes/metre.

6.4 Verification of magnetisation


BS EN ISO 9934-1 specifies that adequacy of the surface flux density should be
established by one of the following methods:

Testing a component containing fine natural or artificial discontinuities in the


least favourable locations.
Measuring the tangential field strength as close as possible to the surface.
Calculating the tangential field strength for current flow methods.
Other methods based on established principles.

Field strength meters based on the Hall Effect are the best way of ascertaining
adequate field strength at the surface of a test component. However, they are
expensive and the probes used tend to be fragile.

Portable flux indicators are a common, simple to use alternative, giving a clear
visual indication of the direction of the surface field. They provide only a guide
to the magnitude and direction of the tangential field strength and as such
should not be used to verify the acceptability of the field strength.

They are a rough guide to the magnitude of the surface field. (This is only true
if the flux indicator abuts intimately with the test specimen.)

NDT30M-60615
Assessing Magnetising Force
and Amperage 6-7 Copyright TWI Ltd
Flux indicators consist of a magnetic material that is interrupted by non-
magnetic spacers. When the flux indicator is placed on the surface of a
magnetised specimen, flux is induced in it. The non-magnetic spacers behave
as artificial flaws. If the magnetic field at the surface of the specimen is
sufficiently high, leakage flux above the artificial flaws can be detected by the
application of a magnetic particle ink or powder.

Flux indicators are made with high permeability magnetic materials with low
coercivity and low remanence so that a flux can be easily induced into them,
yet without permanently magnetising them. Opinion differs on their efficacy
when used with permanent magnets and DC electromagnets. In every case
when a permanent magnet or electromagnet is used, good area contact of the
poles is imperative or the flux indicator is useless. Results may be misleading
when indicators are used in a coil.

Flux indicators may be divided into two main types:

Segment type.
Foil type.

6.4.1 Segment type


Four or eight identical segments of ferrous metal are joined with non-magnetic
compound of even thickness into the shape of a flat disc. One surface of the
disc is covered with non-magnetic foil to prevent magnetic particles getting to
the surface and giving misleading indications.

The eight segment type, with a fixed foil is popular in the US. A four section
indicator with an adjustable foil, giving a varying air gap between them is called
a Berthold penetrameter.

Berthold penetrameter
This is a device that has been designed to indicate flux direction and sensitivity
(field strength).The central, cylindrical iron piece is cut into quadrants to
provide indications at 0 and 90o. This piece is capped with a thin non-magnetic
foil that is mounted on an adjustable screwed spacer, allowing the surface of
the penetrameter to be raised off the surface of the item being examined. The
penetrameter is mounted on a handle which allows the Inspector to place it on
the area under examination.

When the penetrameter is placed on a magnetised test surface, magnetic lines


of flux will pass through the cut quadrants of the iron cylinder. These cut lines
will then be visible, when using either wet or dry MPI testing media. Maximum
indication direction can be achieved by rotating the penetrameter about its axis
so that the cut lines in the penetrameter will be at right angles to the direction
of the magnetic field. The sensitivity of the testing media can be determined by
slowly turning the outside knurled ring of the penetrameter, increasing the
distance off the test surface. The amount of lift off at the point where the
indication just appears, gives a measure of the magnetic field test sensitivity.

NDT30M-60615
Assessing Magnetising Force
and Amperage 6-8 Copyright TWI Ltd
Figure 6.9 Berthold Penetrameter.

ASME Pie Gauge (pie field indicator)


This is a device that is used as an aid to determine the direction of magnetic
fields for the detection of defects in ferrous materials.

It is an octagonal shaped piece made with a low retentive steel material which
has eight bonded segmented pieces, similar to portions of a pie. The octagonal
shaped piece is mounted on a handle so the Inspector can place it on the area
being magnetised. With an adequate amount of magnetising current and proper
testing media application, the Pie Gauge will show indications in the same
direction as defect indications would actually appear.

Its principal application is on flat surfaces, such as welds or steel castings


where dry powder is used with electromagnetic yokes or prods.

Advantages of these gauges are that they can be easily used and if looked after
carefully, will have a long working life.

Disadvantages of these gauges are that they are not recommended for use on
precision parts with complex shapes, for wet method applications, for proving
field magnitudes, they have to be de-magnetised after each use because of the
retentive steel material used in their construction, they can only be used on
relatively flat surfaces and they cannot be reliably used for determination of
balanced fields in multi directional magnetisation.

These gauges conform to ASME V, ASTM E1444 and NAUSEA 250-1500-1

Figure 6.10 Pie gauge.

6.4.2 Foil type


The most common foil type indicator is the Burmah Castrol strip or as it is more
correctly now called, a magnetic flux indicator. These indicators consist of a
magnetic foil containing linear slots of different widths to simulate
discontinuities, sandwiched between non-magnetic foils. Non-magnetic foils are
either brass or stainless steel depending on whether they are for general or
aerospace use.

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Assessing Magnetising Force
and Amperage 6-9 Copyright TWI Ltd
The simulated discontinuities in a magnetic flux indicator are arranged in three
parallel lines. These foils are less than 0.2mm thickness and flexible, which
gives them a significant advantage over the segment type.

They are placed on the test object as it is being inspected, ideally at 90o to the
possible defect orientation. The number of linear indications and thickness of
the slot indications produced, on the strips, gives the Inspector a general idea
of the magnetic field strength in that particular area.

They are relatively easily applied to the component and can be successfully
used with both wet and dry inspection media, using the continuous method of
magnetisation. The results are fairly repeatable as long as the same orientation
of the magnetic field is applied and maintained.

Disadvantages of these strips are that they cannot be bent to complex shapes
and are not suitable for multi-directional field systems since they only indicate
defect indications in one direction only. They should not be used with DC fields
and permanent magnets as the indicator will become permanently magnetised
and give false readings.

Figure 6.11 Foil type magnetic flux indicator.

6.5 Factors affecting MPI sensitivity


The sensitivity of the magnetic particle test will depend on several factors,
some of which will be within the control of the inspector and others not. The
sensitivity

Sensitivity of an MPI
Test
Contrast Definition

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Surface Lighting Field Ink Efficiency


Ink Condition
Cleaning Strength of the
Condition
Magnetic
Field

Ambient Black Geometry of the


Light Light Work Piece

Figure 6.12 Sensitivity of an MPI test.

NDT30M-60615
Assessing Magnetising Force
and Amperage 6-10 Copyright TWI Ltd
The above Figure shows the main factors that will affect the quality of the MPI
test performance.

Following is an explanation for each of the numbered points from the above
figure that affect the sensitivity of a magnetic particle inspection.

Surface condition (1)


The effectiveness of the cleaning processes to produce a bright finish is an
important factor here. A contrast paint background would help for visualisation
of magnetic particle indications.

Lighting (2)
If the ambient lighting is too high, for example because of bright sun light, the
tests must be done at night when fluorescent inks are used. The inspector
should regularly monitor the intensity. Glare should be avoided.

Ink condition (3)


Important factors here include the best colour to attract the attention of the
inspector and the right size of particle. This is tightly controlled by the
appropriate standard, there could be some consideration given to larger size
particles that may give better contrast. The physical condition of the ink is also
important. It should be a finely divided suspension of particles that is delivered
to the work piece and so the inspector should check to see that the agitator is
working continuously. This should be a regular part of the routine.

Field strength (4)


This must be high enough to hold the ink to the surface of the defect.

Factors affecting definition


The following factors are important when considering definition.

Ink condition (5)


As can be seen from the chart the ink condition has an effect on both contrast
and definition. The definition can be improved if the defect outline is picked out
by fine magnetic particles.

Geometry of the work piece (6)


Test component geometry may be complicated (eg complex castings) and a full
understanding of the extent of the individual test(s) is required in order to
obtain full diagnostic coverage.

Efficiency of the magnetic field conditions (7)


The effectiveness with which the inspector can set up the magnetic field
condition is the heart of the magnetic particle inspection. Factors like current
flow, field direction, electrical contact of the prods, coil fill factor, need to be
considered carefully.

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6.6 Assessment and reporting of indications and test procedure.
Geometric and physical imperfections in the main product categories of cast,
wrought (including rolled and forged) and welds are covered in the Product
Technology Course Notes that accompany these Magnetic Particle Inspection
(MPI) Testing Notes. The Product Technology Course Notes also covers the
influence of manufacturing processes and materials on the types of
discontinuities to be found and their assessment.

The application codes and standards detail the information required (a) prior to
test (b) safety precautions (c) personnel qualification requirements (d) surface
condition and preparation requirements (e) MPI detection media inks and
powder(s) properties (f) MPI equipment and magnetic field type to be applied
and the required checks and verification of the test parameters (g) MPI
technique details including area of test (h) the recording of indications (i) the
test report.

The Quality Control of documentation must ensure that standards, codes,


specifications and Test Technique Procedures and correct and to the latest
relevant revision that will enable their full traceability and that the Written
Instructions and resultant report are correctly distributed and archived for
future reference and traceability.

The following standards cover the required product categories:

BS EN 10228-1: Non-destructive testing of steel forgings. Magnetic Particle


Inspection.
BS EN ISO 17638: Non-destructive testing of welds. Magnetic Particle
Testing.
BS EN 1369: Founding Magnetic Particle Testing.
BS EN 12062: Non-destructive examination of welds. General rules for
metallic materials.

A detailed Test Report will normally be produced for each item of test and will
cover all of the salient parameters that affect the quality and integrity of the
test as laid out in the Test Procedure (see below) that must be made available
to the Test Technician/Operator prior to starting the test along with Written
Instructions detailing the components to be tested, the specific Test Procedure,
Specifications/Standards and Acceptance criteria to be applied along with any
special instructions that might apply (eg PPE to be used, use of photographs
etc.). The Test Report will normally include an assessment of the condition of
the component against the specified acceptance criteria (see Product Category
Standards above).

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Specific details that may be included in the Test Procedure are as follows:

Title of Test Procedure.


Description (including sketch/drawing if relevant) of components including
materials and surface condition.
Scope detailing general requirements of the test (eg type of applied
magnetisation ie continuous techniques - current flow, magnetic flow,
residual/remanence technique, detection media ink (wet), powder (dry)
visual, fluorescent to be used and field strength measurements and checks
to be taken).
Reference Documents (eg codes, standards, client requirements, personnel
qualifications).
Definitions and abbreviations used.
Responsibilities (personnel involved in the test sequence including
identification of test component, carrying out the test and making safe the
area of test.
Personnel Qualifications (technician undertaking the test, evaluating the
results/indications and procedure preparation).
Technique procedure, equipment and settings (if applicable), initial cleaning,
surface preparation and demagnetisation if required, MPI equipment and
detection media to be used.
Examination details, diagnostic area and overlap. Application of MPI
equipment, temperature limits and viewing conditions to BS EN 3059 Non-
Destructive Testing - Penetrant Testing and Magnetic Particle Inspection
Viewing Conditions.
Interpretation of results and evaluation of indications against the
acceptance criteria (see Product Category Standards/Codes) with a sketch
showing the positions of indications if required.
Post test requirements including demagnetisation.

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Section 7

Control and Maintenance Checks


7 Control and Maintenance Checks
In order to ensure that the equipment ancillaries and materials are up to
standard it is necessary to carry out a number of control checks. It is also
important to make sure that the system performs consistently each day.
Common sense dictates that the equipment, etc is maintained properly.

The checks covered in this section are meant to be guides to proper practice. In
different organisations there will obviously be variations and therefore the code
or standard specified for a particular job must be the overriding factor.

7.1 Detection media


BS EN ISO 9934-2 specifies in-service checks for colour and performance are
carried out. Colour checking involves visually comparing the detecting media
under working conditions with a type test sample (Type 1 shown below).

Performance sensitivity checks are recommended before and periodically during


testing, using reference blocks described in the standard. The results produced
are compared with photographs of those produced by reference detection
media.

Figure 7.1 Type 1 reference piece.

7.2 Fluorescent ink intensity


Fluorescent inks should be discarded if there is evidence of fluorescence in the
carrier fluid (supernatant liquid). This can happen due to over-vigorous
agitation, causing the fluorescent dye to break off the magnetic particles.

A sample of unused agitated ink should be compared visually with a sample of


quinine sulphate solution and show no more fluorescence when irradiated with
UV-A light of at least 10W/m2 (1000W/cm2).

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7.3 Overall performance check
This test is carried out to find any changes that may have occurred during the
day-to-day use of the equipment or materials. The test is carried out before the
start of work or at shift change.

BS EN ISO 9934-1 states that the most reliable method of checking this is to
inspect a representative part containing natural or artificial discontinuities of
known size, type, location and distribution. The part is to be demagnetised and
free from indications from previous tests.

Should such samples not be available fabricated test pieces with artificial
discontinuities may be used.

7.3.1 Current flow test piece


Used to assess the axial current flow performance of a bench unit.

Process: Thoroughly degrease and magnetize the test piece - clamp within
head and tailstock of the test bench - apply magnetic ink while the current is
increased - establish the current required to make the hole nearest to the outer
surface of the ring visible on the outer surface - further increase the current to
establish indications from the other two holes on the outer surface of the ring.

