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AVIATION

MAINTENANCE
TECHNICIAN

AIRFRAME
WORKBOOK
For use with:
FAA H-8083-31
A&P Airframe Handbook

by Ronald Sterkenburg

published & distributed by:


Aircraft Technical Book Company
72413 US Hwy 40 / PO Box 270
Tabernash, CO 80478 U.S.A.
970-726-5111
fax 970 726-5115
www.ACtechBooks.com

isbn 978-0-9838658-4-1

Copyright 2012 by Aircraft Technical Book Company. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States
Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or
stored in a database retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

1
Preface
About this Workbook
This Student Workbook is designed as a companion to the Aviation Maintenance Technician Airframe Handbook
FAA H-8083-31. Each chapter of this workbook matches the equivalent chapter in the Handbook and contains
study questions, exercises, and a final exam for that chapter. Each is designed to enhance your understanding of the
material in the textbook and to better prepare you for success with your actual written exams and later in your
career as a professional aviation maintenance technician.

Each chapter of this Workbook is presented in 3 parts:


1] Study Aid Questions in fill in the blank, multiple choice, true or false, and matching formats designed to
reinforce the most important concepts presented in the Textbook.

2] Knowledge Application Questions; giving you an opportunity to actually use the material presented in each
chapter to solve common problems.

3] Final Chapter Exam, in multiple choice format designed to further reinforce your study skills and to be used
by instructors as end of chapter exams and as an evaluation of your progress.

The answers to the Part 1 & 2 questions may be found in the back of this workbook and can so be used by students
as a part of your personal study habits. The answers to Part 3 - Final Chapter Exams, are available only to instructors
as part of the instructor support package for the H-8083 textbook series, thus preserving the value of the exam as a
valid instructional tool.

Each page in this book is perforated allowing students to tear out and turn in assigned sections which may be given
as homework or in-class exercises.

For further information about this Workbook, its corresponding Airframe Textbook, or to order additional
copies in print or electronic format, please contact Aircraft Technical Book Company at 970 726-5111, or email to
orders@ACtechbooks.com, or see our web site at www.ACtechBooks.com.

Contents
Chapter 1 Aircraft Structures 3
Chapter 2 Aerodynamics, Assembly & Rigging 15
Chapter 3 Fabric Covering 27
Chapter 4 Metal 39
Chapter 5 Welding 53
Chapter 6 Wood 63
Chapter 7 Composites 73
Chapter 8 Painting 87
Chapter 9 Electrical 97
Chapter 10 Instruments 117
Chapter 11 Communication & Navigation 129
Chapter 12 Hydraulic Systems 141
Chapter 13 Landing Gear 155
Chapter 14 Fuel Systems 167
Chapter 15 Ice & Rain 177
Chapter 16 Environmental Systems 189
Chapter 17 Fire Detection Systems 201
Answers Section 1 and 2 Answers 213

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2
Chapter 1
Aircraft Structures

Chapter1SectionA
StudyAidQuestions

FillintheBlanks

1.Thepartoftheaircraftthatisdesignedtocarryaloadorresiststressisthe_____________________________.

2.Allaircraftaresubjectedtofivemajorstresses:tension,compression,bending,_________________________,

and______________________________.

3.Tensilestrengthismeasuredin____________________________________whichiswrittenas_____________.

4.Wingsthatrequirenoexternalbracingareknownas__________________________________________design.

5.______________________________________internalstructuresaremadeupofsparsandstringers.

6.Sparsaretowingsas_____________________________________aretothefuselage.

7.Ibeamsparsaremadeupoftwocomponents:the__________________whichistheverticalsectionandthe

____________________whichisthehorizontalsection.

8.Astainlesssteelortitaniumbulkheadknownasa_________________________________isusedtoisolatethe

____________________________fromtherestoftheaircraft.

9.Cowlflapsaremoveablepartsofthecowlingthatopenandcloseto___________________________________.

3

10.Theprimaryflightcontrolsincludetheailerons,elevators,andrudderswhichcontrolthestabilityaroundthe

_______________________,_______________________,and_______________________axesrespectively.

11.Primaryflightcontrolsurfacesneedtobebalancedsotheydonotvibrateor________________________.

12.Whentheaircraftisturnedtotheleft,theailerononthepilots______________________pointsup.

13.Elevatorsmovetheaircraftaroundthe______________________________________________________axis.

14.Whentherightpedalispushedforward,itdeflectstheruddertothe______________________whichmoves
thenoseoftheaircrafttotheright.

15.Flapsthatslideafttoincreasethetotalareaofthewingareknownas____________________________flaps.

16.Slatsincreasethe_______________________________________________atwhichlaminarairflowcanexist.

17.Heavyorhighperformanceaircrafthave_________________________onthetopoftheirwingsthatdisrupt
airflowwhendeployed.

18.The_________________________________________isthelocationfromwhichallotherstationsarelocated.

19.Firewallsaretypicallymadefrom______________________________________________.

20.Teeteringhingesinasemirigidsystemallowformovementoftheflap________________________________

whilepreventingmovement__________________________________________.

4

TRUEorFALSE

_______1.Wingbracesarethemainstructuralmemberofawing.

_______2.Torsionresistspullingforces.

_______3.Tensilestrengthisgenerallygreaterthanorequaltoshearingstrength.

_______4.Longeronsarethelongitudinalmembersinasemimonocoquefuselage.

_______5.Thebenefitofasemimonocoquefuselagecomparedtoamonocoquefuselageisthatthe
semimonocoquefuselagedoesnotrequiretheskintocarryanyloadtherebyreducingthestresson
theskin.

_______6.Boxbeamwingconstructionsareusedontransportcategoryaircraft.

_______7.Falseribsarethoseribswhichareusedstrictlyforshapingthecamberofthewinganddonotprovide
anyloadsupport.

_______8.Cowlingsaredetachablepanelswhichprovidesmoothairflowovertheengineandprotectitfrom
damage.

_______9.Ribscanbelightenedbystampingholesintheassembly.

_______10.Highperformanceaircrafttypicallyhaveflybywiresystemsthatutilizeelectricalpowertomovethe
elevators.

_______11.Fuelcarryingbladderslocatedinawingareknownaswetwingdesigns.

_______12.Wormdrivesandflaptracksareusedtomovefowlerflapsalongtheirdesignedrouteoftravel.

_______13.Leadingedgeflapsareindependentofthetrailingedgeflaps.

_______14.Vortexgeneratorsaredesignedtoreducedragcreatedbywingtipvortices.

_______15.Conventionalgearandtricyclegearareinterchangeableterms.

_______16.Aircraftequippedwithpontoonsorfloatsaresometimesknownasamphibiousaircraft

_______17.Waterlinemeasurementsareperpendiculartothehorizon.

_______18.Helicoptersaremovedhorizontallybychangingtheangleofattackontherotorblades.

_______19.Dissymmetryofliftcausesbladestoflutter.

_______20.Torqueproducedbythemainrotorstriestospinthefuselageinthedirectionofbladerotation.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter1,SectionAAircraftStructures

name:____________________________________________________________

5
Chapter1SectionB
KnowledgeApplicationQuestions

1.Whyaretherotorsofahelicopterconsideredpartoftheairframe?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

2.Definestrain.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

3.Describestressesinvolvedonapartbeingbentorsubjecttobendingstress.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

4.Cowlingsandfairingsdonotrequireahighdegreeofstrengthbutwhatcharacteristicisimportantforparts
suchasthese?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

5.Whatarethestructuralmembersthatmakeupatrussframedfuselageandwhatisittypicallycoveredwith?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

6.Whatisthebiggestproblemassociatedwiththemonocoquetypefuselage?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

7.Howisthemonocoquetypefuselagedifferentthanthesemimonocoquetype?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

7
8.Whatcausesmetalfatigueinapressurizedaircraftfuselagestructure?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

9.Whenistheuseoflandinggearjurystrutsnecessaryandwhatpurposedotheyserve?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________



10.Whatisthefunctionofthewingspar?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

11.Wherearefalseribslocatedandwhatistheirfunction?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

12.Describethecharacteristicsofanacelleanditscomponents.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

13.Directionalcontrolofafixedwingaircrafttakesplacearoundwhichaxes?Whataretherespectivecontrol
surfacesthatmoveabouttheseaxes?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

8

14.Whataffectdoesmovingtheailerondownhaveonthewing?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

15.Whatarethefunctionsofslotsandwherearetheylocated?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________



16.Howarebalancetabsmovedandwhatistheirresultingeffect?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

17.Whatisthemainbenefitofconventionaltypelandinggear?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

18.Whyaregroundloopscommononconventionallandinggear?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

19.Describethecause(s)ofdissymmetryoflift.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

9

20.WhatistheNOTARantitorquesystemandhowdoesitwork?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter1,SectionBAircraftStructures

name:____________________________________________________________

10
Chapter1SectionC
FinalChapterExam

1.Thestudythatcalculatestheloadsthateverypartofanaircraftmustcarryisknownas
a.Stressanalysis
b.Tensionanalysis
c.Loadtesting

2.Thematerialsinternalresistanceorcounterforcethatopposesdeformationiscalled
a.Rigidity
b.Strength
c.Stress

3.Whattypeofstressresistsacrushingforce?
a.Tension
b.Compression
c.Torsion

4.Whattypeofstressisacombinationofcompressionandtension?
a.Torsion
b.Shear
c.Bending

5.Whattypeofconstructionmethodisusedformostaluminumaircraftconstructions?
a.Monocoque
b.Semimonocoque
c.Truss

6.Whatistheanglecalledthatismadebetweenthefuselageandthehorizontalplaneofthewing?
a.Angleofattack
b.Wingdihedral
c.Angleofincidence

7.Whatistheprinciplestructuralmemberofthewing?
a.Spars
b.Ribs
c.Stringers

8.Howistheloadtransferredfromtheskinandthestringerstothespars?
a.Stiffeners
b.Caps
c.Ribs

9.Wherearewingbuttribslocated?
a.Forwardofthefrontspar
b.Inbetweenthefrontandrearspar
c.Attheinboardedgeofthewing

11
10.Whatisthepurposeofafairing?
a.Allowsforsmoothairflowbetweenthewingandfuselage
b.Provideastrongandsecuremethodforattachingthewingtothefuselage
c.Receivescompressionloadsthattendtoforcethewingsparstogether

11.Whatarethenamesofthemovableflightcontrolsurfacesontheempennage?
a.Horizontalstabilizerandelevator
b.Verticalstabilizerandrudder
c.Elevatorandrudder

12.Whatflightcontrolsurfacemovementcausestheaircrafttoroll?
a.Aileron
b.Elevator
c.Rudder

13.Whattypeofmovementdoestheruddercontrol?
a.Roll
b.Pitch
c.Yaw

14.Whatisacommondesignfeatureofaileronstopreventflutter?
a.Hingepointsaftoftheleadingedge
b.Hingepointsforwardoftheleadingedge
c.Hingepointsattheleadingedge

15.Astheaileronmovesdownward,whathappenstothecamberandliftrespectively?
a.Camberincreases,liftdecreases
b.Camberdecreases,liftdecreases
c.Camberincreases,liftincreases

16.Howistheelevatorcontrolledfromthecockpit?
a.Sidetosidemotionofthecontrolyoke
b.Pushandpullmotionofthecontrolyoke
c.Depressingoffootoperatedpedals

17.Whichtwotypesofcontrolsurfacesreducetheforceneededtomoveaprimarycontrolsurface?
a.Antibalanceandservotabs
b.Trimandbalancetabs
c.Slatsandspoilers

18.Whattypeofsecondaryflightcontroldecreaseslift?
a.Slats
b.Slots
c.Spoilers

12
19.Whichcontrolsurfacecanbeoperatedindependentlyoftheflaps?
a.Leadingedgeflaps
b.Slats
c.NeitherAorB

20.Spoilersmaybefullydeployedonbothwingsatthesametimeforwhatpurpose?
a.Augmentaileronfunction
b.Decreaseliftinflight
c.Speedbrakes

21.Whatflightcontroltabsmoveinsamedirectionasthecontrolsurfaceitisattachedto?
a.Trim
b.Spring
c.Antibalance

22.Howareflightcontrolsurfacesmovedonanaircraftthatisequippedwithaflybywiresystem?
a.Electricalinputonly
b.Hydraulicactuatorsandelectricalinput
c.Controlcablesonly

23.Whattypeofdeviceisusedasabarrierontheuppersurfaceofthewingtoreducethetendencyofthewing
tostallatlowflightspeeds?
a.Stallfence
b.Vortexgenerator
c.Gapseals

24.Whereisthecenterofgravitylocatedonanaircraftwithatricyclelandinggear?
a.Forwardofthemainwheels
b.Aftofthemainwheels
c.Inlinewiththemainwheels

25.Fuselagestationsarenumberedininchesfrom_________
a.Thebuttockline
b.Referencedatum
c.Waterline

26._______________isameasurementforwardoraftofthefrontsparandperpendiculartothewaterline.
a.Aileronstation
b.Flapstation
c.Nacellestation

27.Wherecanonefindinformationonpanelnumberingandthelocationofcomponentsundereachpanel?
a.AC43.13
b.TCDS
c.Maintenancemanual

13

28.Howaremainrotorsofhelicoptersclassified?
a.Thetransmissionusedtopowertherotors
b.Bladeattachmentandmotionrelativetothehub
c.Swashplateandpitchchangeunitsattachedtotheblade

29.Howisthepitchoftherotorbladeschangedinarigidrotorsystem?
a.Featheringhinges
b.Coninghinges
c.Teeteringhinges

30.Whatisthewindspeedandliftdevelopedbytheadvancingbladeinrelationtotheretreatingblade?
a.Greaterwindspeed,lesslift
b.Slowerwindspeed,lesslift
c.Greaterwindspeed,morelift

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter1,FinalChapterExamAircraftStructures

name:____________________________________________________________

14
Chapter 2 - Aerodynamics,
Assembly, & Rigging

Chapter2SectionA
StudyAidQuestions

FillintheBlanks

1.Thestudyofobjectsinmotionthroughtheairandthe__________________________________governingthat

motioncomefromtheGreekcombinationofaeroand___________________________.

2.Atmosphericpressureismeasuredin____________________________witha__________________________.

3.Asanaircraftdescendsatmosphericpressure___________________________,theamountofoxygenintheair

__________________________________,andtemperature_______________________________.

4.Densityvaries__________________________withtemperatureand______________________withpressure.

5.AbodyatrestdoesnotmoveunlessaforceisappliedtoitisNewtons________________________lawandis

knownasthelawof______________________________.

6.AccordingtoBernoullisprinciple,fluidflowingthroughaconstrictionexperiencesa(n)____________________
inspeed.

7.Velocityincreasesandpressuredecreasesonthe______________________________________ofthewing.

8.Apilotcanincreasetheliftofanaircraftbyincreasingthe_________________________________________.

9.Theacuteanglethewingchordmakeswiththe__________________________axisiscalledangleofincidence.

15

10.Theboundarylayeristhelayerof_______________________________closesttothesurfaceanditsbehavior

iscontrolledinordertominimize_______________________________dragandskinfrictiondrag.

11.Fluidsalwaysmovefrom____________________to____________________pressure.Thisprincipleexplains

thespanwisemovementofairflowfromthebottomofthewing___________________________andupward

aroundthewingcreatingspillageoverthewingtipcalled____________________________.

12.Anobjectthattendstoreturnstoequilibriumissaidtohavepositive__________________________stability.

13._________________________controlthelateralmovementsoftheaircraft,the________________________

controlsthelongitudinalmovements,andthe______________________controlsthedirectionalmovements.

14.Anautogryoisanaircraftwithahorizontalrotorthatis___________________________andturnsduetothe

passageofair______________________________throughtherotor.

15.Thebladewiththedecreasedangleofattacktendstoflap___________________________.

16.Thecollectivepitchcontrolisoperatedwiththe__________________handandisusedtomakepitchangle

changesto_____________________themainrotorblades.

17.Thereisa_________________________________ofliftbetweentheadvancingandretreatingblade.

18.Autorotationispossiblethroughafreewheelingunit,aspecial_______________________mechanism,which
automaticallydisengagestheengineintheeventofitsfailure.

19.Helicopterswithtandemrotorsusethepedalstotiltthemainrotors.Whenthe___________________pedal

ispushedforwardtheaftrotormovestothe_________________________.

