Anda di halaman 1dari 31

ESTIMATING STEAM CONSUMPTION

DESIGN FOR A STEAM SYSTEM


The optimum design for a steam system will largely depend on whether the steam consumption
rate has been accurately established. This will enable pipe sizes to be calculated, while ancillaries
such as control valves and steam traps can be sized to give the best possible results.
The steam demand of the plant can be determined using a number of different
methods:
Calculation - By analyzing the heat output on an item of plant using heat transfer equations, it
may be possible to obtain an estimate for the steam consumption. Although heat transfer is not an
exact science and there may be many unknown variables, it is possible to utilise previous experimental
data from similar applications. The results acquired using this method are usually accurate enough for
most purposes.
Measurement - Steam consumption may be determined by direct measurement, using flow
metering equipment. This will provide relatively accurate data on the steam consumption for an
existing plant. However, for a plant which is still at the design stage, or is not up and running, this
method is of little use.
Thermal rating - The thermal rating (or design rating) is often displayed on the name-plate of
an individual item of plant, as provided by the manufacturers. These ratings usually express the
anticipated heat output in kW, but the steam consumption required in kg/h will depend on the
recommended steam pressure.
A change in any parameter which may alter the anticipated heat output, means that the
thermal (design) rating and the connected load (actual steam consumption) will not be the same. The
manufacturer's rating is an indication of the ideal capacity of an item and does not necessarily equate to
the connected load.
HOW TO CALCULATE STEAM REQUIREMENTS

Two types of Flow Applications :-

Non-flow type applications - where the product being heated is a fixed


mass and a single batch within the confines of a vessel.
Typical examples include hot water storage calorifiers, and oil storage
tanks, Calorifiers, fuel tanks, hot water storage tanks)
Flow type applications - where a heated fluid constantly flows over the
heat transfer surface.
Typical examples - shell and tube heat exchangers, plate heat
exchangers,Fuel oil heater (where the fluid will continuously
flow)
CALCULATION
In most cases, the heat in steam is required to do two things:
To produce a change in temperature in the product, that is providing a
'heating up' component.
To maintain the product temperature as heat is lost by natural causes or by
design, that is providing a 'heat loss' component.

In any heating process, the 'heating up' component will decrease as the product temperature
rises, and the differential temperature between the heating coil and the product reduces.
However, the heat loss component will increase as the product temperature rises and more
heat is lost to the environment from the vessel or pipe work.

The total heat demand at any time is the sum of these two components.
Amount of heat required
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a substance can be developed
to apply to a range of heat transfer processes.
eq. (1)

Where:
Q = Quantity of energy (kJ)
m = Mass of the substance (kg)
cp = Specific heat capacity of the substance (kJ/kg C )
T = Temperature rise of the substance (C)
In original form : The above equation can be used to determine a total amount of heat energy
over the whole process.
However In current form : It does not take into account the rate of heat transfer.

To establish the rates of heat transfer, the various types of heat exchange application can be
divided into two broad categories: as discussed above
Non-flow type applications
Flow type applications
NON-FLOW TYPE APPLICATIONS
In non-flow type applications the process fluid is held as
a single batch within the confines of a vessel. A steam
coil situated in the vessel, or a steam jacket
around the vessel, may constitute the heating surface.
Typical examples include hot water storage
clarifiers and oil storage tanks where a large circular
steel tank is filled with a viscous oil requiring heat
before it can be pumped.
( Calorifier - An apparatus used for the transfer of heat to
water in a vessel by indirect means, the source of heat
being contained within a pipe or coil immersed in the
water.)
Some processes are concerned with heating
solids; typical examples are tyre presses, laundry
ironers. Hot water storage - a non-flow
In some non-flow type applications, the process heat application
up time is unimportant and ignored. However, in
others, like tanks, it may not only be important but
crucial to the overall process.
How a calorifier works
RATE OF HEAT TRANSFER FOR NON FLOW
APPLICATION
Consider two non-flow heating processes requiring the same amount of heat energy
but different lengths of time to heat up.

The heat transfer rates would differ while the amounts of total heat transferred would be the same.