Figure 7.2 Current flow test piece.

7.3.2 Magnetic Flow Test Piece

Process: Thoroughly degrease and demagnetize the test piece - clamp


between the poles of the test bench (magnetic flow) or, alternatively, place it
centrally in the coil parallel to the coil axis - energize the equipment and
establish that the transverse hole in the middle of the test piece shows a strong
indication.

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Figure 7.3 Magnetic flow test piece.

7.4 Viewing efficiency


The output of the ultraviolet (UV-A) lamps used in MPI will deteriorate with age.
In addition, the output can vary due to:

Displacement and tarnishing of the reflector.


Dirt and other contaminants on the filter.
Variations of the voltage to the lamp.

It is therefore necessary to check the output of all UV-A lamps regularly. This
check involves the use of a radiometer which will respond to radiation in the
UV-A range (400-315nm) (nm = 1 nanometre = 10-9m). The test procedure is
as follows. Position the radiometer with the detector at a distance of 400mm, or
working distance, from the front surface of the lamp. If the reading at this
distance exceeds the full scale of the meter, use longer distances to bring the
reading to approximately 2/3 scale. Move the detector in a plane normal to the
axis of the beam from the lamp until a maximum reading is obtained. Record on
the lamp calibration label the radiometer reading, the distance of the lamp from
the radiometer if greater than 400mm and the date. This test, repeated at
regular intervals, will reveal any deterioration in performance or the need for
maintenance of the lamp.

Ultraviolet, UV-A, lamps should be changed if the output at working distance


falls below 1.0mW/cm2 or 1000 W/cm2 (mW = milli watt, W = micro watt) at
test surface.

The background light in an inspection area should be darker than 20lux. If black
ink is being used in white light conditions, the level of light at the work face
should exceed 500lux. This is equivalent to an 80W strip light at 1 metre.

7.5 Magnetising units


This is a general check for wear, abuse and general cleanliness.

7.6 Tank levels


A surprising amount of ink, including solid particles, is carried off on
components during testing. Ink level and strength checks are underrated items
and are ignored at the inspector's peril.

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7.7 Ultraviolet lamp maintenance
A considerable loss of light output can be experienced because of dirty filters.
Before condemning a lamp, clean it and the filter in a detergent solution.

7.8 Ammeters
Must be checked and calibrated regularly with a meter traceable to national
standards. Most major manufacturers will provide a service if ownership of a
master meter is not considered economic.

7.9 Demagnetiser
Often forgotten until something goes wrong. BS EN ISO 9934-3 they are
capable of demagnetising to a specified level between 0.4-1.0kA/m-1.

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Glossary
8 Glossary
Active particle magnetic ink. A magnetic ink where the particles are agitated
by the action of evaporation of alcohol out of the carrier fluid which is water.
The ink also contains a wetting agent and corrosion inhibitor.

Adjacent cable technique. A technique of magnetisation in which an


insulated, current carrying cable is laid close to the surface of the component,
adjacent to the area to be tested.

Alternating current. An electric current that alternately reverses its direction


in a circuit in a periodic manner.

Alternating-current magnetisation. Magnetisation by the magnetic field


induced when alternating current is flowing.

Ampere/meter (A/m). The field strength in air at the centre of a single turn
circular coil having a diameter of 1m, through which a current of 1A is flowing.

Note: This is the SI unit of field strength which has replaced the Oersted
(1 Oersted = 79.58 A/m).

Ampere turns. The product of the number of turns (N) of a coil and the
current in amperes (I) flowing through the coil.

Aperture type coil. An alternating current carrying coil constructed in such a


way that components may be passed through it for the purpose of
demagnetisation.

Arc. A luminous high temperature discharge produced when a current of


electricity flows across a gap.

Background. The general appearance of the surface on which defect


indications are viewed.

Background paint. See contrast aid.

Berthold penetrameter. A magnetic flux indicator that contains an artificial


flaw in the shape of a cross, mounted below an adjustable cover plate.

Note: It is placed on a magnetised component during magnetisation to check


the magnetising technique and/or the ink.

Black light. See UV-A.

Burning. Local overheating of the component at the electrical contact area


arising from high resistance or the production of an arc or prolonged contact.

Captive fluid indicator. A device comprising a quantity of magnetic ink sealed


in a transparent container, the ink behaving in the same way on a magnetised
component as free magnetic ink.

Carrier fluid. The fluid in which ferromagnetic particles are suspended to


facilitate their application.

Central Conductor. See threading bar.

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Centrifugal tube settlement flask. A settlement flask used to determine the
solids content of magnetic flaw detection inks.

Circular magnetic field. The magnetic field surrounding an electrical


conductor, resulting from the passage of a current through the conductor.

Circular magnetisation. Magnetisation in a component resulting from current


passed through a threading bar.

Circumferential magnetisation. Magnetisation that establishes a flux around


the periphery of a component.

Clip-on meter. Portable instrument for measuring current flowing in a


conductor without breaking the circuit.

Coagulation. The agglomeration of ferromagnetic particles in a fluid.

Coercive force. The reverse magnetising force required to remove residual


magnetism from a material.

Note: The corresponding field intensity value is indicative of the ease or


difficulty of demagnetisation.

Coil technique. A technique of magnetisation in which part or the whole of the


component is encircled in a current-carrying coil.

Note: The use of the term is usually restricted to instances in which the
component does not form part of a continuous magnetic circuit for the flux
generated.

Coloured magnetic inks. Fluids containing ferromagnetic particles treated so


as to produce an indication other than black.

Compass test. A test for demagnetisation carried out by placing the


component in specified positions in relation to a magnetic compass needle and
ascertaining whether the consequent deflection exceeds a specified maximum.

Concentrates. Magnetic flaw detection inks supplied in concentrated form for


dilution with the appropriate carrier fluid.

Conditioning agent. A soluble additive to water-based magnetic inks that


imparts specific properties such as surface wetting, particle dispersion or
corrosion resistance.

Contact heads. The electrodes, fixed to the machine, from which the
magnetising current flows.

Contact pads. Metal pads, usually of copper braid, placed on electrodes to give
good electrical contact, thereby preventing damage to the component under
examination.

Contrast. The difference in reflectivity or colouration between the component


under examination and the indications as shown by the ferromagnetic particles.

Contrast aid. A coating or film applied to a surface to improve contrast by


providing a more suitable background (eg white contrast paint for black
magnetic particle ink).

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Continuous technique. A technique where the ferromagnetic particles are
applied to the component while the magnetising force is present.

Core. Of an electromagnetic circuit. That part of the magnetic circuit which is


within the winding.

Crow-receiver. A free-standing, graduated measure which is mainly cylindrical


but tapered towards the bottom to allow greater accuracy in reading small
volumes.

Curie point/curie temperature. The temperature above which ferromagnetic


materials can no longer be magnetised or retain their residual magnetism.

Note: Examples of such temperatures are Nickel 358oC, Iron 770oC and Cobalt
1127oC.

Current flow technique. A technique of magnetisation by passing a current


through a component via, pads, contact heads or clamps.

Note: The current may be alternating or direct.

Current flow (prods) technique. A technique of magnetisation by passing a


current through a component via prods.

Note: the current may be alternating or direct.

Demagnetization. The process by which a component is returned substantially


to an unmagnetised state.

Demagnetising coil. See aperture type coil.

Demagnetising factor. In coil magnetisation the reduction of the field created


by the coil due to the magnetic poles which can be considered to exist at the
ends of the test piece.

Note: It is a function of the length/diameter ratio of a given component and


can be calculated for components having the shape of ellipsoids of revolution.
For other shapes it has to be measured experimentally.

Detecting medium. The powder or suspension of ferromagnetic particles that


is applied to a magnetised test surface to determine the presence or absence of
discontinuities.

Diffuse indications. Indications that are not clearly defined, ie indications of


sub-surface flaws.

Direct current. An electric current flowing in one direction only and free from
pulsation.

Dry powder. Finely divided ferromagnetic particles suitable selected and


prepared for magnetic particle inspection.

Dry powder technique. The application of ferromagnetic particles without the


use of a liquid carrier.

Dry out Time. The time allowed for carrier fluid to evaporate leaving
ferromagnetic particles in a dry condition.

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Effective magnetic permeability. In coil magnetisation. The ratio of the flux
density in the component to the applied magnetic field which would exist in the
absence of the component.

Note: The effective magnetic permeability of a component is not solely a


material parameter as it is effected by the demagnetising factor.

Electrode. A conductor by means of which an electric current passes into or


out of the component under examination.

Electromagnet. A soft iron core surrounded by a coil of wire that becomes a


temporary magnet when an electric current flows through the wire.

Energising cycle. The period of application of a magnetising force to the


component under test.

Examination medium. See detecting medium.

Extenders. Parts made from ferromagnetic materials that are added to the
ends of a component to increase its effective length for magnetisation purposes.

False indications. Indications resulting from leakage fields not caused by


imperfections or defects.

Ferromagnetic. Having a magnetic permeability greatly in excess of unity and


varying with flux density.

Note: Iron and steel are the most common ferromagnetic materials.

Ferromagnetic particles. Finely divided ferromagnetic materials used as an


aid to the detection of leakage fields on magnetised components.

Fill factor. In the coil technique of magnetisation. The ratio of the cross-
sectional area of the component within the coil to the cross-sectional area of
the coil.

Flash point. The temperature at which a liquid, heated in a Cleveland cup


(open test) or in a Pensky-Martens apparatus (closed test), gives off sufficient
vapour to flash momentarily on the application of a small flame.

Flexible cable technique. A technique of magnetisation in which either (a) a


current-carrying cable is wound around the component or (b) the cable is laid
close to the surface of the component, adjacent to the area to be tested.

Fluorescence. The absorption of radiation of a particular wavelength by a


substance and its re-emission as light of a greater or visible wavelength.

Note: With many substances ultraviolet radiation produces visible fluorescence.

Fluorescent magnetic ink. A liquid containing ferromagnetic particles coated


with fluorescent material, which will render discontinuities visible when a
magnetised component is viewed under UV-A radiation.

Fluorescent magnetic particle inspection. A technique that utilises


fluorescent magnetic ink as a detecting medium.

Fluorescent powder. Finely divided fluorescent ferromagnetic materials.

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Flux density. See magnetic flux density.

Flux indicator. Small devices, generally in the form of metal strips or discs,
containing artificial flaws and which are used to determine when correct
magnetising conditions have been achieved and/or the field direction.

Note: The indicator is placed in contact with the component being inspected.

Flux-leakage field. See magnetic leakage field.

Flux lines. See lines of force.

Fluxmeter. See magnetic field strength meter.

Flux penetration. The depth at which a magnetic flux is effective in a


component.

Full wave rectified current. Sensibly direct current produced by rectification


of either three-phase or single phase alternating current, the former method
producing a smoother ripple effect.

Functional test. A test method designed to assess the efficiency of magnetic


inks and powders or the performance of equipment.

Furring. Build-up of ferromagnetic particles due to excessive magnetisation of


the component under examination.

Gauss. The CGS system electromagnetic unit of magnetic flux density and
equal to one line per cm sq.

Note: The gauss has been replaced by the tesla.

Gauss meter. An instrument designed to measure magnetic flux density.

Half wave rectified current. Pulsed unidirectional current produced by


clipping a half cycle from single phase alternating current. As a result there are
intervals when no current is flowing.

Hall effect. A potential difference developed across the conductor, which is at


right angles to the direction of both the magnetic field and the electric current,
when a current flows along a rectangular conductor subjected to a traverse
magnetic field.

Hysteresis. The lagging of magnetic flux behind the magnetising field.

Immersion procedure. A procedure whereby the component being tested is


immersed in a bath of magnetic ink during the magnetisation cycle and
subsequently removed for inspection.

Indications. A detectable accumulation of ferromagnetic particles resulting


from a distortion of the magnetic field and which require assessment to
determine their significance.

Indirect magnetisation. Magnetisation induced into a component by a current


passing through a conductor that is not in electrical contact with the
component.

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Induced current flow technique. A technique whereby a circumferential
current flow is produced in a ring component by effectively making it the
secondary of a mains transformer.

Induced field. The field induced in a component by indirect magnetisation.

Induction (magnetic). The magnetism produced in a ferromagnetic material


by an external magnetising force.

Keeper. A piece of ferromagnetic material placed across the poles of a


permanent magnet when it is not in use in order to complete the magnetic
circuit and thereby prevent loss of magnetism.

Laminated pole pieces. Pole pieces consisting of separately adjustable


magnetic elements to enable irregular component profiles to be accommodated.

Leakage field. See magnetic leakage field.

Lifting power. The ability of a permanent or electro-magnet to lift a piece of


ferritic steel by magnetic attraction alone.

Lines of force. A conceptual representation of magnetic flux derived from the


pattern of lines produced when iron filings are sprinkled on paper laid over a
permanent magnet.

Longitudinal magnetisation. Magnetisation in which the flux lines traverse


the component in a direction essentially parallel to its longitudinal axis.

Magnetic circuit. The complete closed path followed by any group of lines of
magnetic flux.