16

20.Swagingtoolsgenerallyhavea__________________________dimensionsinanattempttoavoiddefectiveor
inferiorswages.

21.Cablesthattravelcompletelythroughbulkheadsrequiretheuseofa_____________________________and

shouldnotbedeflectedmorethan___________________fromastraightline.

22.Agrooveorknurlaroundtheendofthebarrelofa__________________________canbeusedtoidentifythe

____________________________threads.

23.Structuralalignmentisthe______________________________ofthemainstructuralcomponentrelatedto

thelongitudinaldatumlineparalleltotheaircraftcenterlineandthelateraldatumlineparalleltotheline

joiningthe______________________________.

24.Hardlandingsandabnormalflightexperiencespromptacheckofthewing_________________________and

angleof_______________________________.

25.Themostcommonmethodofsafetywiringisthe________________________________________however;a

____________________________methodcanbeusedforsmallerscrewsandtightspaces.

TRUEorFALSE

_______1.Airisconsideredafluid.

_______2.Atmosphericpressurechangeswithaltitude.

_______3.Aircraftcanflyfasteratloweraltitudesbecausethereismorepullingforcefromtheenginecutting
throughtheair

_______4.Densityvariesdirectlywithhumidity.

_______5.AirflowoveranairfoilcanbeexplainedusingBernoullisprincipleandthispressuredifferentialis
calledlift.

_______6.Onewingcanhavenumerousairfoilsectionseachwithuniqueproperties.

17

_______7.TheefficiencyofawingismeasuredintermsofwingcamberandAOA.

_______8.Anaircrafthasfourforcesactinguponitatalltimes:gravity,lift,thrustandweight.

_______9.InduceddragincreasesasAOAincrease.

_______10.Centerofpressurehasthegreatestaffectonthestabilityofanaircraft.

_______11.Theverticalstabilizeristheprimarysurfacethatcontrolsdirectionalstabilityonthehorizontalaxis.

_______12.Trimtabsenablethepilottocorrectanyunbalancedconditionthatmayexistduringflightwithout
touchingtheflightcontrols.

_______13.Canardsareoftenusedinsweptwingaircrafttopreventspanwiseairmovementsathighanglesof
attack.

_______14.Stickshakerswereinstalledinhydromechanicalflightcontrolsystemswhichprovideanartificialstall
warning.

_______15.AthighforwardspeedasituationcalledretreatingbladestallcanoccurbecauseofthehighAOAand
slowrelativewindspeed.

_______16.Controlsurfacesmustberebalancedwheneverthereisweightaddedtoacontrolsurface.

_______17.Thebalancebeamrebalancingmethodrequiresaspecializedmanufacturermadetool.

_______18.Leadandsteelarethemostcommonmaterialsusedtobalancecontrolsurfaces.

_______19.TheTypecertificationDataSheetisissuedbythemanufacturerandincludesinformationsuchas
airspeedlimitations,weightlimits,andfueltype.

_______20.A7x19cableisveryrigidandusedforenginecontrolsandtrimtabcontrols.

_______21.Solderingcableendsisacommontechniqueusedtopreventfraying.

_______22.Cablesarecheckedforcorrosionbybendingthem.

_______23.Adoublewrapsafetywiremethodispreferredwhensecuringaturnbuckle.

_______24.Rudderalignmentisdonebyremovingthecontrolssurfacefromitshingesandpassingaplumbbob
thoughthehingeattachmentholes.

_______25.Cotterpins,unlikesafetywire,canbereused.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter2,SectionAAerodynamics,Assembly,&Rigging

name:____________________________________________________________

18

Chapter2SectionB
KnowledgeApplicationQuestions

1.Whyisairconsideredafluid?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

2.Whatisatmosphericpressureandhowisitmeasured?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

3.Whatistherelationshipbetweendensity,pressure,andtemperature?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

4.Whatisthedifferencebetweenabsolutehumidityandrelativehumidity?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

5.WhatisNewtonsthirdlawandwhatdoesitstate?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

6.DescribehowBernoullisprinciplerelatestoawing.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

19

7.DescribewhathappenstotheresultantforceastheAOAincreases.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

8.Describetheotherforceproducedbesidesliftastherelativemotionoftheairmovesoverthewing.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

9.Whatdoescontrolandcontrollabilitymeanforapilotandtheaircraft?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

10.Explaintheaerodynamiceffectthatoccursatandabovethespeedofsound.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

11.Explainwhatfullyarticulatedmeansinrelationtoahelicopterrotorsystem.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

20

12.HowdoesNewtonsthirdlawrelatetohelicopters?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

13.Explainwhatacorrelatorisandwhatitdoes.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

14.Whatarethemostcommoncausesofhighfrequencyvibrations?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

15.Whyisnoclutchnecessaryonahelicopterenginewithafreeturbine?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

16.Describetheuseofpulleysandpulleyguards.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

17.Controlcablerigginggenerallyconsistsofwhatthreesteps?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

21

18.Whatisthepurposeofaturnbuckle?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

19.Wherearecabledrumstypicallyfoundandwhatdotheydo?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

20.Whatarethetypesofinspectionprogramshelicopteroperatesuseinaccordancewith14CFRpart91?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter2,SectionBAerodynamics,Assembly,&Rigging

name:____________________________________________________________

22

Chapter2SectionC
FinalChapterExam

1.Whathappenstothepressureofafluidinacontainerwhenitisheated?
a.Pressureincreases
b.Pressuredecreases
c.Pressureremainsthesame

2.Atsealevel,whatistheaverageatmosphericpressureinpsi,Hg,andmillibarsrespectively?
a.1.47psi,29.92Hg,1013.25mb
b.14.7psi,29.92Hg,10.13mb
c.14.7psi,29.92Hg,1013.25mb

3.Awingwithahighfinenessratiohaswhichofthefollowingcharacteristics?
a.Thinwing,smallamountofskinfriction
b.Thickwing,smallamountofskinfriction
c.Thinwing,largeamountofskinfriction

4.WhentheAOAincreasestomaximumlift,whathasbeenreached?
a.Criticalangle
b.Burblepoint
c.BothA&B

5.Forceactsinwhatdirection,inrelationtotherelativewind?
a.Parallel
b.Perpendicular
c.Ata45angle

6.Exposedaircraftcomponentscreateresistanceknownas
a.Parasitedrag
b.Skinfrictiondrag
c.Induceddrag

7.__________isthequalityoftheresponseofanaircrafttothepilot'scommandsduringmaneuvers.
a.Stability
b.Controllability
c.Maneuverability

8.Whichaxisextendsfromnosetotail?
a.Verticalaxis
b.Lateralaxis
c.Longitudinalaxis

9.Whattypeofstabilitycanbeartificiallyincreasedwithayawdampener?
a.Directional
b.Dynamic
c.Dutchroll

23

10.Whichofthefollowingtypeofaircraftstructuresreducefuelconsumptionandincreasesrange?
a.Wingfences
b.Winglets
c.BothA&B

11.Compressibleaerodynamicsdealswithspeedsat
a.MachIandabove
b.250mphandbelow
c.Mach3Mach5

12.Supersonicflightreferstoflightbetween
a.0Mach1
b.Mach1Mach3
c.Mach5andabove

13.Whattypeofrotorisfoundonaircraftwithdualrotorblades?
a.Fullyarticulated
b.Semirigid
c.Rigid

14.Driftinthedirectionofthetailrotorduringhoveriscalled
a.Groundeffect
b.Translationaltendency
c.Translationallift

15.Effectivetranslationalliftisexperiencedatwhatairspeed?
a.Betweenhoverand16knots
b.Between1624knots
c.24knotsandabove

16.Ahelicopterwithcounterclockwiserotatingmainrotorwouldexperiencewhichofthefollowingconditionsif
dissymmetryofliftwereallowedtoexistwithnocorrectiveaction?
a.Rolltotheleft
b.Rolltotheright
c.Drifttotheleft

17.Howdoesapilotcompensateforblowback?
a.Movethecyclicforward
b.Movethecyclicaft
c.Pulluponthecollective

18.Whatcomponenttransmitsthecontrolinputsfromthecollectiveandcyclictothemainrotorblades?
a.Transmission
b.Controlrod
c.Swashplate

24

19.Whereisthethrottlecontrollocatedinahelicopter?
a.Onthecollective
b.Onthecyclic
c.Onalevernexttothecollective

20.Whatistheprimarypurposeofthehelicoptermainrotortransmission?
a.IncreaseengineoutputRPMtooptimumrotorRPM
b.DecreaseengineoutputRPMtooptimumrotorRPM
c.Synchronizetherotationoftheenginewiththerotor

21.Duringstaticbalancing,anupwardmovementofthetrailingedgeofacontrolsurfaceonabalancestand
indicates:
a.Anoverbalancedesignatedwitha(+)sign
b.Anunderbalancedesignatedwitha()sign
c.Anoverbalancedesignatedwitha()sign

22.Whichrebalancingmethodcanbeperformedwithoutremovingthecontrolsurfacefromtheaircraft?
a.Calculationmethod
b.Scalemethod
c.Balancebeammethod

23.Whereshouldriggingandalignmentchecksbeperformed?
a.Ontheramp
b.Inanenclosedhangar
c.Ataspecializedmaintenancefacility

24.__________maybeusedtoforcetheprimarynutthreadagainsttheboltorscrewthread.
a.Locknut
b.Lockwasher
c.Palnut

25.ELTtestsshouldbeconducted
a.Duringthelast5minutesofanyhour
b.Duringthefirst5minutesofanyhour
c.Duringthefirst15minutesofanyhour

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter2,FinalChapterExamAerodynamics,Assembly,&Rigging

name:____________________________________________________________

25
Chapter 3 - Fabric Covering

Chapter3SectionA
StudyAidQuestions

FillintheBlanks

1.Organicfabrics,likelinenand____________________,weretheoriginalfabricsusedforcoveringairframesbut

theirtendencyto________________gavewaytoaprocessknownas_________________________________.

2.Organicfabricsgenerallyonlylast_________________years.

3._______________________________fabricisthestandardcoveringcurrentlybeingusedintheUnitedStates.

4.PinkededgeshavebeencutintoacontinuousseriesofVsbymachineorspecial_________________________

toprevent___________________________________.

5.Deviationsfromthesupplementaltypecertificateinanywayrenderstheaircraft________________________.

6.A_________________fieldapprovalmaybeacquiredtodeviatefromtheoriginalcoveringprocessormaterial.

7.________________________isthesinglemostdestructiveelementthatcausespolyesterfabrictodeteriorate.

8.Toachievealevelanddeepglossyfinish,_________________________________isaddedtoslowdrytime.

9.Finishingtapeisusedtocoverall___________________________andriblacingtoprovideasmoothfinishand

________________________________.

10.Fungicideandmildewicideareonlyrequiredfor___________________________fabric.

27

11.Loosefabricaffectsthe_______________________distributionand_______________________theairframe.

12.A_____________________________maybeusedperthemanufacturersinstructionifthedopecoatingis

foundtohavecracksbutthefabricitselfisstill_________________________________.

13.Breakingstrengthisdeterminedbycuttingateststrip,takenfromanareathatis________________________

totheelements,whichis____________________________by46inches.

14.The__________________________methodofrecoveringusesmultipleflatsectionsoffabricattachedtothe

framewhereastheenvelopemethoduses_____________________________envelopestocovertheaircraft.

15.Itisimportantintherecoveringprocessthatthe________________________,________________________,
andventilationbecontrolled.

16.Fabriccoatingsshouldbeappliedwithahigh____________________,low_____________________sprayer.

17.Someoftheprimaryconcernsoffabricseamsarestrength,elasticity,________________________________

andgood_________________________________.

18.Closerspacingofriblacingshouldbedoneintheareathatexperiences_______________________________,

aboutonepropellerwidthplus_____________________________.

19.Inspectionringsareleftintactandonlyremovedwhen___________________________________________is

required.Itisthenclosedusingpreformed___________________________panels.

20.Fabricgussets,installedas_______________________________________,reinforcecableguideopeningsand

_________________________________attachedfittingareas.

28

TRUEorFALSE

_______1.Warpdescribesthedirectionacrossthewidthofthefabric.

_______2.Thesamematerialsandtechniquesmustbeusedwhenreplacingaircraftfabric.

_______3.ATSOisatechnicalstandardorderissuedbythemanufacturerforspecificparts,materials,processes,
andappliancesuseoncivilaircraft.

_______4.OnlycompanieswithaPMAmaymanufactureandsellaviationfabric.

_______5.Thesamethreadmaybeusedtohandsewandmachinesewaviationfabric.

_______6.Priortoairframecovering,thestructuremustbeprimed.

_______7.Fabriccementisusedtoattachthefabrictotheairframe.

_______8.Fabricisstillairworthydownto70%ofthebreakingstrengthofnewfabric.

_______9.Fabricteststripsshouldhaveallthecoatingsleftontogetanaccuratemeasurementofthefabrics
breakingstrength.

_______10.PunchtesterslikeSeybothandMaulegiveanaccuraterepresentationofthefabricbreaking
strength.

_______11.TheMaulepunchtesterdoesnotpunctureairworthyfabricduringtesting.

_______12.Fuselageandwingscanbecoveredwithonelargeenvelope.

_______13.Manyofthesubstancesusedtorecoveranaircraftarehighlytoxic.

_______14.OldadhesivestucktotheairframecanberemovedwithMEK.

_______15.Polyesterfabricgenerallyincorporatessewnseams.

_______16.Anordinaryhouseholdironmaybeusedtoheatshrinkfabric.

_______17.Heatshrinkingshouldbedoneevenlybystartingfromoneendandprogressingtotheotherend.

_______18.Finishingtapeisappliedtoallseams,edges,andribs.

_______19.Wingleadingedgesusuallyreceivethenarrowestamountoffinishingtapetoreduceirregularities
duringthecoveringprocess.

_______20.Thereisnocompromiseinstrengthbetweencementedrepairsandsewnrepairs.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter3,SectionAFabricCovering

name:____________________________________________________________

29
Chapter3SectionB
KnowledgeApplicationQuestions

1.Howdoaircraftdesignersaddresstheflammabilityofnitratedopingandtheprocesstheyusedforapplication?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________


2.Explainwhyreplacingcottonfabricwithpolyesterfabricaircraftisconsideredamajoralteration.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________


3.Describewhatantichafetapeisandwhenitisused.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

4.Describethedifferencebetweenhandthreadandmachinethread.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________


5.Howaretheholesinsidegrommetscreated?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

6.Explaintheprocessofrecoveringanaircraftusingtheblanketmethod.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

7.Whataresomeofthenecessarypersonalprotectionequipmentneededwhenrecoveringanaircraft?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

31
8.Whatisusedtoproduceasmoothfinishonleadingedgesofaluminumwings?Whatisessentialwhen
consideringthisprocess?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________


9.Describetheprocessofheatshrinkingfabric.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

10.Whatisthepurposeofadraingrommetandwherearetheylocated?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

11.Howarefinishingtapesappliedattheleadingandtrailingedges?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

12.Whatisfabricprimerandwhatdoesitdo?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter3,SectionBFabricCovering

name:____________________________________________________________

32
Chapter3SectionC
FinalChapterExam

1.Whatdoesthetermbiasmeaninrelationtofabriccoverings?
a.Theweaveacrossthewidthofthefabric
b.Thewarpalongthedirectionofthefabric
c.Acutorfoldmadeatadiagonaltothewarp

2.Which14CFRpart43Appendixstateswhatmaintenanceactionsareconsideredminorandmajorrepairs?
a.A
b.B
c.C

3.Majorfabricrepairsneedtobeinspectedby?
a.Airframemechanic
b.AirframeandPowerplantmechanic
c.AirframeandPowerplantmechanicwithanInspectionAuthorization

4.Whereisreinforcingtapemostcommonlyused?
a.Seams
b.Ribcaps
c.Aroundinspectionrings

5.Whichofthefollowingisusedtocreatereinforceddrainholesinaircraftfabric?
a.Inspectionrings
b.Springclips
c.Grommets

6.WhattypeofcoatingisappliedtoprotectthefabricfromUVlight?
a.Primer
b.Sealer
c.Filler

7.Whenisacceleratorusedwhenapplyingfabrictopcoats?
a.Temperaturesbelowidealworkingtemperatures
b.Temperaturesaboveidealworkingtemperatures
c.Humidityaboveidealworkingconditions

8.WhatisthekeyingredientinthePolyFibercoveringsystem?
a.Polyurethane
b.Vinyl
c.Waterbasedglue

9.Aircraftwithwingloadingof9lb/ft2andovershouldhavefabricstrengthatorabove:
a.GradeA
b.Intermediategrade
c.Lightweight

33
10.AircraftwithaVNEof135mphorlessareconsideredtobeunairworthywhenthefabricbreakingstrengthhas
deterioratedtobelow:
a.56
b.46
c.35

11.Recoveringafabricaircraftisconsidered:
a.Aminorrepairoralteration
b.Amajorrepairoralteration
c.Generalmaintenance

12.Whichfabriccoveringsystemisnonhazardous?
a.Superflite
b.AirTech
c.Stewart

13.Criticalairflowareassuchastheleadingedgerequirehowmanyinchesofoverlapattheseam?
a.12
b.24
c.46

14.Howmuchdoespolyesterfabricshrinkat350F?
a.5%
b.8%
c.10%

15.Whichofthefollowingrepairsrequiresewing?
a.Cottonfabricrepairs
b.Polyesterfabricrepairs
c.NeitherAorB

16.Wherecantechniciansfindinstructionsabouttyingthecorrectknotsduringtheriblacingprocess?
a.STCandmaintenancemanuals
b.AC43.131
c.BothA&B

17.Whatshouldbeappliedtoribcapsthatarenotroundedover?
a.Antichafetape
b.Reinforcingtape
c.Surfacetape

18.Howmanyblanketsdoesitusuallytaketocoverawing?
a.1
b.2
c.Atleast4

19.WhichofthefollowingisnotaFAAapprovedmethodoftesting?