The mean rate of heat transfer for such applications can be obtained by
modifying eq. (1)

eq. (2)

Where:
= Mean heat transfer rate (kW (kJ/s)
m = Mass of the fluid (kg)
cp = Specific heat capacity of the fluid (kJ/kg C)
T = Increase in fluid temperature (C)
t = Time for the heating process (seconds)

Note:
The above equation eq. (2) can applied whether the substance being heated is a solid, a
liquid or a gas. However, it does not take into account the transfer of heat involved
when there is a change of phase.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM CALCULATING THE MEAN HEAT
TRANSFER RATE IN A NON-FLOW APPLICATION.
1Q. A quantity of oil is heated from a temperature of 35C to 120C over a period of 10 minutes (600 seconds).
The volume of the oil is 35 litres, its specific gravity is 0.9 and its specific heat capacity is 1.9 kJ/kg C over
that temperature range. Determine the rate of heat transfer required Solve the problem in litres
Sol. As the density of water at Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) is 1 000 kg/m
Given Data : T1 = 35C , T2 = 120C , time = 10 minutes (600 seconds) ,
Volume of the oil = 35 litres = 35/1000 = 0.035 m3, specific gravity of oil = is 0.9,
Specific heat capacity cp = 1.9 kJ/kg C
rate of heat transfer required , Specific gravity of oil = density of oil/density of water
HEAT PROVIDED BY THE CONDENSING OF STEAM

The quantity of heat provided by the condensing of steam can be determined

eq. (3)

Where:
Q = Quantity of heat (kJ)
ms = Mass of steam (kg)
hfg = Specific enthalpy of evaporation of steam (kJ/kg)

It therefore follows that the steam consumption can be determined from the heat
transfer rate and vice-versa. eq. (4)

Where:
= Mean heat transfer rate (kW or kJ/s)
s = Mean steam consumption (kg/s)
hfg = Specific enthalpy of evaporation of steam (kJ/kg)
HEAT BALANCE
Let us assume that the heat transfer is 100% efficient,
then the heat provided by the steam must be equal to the heat requirement of the fluid to be
heated.
heat provided by the steam = heat requirement of the fluid to be heated water

This can then be used to construct a heat balance, in which the heat energy supplied and
required are equated:
Primary side = = Secondary side
heat transfer rate = = mean rate of heat transfer
eq. (5)
Where:
s = Mean steam consumption rate (kg/s)
hfg = Specific enthalpy of evaporation of steam (kJ/kg)
= Mean heat transfer rate (kW (kJ/s))
m = Mass of the secondary fluid (kg)
cp = Specific heat capacity of the secondary fluid (kJ/kg C)
T = Temperature rise of the secondary fluid (C)
t = Time for the heating process
Example problem
2Q. A tank containing 400 kg of kerosene is to be heated from 10C to 40C in 20 minutes (1 200 seconds), using
4 bar g steam. The kerosene has a specific heat capacity of 2.0 kJ/kg C over that temperature range. hfg at 4.0 bar g
is 2 108.1 kJ/kg. The tank is well insulated and heat losses are negligible.
Determine the steam flow rate?

Sol. Given Data : mass m = 400 kg T1 = 10 C , T2 = 40 C , time = 20 minutes (1200 seconds) ,


Specific heat capacity cp = 2.0 kJ/kg C ,(pressure at 4 bar) hfg = 2 108.1 kJ/kg

Find steam flow rate s =?

We know that mean rate of heat transfer is given by

heat transfer rate


CONCLUSION

In some non-flow type applications, the length of


time of the batch process may not be critical, and a
longer heat up time may be acceptable.
This will reduce the instantaneous steam
consumption and the size of the required plant
equipment.
Flow type applications
Flow type applications - where a heated fluid constantly flows over the heat transfer surface.
Typical examples include shell and tube heat exchangers, see Figure (also referred to as non-storage
calorifiers) and plate heat exchangers, providing hot water to heating systems or industrial processes.
Another example would be an air heater battery where steam gives up its heat to the air that is
constantly passing through.

Non-storage calorifier
Typical temperature profile in a heat exchanger
The figure provides a typical temperature profile in a heat exchanger
with a constant secondary fluid flow rate. The condensing temperature
(T s) remains constant throughout the heat exchanger. The fluid is heated
from T 1 at the inlet valve to T 2 at the outlet of the heat exchanger.

For a fixed secondary flow rate, the required heat load ( ) is


proportional to the product temperature rise (T).
using the eq. (1)

As flow rate = mass flow per unit time (m/t), the Where:
secondary flow rate is depicted in eq. (1) as: = Mean heat transfer rate (kW)
This can be represented by where is the secondary = Mean secondary fluid flowrate (kg/s)
fluid flow rate in kg/s, can be substituted in the above cp = Specific heat capacity of the secondary fluid
equation which gives (kJ/kg K) or (kJ/kgC)
eq. (6) T = Temperature rise of the secondary fluid
(K or C)
HEAT BALANCE
A heat balance equation can be constructed for flow type applications where there is a continuous flow of
fluid:
Primary side = = Secondary side
eq. (7)
Where:
s= Mean steam consumption rate (kg/s)
hfg = Specific enthalpy of evaporation of steam (kJ/kg)
= Mean heat transfer rate (kW (kJ/s))
= Mass flowrate of the secondary fluid (kg/s)
cp = Specific heat capacity of the secondary fluid (kJ/kg C)
T = Temperature rise of the secondary fluid (C)
Mean steam consumption
The mean steam consumption of a flow type application like a process heat exchanger or heating calorifier can
be determined from the above eq. (7)

eq. (8)
Contd.