Magnetic field. The region in the neighbourhood of a permanent magnet or a


current-carrying conductor in which magnetic forces exist.

Magnetic field distribution. The distribution of field strength in a magnetic


field.

Magnetic field indicator. See flux indicator.

Magnetic field leakage. The loss of magnetic field strength due to


discontinuities and changes in section in a magnetic circuit.

Magnetic field strength (H). The intensity of a magnetic field at a given


point.

Note: Formerly measured in Oersteds but is now measured in the SI units of


ampere/metres.

Magnetic field strength meter. An instrument designed to measure magnetic


fields.

Magnetic flaw detection ink. A detecting medium consisting essentially of


ferromagnetic particles in a carrier liquid.

Magnetic flow technique. A technique of magnetisation in which the


component, or a portion of it, closes the magnetic circuit of an electromagnet or
permanent magnet.

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Magnetic flow coil test piece. A standard test piece designed for checking
magnetic flow equipment and coils.

Magnetic flux. The total number of lines of force existing in a magnetic circuit.

Magnetic flux density (B). The strength of the magnetic field, defined as the
normal magnetic flux per unit area.

Magnetic hysteresis. See hysteresis.

Magnetic indication. See indicators.

Magnetic ink. See magnetic flaw detection ink.

Magnetic leakage field. The magnetic field that leaves or enters the surface
of a component due to the presence of a discontinuity and which is capable of
detection by ferromagnetic particles.

Magnetic particle flaw detection. A method of detecting surface or near-


surface discontinuities in magnetic materials by the generation of a magnetic
flux within a component and the application of suitable ferromagnetic particles
to its surface so as to render the discontinuity visible.

Magnetic particle flaw detector. Equipment providing essentially current or


flux for the purpose of magnetic particle flaw detection, and usually has
facilities for holding components of varying dimensions and for adjusting and
reading the magnetising current.

Magnetic particles. Finely divided ferromagnetic materials capable of being


individually magnetised and attracted to distortions in a magnetic field.

Magnetic permeability (). The ratio of the magnetic induction (B) to the
external magnetic field (H) causing the induction.

Magnetic poles. The points in a magnet that are the apparent seat of the
external magnetic field.

Magnetic powder. Ferromagnetic particles in dry powder form, of suitable


shape and size for flaw detection purposes.

Magnetic rubber. A special formulated medium, containing ferromagnetic


powder, used to obtain replica castings of component surfaces, with any
discontinuity present being reproduced within the replica by a suitable
magnetising technique as a result of migration of the powder within the medium
to the position of the discontinuity.

Magnetic saturation. The stage at which any further increase in the magnetic
field applied to a magnetised component will fail to show any significant
increase in the magnetic flux within that component.

Magnetic writing. A form of non-relevant indication arising from random local


magnetisation that is generally caused when the surface of a ferromagnetic
particle comes in contact with another piece of ferromagnetic material.

Magnetising current. The flow of either alternating or direct current used to


induce magnetism into a component being inspected.

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Magnetising force. The magnetising field applied to a ferromagnetic material
to induce magnetisation.

Magnetising tongs. An accessory consisting of two insulated conductors


crossing each other at a common pivot. On one side of the pivot they form the
two halves of a single turn magnetising coil and, on the other, two handles
whereby the coil is made and broken and is connected to the source of the
current.

Note: Two turn and three turn tongs are also used.

Magnetometer. See magnetic field strength meter.

Magnetomotive force. The circular integral of the magnetic field strength, H


round a closed path. It is measured in amperes.

Multidirectional magnetisation. The imposition on a component, sequentially


and in rapid succession, of two or more magnetic fields in different directions.

Note: Magnetic particle indications are formed when discontinuities are located
favourably with respect to the directions of each field and will persist as long as
the rapid alterations of field direction continue, thus enabling discontinuities
with differing orientations to be detected in one operation.

Non-relevant indication. An indication not produced by a discontinuity but


which is the result of spurious effects such as magnetic writing, changes in
section, or the boundary between materials of different magnetic properties.

Oersted. The CGS system unit of magnetic field strength.

Note: It has now been replaced by the SI unit ampere/meter.

Ohm's law. The electric current I in a conductor is directly proportional to the


potential difference V between its ends, other quantities (especially
temperature) remaining constant.

Parallel conductors. Insulated, current-carrying conductors laid parallel to


each other and close to the surface to be inspected but so arranged that the
current flows in the same direction through each conductor, thereby producing
a substantially uniform magnetic field in the space between the conductors.

Particle content. The apparent volume ratio of ferromagnetic particles to


carrier fluid in magnetic flaw detection ink.

Peak current. The relevant quantity used for the calculation of magnetic field
strength and which is the maximum instantaneous value of the direct or
periodic current obtained during excitation.

Note 1: Usually with a dc battery source or with 3 phase full wave rectified AC
it will be approximately that indicated by the ammeter. With AC or full wave
rectified single phase AC it will be 2 x the RMS current, which is the current
normally indicated by the ammeter. With half-wave rectified AC it will be
approximately 1/2 x the RMS current.

Note 2: Ammeters fitted to half-wave equipment are usually calibrated to take


account of the doubling factor (x2) and therefore indicate equivalent AC RMS
values.

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Permeability. See magnetic permeability.

Permanent magnet. A magnet that retains a high degree of magnetisation


virtually unchanged over a long period, this being a characteristic of materials
of high retentivity.

Pole. See magnetic poles.

Polymer technique. An examination technique in which a polymer is used as


the particle suspension vehicle.

Portable flux indicator. See flux indicator.

Powder. See dry powder.

Powder blower. A compressed air device, operating at low pressure, used to


apply dry powder over the surface of a component undergoing inspection.

Prods. Hand held electrodes attached to wander cables to transmit the


magnetising current from the source to the component under examination.

Pull-off force. The force that has to be applied to one pole of a magnet to
break its adhesion to a ferritic steel surface, leaving the other pole piece still
attached.

Rectified alternating current. An electric current obtained by rectifying


alternating current without the deliberate addition of smoothing to remove the
inherent ripples.

Reference pieces. Specimens containing controlled artificial defects or natural


defects used for checking the efficiency of magnetic particle flaw detection
processes and/or equipment.

Relevant indication. An indication produced by the presence of a discontinuity


and which requires assessment to determine its significance.

Reluctance. A measure of the degree of difficulty with which a component can


be magnetised that is analogous to the resistance in an electrical circuit.

Note: In a material of length l, cross-sectional area A and permeability , the


reluctance is given by l/A.

Remanence. The magnetic flux density remaining in the material after the
magnetising force has been removed.

Remanent magnetism. See remanence.

Remanent magnetisation tests. Tests to ascertain, either qualitatively or


quantitively, the degree of demagnetisation of a component.

Residual magnetic field. The magnetic field remaining in a material after the
magnetising force has been reduced to zero.

Residual magnetism. See residual magnetic field.

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Residual magnetisation technique. A technique whereby ferromagnetic
particles are only applied to a component being inspected after it has been
magnetised and the magnetising force removed or discontinued.

Note: The technique relies for its effectiveness on the strength of the residual
magnetic field.

Resultant field. The field produced when two or more magnetising forces
operating in different directions are applied simultaneously to a ferromagnetic
material.

Note: The direction of the field is determined by the relative strengths and
directions of the magnetising forces applied.

Retentivity. See remanence.

Rigid coil technique. A technique in which the coil turns are constructed from
a non-flexible material and are secured so as to prevent relative movement
between them if constructed from cable.

RMS current. The Root Mean Squared value of an alternating current.

Note: It is the square root of the mean value of the squares of the
instantaneous current value taken over a complete cycle, and is almost
invariably used for measuring alternating currents.

Saturation, magnetic. See magnetic saturation.

Self demagnetisation. An effect occurring in any magnetised component


which possesses adjacent free poles (ie a ring with a gap) that is due to the
field between the poles opposing that of the magnetising force.

Note: The effect reduces the strength of the internal field in short components
magnetised by the coil method.

Sensitivity. The degree of capability of a magnetic particle flaw detection


technique to indicate surface or near surface discontinuities in ferromagnetic
materials.

Settling time. The time allowed for settlement of ferromagnetic particles in a


sample of magnetic ink prior to the assessment of particle content volume.

Skin effect. The phenomenon that causes the magnetisation produced by


alternating current to be contained near the surface of a ferromagnetic
component.

Solids content. The volume of ferromagnetic particles, including adherent non-


magnetic pigments, contained in a magnetic ink. See also total solids.

Solenoid. A multi turn coil of wire wound on a ferromagnetic former.

Note: When carrying a direct current it behaves like a bar magnet.

Split coil. A single or multi turn coil constructed with plug connections to allow
it to be opened for positioning over components having no free ends for normal
coil access.

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Spurious indication. A non-relevant indication.

Sub-surface discontinuity. A discontinuity situated wholly below the surface


of a component but sufficiently close to the surface to produce a visible
indication during magnetic particle flaw detection.

Surface field. The magnetic field at the surface of the component under
examination.

Suspension. A system in which visible, denser particles are distributed


throughout a less dense carrier medium, settling being hindered by the
viscosity of the carrier medium.

Sutherland flask. A flask used for measuring the apparent proportion of solids
separating under gravity from a known volume of magnetic particle flaw
detection ink. The ungraduated upper portion, shaped like an inverted pear, is
constricted at the top to receive a stopper and blended at the bottom into a
graduated tube of small uniform cross section.

Strippable lacquer. A quick drying easily removable paint sprayed on to a


component to give a visual contrast with the magnetic particles.

Swinging field magnetisation technique. A technique that utilises a form of


multidirectional magnetisation to enable discontinuities having different
directions to be detected in one operation.

Note: Generally, longitudinal magnetisation is generated by one phase of a 3-


phase ac supply and traverse magnetisation by a different phase. Standard
current flow and coil or flux flow techniques are used.

Temporary magnet. Commonly a piece of soft steel or iron that is readily


magnetised but retains only a very small field after removal of the external
magnetising force.

Tesla. The SI unit of magnetic density equal to 1Wb/m sq.

Test piece. A specimen containing known artificial or natural defects used for
checking the efficiency of magnetic particle flaw detection techniques.

Threading bar. A current-carrying conductor passed through a hollow


component and used to produce circular magnetisation within the component.

Threading bar technique. A technique of magnetisation in which a current


carrying bar, cable or tube is passed through a bore or aperture in a component
under examination.

Threading cable technique. A form of threading bar technique utilising a


flexible cable to carry the current.

Threading coil technique. A development of the threading bar technique in


which a magnetising coil, rather than a straight run of bar or cable, is threaded
through a bore or aperture in a component.

Total solids. The ferromagnetic particle content of a magnetic ink plus any
other solid constituent present that make up the total solids content of the ink.

NDT30M-60615
Glossary 8-11 Copyright TWI Ltd
Ultraviolet radiation. Radiation for which the wavelength of the
monochromatic components are smaller than those for visible radiation and
more than about 1nm.

Note: The limits of the spectral range of ultraviolet radiation are not well
defined and may vary according to the user. The International Commission on
Illumination (CIE) distinguishes the following spectral range:

UV-A 315-400nm.
UV-B 280-315nm.
UV-C 100-280nm.

UV-A. Ultraviolet radiation having a wavelength in the range 315-400nm, used


for exciting fluorescence.

Vehicle. A liquid medium for the suspension of particles.

Wet technique. An examination technique in which the particles are


suspended in a liquid medium.

Yoke. Those parts of an electromagnet that are extensions of the core, not
being surrounded by windings, and which form the pole pieces.

Note: The term is, however, often applied to an electromagnet as a whole.

Yoke magnetisation. A longitudinal magnetic field induced in a component, or


part of a component, by means of an external electromagnet.

NDT30M-60615
Glossary 8-12 Copyright TWI Ltd
MT
PRESENTATION
SLIDE (THEORY)
Course Objectives

To explain the basic principles of magnetic


particle inspection methods.
To carry out magnetic particle inspection.
To write clear and concise inspection
Magnetic Particle Testing (MT) instructions and test reports.
To meet syllabus requirements for CSWIP/PCN
Level 2 Level 2.
NDT30M

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NDT30M-60615

Introduction Introduction

Requirements before examination:

Provide two passport size photographs of


yourself (sign and date on reverse).
Current valid eye test for colour perception
(Ishihara) and near visual acuity (Jaeger). Any questions before we start?
Evidence of experience for Certification award
(can be achieved after examination).
Fully completed and signed TWI enrolment
from.
Completed PSL/57A form (PCN only).

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Introduction Introduction

Sections:
Introduction to NDT.
1. Principles of MPI.
2. Methods of magnetisation.
3. Detecting media, UV light and other Introduction to NDT
equipment.
4. Application techniques and demagnetisation.
5. Current waveforms.
6. Assessing magnetising force and amperage.
7. Control and maintenance checks.

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1
Introduction to NDT Non Destructive Testing

PCN examination now sets questions on the


History of NDT and the PCN Scheme. This
information can be found within the preliminary
pages of your course notes.

Definition
You also need to be aware of the capabilities and
Non-destructive testing is the ability to examine
requirements for all the different methods of
a material/component without degrading it.
NDT that are available and the best method for
that particular inspection.