34
a.Teststripmethod
b.IAvisualandNDTinspectionmethod
c.Mechanicalfabricstrengthtesters

20.Whichofthefollowingfabricsisnolongeravailable?
a.GradeAcotton
b.Lightweightpolyester
c.Ceconite101

21.Whichtapeisalreadypreshrunk?
a.Antichafetape
b.Ribbracingtape
c.Surfacetape

22.Whatadditiveincreasestheoverallflexibilityandlifeofacoating?
a.Thinner
b.Retarder
c.Rejuvenator

23.Finishingtape(surfacetape)isusedforwhatpurpose?
a.Tohelpprevent'rippleformation'incoveringfabric.
b.Toprovideadditionalantitearresistanceunderreinforcementtape.
c.Toprovideadditionalwearresistanceovertheedgesoffabricformingstructures.

24.Thedeterminingfactor(s)fortheselectionofthecorrectweightoftextilefabrictobeusedincoveringany
typeofaircraftisthe
a.maximumwingloading.
b.speedoftheaircraft.
c.speedoftheaircraftandthemaximumwingloading.

25.Anyprotrusionsinthefabriccoveringarereinforcedwith:
a.Rings
b.Grommets
c.Gussets

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter3,FinalChapterExamFabricCovering

name:____________________________________________________________

35
Chapter 4 - Aircraft Metal

Chapter4SectionA
StudyAidQuestions

FillintheBlanks

1.Ajointthatistooweakcannotbetolerated,butneithercanonethatistoo______________________because

itcancreatestressrisersthatmaycause_________________________inotherlocations.

2.Therearesixtypesofstresses:tension,compression,_________________________,andbearingareknownas

basicstresses;whilebendingand______________________(ortwisting)areconsideredcombinationstresses.

3.Therearetwowaystodeterminerivetsize:(1)thesizeofrivetsinthenext______________________rivetrow

inboardonthewingand(2)multiplethethicknessofthethickestsheetby___________________________and
usethenextlargersize.

4.Aircraftstructuraljointdesigninvolvesanattempttofindtheoptimumstrengthrelationshipbetweenbeing

criticalin_________________________andcriticalin_________________________.

5.Afilewithasinglerowof______________________teethiscalledasinglecutfile;whereasfileswithonerow

ofteethcrossingunderanotherrowarecalled_______________________________files.

6.Filesareclassifiedaccordingtotheir_______________________.Themostcommonfilesinclude:flat,triangle,

square,_______________________________,andround.

7.__________________________drillmotorsarerecommendedforuseonprojectsaroundflammablematerials

wherepotentialssparkfroma(n)___________________________drillmotormightbecomeafirehazard.

37

8.Properlyadjusteddrill_____________________canpreventexcessivedrillpenetrationthatmightdamagethe

____________________________structureorinjurepersonnel.

9.Abarfolderisdesignedforuseinmaking_________________________orfoldsalongedgesofsheetmetal.

10.__________________________breaksareusedtoformthickermore___________________________parts.

11.Onthesliproll,thefrontrollers_______________________________orgripthemetalsheetwhiletherear

rollprovidestheproper____________________________tothework.

12.Itisadvantageousto____________________________orevenpolishtheedgesofaflangethatmustundergo

evenmoderate__________________________toavoidcrackformation.

13.____________________________madeofhardwoodarewidelyusedinairframemetalworkforshrinkingand

stretchingmetal,particularlyanglesand____________________________.

14.Theminimumbendradiusisaffectedby;thekindofmaterial,_______________________ofthematerial,and

______________________________conditionofthematerial.

15.The__________________________mustbeusedforallbendthataresmallerorlargerthan_____________.

16.Inordertoformabox,itisnecessarytodrill___________________________attheintersectionoftheinside

bend____________________________lines.

17.Machiningcharacteristicsofmagnesiumare______________________,makingpossibletheuseofmaximum

speedsofthemachinetoolswithheavycutsandhigh_______________________rates.

18.Rivetsfilltheholeduringtheinstallationprocesswhichprovidesagood________________________transfer.

38

19.Blindrivetsareinstalledduring____________________________whereaccessisnotavailabletoformthe

drivenheadof____________________________rivets.

20.TheCherryMaxrivetconsistsoffiveparts;_____________________________blindheader,hollowrivetshell,

_____________________________collar,drivinganvil,andthepullingstem.

21.CollarsusedwithHiLokfastenershavea_________________________breakoffgroovewhichshearsoffata

predetermined____________________,leavingthelowerportionofthecollarseatedwiththepropertorque.

22.Aninterferencefitistypicallyusedfor_________________________and___________________________fit
isusedforsteel,titanium,andcomposites.

23.Rivnutsareinternallythreaded_______________________thathaveaflushorshallow__________________
heads.

24.Rivetdiametershouldnotbe______________than3timesthethicknessofthe___________________sheet.

25.Rivet_________________________isthedistancebetweenthecentersof_______________________rivets
inthesamerow.

26.Ifcountersinkingisdoneonmetalbelowacertainthicknessa____________________________withlessthan

minimumbearingsurfaceor_________________________oftheholemayoccur.

27.Arivetgunwiththecorrectheadermustbeheldsnuglyagainsttheheadand___________________________

tothesurfacewhilethebuckingbaroftheproper______________________isheldagainsttheoppositeend.

28._________________________repairisveryimportantbecauseoftheloaditcarriesandparticularcareshould

betakentoensuretheoriginal________________________ofthestructureisnotimpaired.

39

29.Ascaleor____________________________canbeusedtochecktheconditionoftheupsetrivetheadtosee
thatitconformstotheproperrequirements.

30.__________________________dimplingistheprocessthatusesheateddimplingdiessothatthematerialwill

______________________betterduringthedimplingprocess.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter4,SectionAAircraftMetal

name:____________________________________________________________

40

Chapter4SectionB
KnowledgeApplicationQuestions

1Matching(answersmaybeusedmorethanonce)

a.Tension c.Shear e.Torsion


b.Compression d.Bearing f.Bending

_______1.Theforcethatresiststheforcethatrivetsorboltsplaceonahole.

_______2.Theforceperunitareawhichcausesadjacentparticlesofmaterialtoslidepasteachother.

_______3.Acombinationoftwoforcesactinguponastructuralmemberatoneormorepoints.

_______4.Theforcewhichtendstotwistastructuralmember.

_______5.Theforceperunitareawhichtendstostretchastructuralmember.

_______6.Theforceperunitareawhichtendstoshortenastructuralmemberatanycrosssection.


_______7.
_______10.








_______8. _______11.




_______9.










41

2Matching

a.Brinelling b.Burnishing c.Burr d.Corrosion e.Crack f.Cut


g.Dent h.Erosion i.Chattering j.Galling k.Gouge l.Inclusion
m.Nick n.Pitting o.Scratch p.Score q.Stain r.Upsetting

_______1.Presenceofforeignorextraneousmaterialwhollywithinaportionofmetal

_______2.Asmall,thinsectionofmetalextendingbeyondaregularsurface

_______3.Breakdownordeteriorationofmetalsurfacebyvibratoryaction

_______4.Achangeincolor,locallycausinganoticeablydifferentappearance

_______5.Lossofmetal,usuallytoanappreciabledepthoverarelativelylong,narrowarea

_______6.Occurrenceofshallow,sphericaldepressionsinasurface

_______7.Aphysicalseparationoftwoadjacentportionsofmetal

_______8.Slighttearorbreakinmetalsurfacefromlightcontactbyaforeignobject

_______9.Indentationinametalsurfaceproducedbyanobjectstrikingwithforce

_______10.Lossofmetalfromthesurfacebychemicalorelectrochemicalaction

_______11.Deeptearorbreakinmetalsurfacefromcontactunderpressure

_______12.Breakdownofmetalsurfacesduetoexcessivefrictionbetweentwopart

_______13.Localbreakornotchonedge

_______14.Adisplacementofmaterialbeyondthenormalcontourorsurface

_______15.Polishingofonesurfacebyslidingcontactwithasmooth,hardsurface

_______16.Lossofmetalfromthesurfacebymechanicalactionofforeignobject

_______17.Sharp,localizedbreakdownofmetalsurfacewithdefinededges

_______18.Groovesinametalsurfacefromcontactwithforeignmaterialunderheavypressure

3Matching

a.scales b.combinationsquare c.dividers


d.rivetspacer e.markingtool f.scribes
g.punches h.awls i.holeduplicator

_______1.Makesquickandaccuraterivetpatternlayoutsonasheet

_______2.Onlyusedwhenmarkswillberemovedbydrillingorcutting

_______3.Ascalewiththreeheadsthatcanbemovedtoanypositiononthescale

42

_______4.Acarbonsteeltemperedmarkingtool

_______5.Comesinlengthsmostcommonly6and12

_______6.Usedtolocateandmatchexistingholesinstructures

_______7.Fibertippedpen

_______8.Usedinaircraftmaintenancetoalignholes

_______9.Transfermeasurementfromadevicetoascaletodetermineitsvalue

4Matching

a.prickpunch b.centerpunch c.automaticcenterpunch


d.transferpunch e.pinpunch f.drivepunch g.chassispunch

_______1.Hasanadjustablecapforregulatingthestroke

_______2.Usedtotransferdimensionsfromapaperpatterndirectlyontometal

_______3.Alsoknownasadriftpunch

_______4.Usedtomarkthelocationsofnewholesusingatemplateorexistingholes

_______5.Usedtomakeholesinsheetmetal

_______6.Usedtomakelargeindentationsinmetalforatwistdrill

_______7.Usedtodriveoutdamagedrivets,pinsandbolts

5Matching


_______1.Body _______2.Land

_______3.CuttingLips _______4.NotchedPointChiselEdges

_______5.Flute _______6.Shank

43

6Matching

a.leg b.flange c.grainofmetal d.bendradius


e.neutralaxis f.moldline g.moldpoint h.bendtangentline
i.setback j.flat k.bendallowance l.bendline
m.closedangle n.openangle o.Kfactor p.totaldeveloped

_______1.Locatedwherethemetalstartstobendandthemetalstopscurving

_______2.Setevenwiththenoseofthebrakeandactsasaguideforbending

_______3.Measuredfromaradiuscentertotheinsidesurfaceofthemetal

_______4.Widthofmaterial,measuredaroundthebendsfromedgetoedge

_______5.Thedistancefromthemoldpointtothebendtangentline

_______6.anglethatismorethan90whenmeasuredbetweenlegs

_______7.Lineformedbyextendingtheoutsidesurfaceofthelegandflangetoapointinspace

_______8.Thelongerpartofaformedangle

_______9.Thecurvedsectionofmetalwithinthebend

_______10.Theshorterpartofaformedangle

_______11.Correspondstooneoftheanglestowhichmetalcanbebent

_______12.Animaginarylinethathasthesamelengthafterbendingasithadbefore

_______13.Thebasemeasurementminussetback(=MLDSB)

_______14.Thepointofintersectionofthemoldlines

_______15.Anglethatismorethan90whentheamountofbendismeasured

_______16.Bendshouldpreferablybemadetolieatanangletothiswidth

7Matching

a.universalhead c.standard100flushhead e.modified120countersink


b.modifieduniversalhead d.reducedflushhead f.cherryhollowendEZbuck

_______1.Designedspecificallyfordoubleflushapplications

_______2.Arenottobeusedwhereaerodynamicsisafactor

_______3.Designedtolimitrivettipping

44

_______4.Replacementforbothroundandbrazierheadrivets

_______5.Sacrificeclampupstrengthforincreasedshearstrength

_______6.Idealfordimpling

_______7. _______8.

_______9. _______10.

8Matching

a.1100Aluminum c.2117Aluminum e.2024Aluminum g.Monel


b.5056Aluminum d.2017Aluminum f.7050Aluminum

_______1. _______2. _______3.

_______4. (raiseddot) _______5. _______6. (dimple)

_______7.

_______8.AlloycodeE _______9.AlloycodeAD _______10.AlloycodeM


_______11.AlloycodeDD _______12.AlloycodeB _______13.AlloycodeA

45

9FillintheBox

FillIntheBlank
MinimumEdgeDistance
Edgedistance/edgemargin Minimumedgedistance Preferrededgedistance
Protrudingheadrivets
1. 2.
Countersunkrivets
3. 4.