Equally, the mean steam consumption can be determined from eq. (7) as shown in equation
below
eq. (9)

But as the mean heat transfer is, itself, calculated from the mass flow, the specific heat, and
the temperature rise, it is easier to use eq. (8)

Note :
In flow type applications, heat losses from the system tend to be considerably less than the heating
requirement, and are usually ignored. However, if heat losses are large, the mean heat loss (mainly
from distribution pipe work) should be included when calculating the heating surface area.

Link:
http://www.spiraxsarco.com/resources/steam-engineering-tutorials/steam-engineering-principles-
and-heat-transfer/methods-of-estimating-steam-consumption.asp
Example problem
3Q. Dry saturated steam at 3 bar g is used to heat water flowing at a constant rate of 1.5 l/s from 10C to
60C. hfg at 3 bar g is 2 133.4 kJ/kg, and the specific heat of water is 4.19 kJ/kg C.Determine the
steam flow rate?

Sol. Given Data : mass flow rate = 1.5 kg/s ,T1 = 10 C , T2 = 60 C ,


Specific heat capacity cp = 4.19 kJ/kg C,(pressure at 3 bar) hfg = 2 133.4 kJ/kg

Find steam flow rate s =?

State of steam = Dry saturated

As 1 litre of water has a mass of 1 kg, the mass flow rate = 1.5 kg/s

To find steam flow rate we can use the eq. (8)


Measurement of Steam Consumption

Methods of measuring steam consumption


By a steam flow meter
By a condensate pump
By collecting the condensate
Thermal Rating
Some items of manufactured plant are supplied with information on thermal output. These design ratings can
be both helpful and misleading. Ratings will usually involve raising a stated amount of air, water or other fluid
through a given temperature rise, using steam at a specified pressure. They are generally published in good
faith with a reasonable allowance for fouling of the heat transfer surface.
Energy Consumption of Tanks

The heating of liquids in tanks is an important requirement in process industries such as the
dairy, metal treatment and textile industries. Water may need to be heated to provide a hot
water utility; alternatively, a liquid may need to be heated as part of the production process itself,
whether or not a chemical reaction is involved. Such processes may include boiler feedtanks,
wash tanks, evaporators, boiling pans, coppers, calandrias and reboilers.
Tanks are often used for heating processes, of which there are two major categories:
Totally enclosed tanks, such as those used for storing fuel oil, and where heat load calculations
are generally straightforward.
Open topped tanks, where heat load calculations may be complicated by the introduction of
articles and materials, or by evaporative losses.
Open and closed tanks are used for a large number of process applications:
HEAT REQUIREMENT OF THE TANK
When determining the heat requirement of a tank
The heat required to raise the process fluid temperature from cold to its operating temperature.
The heat required to raise the vessel material from cold to its operating temperature.
The heat lost from the solid surface of the vessel to the atmosphere.
The heat lost from the liquid surface exposed to the atmosphere.
The heat absorbed by any cold articles dipped into the process fluid.
However, in many applications only some of the above components will be significant.
For example, in the case of a totally enclosed well-insulated bulk oil storage tank, the total heat
requirement may be made up almost entirely of the heat required to raise the temperature of the fluid.
The energy required to raise the temperature of the liquid and the vessel material, and the heat
absorbed by any cold articles dipped into the process fluid, can be found by using the eq. (2) Generally,
data can be accurately defined, and hence the calculation of the heat requirement
eq. (2)

HEAT LOSS CALCULATIONS


Heat loss calculations are much more complex, and usually empirical data, or tables based on several
assumptions have to be relied upon. It follows that heat loss calculations are less accurate.
FUEL HEATING REQUIREMENTS (Acc to SNAME )
Distillate fuels are normally used without heating, but heavy fuels must be heated in the tanks,
pipe lines, at the purifier and at the engine. As a rule, steam used for final heating of heavy fuel oils
will have to be at about 7 to 8 bar to ensure that the heaviest fuels can be sufficiently heated prior
to injection. Guideline temperatures at various points in a heavy fuel oil system for use in
preliminary estimates are

From SNAME (Society of Naval Architects And Marine Engineering) Guidelines

Idle storage tanks - 100 C above pour point or surrounding sea


water temperature
Storage tanks - 400 C
Settling and day tanks - 40 to 600 C
Purifier heater - 980 C