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Non Destructive Testing Non Destructive Testing

A quick overview of NDT What can we expect to detect?


Aside from visual testing we will consider the five
Liquid penetrant surface breaking flaws in
main methods of NDT:
almost any non-porous materials.
Magnetic particle surface and slightly sub-
1. Liquid penetrant (PT). surface flaws in ferromagnetic metals.
2. Magnetic particle (MT). Eddy current surface and far surface flaws
in conductive materials.
3. Eddy current (ET). Ultrasonic surface, far surface and internal
4. Ultrasonic (UT). flaws in many materials.
5. Radiography X and Gamma (RT). Radiography surface and internal flaws in
most materials.

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Non Destructive Testing Magnetism

There are advantages and disadvantages to Defined as the phenomena of some materials to
selecting any particular method to carry out an attract or repel certain other materials.
inspection.
Magnetism is a mysterious force.
The factors affecting the choice of method are:
Hang a magnet up and it always tries to point
The reason for the inspection (cracks, material
in the same direction.
sorting, check assembly).
Put it near different materials, and it will
The likely orientation of planar discontinuities.
attract some but not others.
The type of material.
Whatever magnetism is, it seems to be
The likely position of discontinuity.
present in every atom.
The geometry and thickness of object to be tested.
Accessibility.

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2
Magnetism Magnetism

Some natural materials strongly attract pieces If a small bar magnet is dipped into iron
of iron to themselves. filings, the filings cling in clumps around its
Such materials were first discovered in the ends.
ancient Greek city of Magnesia.
Magnets were utilised in navigation.
Oersted found a link between electricity and
magnetism.
Faraday proved that electrical and magnetic
energy could be interchanged.
The magnetic force pulling the filings seems to
come from two points, known as the poles of
the magnet.

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Magnetism Magnetism

Materials such as iron and steel are attracted If the steel is pulled well away from the
to magnets because they themselves become magnet, it keeps some of the induced
magnetised in the presence of a magnet. magnetism, and itself becomes a permanent
magnet.
The magnet is said to induce magnetism in
both metals, and a polarity test on each shows Magnetism induced in the steel is only
that the induced pole nearer the magnet is the temporary however, and is virtually all lost
opposite of the pole at that end of the magnet. when the steel is pulled well clear of the
It is the attraction between these unlike poles magnet.
that holds each piece of metal firmly to the
magnet.

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Section 1 Magnets

Materials such as brass, copper, aluminium,


and non-metals, are commonly described as
non-magnetic because they aren't attracted to
small magnets and cannot apparently be
magnetised.
Principles of Magnetic Particle Inspection

Experiments with very strong magnets


however indicate that even these materials
are influenced by magnetism to a slight
extent.

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3
Types of Magnetism Types of Magnetism

On the basis that all materials can be magnetised Diamagnetic: Weakly repelled by a magnetic
in some way, materials can be divided into three field.
groups: Examples: Gold, Copper, Water.

1. Diamagnetic. Paramagnetic: Weakly attracted by a magnetic


2. Paramagnetic. field.
3. Ferromagnetic. Examples: Aluminium, Tungsten.

Ferromagnetic: Very strongly attracted by a


magnetic field.
Examples: Iron, Cobalt, Nickel.

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Theory of Magnetism Theory of Magnetism


Atomic Structure Domains
When an electric current flows there is an
associated magnetic field.
An electric current consists of a flow of
electrons through a conductor.
The electrons in any atom are in constant
motion.
This motion causes an associated magnetic
field.
In most materials this field is cancelled by the
movement of electrons in opposing directions.

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Theory of Magnetism Theory of Magnetism


Domains Domains
Electron spin According to the generally accepted theory of
magnetism, each electron acts as a tiny
magnet as it spins and moves around the
nucleus of an atom.

In some materials, the electron motions are


such that the magnetic effects normally cancel
out. In others, they do not cancel, and each
molecule therefore behaves as a tiny magnet.

Ferromagnetic materials are made up of


molecular magnets of this type.

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4
Theory of Magnetism Theory of Magnetism
Domains Domains
Ferro-magnetic materials If a magnetised steel strip is broken into
pieces polarity tests show that each piece is
itself a magnet.

If the strip is broken into very much smaller


pieces, these too are found to be magnets.

There is evidence to suggest that the smallest


magnets of all lie within molecules
themselves.

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Theory of Magnetism
Domain Theory
Domains
In a ferromagnetic material, the molecular A domain is a minute internal magnet.
magnets line up with each other in groups Each domain comprises 1015 to 1020 atoms
called domains. typically several million domains exist in each
individual grain.
Within any one domain, the magnetic axes of
the atoms all lie in the same direction, but this
direction varies from one domain to the next if
the material is unmagnetised.

Unmagnetised state Domains randomly orientated

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Domain Theory Domain Theory

Magnetising force Magnetising force

Magnetising state Domains aligned in external field Saturated state All domains fully aligned with
external field

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5
Domain Theory Domain Theory

Magnetising force Unmagnetised

Magnetised

Saturated
Magnetising force Residual magnetism remains
removed
Residual

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Magnetic Fields Permanent Magnet

In order to understand how magnets interact


with one another the concept of a magnetic
field is used.

The idea of a magnetic field is based on the


patterns made by magnetic particles when
they are placed in a magnetic field.

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Magnetograph UV(A) Magnetic Fields

Magnetic fields are thought to consist of lines of


flux.

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6
Magnetic Flux Lines of Flux

Magnetic flux is defined as:


The total number of lines of flux in a magnetic
field or circuit.

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Lines of Flux Properties of Lines of Flux

They flow from a North pole to a South pole


outside a magnet.
They flow from a South pole to a North pole
inside a magnet.

Unlike poles attract. They form closed loops.


They repel one another.
Iron filings show They never cross.
distribution of lines of
force from a bar They follow the path of least resistance.
magnet.
Like poles repel.

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Electromagnetism Electromagnetism

Oersted discovered that when an electrical A current flows through a conductor and sets
current flows a magnetic field is produced. up a magnetic field around it.
Faraday investigated the relationship Field is at 90 to the direction of the electrical
between electricity and magnetism. current.

The magnetic field produced is always at 90 Direction of


to the direction of electrical current flow. current flow
The flux density produced is proportional to
the magnitude of the electric current.

Direction of magnetic field

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7
Electromagnetism
Coil Magnetisation
Right Hand Rule

S N

Changes circular field into longitudinal.


Increases the strength of the field.

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Coil Magnetisation
Hysteresis
Revealed
Hysteresis comes from a Greek word that
means lagging behind.
Ferromagnetic materials resist being
magnetised.
But once magnetised, they resist being
demagnetised.
They oppose change.
This is best explained by the Hysteresis Loop.

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The Hysteresis Loop


The Hysteresis Loop
Terms
+B
Flux density (B) a Saturation
The number of magnetic flux lines per unit area b
- S.I. unit: Tesla (old unit was Gauss).
Residual
Magnetism Virgin Curve
Magnetising force (H) c
The force tending to set up a magnetic flux -H
o f
+H
- S.I. unit: Ampere per meter (Am-1).

Coercive Force
e
-ve Saturation d H = Magnetising force
-B B = Magnetic flux density

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8
The Hysteresis Loop Magnets

HARD ferromagnetic SOFT ferromagnetic Magnetic and non-magnetic materials


Materials which can be magnetised strongly,
and are therefore strongly attracted to
magnets, all contain at least one of the metals
iron, nickel and cobalt.
Strongly magnetic materials are known as
ferromagnetics.
They are classified as magnetically hard or
soft depending on how well they retain their
magnetism when magnetised.

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Magnets Magnets

Hard magnetic materials such as steel and Soft magnetic materials, such as iron and
alcomax (a steel-like alloy) are the most mu-metal (a nickel-based alloy) are relatively
difficult to magnetise but do not readily lose easy to magnetise but their magnetism is only
their magnetism. temporary.

They are used to make permanent magnets. They are used in electromagnets because in
this case they remain magnetised only as long
as a current is passing through a surrounding
coil.
Unlike permanent magnets, electromagnets
can be switched on and off.

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The Hysteresis Loop Definitions

Hard ferromagnetic Soft ferromagnetic Magnetic field


Region in which magnetic forces exist.

Magnetic flux
The total number of lines of force in a
magnetic circuit.

Permeability The relative ease with which a


material may be magnetised.

Reluctance a measure of the degree of


difficulty with which a material can be
magnetised (opposite of permeability).

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9
Definitions Permeability ()

Saturation the point at which an increase in Permeability () can be defined as the relative
magnetising force produces no significant gain in ease with which a material may be magnetised.
flux density.
Residual magnetism magnetic field remaining
It is defined as the ratio of the flux density
after the magnetising force has been reduced to (B) produced within a material under the
zero. influence of an applied field to the applied
field strength (H).
Remanence magnetic flux density remaining
after the magnetising force has been removed. =B/H (the gradient of the line).
From the hysteresis loops in the previous
Coercive force reverse magnetising force
required to remove residual magnetism. slides it can be seen that permeability is not a
constant.
Flux leakage break or discontinuity in a
magnetic circuit.

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Relative Permeability (r) Relative Permeability (r)

This is the permeability of any material relative On the basis of relative permeability materials
to the permeability of free space. can be divided into three groups:

Free space is basically air. 1. Diamagnetic - Slightly < 1


2. Paramagnetic - Slightly > 1
Permeability of free space = o = 1.0. 3. Ferromagnetic - High 240 +

Relative Permeability (r) = /o.

Absolute permeability is difficult to measure.

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Relative Permeability (r) The Basics of MPI Testing

Permeability is affected by: The basis of MPI is that the material under
test is magnetised, a magnetic ink or powder
Chemical composition. is applied to the medium surface and the
resultant indications are evaluated.
Heat treatment.
The formation of the indications is dependent
The shape of the component. on the difference in magnetic properties
between the discontinuity and the material
The opposite of permeability is reluctance. under test.
Generally the discontinuity is non-magnetic
therefore its magnetic properties differ to the
surrounding area.

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10
The Basics of MPI Testing Flux Leakage

Magnetic field around a bar magnet,


flux lines expand away from the N
pole.

Magnetic broken in two creates two


magnets. Magnetic flux field expands
in air from N pole and then is drawn
to the S pole.

Flux leakage When the poles are If the magnet is


Partial break. Magnetic flux field
expands in air away from N pole then between the poles brought closer formed into a closed
drawn back to S pole. Magnetic flux of a magnet together the flux loop the lines of force
leaks above surface of material. This leakage becomes are still present but
flux leakage can be revealed by ferrous more localised and there is no flux
particles.
concentrated leakage

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Principles of MPI - Principles of MPI -


Flux Leakage Flux Leakage

No defect present Defect present

Leakage field

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Magnetic Particles Attracted Principle of MPI -


by Flux Leakage Flux Leakage - Defect

No defect Defect
Detecting media
attracted to the flux
leakage forming an
Flux leakage occurs indication that is larger
at defect than the defect

Lines of flux follow the path of least resistance.

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11
Principle of MPI -
Permanent Magnet
Flux Leakage - Depth

Surface defect Sub-surface defect Longitudinal flux field between poles.


Maximum sensitivity for defects orientated at
90 to a line drawn between poles.

Lines of flux follow the path of least resistance.

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Defect Orientation Defect Orientation

Defect at 90 to flux: Maximum indication. Defect > 30 to flux: Acceptable indication.

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Defect Orientation Sub Surface Defect Orientation

Flux leakage

Defect < 30 to flux: Weak indication.

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12
Leakage Fields Visibility of Flux Leakage

Depends on:
Depth of defect.
Orientation of defect.
Shape of defect.
Size of defect.
Permeability of material.
Applied field strength.
Contrast.

Magnetic saturation

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Indications Magnetic Field Descriptions

Relevant indications - Indications due to


discontinuities or flaws. Magnetic field
Examples: Cracks, lack of fusion, pores. Longitudinal along

Non-relevant indications - Indications due to


flux leakage from design features. Defects
Examples: Rivets, splines, threads. Transverse across

Spurious indications - Indications due


incorrect inspection procedures.
Examples: Hairs, lint, magnetic writing, scale.

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Magnetic Field Descriptions Section 2

Magnetic field
Longitudinal along
Circular around
Methods of magnetisation
Defects
Transverse across
Longitudinal along
Radial from centre

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13
MPI Equipment Methods of Magnetisation

Portable Fixed
Permanent magnet. Current flow.
Electromagnet. Magnetic flow.
Prods. Threader bar.
Flexible coil. Rigid coil. Portable equipment
Flexible cable. Induced current. Permanent magnet and electromagnet DC Yoke
(Magnetic flow)
Clamps and leeches.