10FillintheBox

Rivetpitch/spacing
Rivetspacing Minimumspacing Preferredspacing
1and3rowsprotrudingheadrivetlayout
1. 2.
2rowprotrudingheadrivetlayout
3. 4.
1and3rowscountersunkheadrivetlayout
5. 6.
2rowcountersunkheadrivetlayout
7. 8.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter4SectionBAircraftMetals

name:____________________________________________________________

46
Chapter4SectionC
FinalchapterExam

1.Repairsmustaccomplishwhichofthefollowing?
a.acceptstresses,carrythemacrosstherepair,anddissipatethemintheappropriatearea
b.acceptstresses,carrythemacrosstherepair,andtransferthembacktotheoriginalstructure
c.acceptstressesanddispersethemthroughouttherepair
d.acceptstressesandpreventacontinuouspathforstressestobuild

2.Whatisneededwhencontrolsurfacerepairsaltertheweightdistribution?
a.trimtabsareadjusted
b.counterbalanceweightisadded
c.balanceweightsareremovedoradded
d.balancingpatchesareused

3.Whatmustbedoneafterholesaredrilledinaluminumsheetmetal?
a.reamed
b.deburred
c.sanded
d.brushed

4.Lubricantsdoallofthefollowingexcept
a.assistinchipremoval
b.prolongsdrilllife
c.preventsoverheating
d.assistsindimensionalaccuracyofthehole

5.Straightlineformingmachinesincludeallofthefollowingexcept
a.barfolder
b.cornicebreak
c.combinationbreak
d.boxandpanbreak

6.WhatisneededforthepressbreaktobendnarrowUchannels?
a.gooseneckdies
b.offsetdies
c.bothA&B
d.thepressbreakcannotbendnarrowUchannels

7.Whatobjectscanaboxandpanbreakformthatacornicebreakcannot?
a.box
b.bowl
c.narrowUchannel
d.hatchannelstringers

8.Whatisanexcellenttechniqueforavoidingstressesattheedgeofapart?
a.useshimstoavoiddirectclampingonthepart
b.deburringtheedgesofthepartbeforebending
c.usemildsteelinsteadofannealedaluminum
d.bothA&B

47
9.Whatisusedtosupportthebumpingprocess?
a.anvil
b.sandbag
c.dies
d.dollies

10.Whichofthefollowingisnotafactortoconsiderwhenformingstraightbends?
a.thicknessofthematerial
b.alloycomposition
c.setback
d.tempercondition

11.Forcalculationpurposes,whereistheneutralaxislocatedintermsofthickness?
a..5T
b..445T
c..545T

12.(refertotablebelow)Whatistheminimumbendradiusofa.063thickpieceof6061T6aluminumalloy?
a..16
b..12
c..44
d..03

13.Whatistheformulatocalculatebendallowance?
a.BA=

b.BA=

c.BA=

48

14.Howlargearereliefholesusedinformingboxes?
a.2timesthethicknessofthematerial
b.2timethebendradius
c.2timesthebendangle

15.Thedistancebetweenthetwobendsofajoggleiscalledthe
a.neutralaxis
b.allowance
c.Jintersection

16.WhatcanbedonetopreventcrackinginthebendareawhenbendingCRES?
a.useabendradiussmallerthanrecommendedintheminimumbendradiustable
b.useabendradiuslargerthanrecommendedintheminimumbendradiustable
c.heattheCRESbeforebending

17.Whatrivetsareusedforjoiningcorrosionresistantsteelandtitaniumpartstogether?
a.7050Aluminum
b.5056Aluminum
c.Monel

18.CherryMaxrivetsaremanufacturedwithallofthefollowingheadstylesexcept:
a.universal
b.unisink
c.120flushhead
d.130countersunk

19.AllofthefollowingareadvantagesofHilokfastenersexcept:
a.lightweight
b.highfatigueresistant
c.highheattolerance
d.highstrength

20.Whichofthefollowingisapermanenttypefastenerassemblythatconsistsofapinandcollar?
a.lockbolt
b.CherryBUCK
c.Taperlok
d.Eddiebolt

21.Correctrivetinstallationrequiresallofthefollowingexcept:
a.dimplingoftheskin
b.goodholepreparations
c.removalofburrs
d.clampingthesheetstogether

22.Transversepitchistheperpendiculardistancebetweenrivetrowsandisusuallyequalto
a.50%oftherivetpitch
b.75%oftherivetpitch
c.90%oftherivetpitch

49

23.Whenusingarivetsizeof1/8,whatdrillsizeshouldbeused?
a.#40
b.#30
c.#21

24.Whichofthefollowingisnotacommontypeofcountersunkwells?
a.82
b.120
c.110

25.TheNACArivetingmethodhasprimaryapplicationsin
a.leadingedgeareas
b.trailingedgeareas
c.fueltankareas

26.Whatshouldyoubelookingforwheninspectingrivets?
a.paintchippedoffrivetheads
b.smokingorworkingrivets(blackringaroundrivet)
c.skinbulgingaroundtherivet
d.alloftheabove

27.Fuselagestringersextendfromthe
a.nosetothetail
b.leadingedgetothetrailingedge
c.wingtiptowingtip

28.Thesparisthemainsupportingmemberofthe
a.fuselage
b.empennage
c.wing

29.Whatisthepurposeofrefrigerating2017and2024aluminumalloyrivetsafterheattreatment?
a.toaccelerateagehardening
b.torelieveinternalstresses
c.toretardagehardening

30.ThedimensionsofanMS20470AD48rivetare
a.1/8inchindiameterandinchlong
b.1/8inchindiameterandinchlong
c.4/16inchindiameterand8/32inchlong

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter4,FinalChapterExamAircraftMetal

name:____________________________________________________________

50
Chapter 5 - Aircraft Welding

Chapter5SectionA
StudyAidQuestions

FillintheBlanks

1.Thereare3typesofwelding:_______________________________,_______________________________and,

_____________________________________________welding.

2.Theoxyacetyleneflame,withatemperatureof____________________Fahrenheitisproducedwithatorch

burning________________________________andmixingitwith_________________________________.

3.Shieldedmetalarcweldingisthemostcommontypeandoftenreferredtoas____________________welding.

4.Gasmetalarcwelding(GMAW)wasformerlycalled____________________________________________.

5.Whenweldingmildsteel,stainlesssteel,ortitaniumtheweldersettingneedstobesetto__________________

_____________________________.Whenweldingaluminumandmagnesium__________________________
mustbeselected.

6.Electricresistancewelding,either________________________or____________________________weldingis
typicallyusedtojointhinsheetmetalcomponents.

7.ThegasusedwithPlasmaArcWeldingis____________________.Thetorchalsousessecondarygassuchas

______________________________or_____________________________thatassistsinshieldingthepuddle.

8.Argonis__________________________,__________________________,_________________________and
nontoxic.

9.Theoxygenhoseis____________________________andhas________________________________threads
indicatedbytheabsenceofagroove.

51

10.Thesizeofthetipopeningnot_______________________determineshowmuchheatisappliedtothework.

11.Allcylindersshouldbestoredandtransportedinthe______________________________position,especially

acetylenebecausetheycontainanabsorbentmaterialsaturatedwith_________________________________

12.Thehighertheweldingtipnumberthe_____________________________theholeinthetip.

13.Threeflametypesflamecommonlyusedforweldingare_______________________________________,

___________________________________,and____________________________________.

14.Theoxidizingflameburnsatapproximately______________________Fandisproducedbyburninganexcess

of____________________________________.

15.A_________________________maybecausedbytouchingthetiptothework,________________________

thetip,bya________________________tip,orbydirtorslagintheendofthetip.

16.Turnofftheflamebyclosingthe_______________________________valveonthetorchfirst.Thenclosethe

__________________________________valveonthetorch.

17.Low________________________,low__________________________steelsaretheferrousmaterialsthatare
gasweldedmostfrequently.

18.Asinaluminumwelding,_______________isneededtobreakdownsurfaceoxidesandensureasoundweld.

19.Theprincipleuseof__________________________solderinaircraftworkisinthefabricationprocessofhigh

pressure________________________________lines.

20.TheheatcontrolofaTIGweldermaybepresetbyamachinesettingorvariablebyuseofa_______________

____________________________ora_________________________________control.

52

21.ThegrindingofaTungstenelectrodeusedinTIGweldingshouldbedone______________________________,

not__________________________________.

22.Whenweldingaluminumtheweldingmachineissettoan__________________outputwaveformbecauseit

causesa________________________________thatbreaksup____________________________.

23.Agoodindicationandmeasureofweldqualityfortitaniumistheweld________________________.Abright

_______________________________weldindicatesthattheshieldingissatisfactory.

24.Whatfourtypesofweldscommonlyusedinflatpositionwelding:

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

25.Stressesdevelopedbyheatingandcoolingduringweldingneedtoberelievedor________________________

and________________________________ofthesheetswilloccur.

26.Ifapartialreplacementofatubeisnecessary,makean_________________________sleevesplice,especially
whereyouwantasmoothtubesurface.

27.Dentsataclusterweldcanberepairedbyweldinga_______________________________________________
overthedentedarea.

28.Adamagedtubularsectioncanberepairedusingwelded______________________________reinforcements.

29.Thespringsteelpartofaspringsteelleaveis____________________________________andshouldnot

be__________________________________on.

30.Thepreferredmethodtorepairanenginemountmemberisbyusinga________________________________
replacementtube.

53
TRUEofFALSE

_______1.Frictionstirweldingisoneofthemostcommonweldingtechniques.

_______2.Gasweldingwasthemostcommonweldingmethodforthick(over3/16)tillthe1950s.

_______3.ThetemperaturegeneratedbySMAWishotterthangaswelding.

_______4.GMAW(MIG)weldingisanimprovementoverSMAW(stick)welding.

_______5.GTAW(TIG)usesaconsumablerodandafiller.

_______6.Plasmacuttingsystemscancutaluminumandstainlesssteel.

_______7.Theacetylenepressuregaugeshouldneverbesethigherthan20psiforweldingorcutting.

_______8.Theacetylenehoseisredandhaslefthandthreads.

_______9.Theflashbackarrestorpreventsthereverseflowofgas.

_______10.Abackfireisamomentarybackwardflowofthegasesatthetorchtip.

_______11.Weldingeyewearusedforgasweldingcanalsobeusedforarcweldingprocesses.

_______12.Weldingtipshaveanumberofholesandcuttingtipshaveonehole.

_______13.Openthetorchoxygenvalveaquartertoahalfturnwhenlighteningthetorch.

_______14.Theneutralflameburnshigherthanthecarburizingflame.True/false

_______15.Whenshuttingdowntheweldingequipmenttheoxygenvalveisclosedfirst.

_______16.Forweldingthickmetalsorheavyplate,atechniquecalledbackhandweldingcanbeused.

_______17.Maintainaslightexcessofacetyleneformoststeels,andaneutralflameforstainless

_______18.Gasweldingofsomealuminumalloyscanbeaccomplishedsuccessfully.

_______19.Weldingmagnesiumisdonewithaslightlycarburizingflame.

_______20.PuretungstenelectrodeshavebetterelectronemissioncharacteristicsthanThoriatedelectrodes.

_______21.WhenTIGweldingaluminumtheweldingequipmentisswitchedtoaACoutputwaveform.

_______22.TigweldingoftitaniumisperformedusingACstraightpolarity.

_______23.Expansionandcontractioncausedbyheatduringtheweldingprocesshaveatendencytobuckleand
warpthinsheetmetalsheets.

_______24.Tackweldingatintervalsofthejointcouldcontroltheexpansionofthesheetsthatarewelded.

_______25.Adamagedtubularsectioncanberepairedusingaformedsteelpatchplate.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter5,SectionAAircraftWelding

name:____________________________________________________________

54
Chapter5SectionB
KnowledgeApplicationQuestions

1.Whatisthepreferredmethodofweldingmagnesium?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

2.Whatisasafetyhazardassociatedwithweldingmagnesium?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

3.Whatmustbedoneintheweldzonetosuccessfullyweldtitanium?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

4.Whyisitnecessarytousefluxinallsilversoldering?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

5.Whattypeofflameisusedforsilversoldering?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

6.Whattypeofrepaircouldbemadeforadentedsteeltubeclusterjoint?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

7.Whatmethodcanbeusedtoinsertatightfittinginnersleeveintoatubularrepair?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

8.Howisasoftflameobtainedwithoutreducingthermaloutput?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

9.Whatisthemostextensivelyusedmethodofweldingaluminum?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

55

10.Whatvalveshouldbeturnedofffirstwhenextinguishingatorch?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

11.Whatprocedurewillcontrolexpansionwhenweldingajoint?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

12.Whatsafetyprecautionshouldbetakenwhengasweldinghasbeencompleted?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

13.Whatmustbedonewithheattreatedaluminumalloysafteraweldingrepairhasbeenmade?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

14.Whatistheresultofinsufficientpenetration?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

15.Whattypeofweldingcauseslessbucklingandwarpingthangaswelding?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

16.Whatisgasshieldedarcwelding?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

17.Whataresomeadvantagesofgasshieldedarcwelding?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________


_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter5,SectionBAircraftWelding

name:____________________________________________________________

56
Chapter5SectionC
FinalChapterExam

1.Edgenotchingisgenerallyrecommendedinbuttweldingaboveacertainthicknessofaluminumbecauseit:
a.helpsholdthemetalinalignmentduringwelding
b.aidsintheremovalorpenetrationofoxidesonthemetalsurface
c.aidsingettingfullpenetrationofthemetalandpreventslocaldistortion

2.Whichstatementconcerningaweldingprocessistrue?
a.Theinertarcweldingprocessusesaninertgastoprotecttheweldzonefromtheatmosphere.
b.Inthemetallicarcweldingprocess,fillermaterial,ifneeded,isprovidedbyaseparatemetalrodofthe
propermaterialheldinthearc
c.Intheoxyacetyleneweldingprocess,thefillerrodusedforsteeliscoveredwithathincoatingofflux

3.Whereshouldthefluxbeappliedwhenoxyacetyleneweldingaluminum?
a.Paintedonlyonthesurfacetobewelded
b.Paintedonthesurfacetobeweldedandappliedtotheweldingrod
c.Appliedonlytotheweldingrod

4.Whatpurposedoesfluxserveinweldingaluminum?
a.Removesdirt,grease,andoil
b.Minimizesorpreventsoxidation
c.Ensuresproperdistributionofthefillerrod

5.Whyarealuminumplates1/4inchormorethickusuallypreheatedbeforewelding?
a.Reducesinternalstressesandassuresmorecompletepenetration
b.Reducesweldingtime
c.Preventscorrosionandensuresproperdistributionofflux

6.Howshouldaweldingtorchflamebeadjustedtoweldstainlesssteel?
a.Slightlycarburizing
b.Slightlyoxidizing
c.Neutral

7.Oxidesformrapidlywhenalloysormetalsarehot.Soitisimportantwhenweldingaluminumtousea:
a.solvent
b.filler
c.flux

8.Ingaswelding,theamountofheatappliedtothematerialbeingweldediscontrolledbythe
a.amountofgaspressureused
b.sizeofthetipopening
c.distancethetipisheldfromthework

9.TheshieldinggasesgenerallyusedintheGasTungstenArc(GTA)weldingofaluminumconsistof
a.amixtureofnitrogenandcarbondioxide
b.nitrogenorhydrogen,oramixtureofnitrogenandhydrogen
c.heliumorargon,oramixtureofheliumandargon

57

10.Acetyleneatalinepressureabove15PSIis
a.dangerouslyunstable.
b.usedwhenareducingflameisnecessary.
c.usuallynecessarywhenweldingmetalover3/8inchthick.

11.Iftoomuchacetyleneisusedintheweldingofstainlesssteel,
a.aporousweldwillresult
b.themetalwillabsorbcarbonandloseitsresistancetocorrosion
c.oxidewillbeformedonthebasemetalclosetotheweld

12.InGasTungstenArc(GTA)welding,astreamofinertgasisusedto:
a.preventtheformationofoxidesinthepuddle
b.concentratetheheatofthearcandpreventitsdissipation
c.lowerthetemperaturerequiredtoproperlyfusethemetal

13.Whenabuttweldedjointisvisuallyinspectedforpenetration?
a.thepenetrationshouldbe25to50percentofthethicknessofthebasemetal
b.thepenetrationshouldbe100percentofthethicknessofthebasemetal
c.lookforevidenceofexcessiveheatintheformofaveryhighbead

14.Whyisitnecessarytousefluxinallsilversolderingoperations?
a.Tochemicallycleanthebasemetalofoxidefilm
b.Topreventoverheatingofthebasemetal
c.Toincreaseheatconductivity

15.Aweldingtorchbackfiremaybecausedby:
a.aloosetip
b.usingtoomuchacetylene
c.atiptemperaturethatistoocool

16.Whichstatementbestdescribesmagnesiumwelding?
a.Magnesiumcanbeweldedtoothermetals
b.Fillerrodshouldbenickelsteel
c.Fillerrodshouldbethesamecompositionasbasemetal

17.Enginemountmembersshouldpreferablyberepairedbyusinga:
a.largerdiametertubewithfishmouthandnorosettewelds
b.largerdiametertubewithfishmouthandrosettewelds
c.smallerdiametertubewithfishmouthandrosettewelds

18.Whatmethodofrepairisrecommendedforasteeltubelongerondentedatacluster?
a.Weldedsplitsleeve
b.Weldedoutersleeve
c.Weldedpatchplate

58

19.Weldingoverbrazedorsolderedjointsis:
a.notpermitted.
b.permissibleformildsteel.
c.permissibleformostmetalsoralloysthatarenotheattreated.

20.Aresurfacedsolderingironcannotbeusedeffectivelyuntilaftertheworkingfacehasbeen:
a.fluxed
b.polished
c.tinned

21.Inselectingatorchtipsizetouseinwelding,thesizeofthetipopeningdeterminesthe:
a.amountofheatappliedtothework
b.temperatureoftheflame
c.meltingpointofthefillermetal

22.Whyshouldacarburizingflamebeavoidedwhenweldingsteel?
a.Itremovesthecarboncontent
b.Ithardensthesurface
c.Acoldweldwillresult

23.Themostimportantconsideration(s)whenselectingweldingrodis:
a.currentsettingorflametemperature
b.materialcompatibility
c.ambientconditions

24.Averythinandpointedtiponasolderingcopperisundesirablebecauseitwill:
a.transfertoomuchheattothework
b.haveatendencytooverheatandbecomebrittle
c.cooltoorapidly

25.Whichstatementistrueinregardtoweldingheattreatedmagnesium?
a.Theweldedsectiondoesnothavethestrengthoftheoriginalmetal
b.Fluxshouldnotbeusedbecauseitisverydifficulttoremoveandislikelytocausecorrosion
c.Magnesiumcannotberepairedbyfusionweldingbecauseofthehighprobabilityofignitingthemetal

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter5,FinalChapterExamAircraftWelding

name:____________________________________________________________

59
Chapter 6 - Aircraft Wood

Chapter6SectionA
StudyAidQuestions

FillintheBlanks

1.Theidealrangeofmoisturecontentinawoodaircraftstructureis_______________percent,withanyreadings

over_________________percentprovidinganenvironmentforthegrowthoffungusinthewood.