To determine the mass flow rate of steam or thermal fluid required, the following relations apply:-

ms = Q / h = Q / Cp t
Ships boiler capacity

Ships boiler capacity for auxiliary services can be divided as


follows

1. Steam consumption required to compensate the heat losses in tanks


2. Steam consumption required to raise the temperature of fuel oil in tanks
3. Steam required for other auxiliary equipments
STEAM CONSUMPTION REQUIRED TO COMPENSATE THE
HEAT LOSSES IN TANKS
Heat loss from tank bulkhead
Qb = U A (T2 T1)
Where
Qb = heat loss from bulkhead (W)
U = overall heat transfer co-efficient (W/m2 0C)
A = Area of tank bulkhead under consideration (m2)
T2 = Temperature of the tank to be maintained (0C)
T1 = Temperature of the adjacent medium of the bulkhead considered (0C)
Heat loss from tank Qt = sum of heat loss from all the six bulkheads of the tank
Q1 = sum of heat loss from all the the tanks
As we know the heat transfer rate, the mass flow rate of steam can be calculated using the following
formula :
ms = Q1 / h
where
ms = mass flow rate of steam (kg/s)
Q1 = calculated heat transfer (kW)
h = enthalpy drop of the steam (kJ/kg)
Steam consumption required to raise the temperature of
fuel oil in tanks
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of fuel oil tanks can be expressed as:

Q2 = m cp dT / t
Where
Q2 = mean heat transfer rate (kW)
m = mass of fuel oil in the tank (kg)
cp = specific heat capacity of the fuel oil (kJ/kg.oC)
dT = Change in temperature of the fuel oil (oC)
t = total time over which the heating process occurs (seconds)
As we know the heat transfer rate, the mass flow rate of steam can be calculated using the following
formula :
ms = Q2 / h
where
ms = mass flow rate of steam (kg/s)
Q2 = calculated heat required to raise the temperature (kW)
h = enthalpy drop of the steam (kJ/kg)
Steam required for other auxiliary equipments

The steam consumption for purifiers, booster module and other auxiliary equipment can be
obtained from the equipment catalogues.

Q3 = heat required for all other auxiliaries (kW)


As we know the heat transfer rate, the mass flow rate of steam can be calculated using the following
formula :
ms = Q3 / h
where
ms = mass flow rate of steam (kg/s)
Q3 = calculated heat required to raise the temperature (kW)
h = enthalpy drop of the steam (kJ/kg)

Boiler capacity:
Ships boiler capacity for auxiliary services can now be calculated as follows:
Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3
Values taken from old calculations

1. HEATING TIME (H)

(a) TANK DESCRIPTION HEATING TIME (H)

HFO Storage Tank(P) 48


HFO Storage Tank(S) 48
HFO Settling Tank 8
HFO Service Tank 8
Bilge Holding Tank 12
HFO Drain tank 12
HFO Overflow Tank 12
M.E.L.O.Sump Tank 12
Waste Oil Tank 12
L.O. Drain Tank 12
Sludge Tank 12
OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF BULKHEADS
(U w/m2 oC)
(2) HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF BULKHEADS (SORTED BY
ADJACENT CONDITION)

Engine room Air 8.5 w/m2 oC


Sea water 2.75 w/m2 oC
C/D & D/B Empty tank 5.5 w/m2 oC
No heat transfer between oil tanks
TEMPERATURE OUTSIDE CONDITION

OUTSIDE CONDITION TEMPERATURE

Engine room 30
Sea water 15
Void 20
Cargo area 20
HEAT LOSS CALCULATIONS
Heat loss calculations are much more complex, and usually empirical data, or tables based on several
assumptions have to be relied upon.
It follows that heat loss calculations are less accurate.

Example
To calculate the steam consumption for HFO Settling Tank

c) HFO SETTLING TANK ROOM VOLUME = 17.66CU.M

S.NO TANK BOUNARY MEDIUM OUTSIDE AREA U (W/sq.M deg. C) T2 T1 Q=UA(T2-T1) (W)

1 BOTTOM FO TREAT. RM 7.81 8.5 70 20 3319.25

2 INBOARD ENGINE ROOM 2.69 8.5 70 30 914.6

3 FORWARD HFO STORAGE TK 19.34 8.5 70 45 4109.75

4 TOP ENGINE ROOM 7.92 8.5 70 30 2692.8

5 OUTBOARD SEA 2.69 2.75 70 15 406.8625

6 AFT HFO SERVICE TK 19.34 8.5 70 90 -3287.8

TOTAL HEAT LOSS = 8155.4625