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Permanent Magnet and DC Yoke Permanent Magnet/DC Yoke

Longitudinal field between poles. A permanent magnet/DC yoke suitable for MPI
Maximum sensitivity for defects orientated at should be capable of lifting a steel weight of
90 to a line drawn between poles. 18kg.
Flux indicators become permanently
magnetised in a DC field and are unreliable
when used with permanent magnets or DC
yokes.
DC Permanent magnets/DC yokes are not
generally permitted by BS EN 9934-1 (they
can be used if the contracting parties agree).
N S N S

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Permanent Magnet DC Yoke

Advantages Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages


No power supply. Direct field only No electrical contact Direct field only -
No electrical contact unreliable sensitivity problems. unreliable sensitivity
problems. surface defects. Relatively for surface defects.
Inexpensive. Deteriorate over inexpensive. Not suited for use
No damage to test time. No damage to test with dry powder
piece. No control over field piece. detection media.
Lightweight. strength. Lightweight.
Can detect sub- Poles attract Operates on a low
surface defects. detecting media. voltage (12 V).
Tiring to use. Can detect sub-
surface defects.
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14
Methods of Magnetisation UV(A)

Portable equipment
Electromagnet AC Yoke
(Magnetic flow)

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Electromagnet Electromagnet

Magnetic field induced in core by electric current passing


through coil

Soft iron Adjustable legs


laminated & pole pieces
core

Area adjacent to poles is not suitable for carrying


out inspection due to saturation and particle
Maximum defect sensitivity at 90 degrees to the magnetic flux field migration.

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Electromagnet (AC Yoke) Methods of Magnetisation

Advantages Disadvantages
AC, DC or rectified. Power supply
Controllable field required.
strength. Longitudinal field
No harm to test only. Portable equipment
piece. Electrical hazard. Prods
Can be used to Poles attract
demagnetise. particles.
Easily removed. Legs must have area
contact.

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15
Prods Prods

Electrical current Steel or aluminium tipped prods should be


passes between prods used.
through components. Copper or lead tipped prods are not
permitted.
Field produced is taken Galvanised prods are not permitted.
as two deformed Flux density can be confirmed using a flux
circles between prods. indicator.
Generally limited to the inspection of rough
Defects found at 90 castings - overheating at the contact points
to magnetic field. can cause cracking.

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Prods Methods of Magnetisation

Advantages Disadvantages
AD, DC or rectified. Arcing/damage to
Controllable field work piece.
strength. Heavy transformer
No poles attract required. Portable equipment
particles. Current can be Flexible cables
Excellent sensitivity. switched on without
Easy to use on creating field.
complex shapes. Good contact
required.
Usually a two man
operation.

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Flexible Cable Closely Wrapped Coil

Current passed through a flexible cable.

Used as:
Flexible coil.
Threading cable.
Adjacent cable.

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16
Cable: Adjacent
Flexible Cable
Parallel Cable
Advantages Disadvantages A single parallel
Simple to operate. Difficult to keep cable lying on the
No danger of cables in place. surface can be
burning. High currents considered as a
AC, DC or rectified. required. coil of one turn.
Current adjustable. Transformer
Suited to underwater required. The inspection
applications. zone being d mm
each side of the
cable.

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Cable: Adjacent
Flexible Cable
Twin Parallel Cable
Kettle element Advantages Disadvantages
Simple to operate. Difficult to keep
No danger of cables in place.
burning. High currents
AC, DC or rectified. required.
Current adjustable. Transformer
Suited to underwater required.
applications.

Where d = half the distance between the cables in mm.

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Methods of Magnetisation Bench Unit

Portable equipment
Magnetic bench unit

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17
Methods of Magnetisation Magnetic Flow

Component clamped
between headstock
solenoids.

Bench Magnetic flow Solenoids energised


to produce strong
magnetic field
across component.

Defects found at 90
to magnetic field.

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Magnetic Flow Methods of Magnetisation

Bench Axial current flow

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Axial Current Flow Axial Current Flow

Component clamped
between headstocks.

Electrical current
passed through
component produces
an encircling
magnetic field.

Defects found at 90
to magnetic field.

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18
Axial Current Flow Axial Current Flow

The length of a component has no effect on


the required current value.
Field strength can be assessed using a flux
indicator, a cracked component or a standard
test piece.
If the component is not tightly clamped
overheating may occur.
This method is not suitable for some
awkwardly shaped components.

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Methods of Magnetisation Threader Bar

Bench Threader bar

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Threader Bar Threader Bar

Threader bar clamped


between headstocks.

Electrical current
passed through
threader bar produces
an encircling magnetic
field.

Defects found at 90
to magnetic field.

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19
Methods of Magnetisation Coil

Bench - Coil

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Coil Coil

Coil can either replace


the headstock or
clamp between.

Electrical current
passed through coil
produces a
longitudinal magnetic
field through coil.

Defects found at 90
to magnetic field.

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Section 3 Dry Detecting Media

Dry particles are available in a wide variety of


colours.
Using the right colour it is usually possible to
work without contrast aid paint.
Detecting Media, UV light and Other
Equipment

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20
Dry Detecting Media Dry Detecting Media

Iron powder or magnetic iron oxide (magnetite). Advantages


40-200 microns, rounded and elongated shapes. Virtually no lower limit on temperature.
Colours vary for contrast against component. Upper temperature limit 65C for fluorescent
Can be used on hot surfaces. particles and 315C for other colours.
Poor particle mobility, HWDC best, DC or No fire or explosion hazard.
permanent magnets must never be used. Residues easily removed.
Greater operator skill required. Using HWDC prods - dry particles provide the
Difficult to apply to overhead surfaces especially best sensitivity for sub-surface defects.
in field conditions. Fluorescent powder is available but rarely
Generally less sensitive than wet particles. used.

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Dry Detecting Media Dry Detecting Media

Disadvantages
Poor particle mobility.
Reduced sensitivity for surface breaking
defects.
Not suited for use with a permanent magnet
or DC magnetic field.
Not suited to residual testing.
Greater operator skill is needed.
Difficult to use on overhead surfaces.
Difficult to use in windy conditions.

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Centreline and Toe Crack in Butt Weld Wet Detecting Media

Magnetic iron oxide (magnetite) or iron


powder.
1.5-40 microns rounded and elongated shapes.
Colour contrast or fluorescent.
Water or kerosene based.
Concentration important.
Good particle mobility.
Easier to use.
More sensitive.

Using Colour Contrast Dry Powder

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21
Wet Detecting Media Wet Detecting Media

Water or paraffin based inks are available. Advantages


Water based inks contain a detergent to When magnetic particles are suspended in a
improve wetting ability, a corrosion inhibitor liquid carrier particle mobility is greatly
and an anti-foaming agent. improved.
Paraffin based inks are less affected by Wet methods provide the best sensitivity for
adverse surface conditions and generally more surface defects.
effective. Magnetic ink is suited for use with a
Paraffin may be a problem if the future permanent magnet or DC magnetic field.
application is (for example) potable water. It Suitable for residual methods.
may also cause problems in any subsequent Less operator skill is needed.
painting operation.

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Splined Shaft With


Wet Detecting Media
Service Induced Crack
Disadvantages Using fluorescent ink
Limited temperature range
Water and paraffin evaporate quickly at high
surface temperature (exceeding 50C or so)
and freeze at sub-zero temperatures.
Possible fire or explosion danger if using
paraffin based ink.
Residues can be a problem for subsequent
processing.

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Special Detecting Media Detecting Media

Magnetic rubber BS EN ISO 9934-2: 2002


Can be used to preserve a magnetic particle Magnetic Particle Testing - Detection Media
indication.
Largely superseded these days by digital Specifies the requirements for magnetic inks,
cameras. magnetic powders and contrast aid paints.

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22
Detecting Media Detecting Media

Halogen/sulphur content UV light


For products designated as low sulphur - low
halogen:

Sulphur content shall be less than 200ppm.


Halogen content shall be less than 200ppm.
The accuracy of testing shall be 10ppm.

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Electromagnetic Spectrum Electromagnetic Spectrum

X-rays
&
Gamma Radio
Microwaves Waves
Ultra Infra
violet Red TV

Light

10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 10-2 1cm 102 104 106 108
Wavelength

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Electromagnetic Spectrum Black Light (or UV Light)

The black light sources used in fluorescent


penetrant inspection use a mercury vapour
arc lamp.
This type of lamp emits visible light, UV(B),
UV(C) in addition to UV(A).
With a properly fitted woods filter (which
must be in good condition) only UV(A) and a
low level of visible light are emitted.

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23
Black Light (or UV Light) Black Light (or UV Light)

Warnings Precautions
UVA radiation is relatively safe to work with.
Never look directly at a black light. It may cause temporary health problems such
as Eyeball Fluorescence.
Do not use if filter is cracked, damaged or The human eye contains a jelly which begins
incorrectly fitted. to fluoresce if exposed for long periods to UVA
light.
Avoid unnecessary skin exposure. This fluorescence causes clouded vision but
the effect is temporary.
Sodium goggles can reduce the risk.

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Fluorescence and the


Black Light (or UV Light)
Electromagnetic Spectrum
With a properly fitted filter a black light
emits:

UVA radiation in the wavelength range


315 to 400 nanometres.

The principal wavelength emitted is


365 nanometres.

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Fluorescent v Colour Contrast Fluorescent v Colour Contrast

Fluorescent methods are more sensitive. Black particles Flourescent particles


Less operator fatigue with fluorescent.
Background lacquer is not required.

Fluorescent properties will degrade if exposed


to UV light, acids, alkalis or high temperature.
Background fluorescence is a problem on
rough surfaces.
Some oils will produce strong background
fluorescence.
Low background light levels are required.
Not suited to site work.

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24
Visible Methods Methods of Magnetisation

Advantages
No special lighting needed.
Easier to use on rough surfaces.
Coloured particles are stable at surface
temperatures of up to 315C. Other MPI equipment

Disadvantages
Less contrast - less sensitive.
Contrast aid paint may be required.
Tiring to use - not suited to batch inspection.

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Flux Indicators UV(A)

Used to check for adequate flux density and


correct flux orientation.

(Do not use with permanent magnets or DC


electromagnets.)

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Flux Indicators
ASME V Magnetic Flux Indicator
Common Types
Burmah castrol strips

ASME pie gauge

Consists of 8 steel pie


segments brazed together
with copper faceplate.
Berthold penetrameter

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25
ASME V Magnetic Flux Indicator Burmah Castrol Strip

Strong well defined


indication at 90
degrees to flux
Weaker slightly
fuzzy indications
oblique to flux

No indication
parallel to flux

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Field Indicators Flux Density Meter

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Section 4 Application Techniques

MPI may be performed using:


Either a continuous or residual method.
Either fluorescent or visible detection
media.
Application Techniques and Detection media which is either wet or dry.
Demagnetisation Not all combinations of the above are
effective.
eg Dry detection media is not suitable for residual
methods.

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26
Continuous or Residual? Fluorescent Methods

Continuous method Advantages Disadvantages


Detecting media applied immediately prior to More contrast = Special lighting
and during magnetisation. more sensitive. required.
Less operator fatigue Not suited to rough
Residual method suited to batch components high
Detecting media used after the applied field inspection. background colour
has been removed. No contrast aid paint reduces contrast.
Component must have high retentivity. required. Fluorescent coating
on detecting media
Less sensitive than continuous method. is easily damaged by
Useful for components like ball bearings. high temperature,
acids and sunlight.

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Visible Methods Types of Indication

Advantages Disadvantages There are three types of indication that can


No special lighting Less contrast = less be found during magnetic particle inspection
required. sensitive. 1. Relevant indications.
Easier to use on Contrast aid paint 2. Non-relevant indications.
rough surfaces. may be required. 3. Spurious (false) indications.
Colour particles are Tiring to use not
stable at surface suited to batch 1. Relevant indication an unwanted
temperatures up to inspection. imperfection due to the flux leakage from a
315C. discontinuity or flaw.

If it is considered to affect the fitness-for-purpose


of the component, it is classified as a defect.

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Application Techniques and


Types of Indication
Demagnetisation
2. Non-relevant 3. Spurious
indications indications
Due to flux leakage Not due to flux
but arising from leakage:
design features: Lint. Demagnetisation
Changes in section. Scale.
Changes in Dirt.
permeability. Hairs.
Grain boundaries. Magnetic writing.
Forging flow lines.

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27
When to Carry Out Demagnetisation? Why Carry Out Demagnetisation?

Before: To remove existing residual fields. Aero parts may affect compasses and electronic
equipment.
During: When carrying out shots at different Rotating parts magnetic debris will cause
orientations. premature wear.
Before welding processes may cause arc blow or
drift.
After: To remove residual magnetisation.
Before machining processes magnetised swarf
not cleared from flutes.
When high quality finished are to be applied
electro plating, power coating.
It is not required if the component is to undergo
heat treatments above the Curie point (700C).

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Principle of Demagnetisation Practical Methods

Demagnetisation is based upon the principle of a It can be achieved in a number of ways for
reversing and reducing magnetic field. practical applications.

1. Aperture Coil: Remove part to 1.5m.


2. Aperture Coil: Reducing AC to zero.
3. Aperture Coil: Reversing DC and reducing
current by 50% each time
until zero.

4. Electromagnet: Reversing DC as above.


5. Electromagnet: AC yoke pulled over and away
The initial force applied must exceed the existing from the part to a distance of
coercive force. 450mm and turned off.

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Demagnetisation Demagnetisation

A reducing AC magnetising force works well. But a stepped reversing/reducing DC field is the
most effective.