2.Agoodindicationofmoisture,fungalgrowth,andpossible___________________isa____________________

or_________________________odor.

3.Aircraftthatareexposedtolargecyclicchangesof________________________and______________________

areespeciallypronetowoodshrinkagethatmayleadtogluejoint______________________________.

4.Gluedjointsaregenerallydesignedtotake___________________________loads.

5.Wood_____________________________anddry____________________________areusuallyeasytodetect.

_________________________maybeevidentaseitheradiscolorationorasofteningofthewood.

6.Darkdiscolorationorgraystainsrunningalongthegrainareindicativeof_______________________________.

7.Inspectstructuralmembersfor_____________________________failures,whichisindicatedbyruptureacross
thewoodfibers.

8.Tappingawoodstructurewithalightplastichammershouldproducea________________________________
sound.

9.__________________________isthepreferredchoiceofwoodandthestandardbywhichtheotherwood
typesaremeasured.

61
10.Allsolidwoodand______________________________shouldbeofthehighestqualityandgrade.

11.Allwoodsusedforstructuralrepairofaircraftareclassifiedas______________________________.

12.Pinknotclustersareacceptableiftheyproduceonlyasmalleffecton________________________________.

13.____________________________________areacceptableifcarefulinspectionfailstorevealanydecay.

14.Checksarelongitudinal__________________________extending,ingeneralacrosstheannualrings.

15.______________________________woodischaracterizedbyhighspecificgravity.

16.Someofthemorecommonadhesivesthathavebeenusedinaircraftconstructionandrepairinclude

__________________________________________,___________________________________________

_______________________________________and,__________________________________adhesives.

17.________________________________areausefulmeansofdetectingthepresenceofwaxonawoodsurface
orjoint.

18.Satisfactorygluejointsinaircraftshoulddevelopthe_______________________________ofthewoodunder

allconditionsof___________________________.

19.________________________________arethemostsatisfactorymethodoffabricatinganendjointbetween
twosolidmembers.

20.Adamagedsparmaybesplicedatalmostanypointexceptat_____________________________________,

________________________________________________________________________________________,

____________________________________________________________,orliftandinterplanestrutfittings.

62
TRUEorFALSE

_______1.Acertificatedmechanicwhohasnotperformedrepairstowoodenaircraftbeforeisnotallowedto
performrepairstoawoodaircraftstructure.

_______2.Wheninspectinganaircraftconstructedorcomprisedofwoodcomponentsthemoisturecontent
mustbeabove20%.

_______3.Someslightsectionalundulationorbulgingbetweenpanelsofaircraftusingsingleplywoodcovering
maybepermissibleifthewoodandgluearesound.

_______4.Gluedjointsaregenerallydesignedtotakebearingloads.
.
_______5.Darkdiscolorationofwoodorgraystainsrunningalongthegrainareindicativeofwaterpenetration.

_______6.Theconditionofthefabriccoveringonplywoodsurfacesdoesnotprovideanusefulindicationofthe
conditionofthewoodunderneath.

_______7.Compressionfailuresareindicatedbyruptureacrossthewoodfibers.

_______8.Whenduringaninspectionofawoodstructureasoftandmushyareaisfound,themechanicshould
disassembleandrepairthatstructure.

_______9.Douglasfiristhepreferredchoiceofwoodandthestandardbywhichotherwoodsaremeasured.

_______10.Allwoodsusedforstructuralrepairofaircraftareclassifiesashardwoods.

_______11.Wavy,curly,interlockedgrainareacceptable,iflocalirregularitiesdonotexceedlimitations
specifiedforspiralanddiagonalgrain.

_______12.Hardknotsarenotacceptableinwoodspeciesusedforaircraftrepair.

_______13.Checks,shakes,andsplitsareacceptableundercertainconditionsinwoodrepair.

_______14.Decayonaircraftwoodenpartsforrepairareneveracceptable.

_______15.Smoothevensurfacesproducedonplanersandjoinerswithsharpknivesandcorrectfeed
adjustmentsarethebestsurfacesforgluingsolidwood.

_______16.Theproperwaytopreparewoodsurfacesistosandthesurfacewitha180gritsandpaper.

_______17.Allgluingoperationsshouldbeperformedabove70Fforproperperformanceoftheadhesive.

_______18.Therepairstosolidorlaminatedsparsareneverpermittedandthesparshouldbereplacedwitha
newsparfromthemanufacturerortheholderofaPMAforthatpart.

_______19.Afabricpatchcouldbeusedtorepairholesnotexceeding1inchindiameter.

_______20.Aproperlypreparedandinstalledscarfpatchisthebestsrepairfordamagedplywoodandis
preferredformostskinrepairs.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter6,SectionAAircraftWood

name:____________________________________________________________

63

Chapter6SectionB
KnowledgeApplicationQuestions

1.Describewhatalaminatedwoodassemblyconsistsof?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

2.Howisaircraftplywooddifferentfromlaminatedwood?

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

3.Whatspeciesofwoodisusedasastandardforstrengthproperties?

____________________________________________________________________________________________

4.Howcanrotberevealedduringaninspectionofawoodstructure?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

5.Whattypesofgluesareusedinaircraftwoodstructurerepair?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

6.Whateffectsdoroomtemperaturehaveongluingwoodstructuresusingresinglueorepoxyadhesives?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________


7.Underwhatconditionaremineralstreaksacceptable?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

65

8.Arehardknotsacceptableinaircraftqualitywood?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

9.Explainwhycompressedwoodisnotacceptableforaircraftwoodstructures?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

10.Whyisitnecessarytoexamineallstainsanddiscolorationcarefully?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

11.Whyarelightsteelbushingssometimesusedinwoodenstructures?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

12.Whataretheresultsofnonuniformgluingpressure?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

13.Namethreemethodsthatareusedtoapplypressuretowoodgluejoints?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

14.Whatisthemosteffectivetypeofjointusedinsplicingstructuralmembers?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

15.Whydoesthestrengthofabeveledscarfjointdependontheaccuracyofthebeveledcut?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

66

16.Alwaysspliceandreinforceplywoodwebswithwhattypeofwood?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

17.Whatmethodwillpreventapatchandaplywoodpressureplatefromadheringtogetherduetoextrudingglue
fromthepatch?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________


18.Whatareasofawoodsparmaynotbespliced?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

19.Whyarebushingsmadeofplasticorlightmetalusedonwoodenstructures?

____________________________________________________________________________________________

20.Whatistheminimumtemperatureforcuringwoodjointswithresinglueorepoxyadhesives?

____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter6,SectionBAircraftWood

name:____________________________________________________________

67
Chapter6SectionC
FinalChapterExam

1.Whichstatementaboutwooddecayiscorrect?
a.Decaythatoccursbeforethewoodisseasoneddoesnotaffectthestrengthofthefinishedpiece.
b.Alimitedamountofcertainkindsofdecayisacceptableinaircraftwoodssincedecayaffectsthebinding
betweenthefibersandnotthefibersthemselves.
c.Decayisnotacceptableinanyformoramount.

2.Compressionfailuresinwoodaircraftstructuresarecharacterizedbybucklingofthefibersthatappearas
streaksonthesurface
a.atrightanglestothegrowthrings.
b.paralleltothegrain.
c.atrightanglestothegrain.

3.Gluedeteriorationinwoodaircraftstructureisindicated
a.whenajointhasseparatedandthegluesurfaceshowsonlytheimprintofthewoodwithnowoodfibers
clingingtotheglue.
b.whenajointhasseparatedandthegluesurfaceshowspiecesofwoodorwoodfibersclingingtotheglue.
c.byanyjointseparation.

4.Whenpatchingaplywoodskin,abruptchangesincrosssectionalareaswhichwilldevelopdangerousstress
concentrationshouldbeavoidedbyusing
a.circularorellipticalpatches.
b.squarepatches.
c.doublerswithanydesiredshapedpatches.

5.Laminatedwoodissometimesusedintheconstructionofhighlystressedaircraftcomponents.Thiswoodcan
beidentifiedbyits
a.parallelgrainconstruction.
b.similaritytostandardplywoodconstruction.
c.perpendiculargrainconstruction.

6.Pinknotclustersarepermittedinwoodaircraftstructureprovided
a.theyproduceasmalleffectongraindirection.
b.theyhavenomineralstreaks.
c.nopitchpocketsarewithin12.

7.Whichofthefollowingconditionswilldetermineacceptanceofwoodwithmineralstreaks?
a.Carefulinspectionfailstorevealanydecay.
b.Theyproduceonlyasmalleffectongraindirection.
c.Localirregularitiesdonotexceedlimitationsspecifiedforspiralanddiagonalgrain.

8.Afaintlinerunningacrossthegrainofawoodspargenerallyindicates
a.compressionfailure.
b.shearfailure.
c.decay.

69

9.Incasesofelongatedboltholesinawoodsparorcracksinthevicinityofboltholes,
a.itispermissibletoreamthehole,plugwithhardwood,andredrill.
b.thesparmaybereinforcedbyusinghardwoodreinforcingplates.
c.anewsectionofsparshouldbesplicedinorthesparreplacedentirely.

10.Whereisinformationfoundconcerningacceptablespeciessubstitutionsforwoodmaterialsusedinaircraft
repair?
a.AircraftSpecificationsorTypeCertificateDataSheets.
b.TechnicalStandardOrders.
c.AC43.131B.

11.Thestrengthofawelldesignedandproperlypreparedwoodsplicejointisprovidedbythe:
a.bearingsurfaceofthewoodfibers.
b.glue.
c.reinforcementplates.

12.TheIbeamwoodensparisroutedto:
a.increasestrength.
b.obtainuniformstrength.
c.reduceweight.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter6,FinalChapterExamAircraftWood

name:____________________________________________________________

70
Chapter 7 - Composites

Chapter7SectionA
StudyAidQuestions

FillintheBlanks

1.Whatarethethreeprimaryadvantagesofcompositematerials?

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

2.Namefiveapplicationsofcompositesonaircraft.

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

3.Listthetwomajorcomponentsofalaminate.

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

4.Listfourexamplesofhoneycombstructuresonaircraft.

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

5.ListfouradvantagesofThermoplastichoneycombmaterial.

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

71
6.WhataretwoadvantagestousingPolystyreneinsandwichstructures?

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

7.Listfourcompositemanufacturingdefects.

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

8.Listfoursourcesofcompositemanufacturingdefects.

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

9.Matrixcracks,ormicrocracks,cansignificantlyreducepropertiesdependantontheresinorthefiber/resin

interface,suchas_________________________________________________________________________and

________________________________________________________________.

10.Listthreetypesofdamagetothecompositesurfacethatisdetectableviaavisualinspection.

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

11.Listfourtypesofdiscrepanciesthatcanbedetectedwithavisualinspection.

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

12.Thesignalfromanunflawedregionisusedfor____________________________________________,andany

deviationfromthisunflawedsignal(period)indicatestheexistenceof________________________________.

13.Listfourcontaminantsthatprepregmaterialsmustbeprotectedfrom.

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

72
14.________________________________________________utilizesprecuredcompositedetailparts,andusesa
layerofadhesivetobondtwoprocuredcompositeparts.

15.Precuredlaminatesundergoingsecondarybondingusuallyhaveathin______________________________or

_________________________________peelplycuredontothebondingsurface.



16.List3advantagesofusingcompositedoublerstorepairmetalskincomponents.

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

17.Listthefourtypesofbleedouttechniques.

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

18.Atemporaryrepairmustmeetthe_____________________________________________butislimitedby
timeorflightcycles.

19.A____________________________repaircanbeusedtorepairdamagetoasandwichhoneycombstructure.

20.Waterinthehoneycombcorecould_________________________________________athighaltitudes.

21.Soldlaminatestructureshave______________________pliesthanthefacesheetsofhoneycombstructures.

22.Resininjectionrepairsareusedon________________________________structuresfor_________________
damagestoasolidlaminate.

23.Aircraftradomesaremadeof_______________________________________material.

24.Thepropertiesofa___________________________________________repairarenotasgoodasarepairwith

_________________________________material,butbyusinga______________________________method

thepropertiesofa___________________________________canbeimproved.

73
25.Thedisadvantageofbondedrepairsisthatmostrepairmaterialsrequire______________________________

_________________________________,and___________________________________procedures.

26.Boltedrepairsarenotdesirablefor________________________________________structureduetothethin

facesheetsthathavelimited_____________________________________strength.

27.Mostcompositeprimarystructuresfortheaircraftindustryarefastenedwith________________________or

______________________________fasteners

28.Drillbitsusedforcarbonfiberandfiberglassaremadefrom_______________________________materialor

____________________________________becausethefibersaresohardthat_________________________
drillbitswillnotlastverylong.

29.Countersinkingacompositestructureisrequiredwhen_____________________________fastenersareused.

30.Drillingincompositematerialrequire________________________speedsand_________________________
feedsthandrillinginmetallicstructures.

TRUEorFALSE

_______1.Compositematerialsconsistofacombinationofmaterialsthataremixedtogethertoachievespecific
structuralproperties.

_______2.TheFibersinacompositearetheprimaryloadcarryingelementofthecompositematerial.

_______3.Kevlaryarnsaretwisted,whileFiberglassyarnsarenot.

_______4.UnidirectionalTapeFibersareheldinplacebystitchingwithfineyardsorthreadsandhaveahigher
strengththanwovenfabrics.

_______5.SatinWeaveshavelesscrimpandareeasiertodistortthanaplainweave

_______6.SpecialscissorsareneededtocutAramidFibers

_______7.Ifthegraphenelayersorplanesstackwith3dimensionalorder,thematerialisdefinedasgraphite.

_______8.CarbonFibershavealowpotentialforcausinggalvaniccorrosionwhenusedwithmetallicfasteners
andstructures.

_______9.Thermoplasticmaterialscanrepeatedlybesoftenedbyanincreaseoftemperatureandhardenedbya
decreaseintemperature.

74

_______10.Sandwichconstructionhashighbendingstiffnessatminimalweightincomparisontoaluminumand
compositelaminateconstruction.

_______11.Aluminumhasthebeststrengthtoweightrationandenergyabsorptionofallthematerialsusedfor
honeycomb.

_______12.Bisectedhexagonalhoneycombisstifferandstrongerthanhexagonalcore.

_______13.AircraftgradePolystyrenehasatightclosedcellstructurewithnovoidsbetweenthecells.

_______14.Matriximperfectionsmaydevelopintodelimitations,whichareamorecriticaltypeofdamage.

_______15.Visualinspectionscannotfindinternalflawsinthecomposite,suchasdelaminations,disbands,and
matrixcrazing.

_______16.WhenperforminganAudibleSonicTest,thetappingrateneedstobeslowenoughtoproduce
enoughsoundsuchthatanydifferenceinsoundtoneisdiscernabletotheear.

_______17.WhenusingtheThroughTransmissionUltrasonicinspectionmethod,areaswithoutasignalloss
comparedtothereferencestandardindicateadefectivearea.

_______18.Themechanicallifeisshorterthanthehandlinglife.

_______19.Adhesivefilmisfrequentlyplacedintotheinterfacebetweenthestiffenerandtheskintoincrease
fatigueandpeelresistance.