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28
Axial Current Flow Using a Permanent Magnet

Problems Twist the magnet as


The circular magnetic field produced by axial it is removed from
current flow cannot be detected using a the surface to a
magnetometer/field indicator. distance of
If a component has a permanent circular 1.5 metres.
magnetic field problems may occur in any
subsequent machining operation.
A powerful coil shot will destroy any
permanent circular field and replace it with a
longitudinal one.
The longitudinal field is then easy to detect
and easy to remove.

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Section 5 Current Values and Waveforms

Magnetising equipment employs different


method forms of electricity to generate a
magnetic field.

Direct current (DC) and


Current Waveforms alternating current (AC).

The peak current generates the maximum


magnetising force but magnetic bench units
rarely have ammeters that display peak values.
MPI bench units also change a mains AC current
in a variety of ways to produce different
waveforms.

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Current Types Conversion Factors (BS EN 9344-1)

Direct current (DC).

Alternating current (AC).

Half wave rectified current (HWDC or HWRAC).

Full wave rectified (FWDC or FWRAC).

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29
Root Mean Square (RMS) Root Mean Square (RMS)

The RMS value is the effective value of a Clearly for most of the time it is less than the
varying voltage or current. It is the equivalent peak voltage or amperage, so this is not a good
steady DC (constant) value which gives the measure of its real effect.
same effect.
Instead we use the Root Mean Square amps
The value of an AC waveform is continually (IRMS) which is 0.707 of the peak amps (Ipeak):
changing from zero up to the positive peak,
through zero to the negative peak and back to IRMS = 0.707 Ipeak or Ipeak = 1.414 IRMS
zero again.

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Waveform DC Field Distribution

Direct current (DC) In order to achieve the same


Advantages Field sensitivity to shallow defects a
strength DC field must be far more
Sub-surface defects. powerful than a corresponding
Availability from AC field.
batteries.

Disadvantages Distance
Limited flux
No agitation. leakage
Less sensitive to
surface defects.

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Waveform Alternating Current (AC) AC Field Distribution

Field
strength
Skin effect

Distance
Flux
leakage

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30
AC Versus DC Skin Effect Waveform Half Wave AC (HWAC)

Leakage

No leakage
In order to achieve
the same sensitivity
to shallow defects a
DC field must be far
more powerful than
a corresponding AC
field.

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Waveform Waveform
Full Wave Rectified AC (FWRAC) 3 Phase Rectified AC

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Root Mean Square (RMS) Explained Root Mean Square (RMS) The Maths

Take the current at each instant in turn, square it, add up


the squares (which are now all positive) and divide by the
number of samples to find the average square or mean
square.

With an infinite number of intervals, the result is


0.70710678 or 1/2

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31
Conversion Factors AC Section 6

From Peak to RMS

IRMS = IPEAK x 0.7071

Assessing Magnetising Force and Amperage


From RMS to Peak

IPEAK = IRMS x 1.414


or
IPEAK = IRMS 0.7071

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Measurement of Flux Density Measurement of Flux Density

The flux density achieved during magnetic In practice flux density is difficult to measure.
particle inspection largely determines the
sensitivity of the test. The use of a hall effect probe is generally
accepted to be the best method for
BS EN 9934-1 requires an RMS flux density of measurement of flux density.
at least 1 Tesla in the surface of the
component. Even this equipment, which is fragile and
expensive, measures the flux density outside
In low carbon steel with high permeability this the component not the actual flux density
is generally achieved with an applied achieved within the component.
tangential field strength, H, of
2000 Amps per meter (2kA/m).

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Assessing Magnetising Values Permanent Magnet/DC Yoke

Permanent Magnet and Electromagnet


DC Yoke
(Magnetic Flow) N S
DC

N S

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32
Permanent Magnet/DC Yoke Permanent Magnet/DC Yoke

The lift test Flux indicators become permanently


A permanent magnet DC magnetised in a DC field and are unreliable
or DC yoke should be when used with permanent magnets or DC
yokes.
capable of lifting a
steel weight of 18kg Permanent magnets and DC yokes are not
generally permitted by BS EN 9934-1 (but
they can be used if the contracting parties
with a pole spacing of agree).
75-150mm.

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Magnetic Flow Assessing Magnetising Values

Adequacy of field strength can be assessed


using a flux indicator, a cracked component or
by using a standard test piece.

The rigid coil method is generally better if the Electromagnet


component geometry is suited to coil AC Yoke
magnetisation. (Magnetic Flow)

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Permanent Magnet/DC Yoke AC Yoke Flux Indicator

The lift test


An AC yoke suitable for AC
MPI should be

capable of lifting a
steel weight of 4.5kg

with a pole spacing


recommended by the Flux can also be checked using a flux indicator.
manufacturer (usually Area adjacent to poles is not suitable for carrying
170mm). out inspection due to saturation and particle
migration.

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33
Assessing Magnetising Values Prods

Electrical current passes


between prods through
components.

Prods Field produced is taken


as two deformed circles
between prods.

Defects found at 90 to
magnetic field.

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Prods Prods

Current passed through Rectangular test area Circular test area


sample, typically:

5 or 6 amps (RMS) per mm of


prod spacing.

Rectangular area: 2.5 x H x d


Circular area: 3 x H x d IRMS = 2.5 H d IRMS = 3 H d
(valid up to d = 200mm)
Where Where
H = 2kA/m tangential field IRMS is root mean square current in amps.
strength. H is the tangential field strength in amps per metre.
D = prod spacing. d is the prod spacing in mm (max 200mm).

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Prods Assessing Magnetising Values

Example:
Calculate RMS half-wave rectified AC current
value for the prod technique using a prod
spacing of 150mm if the inspection zone is a
circle drawn through the contact points.
Flexible Cables
Flexible coil

IRMS = 3 H d

IRMS = 3 x 2 x 150 = 900 amps

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34
Closely Wrapped Coil Close Wrapped Coil

Closely wrapped coil of N turns

d= NI .
4H

Where
N=4
H=2
d = 4I .
25.14

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Flexible Cable Close Wrapped Coil Assessing Magnetising Values

Closely wrapped coil of N turns

Assuming we need to test an area


Extending 150mm from the coil.
. . . Flexible Cables
d I=
. Adjacent cable

So the required current = 943 Amps

Note: Where I is RMS AC, HWDC or FWDC


current.

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Adjacent Cable (Single Parallel Cable) Adjacent Cable (Single Parallel Cable)

A single parallel cable lying Assuming we need to test an area extending


on the surface can be 100mm from the cable
considered as a coil of
.
one turn. .
.

So the required current = 2514 Amps


The inspection zone being Note: Where I is RMS AC, HWDC or FWDC
d mm each side of the cable current.

.

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35
Adjacent Twin Parallel Adjacent Twin Parallel
Cable Kettle Element Cable Kettle Element
Example: 2d = 100 mm

I =4dH

I =4dH I = 4 x 3.14 x 50 x 2 = 1256 Amps


Where d = half the distance between the cables in mm Where I is RMS AC, HWDC or FWDC current

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Assessing Magnetising Values Magnetic Flow

Component clamped
between headstock
solenoids.

Magnetic Bench Unit Solenoids energised to


Magnetic flow produce strong
magnetic field across
component.

Defects found at 90 to
magnetic field.

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Magnetic Flow Assessing Magnetising Values

There are no formulae for calculating the


required magnetising force when using magnetic
flow.

A flux indicator should be used to determine the Magnetic Bench Unit


magnetic field strength at the mid-point of the Axial current flow
component under test.

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36
Bench Unit Axial Current Flow Axial Current Flow

Component clamped Typical values AC or HWDC current:


between headstocks.
2 amps/mm perimeter
Electrical current IRMS = H x perimeter
passed through
component produces When non-circular components are tested the
an encircling flux density is not continuous over the surface
magnetic field. of the component.
eg for a square section the flux density is higher
at the centre of the faces than it is at the
Defects found at 90 corners.
to magnetic field.

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Axial Current Flow Irregular Shapes Axial Current Flow

Square section Typical values AC or HWDC current:

Flux density is higher IRMS = H x perimeter


at the centre of the
faces than it is at the Where H = 2 kA/m
corners perimeter = x diameter

IRMS = 2 d

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Axial Current Flow Axial Current Flow Conditions

Example: The length of a component has no effect on the


Calculate peak AC current value for 30mm required current value.
diameter round bar stock. Field strength can be assessed using a flux
indicator, a cracked component or a standard
test piece.
IRMS = 2 d
With varying cross section a
single value may be used
Answer: where the ratio is less than
1.5:1, using the value of the
So IRMS = 2 x 3.142 x 30 = 188.52 amps larger cross section.
and IPEAK = 188.52 x 1.414 = 267 amps Where the ratio is exceeded,
two or more shots will be
required.

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37
Assessing Magnetising Values Central Conductor (Threading Bar)

Threader bar clamped


between headstocks.

Electrical current
Magnetic Bench Unit passed through
Central conductor or threading bar threader bar produces
an encircling magnetic
field.

Defects found at 90
to magnetic field.

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Central Conductor (Threading Bar) Central Conductor (Threading Bar)

Typical values AC or HWDC current: Increase the current (I) to


increase the radius (R) of
2 amps/mm perimeter. the test zone.
IRMS = H x perimeter
If the test piece is a hollow
When non-circular components are tested the pipe or tube the current
flux density is not continuous over the surface shall be calculated
of the component. according to the outside
eg For a square section the flux density is higher diameter when testing the
at the centre of the faces than it is at the outside surface.
corners.
The ID when testing the
inside surface.

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Central Conductor (Threading Bar) Central Conductor (Threading Bar)

Example: Where a large ring requires testing the


Calculate peak HWRAC current value for a magnetic field may not enclosed the
100mm hexagon nut, threading bar technique. complement.
More shots will be required, turning the
IRMS = H x perimeter component between shots to ensure coverage.
or
IRMS = 2 p

p = 6 x 58 = 348mm
So IRMS = 2 x 348 = 696 Amps (RMS)
Therefore, Ipeak = 696 x 2 = 1392 Amps (peak)

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38
Assessing Magnetising Values Bench Unit Coil

Coil can either replace


the headstock or
clamp between.

Magnetic Bench Unit Electrical current


Coil passed through coil
produces a
longitudinal magnetic
field through coil.

Defects found at 90
to magnetic field.

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Rigid Coil Rigid Coil Conditions

The required current is inversely proportional Cross sectional area (CSA) of test piece <10%
to the number (N) of turns in the coil and the of Coil (Fill Factor).
length to diameter ratio of the component Test piece must lie against side or bottom
(L/D). (where the magnetic field is strongest).
Typical current calculation formula: BS EN 9934-1 implies the test zone is the part
of the component which lies within the coil
NIRMS = 0.4 HK
(but in US instructions may extend up to
L/D
150mm beyond coil).
This method is not generally applicable if L/D L/D ratio must be between 5-20:
is less than 5, otherwise extenders are If >20 use 20 as the ratio.
required. If <5 pole extenders should be used to increase the
length.

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Rigid Coil Pole Extenders Rigid Coil

Pole extenders must be ferromagnetic material NIRMS = 0.4 HK IRMS = 0.4 HK : N


or
and approximately similar diameter to L/D L/D
component under test.

It artificially extends component length making N= Number of turns in coil.


L/D valid for use. K= 32,000 for DC (typical).
22,000 for AC or FWRAC (typical).
11,000 for HWRAC (typical).
L/D = Length/diameter ratio.
H= Tangential field strength, 2kA/m.

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39
Rigid Coil AC Rigid Coil

Rigid coil of N turns (Fill Factor < 10% CSA) Example 1:


Calculate peak AC current value for 50mm
FOR AC NIRMS = 0.4 HK diameter by 300mm long round bar using a
L/D 5 L/D 200mm diameter rigid coil of 5 turns.
Note: If L/D > 20
assume L/D = 20
What is the fill factor?
Where IRMS is Root Mean Square current in Amps. Coil cross section = x 1002 = 31,416 mm2
H is the Tangential Field Strength in Amps per Metre. Component cross section = x 252 = 1,963 mm2
K is a constant. L is the component length in mm and D is Fill Factor = (1,963 / 31,416) x 100 = 6.25% (ie
the component diameter in mm. <10% so ok)

(non-circular components, effective D = perimeter/) NIRMS = 0.4 HK = 0.4 x 2 x 22000 = 2933 Amp turns
AC: K = 22,000 L/D 300/50

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Rigid Coil Rigid Coil FWRAC or HWRAC

Example 1: continued Rigid coil of N turns (Fill Factor < 10% CSA)

NIRMS = 0.4 HK = 0.4 x 2 x 22000 = 2933 Amp turns FOR FWRAC or HWRAC NIMEAN = 0.4 HK
L/D 300/50 L/D 5 L/D
Note: If L/D > 20
For a coil of 5 turns: assume L/D = 20
The required current (RMS) = 2933/5 = 587 Amps
Where IRMS is Root Mean Square current in Amps.
H is the Tangential Field Strength in Amps per Metre.
Using AC current:
K is a constant. L is the component length in mm and D is
The required peak current value is therefore: the component diameter in mm.
587 x 1.414 = 830 Amps
(non-circular components, effective D = perimeter/)
HWRAC: K = 11,000
FWRAC: K = 22,000

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Rigid Coil Rigid Coil

Example 2: Example 2: continued


Calculate peak HWRAC current value for a 25
mm square section by 800 mm long component NIMEAN = 0.4 HK = 0.4 x 2 x 11000 = 440 Amp turns
using a 150 mm diameter rigid coil of 5 turns. L/D 20

L/D = 800/32 = 25 For a coil of 5 turns:


Therefore use an assumed value of 20 The required current (MEAN) = 440/5 = 88 Amps
Coil cross section = p x 752 = 17,671 mm2
Effective component diameter = 4 x 25/p = 32 Using HWRAC current:
Eff. Comp. cross section = p x 162 = 804mm2 The required peak current value is therefore:
Fill factor = (804/17,671) x 100 = 4.55% (ie <10% so ok) 88 0.318 = 276 Amps
NIMEAN = 0.4 HK = 0.4 x 2 x 11000 = 440 Amp turns
L/D 20

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40
Section 7 Electromagnets

Lift test

DC Yoke
Control and Maintenance Checks 18kg steel weight

AC Yoke
4.5kg steel weight

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Control and Maintenance Checks Performance Check Magnetic Flow

Equipment performance check Magnetic Flow Test


Piece clamped
Magnetic flow test piece. between headstock
solenoids.
Current flow test piece.
Cracked component. Solenoids energised
to produce strong
magnetic field across
component.
The sub-surface
defect should be
visible.

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Performance Check Magnetic Flow Performance Check Magnetic Flow

Magnetic flow test piece 1. Thoroughly degrease and demagnetise the


test piece.

2. Clamp it between the poles of the test bench


Indication (magnetic flow) or place it centrally in the coil
parallel to the coil axis.
Steel Bar
3. Energise the equipment and establish that the
transverse hole in the middle of the test piece
Through drilled holes shows a strong indication.

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41
Performance Check Performance Check
Axial Current Flow Axial Current Flow
Current flow test piece
clamped between
headstocks.

Electrical current passed


through component
produces an encircling
magnetic field.

Cross drilled holes


should be visible.

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Performance Check
Lighting Requirements
Axial Current Flow
1. Thoroughly degrease and magnetize the test Adequate lighting is crucial if the best test
piece. sensitivity is to be obtained in MPI.
2. Clamp it within head and tailstock of the test
bench. BS EN 3059 Specifies lighting requirements for
3. Apply magnetic ink while the current is being visible and fluorescent methods.
increased.
4. Establish the current required to make the
hole nearest to the outer surface of the ring
visible on the outer surface.
5. Further increase the current to establish
indications from the other two holes on the
outer surface of the ring.

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Lighting Requirements (BS EN 3059) Lighting Requirements (BS EN 3059)

Visible methods Fluorescent methods


Minimum white light Luminance 500 Lux Minimum black light (UVA) irradiance
(measure using a photometer or Luxmeter). 1000mW/cm2 (measure using a Radiometer).
Glare must be avoided. Maximum white background lighting - 20 Lux.
Monochromatic light sources such as sodium Photosensitive spectacles must not be worn.
vapour lamps are not permitted. Allow the lamp to warm up for 10 minutes.
Sunlight is best: Tungsten filament bulbs and Allow 5 minutes dark adaptation.
fluorescent strip lights are OK.

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42
Control and Maintenance Checks Detecting Media

Ink settlement test Magnetic inks - ISO 9934-2 (amongst other things)
100ml
Decant 100ml of ink
1
0
0

into the Sutherland Requires:


flask and allow Fluorescent Particles - minimum level of
particles to settle. fluorescence.
Carrier Liquid - maximum level of fluorescence
Fluorescent Ink and maximum viscosity.
0.1 - 0.3 % Magnetic Particles - size distribution, maximum
particle size (40m), concentration
4
3.
.0

1.0ml
20
.
0

Non-Fluorescent Ink (per suppliers recommendation).


1
.
0
0

0.5ml
.
5

1.25 - 3.5 % Test blocks and tests.


Typical values as BS EN 9934-2 does not specify.

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Detecting Media Detecting Media

BS EN ISO 9934-2 describes three categories Type testing/batch testing


of tests for detection media.
Colour. Corrosion tests.
Particle size. Mechanical stability.
1. Type testing: Tests intended to be Temperature Foaming.
performed by the supplier. resistance. Acidity/alkalinity
2. Batch testing: Tests intended to be Fluorescent (pH).
performed by the supplier. coefficient/fluorescent Storage stability.
3. In-service testing: Tests which should be stability. Sulphur and halogen
performed by the inspector prior to and Carrier liquid content.
during actual magnetic particle testing. fluorescence.
Flash point.

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Detecting Media Detecting Media

Particle size distribution Magnetic powders:


lower diameter = d1
average diameter = da d1 : generally greater than 40mm (BS EN 9934-2)
upper diameter = du
du : not specified, but typically 200mm
No more than 10% shall be smaller than d1
and (previously stated in, now superseded BS 4069)
No more than 10% shall be larger than du

50% of the particles shall be larger than da


and
50% of the particles shall be smaller than da

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43
Detecting Media Detecting Media

Magnetic inks: In-service testing:

d1 : shall be greater than or equal to 1.5mm For inks, powders and contrast-aid paint:
Colour (By comparison).
du : shall be less than or equal to 40mm
For inks and powders: Performance testing.
1.5mm d 40mm

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Performance Checks Performance Checks


Detection Media Detection Media
Performance checks (for inks and powders) i.a.w. Reference block type 1
BS EN ISO 9934-2: 2002. Magnetic particle testing Grinding cracks
- Detection media.

Stress corrosion cracks


Either
Using test block Type 1 or Type 2 compare the
indications produced with known results.
Heat treated steel disk - Grade 90MnCrV8.
or
Containing grinding cracks and stress corrosion
As part of a system test using a component
cracks.
containing discontinuities similar to those which
Permanently magnetised using a central conductor
it can be expected the test will detect.
- direct current, 1,000 Amps (peak).

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Control Check Frequency Magnetic Particle Testing

Settlement test Daily


Test piece Daily
Tank levels Daily
Fluorescent intensity Weekly
Magnetising units Weekly Any questions?
Viewing efficiency Monthly
UV lamp Monthly
Ammeters 6 monthly
Demagnetiser 6 monthly

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44
MT HANDOUT
-CONTROL CHECK
-PRACTICAL REPORT EXAMPLE
-CALCULATION
-WRITING INSTRUCTION EXAMPLE
Candidate name: Date:

Your Name The Date

GENERAL PRACTICAL EXAMINATION

MAGNETIC PARTICLE INSPECTION

Please use the space provided overleaf to record details & results of the test that you
have been requested to perform.

The time allowed for this part of the examination is 1 hour.

1. Ink settlement test perform a settlement test on the ink sample


provided and report your results.

2. Lift test (AC Yoke) complete a lift test on the AC yoke provided and
report your results.

3. Lift test (DC Yoke complete a lift test on the DC yoke or permanent
or permanent magnet provided and report your results.
magnet)

4. UV-A illumination check and record the levels of UV-A illumination


in the area indicated to you by the invigilator.

5. White light check and record the levels of white light


illumination illumination in the area indicated to you by the
invigilator.

6. System test for using the magnetic flow test piece provided
magnetic flow determine the equipment setting required to raise
an indication from the drilled hole.

7. System test for using the current flow test piece provided
current flow determine the HWDC current required to raise an
indication from the first drilled hole.

1
1. EQUIPMENT REQUIRED/USED

Magnaflux Y6
Calibrated 4.5 kg test weight

2. APPLICABLE SPECIFICATION & MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS

BS EN 9934-3 paragraph 4.1.1

3. METHOD

1. Set pole spacing to 170 mm.


2. Adjust pole pieces to ensure good contact with the test weight.
3. Place the yoke on the test weight and energise. With the magnet still
energised try to lift the test weight.
4. The yoke passes the test if it is capable of supporting the test weight.

5. Record the test results on the daily log sheet.

5. RESULTS

4.5 kg test weight successfully lifted the yoke has passed the test

2
Candidate name: Date:

Your Name The Date

GENERAL PRACTICAL EXAMINATION

MAGNETIC PARTICLE INSPECTION

Please use the space provided overleaf to record details & results of the test that you
have been requested to perform.

The time allowed for this part of the examination is 1 hour.

1. Ink settlement test perform a settlement test on the ink sample


provided and report your results.

2. Lift test (AC Yoke) complete a lift test on the AC yoke provided and
report your results.

3. Lift test (DC Yoke complete a lift test on the DC yoke or permanent
or permanent magnet provided and report your results.
magnet)

4. UV-A illumination check and record the levels of UV-A illumination


in the area indicated to you by the invigilator.

5. White light check and record the levels of white light


illumination illumination in the area indicated to you by the
invigilator.

6. System test for using the magnetic flow test piece provided
magnetic flow determine the equipment setting required to raise
an indication from the drilled hole.

7. System test for using the current flow test piece provided
current flow determine the HWDC current required to raise an
indication from the first drilled hole.

3
1. EQUIPMENT REQUIRED/USED

Radiometer / Photometer Magnaflux Mk VI (with valid calibration certificate)


Black light Magnaflux s/n 2719
Darkened area

2. APPLICABLE SPECIFICATION & MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS

BS EN 9934-1 Paragraph 10.2 & BS EN 3059


Background white light maximum 20 lux
UV-A irradiation 1000 W/cm2 at the test surface

3. METHOD
Check meter for valid calibration certificate.
Check filter for damage, if OK switch on & warm up for a minimum of 10
minutes.
Check filter for correct fitting, if any UV leaks noted switch off and stop the
test.
Place the combined UV-A / white light sensor on the test surface.
Press the white VIS lux button and record the white light illumination
measured.
Press the black UV mW/cm2 button and record the UV-A irradiation. Note
that to convert mW to W you need to multiply by 100

4. RESULTS

Calibration check instrument number 6421 used calibration valid until 17-
09-2006.
White light check 17 lux at the test surface, this is less than 20 & therefore
acceptable.
Black light check 1.63 mW/cm2 = 1630 W/cm2 which is greater than the
1000 required and therefore acceptable.

4
Candidate name: Date:

Your Name The Date

GENERAL PRACTICAL EXAMINATION

MAGNETIC PARTICLE INSPECTION

Please use the space provided overleaf to record details & results of the test that you
have been requested to perform.

The time allowed for this part of the examination is 1 hour.

1. Ink settlement test perform a settlement test on the ink sample


provided and report your results.

2. Lift test (AC Yoke) complete a lift test on the AC yoke provided and
report your results.

3. Lift test (DC Yoke complete a lift test on the DC yoke or permanent
or permanent magnet provided and report your results.
magnet)

4. UV-A illumination check and record the levels of UV-A illumination


in the area indicated to you by the invigilator.

5. White light check and record the levels of white light


illumination illumination in the area indicated to you by the
invigilator.

6. System test for using the magnetic flow test piece provided
magnetic flow determine the equipment setting required to raise
an indication from the drilled hole.

7. System test for using the current flow test piece provided
current flow determine the HWDC current required to raise an
indication from the first drilled hole.

5
1. EQUIPMENT REQUIRED/USED

Photometer Magnaflux Mk VI (with valid calibration certificate)

2. APPLICABLE SPECIFICATION & MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS

BS EN 9934-1 Paragraph 10.1 & BS EN 3059


White light minimum 500 lux at the test surface

3. METHOD
Check meter for valid calibration certificate.
Place the white light sensor on the test surface.
Press the white VIS lux button and record the white light illumination
measured.

4. RESULTS

White light illumination measured, result 950 lux at the test surface. This is
well above the required 500 lux minimum required ACCEPTABLE.