_______20.CompositeMaterialscanbeusedtostructurallyrepair,restore,orenhancealuminum,steel,and
titaniumcomponents.

_______21.Toomanybleederpliescanresultinaresinrichrepair.

_______22.Manyhighstrengthprepregmaterialsinusetodayarenobleedsystems.

_______23.Pottedrepairsdonotrestorethefullstrengthofthepart.

_______24.Waterormoistureinhoneycombstructuresdoesnotaffectthestructureduringrepair.

_______25.Ascarfrepairismoreefficientlyinloadtransferthananexternalbondedpatches.

_______26.Aircraftradomesaremadeofatleast10pliesofKevlar.

_______27.ThedoubleVacuumDebulkprocesswillimprovepropertiesofawetlayuprepair.

_______28.Bondedrepairsarequickerandeasiertocarryoutthanboltedrepairs.

_______29.Titaniumorstainlesssteelfastenersareusedforboltedrepairsofcarbonfiberstructure.

_______30.SickleshapedKlenkdrillsareusedtodrillcarbonfiber.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter7,SectionAComposites

name:____________________________________________________________

75
Chapter7SectionB
KnowledgeApplicationQuestions

1.DescribethetermHomogeneousasitappliestolaminatestructures.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

2.DescribethetermAnisotropicasitappliestolaminatestructures.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

3.DescribethetermQuasiisotropicasitappliestolaminatestructures:

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

4.Whatbenefitdomostfabricconstructionsofferthatstraightunidirectionaltapesdonot?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

5.Whatisabenefitoftightlywovenfabricsonaerospacestructures?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

6.Nameonetypeofconductivematerialusedtoprotectcompositecomponentsagainstlighteningstrikes?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

77
7.WhyarePhenolicresinsusedforinteriorcomponents?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

8.Howmanystagesaretheretocuringresinsandwhatarethey?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

9.BrieflyexplainwhyprepregmaterialsmustbekeptinafreezeratzerodegreesFahrenheit.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

10.Bellshapedcorecells,orflexicore,isusedforwhatapplications?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________


11.Explainwhatthebenefitsareforusinghoneycombwithahighdensityandsmallcorecells.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________


12.Describewhatitmeansforaparttoberesinrich.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

13.Describewhatitmeansforaparttoberesinstarved.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

14.BrieflyexplaintheAudibleSonicTestingmethod.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

78
15.DescribethesoundindicativeofawellbondedsolidstructurewhenutilizingtheAudibleSonicTesting
method.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

16.DescribethesoundindicativeofadiscrepantareawhenutilizingtheAudibleSonicTestingMethod.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

17.DescribewhatcouldproduceafaultyresultwhenutilizingtheAudiblesonictest.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

18.BrieflydescribehowtheThroughTransmissionUltrasonicinspectionmethodworks.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

19.Ifacleanroomisnotavailableforprepregmateriallayup,whattechniquesareusedtoprevent
contamination?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________


20.Whatiscocuringanddescribeatypicalcocureapplication?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

21.Whatisthedifferencebetweenapermanentrepairandaninterimrepair?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

79

22.Whatistherestrictionofpottedrepairrelatedtoflightcontrols?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

23.Whydoeswater/moistureneedstoberemovedbeforearepairtoahoneycombpartiscured?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

24.Explaintheresininjectionrepairmethod

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

25.Describewhyaircraftradomesneedtobemadeofonly3or4pliesoffiberglass.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

26.DescribeindetailtheDoubleVacuumDebulkrepairprocess.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter7,SectionBComposites

name:____________________________________________________________

80
Chapter7SectionC
FinalChapterExam

1.WhatistheroleoftheMatrixcomponentinthecompositematerial?
a.TheMatrixistheprimaryloadcarryingelement
b.TheMatrixsupportsthefibersandbondsthemtogether
c.TheMatrixdeterminesthedirectionthatthecompositematerialwillbestrongest
d.TheMatrixisthestackingsequenceoftheindividualcompositeplies.

2.Whatdothestructuralpropertiessuchasstiffness,dimensionalstability,andstrengthofacomposite
laminatedependon?
a.Thecuringtemperature
b.Thesizeofthefibers
c.Thestackingsequenceoftheplies
d.TheMatrix

3.Inthisplyorientation,thepliesarestackedina0,45,45and90degreessequenceorina0,60and+60degree
sequences.Thesetypesofplyorientationsimulatethepropertiesofanisotropicmaterial.
a.BiDirectional
b.QuasiIsotropic
c.Isotropic
d.Unidirectional

4.WhatisanindividualFibercalled?
a.Splice
b.Roving
c.Filament
d.Tape

5.Whatthreetermsarecommonlyusedtodescribeabundleoffilaments?
a.Strands,Tows,Rope
b.Tows,Yarns,Roving
c.Yarns,Strands,Tows
d.Rope,Roving,Splice

6.Unidirectionaltapeproductshavewhichofthefollowingphysicalproperties?
a.Highshearstrengthperpendiculartothefiberdirection
b.Highcompressivestrengthacrossthefibers
c.Hightensilestrengthinthefiberdirection
d.Highshearandcompressivestrengthinthefiberdirection

7.KevlarisDuPontstrademarknameforwhattypeoffibers?
a.Thermoplastics
b.Polyester
c.Carbon
d.Aramid

81
8.WhatistheprimarydisadvantageofAramidFibers?
a.Highlysusceptibletoimpactdamage
b.Weakincompression
c.Hygroscopic
d.Bothbandc

9.Ifthegraphenelayersorplanesstackwithatwodimensionalorder,thematerialisdefinedas:
a.Carbon
b.Graphite
c.Aramid
d.Fiberglass

10.Whatisrequiredforaircraftcarbonfiberpartsthatarepronetolighteningstrike?
a.LighteningRods
b.Strappingtononconductiveaircraftparts
c.Alternatingaluminumplies
d.Lighteningprotectionmeshorcoating

11.WhatareCeramicfibersusedforonaircraft?
a.Propellers
b.Turbineblades
c.CompressorBlades
d.ExhaustNozzles

12.WhatcuretemperaturedoPolyamidesrequire?
a.Highcuretemperaturesinexcessof350DegreesFahrenheit
b.Highcuretemperaturesinexcessof450DegreesFahrenheit
c.Highcuretemperaturesinexcessof550DegreesFahrenheit
d.Highcuretemperaturesinexcessof650DegreesFahrenheit

13.WhereareBismaleimide(BMI)resinsused?
a.Aeroengines
b.Hightemperaturecomponents
c.Controlsurfaces
d.Bothaandb

14.Mosthoneycombmaterialsare_______________;thatis,propertiesaredirectional.
a.Anisotropic
b.Isotropic
c.Quasiisotropic
d.Heterogeneous

15.Honeycombcorecellsforaerospaceapplicationsaretypicallywhatshape?
a.Pentagons
b.Diamonds
c.Octagons
d.Hexagons

82
16.Whatshapearehoneycomboverexpandedcorecells?
a.Pentagons
b.Hexagons
c.Rectangles
d.Octagons

17.Whatisconsideredtobetheoptimalfibertoresinratio?
a.40:60
b.60:40
c.70:30
d.30:70

18.Whatcausesdelaminationstoform?
a.Matrixcracksthatgrowintotheinterlaminarlayer
b.Lowenergyimpact
c.Productionnonadhesionalongthebondline
d.AlloftheAbove

19.Whattypeofinspectionistheprimarymethodforinserviceinspectionsofcompositematerials?
a.AudibleSonicTesting
b.Visual
c.AutomatedTapTesting
d.Ultrasonic

20.Onwhattypeofcompositestructureistaptestingmosteffective?
a.Thinskintostifferbondlines
b.Honeycombsandwichwiththinfacesheets
c.Nearthesurfaceofthicklaminates
d.Alloftheabove

21.WhatUltrasonicInspectionmethodusestwotransducers,oneoneachsideoftheareatobeinspected?
a.ThroughTransmission
b.PulseEcho
c.UltrasonicBondtester
d.PhasedArray

22.WhatUltrasonicInspectionmethodusesasinglesearchunitasatransmittingandreceivingtransducerthatis
excitedbyhighvoltagepulses?
a.ThroughTransmission
b.PulseEcho
c.UltrasonicBondtester
d.PhasedArray

23.Whattypeofinspectionistheprimarymethodforinserviceinspectionsofcompositematerials?
a.AudibleSonicTesting
b.Visual
c.AutomatedTapTesting
d.Ultrasonic

83

24.Whatisthetypicalstoragelifeforprepregmaterial?
a.2to8months
b.4to10months
c.6to12months
d.8to14months

25.WhatisusedtoimprovethepeelstrengthofCobondedassemblies?
a.BoronPrepregtape
b.FilmAdhesive
c.SiliconAdhesive
d.EnhancedEpoxyresin

26.Whatisconsideredtobeapermanentrepair?
a.Meetthestrengthrequirementsbutislimitedbytimeofflightcycles
b.Meetthestrengthrequirementsbuthasadifferentinspectionschedule
c.Meetthestrengthrequirementsandthedurabilityrequirements
d.bandcarecorrect

27.Apottedrepairshouldnotbeusedfor_______________________?
a.Smallrepairstohoneycombstructure
b.Smallrepairstohoneycombenginecowlings
c.Smallrepairstohoneycombflightcontrols
d.Smallrepairstohoneycombspoilers

28.Scarftyperepairsuse__________________scarfanglestoeasetheloadintotherepair.
a.large
b.small
c.scarfangledoesnotaffecttheload
d.dependsontherepairmaterial

29.Whatconditioncouldaffectthesignaloftheaircraftradar?
a.Trappedwaterintheaircraftradome
b.Largepottedrepairsoftheaircraftradome
c.aandbarebothcorrect
d.aandbarebothwrong

30.Honeycombsandwichstructuresareoftenrepairedwith
a.Scarftypebondedrepair
b.Scarftypeboltedrepair
c.Anexternalboltedrepair
d.Aninternalbondedrepair

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter7,FinalChapterExamComposites

name:____________________________________________________________

84
Chapter 8 - Aircraft Painting

Chapter8SectionA
StudyAidQuestions

FillintheBlanks

1Paintismorethanaesthetics,itaffectsthe__________________________________oftheaircraftandprotects

the_________________________________oftheairframe.

2._______________________________________isatthetopofthelistwhencomparedtoothercoatingsfor
abrasion,stain,andchemicalresistantproperties.

3.Thereareseveralmethodsofapplyingaircraftfinish.Amongthemostcommonare:______________________

____________________________________,and_____________________________________.

4.Therearetwomaintypesofsprayequipment:_____________________________________________________

and____________________________________________________________.

5.Thethreemostcommontypesofspraygunsusedare:______________________________________________

________________________________________,and______________________________________________.

6.TheHVLPproductionspraygunisan______________________________mixgun.The___________________

and__________________________________ismixedinsidetheaircap.

7.Themostimportantpartofanypaintingprojectisthe______________________________________________.

8.The___________________________________controlknobofasprayguncontrolstheairflow(patternshape)

9.Primeristypicallyappliedusinga________________________________________________spraypattern.

85

10.Whilepaintingthesecondpasswilloverlapthefirstpassby__________________________percent.

11.Aquickcheckofthespraypatterncanbeverifiedbysprayingsome________________________________or

________________________________________throughthegun.

12.Apulsating,orspittingfanpatternmaybecausedbya_________________________,__________________

ventholeonthesupplycup,orthe______________________________maybeleakingaroundtheneedle.

13.Blushingisthedull________________________________________thatappearsinapaintfinish.

14.Pinholesaretheresultof___________________________________,_________________________________

or_____________________________________________.

15.Sagsandrunsarecausedbyapplying____________________________painttoanarea,byholdingthespray

gun_______________________________tothesurface,ormovingthegun____________________________
acrossthesurface.

16.Orangepeelreferstotheappearanceofa_________________________________surface.

17.Fisheyesappearas_____________________________________inthecoatingasitisbeingapplied.

18.Wrinklingisusuallycausedby_______________________________and______________________________
ofthepaintfinishduetoexcessivelythickorsolventheavypaintcoats

19.Spraydustcouldbecausedbyspraygunheld____________________________________fromthesurface,or

incorrectspraygun__________________________________.

20.Foraspotrepairthatrequiresblendingofthecoating,anareaabout___________________________times
theareaoftheactualrepairmustbeprepared.

86

TRUEorFALSE

_______1.Thetopcoatappliedtoexternalpartsoftheaircraftprotectagainstcorrosionanddeterioration.

_______2.Epoxyprimerisrecommendedforsteeltubeframeaircraftpriortoinstallingfabriccovering.

_______3.Oldertypezincchromateprimersaredistinguishablebyitsflatgreencolor.

_______4.Ifthepaintmaterialsaretoothick,theyarelikelytorunornotcoverthesurfaceadequately.

_______5.AHVLPsprayguntransfersmorepainttothesurfaceofthepaintedsurface.

_______6.TheHVLPspraygunisanexternalmixgun.

_______7.Freshairbreathingsystemsshouldbeusedwhensprayingpolyurethanepaintbecauseitcontains
isocyanides

_______8.TheZahncupisusedtomeasuretheviscosityoftheprimerorpaintsystem.

_______9.Alodineisnotusedwithaluminumaircraft,itismostlyusedwithcompositeaircraftstructures.

_______10.Theuppercontrolknobofthepaintguncontrolstheairflowandthebottomcontrolknobcontrols
thefluidflow.

_______11.Ifthespraypatternisoffsettoonesideortheother,thefluidvalvemaybeplugged.
.
_______12.Aspittingfanpatternmaybecausedbyaloosenozzle,cloggedventholeoraleakingpacking.

_______13.Whenpaintinganaircraft,startpaintingthelargesurfacesfirstandthanfillinthecornersandgaps.

_______14.Blushingisthedullmilkyhazethatappearsinapaintfinish.

_______15.Orangepeelcouldbecausedbynotenoughreducerortoolittleflashtimebetweencoats.

_______16.Themosteffectivewaytoeliminatefisheyesistoensurethatthetemperatureisabove70F.

_______17.Eachoperatorofanaircraftshalldisplayontheaircraft,marksconsistingoftheRomancapitalletter
U(denotingUnitedStatesregistration).

_______18.Theregistrationmarksmustbeatleast10incheshigh.Aglidermaydisplaymarksatleast3inches.

_______19.Onewaytotestiftheoldpaintistoapplyturbineoiltoasmallarea.Ifthepaintsoftenswithinafew
minutesthepaintsystemisanacrylicorepoxypaintfinish.

_______20.PlasticMediaBlasting(PMB)isaneffectivewayofstrippingpaintofcompositestructureswhich
causeslessdamagethansanding.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter8,SectionAAircraftPainting

name:____________________________________________________________

87

Chapter8SectionB
KnowledgeApplicationQuestions

1.Whatarethecommontypesofpaintusedonaircraft?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

2.Whyareoldzinctypeprimers(brightyellowcolor)notusedanymoreformodernaircraft.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

3.Whatwillhappeniftheportsinthehornofthespraygunaircaparebecomingplugged?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

4.Whatisthepurposeofprimers?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

5.Manyofthesolventsandthinnersusedinmodernfinishingsystemsaretoxic;whathealthsafetyprecaution
shouldthemechanicobserve?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

6.Whatarethreemethodsofapplyingpaint?

___________________________________________________________________________________________

7.Whatisthecauseforspraydust?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

89

8.Whatmaycausespraypaintsagsandruns?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

9.Whatcausesorangepeelspraymottle?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

10.Whatisablushingpaintfinish?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

11.Whatwillcauseablushingpaintfinish?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

12.Whatcouldbetheresultofapplyingacoatofpaintwhenthetemperatureofthedoperoomistoohigh?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

13.Whatareasmustbeprotectedfromdamagewhenusingpaintremover/stripper?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

14.Whatisthereasonforpainttouchupotherthanappearance?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

90

15.Whatisthemostcommonfinishsystemformoderntransportcategoryaircraft?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________


16.Namethreewaystostrippaintfromanaircraft

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

17.Describehowtoadjustaspraygunforpaintinglargesurfaces.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

18.Whatcouldcauseapulsatingorspittingfanpattern?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

19.Whatisthemosteffectivewaytoeliminatefisheyes?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

20.Whatisthelocationoftheregistrationmarkonfixedwingaircraft?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter8,SectionBAircraftPainting

name:____________________________________________________________

91
Chapter8SectionC
FinalChapterExam

1.Whichofthefollowingisahazardassociatedwithsandingonfabricsurfacesduringthefinishingprocess?
a.Overheatingofthefabric/finish,especiallywiththeuseofpowertools.
b.Staticelectricitybuildup.
c.Embeddingofparticlesinthefinish.