6
WORLD CENTRE
Magnetic Testing Report
FOR MATERIALS
JOINING TECHNOLOGY
Page : 1 of 2

Name : Your Name Date : Sample no.: MPTL 001

Specimen Description: Butt weld in mild steel plate


Size : 300mm x 200mm x 12mm

Surface cont./Pre cleaning : As welded , slag removed

Technique : Visible wet continuous method

Values : Not Available

Equipment used : AC energised electromagnet (AC yoke)


Photometer
Burmah Castrol Strip

Consumables : Solvent Cleaner SKS-C


White Contrast Paint - WCP 712
Magnetic Ink - Supramor 4 Black Ink

Light Levels : White Light Illumination =700 Lux

Component Field Strenght Assessment (Reading)

1) Pre Test : 0 Gauss


2) Post Test : 0 Gauss

Component Flux Indication Assessment : 3 lines visible on castrol strip

Post Test Requirement: Component cleaned and protected

Defect Record to Include : Datum, Size, Location and Defective

Remarks : See attached sketch

Signature : Date :

7
SARAWAK SAMPLE MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING MTPL 03 ABM SK - PLATE

WORLD CENTRE FOR MATERIALS JOINING TECHNOLOGY

TECHNIQUE: VISIBLE WET CONTINUOUS METHOD

A B

1 2

CL

1 Defect: Branch Crack 2 Defect: Branch Crack


From Datum A: 52 mm From Datum A: 233 mm
Length/width: 42 mm Length/width: 43 mm

REMARKS:
WORLD CENTRE
Magnetic Testing Report
FOR MATERIALS
JOINING TECHNOLOGY
Page : of

Name : Matt Flux Date : 30/08/03 Sample no.: P 227

Specimen Description: Casting component


Size : 125mm x 20mm

Surface cont./Pre cleaning : As cast

Technique : Flourescent wet continous

Values : CF 1= 159amps ac RMS


CF 2= 289 amps ac RMS

Equipment used : Bench Unit SBU 3000 - AC energised

Consumables : Solvent - MX 325


Flourescent Magnetic ink - MXF 22

Light Levels : 2530 W/cm on surface of component

Component Field Strenght Assessment (Reading)

1) Pre Test : 2 Gauss


2) Post Test : 1 Gauss

Component Flux Indication Assessment : 3 lines visible on castrol strip

Post Test Requirement: Component cleaned and protected

Defect Record to Include : Datum, Size, Location and Defective

Remarks : See attached sketch

Signature : Date : 31/08/04

9
Magnetic Particle Testing Report

Datum
2
C 35
1
A325M
C 325MA 325MA 20 47 1 373
60

TOP VIEW SIDE VIEW BOTTOM VIEW

7
3

FINDINGS:
1 - Seams 3 - Seams

2 - Seams

Inspected by : Qualification :

Signature : Date :

TWI WORLD LEADERS IN MATERIAL JOINING TECHNOLOGY


11
Component 1

Question 1: Component 1 has dimensions a = 15 mm; D = 70 mm & L = 360 mm.

(a). Calculate the RMS HWRAC current required to magnetise the octagonal
section using axial current flow.
(b). Calculate the RMS HWRAC current required to magnetise the cylindrical
section using axial current flow.
(c). Calculate the mean HWRAC current required to magnetise the octagonal
section if using a coil of 5 turns.
(d). Calculate the mean HWRAC current required to magnetise the cylindrical
section if using a coil of 5 turns.

Question 2: Component 1 has dimensions a = 17 mm; D = 65 mm & L = 375 mm.

(a). Calculate the RMS HWRAC current required to magnetise the octagonal
section using axial current flow.
(b). Calculate the RMS HWRAC current required to magnetise the cylindrical
section using axial current flow.
(c). Calculate the mean HWRAC current required to magnetise the octagonal
section if using a coil of 7 turns.
(d). Calculate the mean HWRAC current required to magnetise the cylindrical
section if using a coil of 7 turns.

Question 3: Prod method: calculate the RMS AC current required to magnetise an


inspection zone which is a circle 180 mm in diameter.

Question 4: Adjacent cable method: calculate the RMS AC current required to


magnetise an inspection zone which is 65 mm wide.

12
Answers

Question 1: Component 1 has dimensions a = 15 mm; D = 70 mm & L = 360 mm.

(a). Calculate the RMS HWRAC current required to magnetise the octagonal section using axial current
flow.

p = 8x15 = 120; IRMS = Hp = 2x120 = 240 A

(b). Calculate the RMS HWRAC current required to magnetise the cylindrical section using axial
current flow.

p = 70 = 220; IRMS = Hp = 2x220 = 440 A

(c). Calculate the mean HWRAC current required to magnetise the octagonal section if using a coil of
5 turns.

Deff = (8x15)/ = 38.2; L/Deff = 360/38.2 = 9.42


NI = (0.4x2x11000)/9.42 = 934
IMEAN = 934/5 = 187 A

(d). Calculate the mean HWRAC current required to magnetise the cylindrical section if using a coil of
5 turns.

L/D = 360/70 = 5.14


NI = (0.4x2x11000)/5.14 = 1712
IMEAN = 1712/5 = 342 A

Question 2: Component 1 has dimensions a = 17 mm; D = 65 mm & L = 375 mm.

(a). Calculate the RMS HWRAC current required to magnetise the octagonal section using axial current
flow.

p = 8x17 = 136; IRMS = Hp = 2x136 = 272 A

(b). Calculate the RMS HWRAC current required to magnetise the cylindrical section using axial
current flow.

p = 65 = 204; IRMS = Hp = 2x204 = 408 A

(c). Calculate the mean HWRAC current required to magnetise the octagonal section if using a coil of
7 turns.

Deff = (8x17)/ = 43.3; L/Deff = 375/43.3 = 8.66


NI = (0.4x2x11000)/8.66 = 1016
IMEAN = 1016/7 = 145 A

(d). Calculate the mean HWRAC current required to magnetise the cylindrical section if using a coil of
7 turns.

L/D = 375/65 = 5.78


NI = (0.4x2x11000)/5.78 = 1522.5
IMEAN = 1522.5/7 = 217.5 A

Question 3: Prod method: calculate the RMS AC current required to magnetise an


inspection zone which is a circle 180 mm in diameter.

IRMS = 3Hd = 3x2x180 = 1080 A

Question 4: Adjacent cable method: calculate the RMS AC current required to


magnetise an inspection zone which is 65 mm wide.

IRMS = 4dH = 4x3.14x65x2 = 1634 A

13
MPI Calculation Exercise 1

50mm 30mm

150mm

150mm

Calculate Peak AC currents required to detect longitudinal and circumferential (transverse) faults.

1. Axial Current Flow


2. Coil shot

NOTE: SHOW FULL WORKING OUT.

1. Current Flow

Diameter ratio, 50:30 equates to 1.667:1 >>> requires 2 shots

Shot 1. Shot 2.
I = Hp I = Hp
I=Hd I=Hd
I = 2 x x 30 I = 2 x x 50
I = 188.5 Amp RMS I = 314.2 Amp RMS
I = 266.6 Amp PEAK I = 444.4 Amp PEAK

14
2. Coil

Fill Factor

Coil CSA r2 x 150 x 150 70685.8 mm2


Item CSA r2 x 25 x 25 1963.5 mm2

1963.5 70685.8 x 100% = 2.78 % < 10% -- OK --

NIRMS = 0.4 H K
L/D

Where: L = 150mm ; D = 50mm ; H = 2 ; K = 22000 (AC) ; N = 5

L/D = 300/50 =6 -- OK --

NIRMS = 0.4 x 2 x 22000


150/50

= 17600
6

NIRMS = 2933 Amp Turns

IRMS = 2933 5

= 586.7 Amp RMS

= 829.8 Amp PEAK

15
MPI Calculation Exercise 2

20mm

20mm
190mm

Calculate Peak AC currents required to detect longitudinal and transverse faults.

1. Axial Current Flow


2. Coil shot (4 turn ; 200mm Internal diameter)

NOTE: SHOW FULL WORKING OUT.

1. Current Flow

Shot 1.
I = Hp
I = 2 x 20 x 20
I = 160 Amp RMS
I = 226 Amp PEAK

16
2. Coil

For non-circular components, the effective diameter is

D = perimeter

Perimeter = 4 x 20mm = 80mm

D = 80
D = 25.46 mm

Fill Factor

Coil CSA r2 x 100 x 100 = 31416 mm2


Item CSA r2 x 12.73 x 12.73 = 509 mm2

509 31416 x 100% = 1.62 % < 10% -- OK --

L/D = 190/25.46 = 7.46 ( > 5 ) -- OK --

NIRMS = 0.4 H K
L/D

Where: L = 190mm ; D = 25.46mm ; H = 2 ; K = 22000 (AC) ; N = 4

NIRMS = 0.4 x 2 x 22000


190/25.46

= 17600
7.46

NIRMS = 2358.4 Amp Turns

IRMS = 2358.4 4

= 589.6 Amp RMS

= 833.9 Amp PEAK

17
MPI Calculation Exercise 3

40mm

Inside Diameter
32mm

60mm

Calculate Peak AC currents required to detect longitudinal faults using a threader


bar (10mm diameter)

1. Calculate current required to carry out complete inspection in ONE shot.


2. Calculate current for diameter of component, and estimate number of shots
required to ensure full coverage.

NOTE: SHOW FULL WORKING OUT.

1. ONE shot

I = Hp
I=Hd
I = 2 x x 62
I = 389.6 Amp RMS
I = 551 Amp PEAK
31mm

2. Using component O/D


Shot 1

I = Hp
I=Hd
I = 2 x x 40
I = 251.3 Amp RMS
I = 355.5 Amp PEAK

3 shots required to cover item Shot 2


Shot 3

18
WRITTEN INSTRUCTION FOR THE MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING OF BUTT
WELDS IN FLAT PLATE. AC YOKE, WET CONTINUOUS METHOD

Document Reference: WI/MPI/001 Issue: 0 Revision: 0

Written by: Name: Gary Masding

Qualification: PCN Level 2 MPI (Gen)

Signature:

Date: 18th August 2005

Approved by:Name: Malcolm Spicer

Qualification: PCN Level 3 MPI (Gen)

Signature:

Date: 18th August 2005

Component Identification & Details

This instruction applies to butt welds in flat low carbon steel plate. Plate identification
MW001

Purpose of Test

To detect all relevant surface breaking defects in the weld cap and heat affected zone.

Test Zone

The weld cap and at least 25 mm of parent material each side of the weld shall be tested
100%.

Personnel Qualification

Personnel working in accordance with this written instruction shall as a minimum be


qualified to EN473 Level 1 MPI (welds).

Equipment

AC Yoke Magnaflux Y6 or similar


Photometer with valid calibration certificate
Burmah Castrol flux indicator Type II
Gaussmeter
Wire brush
4.5 kg certified test weight
Paint marker

19
Consumables

Note: The use of bulk consumables is not permitted

White contrast paint WCP2 (aerosol cans only)


Black magnetic ink 7HF (aerosol cans only)
Solvent cleaner Sonasol

Safety precautions

Appropriate personal protective equipment is to be worn at all times. MPI consumables


can be hazardous to health if used inappropriately. All personnel should make
themselves familiar with the relevant COSHH data sheets. These are held on file by the
Inspection Supervisor. In particular MPI must not be performed in areas where there is
a potential source of ignition and all areas where testing is performed must be well
ventilated.

Preparation for test.

Prior to testing the weld cap and 25 mm of parent material each side shall be free from
weld spatter, slag, mill scale, loose corrosion products, dirt and grease. Sharp changes
of contour shall be blended by grinding.

1. Solvent clean the weld cap and 25 mm of parent material each side.
2. Wire brush to remove loose corrosion products etc.
3. Carry out close visual inspection making note of any defects or irregularities.
4. Perform a residual magnetisation test using the gaussmeter. If the reading obtained
exceeds 2 gauss demagnetise by stroking with the yoke. Place the yoke on the weld,
energise & while keeping the yoke energised drag it along the weld and withdraw to
a distance of not less than 1.5 metres from the weld.
5. Check lighting levels using the photometer. A minimum level of 500 lux white light
shall be present at the test surface. Acceptable types of lighting are daylight,
tungsten filament bulbs and fluorescent strip lights. Monochromatic light sources
such as sodium bulbs are not permitted.
6. At the start of each shift perform a lift test on the yoke using the 4.5 kg test weight
with the yoke set at a pole spacing of 170 mm. If the yoke fails this test report
immediately to the inspection supervisor.
7. As all consumables are pre-mixed aerosols it is not necessary to check the particle
concentration.

20
Test Instructions

1. Apply a thin film of white contrast paint to the weld cap and a minimum of 25 mm
of parent material each side. Shake the can well before use and hold the aerosol at
least 300 mm from the surface. Use just enough paint to mask out the background
colour. Thick layers of paint will reduce test sensitivity. Allow at least 2 minutes for
the paint to dry.

2. Check for adequate magnetisation using the Burmah Castrol strip. Set the pole
spacing to 150 mm and adjust the pole pieces to ensure good contact. Place the strip
between the poles of the magnet at 90 to the expected field direction. Magnetise,
then apply ink whilst continuing to magnetise. Three lines shall be clearly defined,
if this is not the case, report immediately to the inspection supervisor.

3. The test area is to be magnetised in two directions mutually at 90 using a pole


spacing of 100 to 150 mm. Pole positions are shown in figure 1 below. The
inspection zone is a circle drawn through the poles. The continuous method shall be
used. Ink shall be applied during magnetisation and magnetisation shall continue for
a few seconds after the application of detection media ceases.

Non-conformance

If for any reason the operator is unable to perform the test as described he or she must
stop work immediately and report to the inspection supervisor.

Recording Criteria

All indications having a dimension greater than 2 mm shall be investigated to determine


whether they are relevant, non-relevant or spurious.

The following shall be reported:

1. All relevant linear indications.

2. All relevant rounded indications having a maximum dimension of 3 mm or greater.

Reporting

For each item tested a report shall be prepared using the standard report format. Where
recordable conditions are detected a dimensioned defect sketch shall be attached to the
report. In order that defect positions can be reported the test item shall be marked with
a datum point using a paint marker.

21
Actions to be taken if reportable conditions are detected

Items found to have a reportable defect or defects shall be clearly labelled and removed
to the designated quarantine area.

Figure 1: Pole positions for inspection

22