2.Whatislikelytooccurifunhydratedwashprimerisappliedtounpaintedaluminumandthenabout30to40
minuteslaterafinishtopcoat,whenthehumidityislow?
a.Corrosion.
b.Aglossy,blushfreefinish.
c.Adullfinishduetothetopcoat'sinkingin'toprimerthatisstilltoosoft.

3.Beforeapplyingaprotectivecoatingtoanyunpaintedcleanaluminum,youshould
a.wipethesurfacewithavgasorkerosene.
b.removeanyconversioncoatingfilm.
c.avoidtouchingthesurfacewithbarehands.

4.Whatistheusualcauseofrunsandsagsinaircraftfinishes?
a.Toomuchmaterialappliedinonecoat.
b.Materialisbeingappliedtoofast.
c.Lowatmospherichumidity.

5.Whichdefectinaircraftfinishesmaybecausedbyadversehumidity,drafts,orsuddenchangesintemperature?
a.Orangepeel.
b.Blushing.
c.Pinholes.

6.Ifmaskingtapeisleftonforseveraldaysand/orexposedtoheat,itislikelythatthetapewill
a.notsealoutthefinishingmaterialifthedelayorheatingoccursbeforespraying.
b.beweakenedinitsabilitytoadheretothesurface.
c.curetothefinishandbeverydifficulttoremove.

7.Whatisusedtoslowthedryingtimeofsomefinishesandtopreventblush?
a.Reducer.
b.Retarder.
c.Rejuvenator.

8.Whichtypeofcoatingtypicallyincludesphosphoricacidasoneofitscomponentsatthetimeofapplication?
a.Washprimer.
b.Epoxyprimer.
c.Zincchromateprimer.

9.Whichproperlyappliedfinishtopcoatisthemostdurableandchemicalresistant?
a.Syntheticenamel.
b.Acryliclacquer.
c.Polyurethane.

93

10.Aluminumpigmentindopeisusedprimarilyto
a.provideasilvercolor
b.aidinsealingoutmoisturefromthefabric
c.excludesunlightfromthefabric

11.Whatcouldhappenifthetobepaintedsurfaceisnotcleanandfreeofanytypeofcontaminants?
a.Thesurfacehastheappearanceoforangepeel
b.Thesurfacefeelsrough
c.Fisheyescouldappearonthesurface

12.Aroughsurfacethatfeelslikesandpaperisanindicationof?
a.spraydust
b.orangepeel
c.fisheyes

13.Whatcouldhappenifthepaintmaterialisnotproperlymixed?
a.fisheyes
b.orangepeel
c.wrinkles

14.Theregistrationmarksmustbeatleast_____incheshigh.Aglidermaydisplaymarksatleast_____inches.
a.8inches,4inches
b.10inches,6inches
c.12inches,3inches

15.ThepressureusedforaHVLPspraygunis__________thepressureusedforatraditionalspraygun.
a.lowerthan
b.higherthan
c.equalto

16.Aspraygunthatuseslowerpressureandhighervolumesofairiscalleda:
a.HVLPspraygun
b.Siphonfeedgun
c.Gravityfeedgun

17.With12highregistrationmarks,whatistheminimumspacerequiredfortheregistrationmarkN1683C?
Notes: 2/3xheight=characterwidth 1/6xheight=widthfor1
1/4x2/3height=spacing 1/6xheight=strokeorlinewidth
a.52inches
b.48inches
c.57inches

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter8,FinalChapterExamAircraftPainting

name:____________________________________________________________

94
Chapter 9 - Electrical

Chapter9SectionA
StudyAidQuestions

FillintheBlanks

1.OhmsLawdescribesthebasic_________________________relationshipsof___________________________.

2.Materialswitharesistancetocurrentflowhalfwaybetweenthebestconductorandthebestinsulatorsare

called_______________________________.Theirapplicationisinthefieldof__________________________.

3.Almostallmechanicaldevices,suchas____________________________and___________________________,
useelectromagneticinductiontoproduceelectricalpower.

4.AccordingtoFlemingslefthandrulethethumbrepresents__________________________________,theindex

fingerrepresents_____________________________,andthemiddlefingerdenotes_____________________.

5.DCsystemsthatrequireACcurrentusea(n)_________________________tomaketheswitchfrom24voltDC

to400__________________________________currentinordertooperatespecialtyequipment.

6.________________________________reactanceand_______________________________reactanceoppose

currentflowinACcircuits.Theymayalsocreatea_____________________shiftbetweenvoltageandcurrent.


7.Capacitanceofparallelplatesis________________________proportionaltothedistancebetweentheplates.

Therefore,ifthedistancedoublesthecapacitanceis_______________________by______________________.

8.InanACcircuitwherethereisnoinductanceorcapacitance,_____________________________isequaltothe

___________________________ofthecircuit.

95

9.Twomaintypesofbatteriesinclude_______________________and________________________.Theyare

identifiedbythematerialusedforthe_________________________.

10.Theemergencyrateisthetotal_________________________loadrequiredtosupporttheessentialbusfor

_________________________________minutes.

11.Unlikeleadacidbatteries,thestateofchargeofaNiCadbatterycannotbedeterminedbymeasuringthe

specificgravityofthe______________________________________electrolyte.Stateofchargeisfoundby

measuringthe_____________________________________withaNiCadbatterychargerandfollowingthe

___________________________________________.

12.InaserieswoundDCgenerator,whenloadincreases,thevoltage_____________________________.Thisis

becausethegreaterthecurrentthroughthefieldcoilstotheexternalcircuit,the________________________

theinducedEMFandthe_______________________________theoutputvoltage.

13.DCgeneratorcontrolsystemsareoftenreferredtoasvoltageregulatorsor____________________________.

Theyaredesignedtokeepthegenerator___________________________withinlimitsforallflightcondition.

14.DCalternatorscontaintwomajorcomponentsincludingthe______________________________windingand

the____________________________winding.Usingtheprocessof_________________________induction,

voltageisproducedandfedtotheaircraftelectrical____________________________________andcurrentis

producedtopoweranyelectrical_____________________________________.

15.AsolidstateregulatormonitorsDCalternatoroutput___________________________andcontrolsalternator

_____________________________________current.

16.Invertersare__________________________devicesthatconvertDCpowerto________________________.

DCpowerfeedspowertoanACdistribution_________________________thatcanbeeither26or115volts.

96

17.Constantspeeddrivescaneitherbeanindependentunitormountedwithinthe________________________.

AdualCSDandalternatorisknownasa(n)_____________________________________.

18.ACalternatorcontrolsthatmeasuretheintegrityoftheelectricalsystemincludethe_____________________

(BPCU)andthe__________________________________(GCU).

19.Awarninghorn,withthegearswitchintheupposition,soundswhenthe_____________________________

isreducedpastacertainthresholdandwhenthegearsquatswitchis_________________________________.

20.Duetoinflightvibrationand_________________________,conductorwireshouldbe___________________
tominimizefatiguebreakage.

21.Insulationresistancecanbemeasuredwitha_____________________________orinsulationtester,although

itmaynotgiveatruepictureofthe_______________________________oftheinsulation.

22.Theamountofcurrent___________________________isafunctionofthenumberofwiresinthebundleand

the__________________________ofthetotalwirebundlecapacitythatisbeingused.

23.Circuitresistancecanbedeterminedbycheckingthe_____________________________acrossthecircuit.As

longasthisvaluedoesnotexceedthelimitsetdownbythemanufacturer,theresistancevalueforthecircuit

isconsidered__________________________________.

24.Thereshouldbenomorethan________________splice(s)inanyonewiresegmentbetweentwoconnectors.

Splicesinbundlesmustbe_____________________________astominimizeanyincreaseinbundlesize.

25.____________________________aredevicesthatopenandclosecircuitsandtheyconsistofoneormore

pairofcontacts.Currentispermittedtoflowwhenthesecontacts___________________________.

97
MatchingQuestions
1.Matchthesediagramtypeswiththeirdescriptionsbelow

a.wiringdiagramsb.blockdiagramsc.pictorialdiagrams d.schematicdiagrams

_______1.Pictureofthecomponentsusedinsteadofconventionalelectricalsymbols

_______2.Indicatesthelocationofcomponentswithrespecttoeachother

_______3.Consistsofblocksthatrepresentseveralcomponents

_______4.Illustratesprincipleofoperation

_______5.Identifieseachcomponentwithinasystembyitspartandserialnumber

_______6.Aidintroubleshootingcomplexelectricalsystems

2. Matchtheseswitchtypeswiththeirdescriptionsbelow.

a.switches b.electromagneticswitches c.currentlimiters

_______1.Doublepolesinglethrow _______2.Relay

_______3.Solenoid _______4.Fuse

_______5.Toggleandrocker _______6.Circuitbreaker

3.Matchtheseswitchtypeswiththedescriptionordiagrambelow.

a.SPST b.DPST c.SPDT d.DPDT

_______1.Switchisoninbothpositions

_______2.Activatestwoseparatecircuitsatthesametime

_______3.Switchroutescurrentthrougheitherofthetwopaths

_______4.TurnstwocircuitsON&OFFwithonelever

_______5.Openandclosesasinglecircuit

_______6.MayhaveacenterOFFposition

_______7. _______8.

_______9. _______10.

98

4.Matchtheseaircraftlightingtypeswiththedescriptionsbelow.
a.anticollisionlights b.positionlights c.landingandtaxilights
d.wing e.inspectionlights

_______1.Lightspositionedinrecessedareasofthewingdesignedtoilluminatetheground

_______2.Rotatingbeamlightsinstalledonthetopofthefuselageortail

_______3.Consistsofonered,onegreen,andonewhitelight

_______4.Lightsthatilluminatetheleadingedgeofthewings

_______5.Hasawhitelightlocatedontheverticalstabilizer

_______6.Consideredasafetylight

_______7.Verypowerfullightdirectedbyaparabolicreflector

5. Matchthesefunctionswiththeirdescriptionsbelow.
a.VoltageRegulation b.OvervoltageProtectionc.ParallelGen.Operations
d.OverexcitationProtection e.DifferentialVoltagef.ReverseCurrentSensing

_______1.Ensuresallgeneratorvoltagevaluesarew/inaclosetolerancebeforeloadisbroughtonline

_______2.Adjuststhevoltageregulationcircuittoensureallgeneratorsoperatew/inlimits

_______3.Adjustsfieldcurrenttocontrolgeneratoroutput

_______4.Disconnectsageneratorfromabusintheeventitbecomesinoperative

_______5.Controlsageneratorthatisoutoflimitsduetoaparalleledsystemfailure

_______6.Openstherelaythatcontrolsthefieldexcitationcurrent

6.Placetheorderofsequenceoftheseeventsfromstarttofinish.(fromaf)

_______1.pilotexciterfieldcreatesamagneticfieldandinducespowerinthepilotexciterfield

_______2.viaEMF,mainalternatorfieldgeneratespowerinthemainarmature

_______3.outputofexciterarmatureisrectified

_______4.ACUreceivespoweroutputfrom1ofthearmaturesandsendsittotheexciterfield

_______5.outputofmainACarmatureis3phaseAC

_______6.exciterpermanentmagnetandarmaturestartprocess

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter9,SectionAElectrical

name:____________________________________________________________

99

Chapter9SectionB
KnowledgeApplicationQuestions

1.Acircuitwitha10lampanda24VDCbatteryhasacurrentofhowmanyamps?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

2.Whatistheresistanceofalampinacircuitwitha12VDCbatteryandacurrentvalueof3amps?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

3.Whatisthesystemvoltageofacircuitwitharesistanceof3.5andatotalcurrentof6.85A?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

4.Whatistheeffectivevalueofthevoltageifthepeakvalueis24V?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

5.Whatisthepeakvalueofthevoltageiftheeffectivevoltageis112V?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

6.Referringtothediagrambelow;inanACcircuitwithaninductancevalueof.175Henrysandvoltageof110Vat
60cyclespersecond,whatistheinductivereactance?

___________________________________________

101

7.Referringtothediagrambelow,whatistheimpedanceofthefollowingcircuit?

_____________________________________________

8.Referringtothediagrambelowandtherelationshipbetweenimpedance,resistance,andreactance,findthe
totalimpedanceofthefollowingcircuit.

_____________________________________________

9.Referringtothediagrambelow;findthetotalimpedanceofthefollowingcircuit.

_____________________________________________

10.Whatistheequationfortruepower?__________________________________________________________

11.WhatistheunitforT.P.?___________________________________________________________________

102

12.Referringtothediagrambelow,whatisthetotalimpedanceofthefollowingparallelACcircuit?


C=150 F R=40L=.01H

_____________________________________________

13.Whatistheequationforapparentpower?______________________________________________________

14.WhatistheunitforA.P.?____________________________________________________________________

15.Referringtothecircuitdiagrambelow,findTP,AP,andPF.(RT=5.6)


_____________________________________________

103

16.Usingbelowchartfig.112;determinethewiresizeforthefollowingconditions:
voltagesource115volt,continuousoperation
conduit
wirerunof160ft
10Aloadcapacity
_____________________________________________

17. Usingbelowchartfig.112;determinethewiresizeconsideringthefollowing:
voltagesource14V,continuousoperation
conduit
wirerunlengthof7ft
7Aloadcapacity

_____________________________________________


Figure112ConductorChartcontinuousflow

104

18.Usingthebelowchartfig.113;determinethewiresizeconsideringthefollowing:
Voltage28V,intermittentflow conduit
wirerunof24 10Aload
___________________________________________


Figure112ConductorChartintermittentflow

105

19.Usingbelowchartfig.114;Whatisthefreeairratingofasize18wireatanambienttemperatureof70C
andratedat195C?
19570=125,wiresize18

__________________________________________________________________________________________

20.Usingbelowchartfig.114;Whatisthefreeairratingofa#22wireatanambienttemperatureof40Cand
ratedat200C?
20040=160,wiresize22

__________________________________________________________________________________________


Figure114singlecopperwireinfreeair

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter9,SectionBElectrical

name:____________________________________________________________

106
Chapter9SectionC
FinalChapterExam

1.WhatdoesOhmslawstate?
a.thecurrentthroughaconductorisdirectlyproportionaltothevoltageappliedtothatconductor,and
inverselyproportionaltotheresistanceoftheconductor.
b.thecurrentthroughaconductorisinverselyproportionaltothevoltageappliedtothatconductor,and
directlyproportionaltotheresistanceoftheconductor.
c.thecurrentthroughaconductorisdirectlyproportionaltothevoltageappliedtothatconductorand
proportionaltotheresistanceoftheconductor.
d.thecurrentthroughaconductorisinverselyproportionaltothevoltageappliedtothatconductorand
proportionaltotheresistanceoftheconductor.

2.Whatisvoltage?
a.electricalpressure
b.force
c.bothA&B
d.noneoftheabove

3.Whichofthefollowingisageneralruleregardingresistanceinacircuit.
a.Thelessertheresistance,thelesserthecurrentflow.
b.Thegreatertheresistance,thelesserthecurrentflow.
c.Thegreatertheresistance,thegreaterthecurrentflow.
d.Theresistancedoesnotaffectthecurrentflowonlyvoltagedoes.

4.Whatistherelationshipbetweenresistanceandthelengthofametallicconductor?
a.directlyproportional
b.indirectlyproportional
c.norelationship

5.Whatdeterminesthepolaritywithintheconductor?
I.directioninwhichthewireismoved
II.positionofthenorthandsouthpolesofthefield
III.thespeedinwhichtheconductorismovedthroughthemagnets
a.onlyI
b.onlyII
c.bothI&II
d.bothII&III

6.TheeffectivevalueinanACsystemhasthesamevalueaswhichofthefollowing.
a.DCvoltageofthesamevalue
b.peakvaluesofthesinewave
c.therootmeansquareoftheinstantaneousvoltage
d.1.41xpeakvoltage

7.Whatistherelationshipbetweenperiodandfrequency?
a.Pisinverselyproportionalto
b.isinverselyproportionaltoP
c.Pisequalto
d.isequaltoP

107
8.Whatarethetermsusedtodescribewavelengthsthatareoutofphasewithoneanother?
a.leadandlag
b.forwardandaft
c.positiveandnegative
d.noterms,justdenotedindegreesoutofphase

9.Whatisresistancesrelationshiptocurrentandvoltage,respectively?
a.inverselytocurrentandinverselytovoltage
b.inverselytocurrentanddirectlytovoltage
c.directlytocurrentandinverselytovoltage
d.directlytocurrentanddirectlytovoltage

10.Whatisinductance?
a.acoilsabilitytoresistanychangeincurrentthroughit
b.acoilsabilitytoholdanelectriccharge
c.thetotaloppositiontocurrentflow

11.Whatistherelationshipofinductivereactancetoinductanceandfrequency,respectively?
a.indirectlyproportional,indirectlyproportional
b.indirectlyproportional,directlyproportional
c.directlyproportional,directlyproportional
d.directlyproportional,indirectlyproportional

12.Whatisthepurposeofacapacitorinanelectriccircuit?
a.reducestheinductivereactance
b.reservoirthatstoreselectricity
c.opposestheflowofcurrent
d.increasesthevoltage

13.Whatiscapacitivereactance?
a.theoppositiontocurrentflowduetotherateofchargeofthecircuit
b.rateofchargeofthecircuit
c.thephaseshiftcausedbythechargingofacapacitor

14.WhichofthefollowingisNOTapartofimpedance?
a.resistance
b.current
c.inductivereactance
d.capacitivereactance

15.Whatisadrychargedcellbattery?
a.onethatisknownasfloodedorwet
b.onethathasbeendischargedbeforeitwasrecharged
c.onethatdoesnotrequireanelectrolyte
d.onethathas6cellsforanopencircuitvoltageof24V

108
16.HowmuchvoltagedoeseachcellinaNiCadbatterydeliverduringdischarge?
a.1.2V
b.1.4V
c.2.0V
d.2.4V

17.NiCadbatteriestypicallyhaveafaultprotectionsystemthatmonitorstheconditionofthebattery,whatdoes
itmonitor?
I.overheatcondition II.lowheatcondition
III.cellimbalance IV.openandshortcircuit
a.I&IIonly
b.I&IIIonly
c.III&IVonly
d.alloftheabove

18.Howcantheoverallbatteryconditionbechecked?
a.loadcheck
b.closedcircuitvoltage
c.resistancecheck
d.openscircuitcurrentrating

19.Whatchargingmethodispreferredforleadacidbatteries?
a.constantcurrent
b.constantvoltage
c.varyingcurrent
d.varyingvoltage

20.Whatisthebenefitoftheconstantcurrentchargingmethod?
a.prolongsthelifeofthebattery
b.thereisnopotentialforthebatterytooverheatorgasexcessively
c.fastestchargingmethodforaircraftbatteries
d.multiplebatteriesofvaryingvoltagescanbechargedtogether

21.WhatchargingmethodispreferredforNiCadbatteries?
a.constantcurrent
b.constantvoltage
c.varyingcurrent
d.varyingvoltage

22.WhereisthevoltageinducedinaDCgenerator?
a.armature
b.sliprings
c.stator
d.brushes

23.WhichoftheseisNOTamajorpartofaDCgenerator?
a.fieldframe
b.fieldwinding
c.rotatingarmature
d.brushassembly

109
24.Whyarethepoleslaminated?
a.reduceeddycurrentloses
b.reducesarching
c.prolongsthelifeofpoles

25.HowisthecompoundDCgeneratorconnected?
a.fieldwindingsinseriesandinparallel
b.fieldwindinginseries,armatureinparallel
c.armatureinseries,fieldwindinginseries

26.Whatisthedownsidetoseriesgenerators?
a.difficulttotroubleshoot
b.poorvoltageregulation
c.theyrequireafieldrheostat
d.thecominginspeedishigherthanthatofparallelorcompound

27.Howisthevoltageinashuntgeneratorcontrolled?
a.rheostat
b.capacitor
c.resistor
d.rectifier

28.Whatis/aretheadvantage(s)ofastartergenerator?
a.savesspaceandweight
b.easiertostartengine
c.unitissimplisticindesign

29.ModernGCUsforhighoutputgeneratorsusewhattypeofelectroniccircuitstosenseoperations?
a.loopcircuits
b.opencircuits
c.closedcircuits
d.solidstatecircuits

30.Whatvoltagesensitivedeviceisfoundinalmostallvoltageregulatingcircuitry?
a.zenerdiode
b.excitationrelay
c.solenoid

31.Whatis/arethebenefit(s)ofDCalternatorsoverDCgenerators?
a.lighter,morereliable
b.lighter,moreefficient
c.lessspace,easiermaintenance
d.easiermaintenance

32.HowmanywirecoilsdoesatypicalDCalternatorhave?
a.1
b.2
c.3
d.4

110
33.WhyareACUsconsideredmorereliablethanvibratingtyperegulators?
a.nomovingparts
b.donotrequiretransistorcircuitrytocontrolcurrent
c.provideadditionprotectionlikeoverandundercurrentprotection
d.moresimplistic

34.Whichofthefollowingisthepropersymbolforadiode?

a.
b.

c.

d.

35.Howdozenerdiodesandregulardiodesdiffer?
a.zenerdiodescanwithstandhighervoltagevalues
b.regulardiodeshaveabreakdownvalue
c.zenerdiodespermitreversecurrentflowoveracertainvoltage
d.zenerdiodespermitreversecurrentflowoveracertaincurrent

36.TheexcitergeneratorinanACalternatorcontainswhichofthefollowing?
a.armatureandpermanentmagnet
b.armatureandfieldwinding
c.armatureandfieldwindings

37.WhatisthefrequencyofanACalternator?
a.400Hz5%
b.400Hz10%
c.400Hz15%
d.400Hz20%

38.HowdoesthespeedcontrolunitofaCSDadjustthehydraulicpressuretocontroloutputspeed?
a.pistonpump
b.wobbleplate
c.gearreduction
d.valveassembly

39.Whyarestartermotorscontrolledthroughasolenoid?
a.topreventdamageincaseofstartermalfunction
b.topreventareversepolarityconnection
c.highvoltagedrawrequiredforstart
d.highamperagedrawrequiredforstart

40.Whatisoneofthemostimportantpiecesofinformationwhenanalyzing/troubleshootingthelandinggearvia
theelectricaldiagrams?
a.knowingthecurrentvalueforeachsegmentofthecircuit
b.knowingthedifferentcircuitsandhowtheyrelatetooneanother
c.knowingthegearpositiontoensurecorrectoperation
d.determiningwhetherthereisashortoranopeninthecircuit

111
41.WhatisanLRU?
a.linereplacementunit
b.linereverserunit
c.lineredundantunit
d.lineresistorunit

42.(Refertofigure1)Whenthegearupswitchesareinthenotuppositionwheredoescurrentflowthrough?
a.thoughterminal2,thesquatswitch,andthedownsolenoid
b.throughterminal1,thesquatswitch,andtheupsolenoid
c.throughterminal3totheupmotor
d.throughterminal2,thesquatswitch,andtheupsolenoid

43.(Refertofigure1)Whathappenswhenthesquatswitchisactivated(ground)andthegearswitchisintheup
position?
a.thegearwillnotretract
b.thegearwillnotretractandawarninghornwillsound
c.thegearwillretract


Figure1

112

44.(Refertofigure2)WhatcontactsmustbeclosedfortheAPUgentopowerACbus1?
a.APB,GB2
b.APB,GB1
c.APB,BTB1
d.APB,BTB2

45.(Refertofigure2)Intheeventthatallgeneratorsfail,ACisavailablethroughwhichofthefollowing?
a.ACESSINV
b.ACESS
c.STATINV
d.ESSTR


Figure2

46.Whatdeterminesthesizeofanaluminumconductorwire?
a.currentrating
b.contactcurrentrating
c.bracketsusedtoholdthewireinplace
d.terminationhardwarerating

47.Whatisthemaximumdeflectionbetweensupportpointsofwirebundles?
a.
b.
c.
d.1

48.Whatisstaticbonding?
a.lowimpedancepathstotheaircraftsstructureforelectricalequipment
b.conductiveobjectsontheexterioroftheairframeelectricallyconnectedthroughmechanicaljointstothe
airframe
c.conductivepartssubjecttoelectrostaticchargingmechanicallysecuredthroughanelectricalconnectionto
theaircraftstructure

113

49.Whichtypeofswitchisspringloaded?
a.rotary
b.toggle
c.micro
d.rocker

50.(Refertofigure3)WhatbuspowerstheESSACBUSduringnormaloperation?
a.Gen1
b.Gen2
c.Gen3
d.APUGen


Figure3

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter9,FinalChapterExamElectrical

name:____________________________________________________________

114
Chapter 10
Aircraft Instruments

Chapter10SectionA
StudyAidQuestions

FillintheBlanks

1.Thereareusuallytwopartstoanyinstrumentorinstrumentsystem.Onepart________________________the

situationandanotherpartto____________________________it.

2.Originalanalogueflightinstrumentsareoperatedby_____________________pressureandtheuseof

_____________________________________.

3.3fundamentalpressuresensingmechanismsusedinaircraftinstrumentarethe_________________________,

the______________________________________________,andthe_____________________sensingdevice.

4.Modernhighperformanceaircraftuseadigitalairdatacomputerthatconverts__________________________

into___________________________________.

5.ADCsreceiveinputfromthe_____________________________sensingdevicesandprocessthemforuseby

numerous______________________________________.

6.Altimetersthatmeasureanaircrafts___________________________bymeasuring_____________________

oftheatmosphereareknownas____________________________altimeters.

7.Digitalflightinstrumentsperformallofthecalculationsfor_________________________________________
intheADC.

115

8.Manyhighperformanceaircraftareequippedwith______________________________formonitoringMcrit.

9.A_____________________isanelectricsystemusedfortransmittinginformationfromonepointtoanother.

10.AutosynsystemsaredistinguishedfromMagnasynsystemsbythefactthatthetransmitterandindicator

rotorsusedare_________________________magnetsratherthan__________________________magnets.

11.Thetachometerindicatesthespeedofthe________________________________ofareciprocatingengine.

12.Someturbineenginesuse___________________________________________forrpmindication,ratherthan

___________________________________system.

13.Anaccelerometerisusedtomonitor_________________________________actinguponanairframeandare

usedin________________________________________navigationsystems.

14.ModernaircraftAOAsensorsunitssendoutputsignalstothe_______________________________.

15.Solidstatemagnetometerscannotonlysensethe____________________________totheearthmagnetic

poles,butalsothe_________________________________ofthefluxfield.

16.Gyroinstrumentsaredrivenby:_________________________________,______________________________

or_____________________________________________

17.Theattitudeindicator,or_________________________________,provides___________________________

and__________________________information.

18.Automaticpilotsystemsarecapableofkeepingaircraftstabilized__________________________________,

___________________________________,and________________________________.

116

19.Thefourbasiccomponentsofanautopilotsystemare:

_______________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________

20.TheElectronicAttitudeDirectorIndicator(EADI)isanadvancedversionof_____________________________

and_____________________________________________indicators.

21.The____________________________systemautomaticallymonitorstheairframeandenginesystemsand
alertstheflightcrewincaseofasystemfailure.

22.Thehighestlevelofautomatedflightsystemisthe_______________________________________________.

23.TheFMScoordinatestheadjustmentof_________________________,______________________________,

and___________________________parameterseitherautomaticallyorbyinstructingthepilothowtodoso.

24.WhenanaircraftistobeoperationalunderIFR,analtimetertestmusthavebeenperformedwithinthe

previous_____________________months.

25.Compassmagneticdeviationiscausedby______________________________interferencefromferrous

materialsandoperating_______________________________componentsinthecockpit.

TRUEorFALSE

_______1.Directsensinginstrumentssenseanddisplaytheinformationallinoneinstrument.

_______2.Thethreebasickindsofinstrumentsareclassifiedas:flightinstruments,engineinstruments,and
environmentalcontrolinstruments.

_______3.InaBourdontubethehigherthepressureofthefluid,themorethetubestraightens.True/false

_______4.ManyflightinstrumentsuseaBourdontypeofsensingdevice.

_______5.Solidstatepressuresensingsystemsareinternalsensingsystems.

_______6.Theenginepressureindicator(EPR)comparesthetotalexhaustpressuretothepressureoftheram
airattheinletoftheengine.

117

_______7.Trueairspeedistherelationshipbetweentheramairpressureandstaticairpressure.

_______8.Thecalculationsofcalibratedairspeedformodernaircraftwithdigitalinstrumentsareperformedby
theADC.

_______9.Aircraftwithdirectcurrentsystems(DC)oftenusesynchrosystemsfortransmittinginformation
fromonepointtoanother.

_______10.Tachometersusedforturbineenginesmonitorthespeedofthecompressorsectionoftheengine.

_______11.TwotypesofAngleofAttacksensorsusedinaircraftarethevanetypewhichusesanalphavane
externallymountedtotheoutsideofthefuselageandtheothertypeusestwoslotsinaprobethat
extendsoutofthesideofthefuselage.

_______12.SomeAOAsystemsincorporateastickpusheractuatorthatpushesthecontrolyokebackwardsto
lowerthenoseoftheaircraft.

_______13.Twocommonapplicationofthermocouplesare:cylinderheadtemperatureinreciprocatingengines
andexhaustgastemperatureinturbineengines.

_______14.Totalairtemperature(TAT)isthestaticairtemperatureminusanyloweringintemperaturecaused
byflyingathighaltitudes.

_______15.Magneticdeviation,variationanddiperrorsareerrorsassociatedwithamagneticcompass?

_______16.Theprocessforknowinghowtoadjustformagneticvariationisknownasswingingthecompass.

_______17.RingLaserGyros(RLG),MicroelectromechanicalsystemsandAttitudeHeadingandReference
Systems(AHRS)areexamplesofattitudeanddirectionalsystemsusedonmodernaircraft.

_______18.Thesensingelementsofanautopilotsystemare:theattitudeanddirectionalgyros,theturn
coordinator,magneticcompass,andanaltitudecontrol.

_______19.Theoutputelementsofanautopilotsystemaretheservosthatcauseactuationoftheflightcontrol
surfaces.

_______20.Theelectronicflightinstrumentsystemreplacestheattitudeindicatorandverticalgyrobycathode
raytubes(CRT)orLCDsthatdisplayEADIandEHSIpresentations.

_______21.TheEICASmonitorsengineandairframeparametersanddoesntutilizetraditionalgauges.

_______22.MaintenancepersonnelcanaccesstheEICAStoaccessdatarelatedtoafailureevent.

_______23.Themastercautionlightsontheenunciatorpanelcannotbecancelledbytheflightcrew.

_______24.Instrumentpanelsareusuallyshockmountedtoabsorbhighfrequency,highamplitudeshocks.

_______25.Theoriginalequipmentmanufacturerwillputcoloredrangemarkingsontheinstrumentfacein
accordancewiththetypecertificatedatasheet.


_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter10,SectionAAircraftInstruments

name:____________________________________________________________

118
Chapter10SectionB
KnowledgeApplicationQuestions

1.Whatisusedasareferenceforrangemarkinginstruments?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

2.Whatdoesayellowarconaninstrumentdialindicate?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

3.Whataircraftinstrumentmaybeusedtocheckamanifoldpressureindicatorforcorrectindication?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

4.Whatindicationerrorsmaybefoundinaltimeters?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

5.Whatflightinstrumentsareusuallyconnectedtoapitotstaticsystem?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

6.Whatisrequiredafterreplacementofcomponentsconnectedtoapitotstaticsystem?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

7.Whatmethodsareusedtodriveturnandbankindicators?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

8.Whatisasynchrotyperemoteindicatingsystem?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

9.Whatdoesatachometerindicate?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

119

10 Whattypeofindicatingsystemisusedtomeasuretheturbineengineexhaustgastemperature?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

11 Whatisthemeaningofswingingacompass?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

12 Namethethreetypesofbasicinstrumentsusedinanaircraftflightstation?

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

13 Whatdoesanenginepressureindicator(EPR)compare?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

14.Whatequipmentperformsthecalculationofcalibratedairspeedformodernaircraftwithdigitalinstruments?

____________________________________________________________________________________________

15 DescribethetwotypesofAngleofAttacksensorsusedinaircraft.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

16.Whatarethetwomostcommonapplicationsofthermocouples?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

120

17.Whattypeofsystemdoesmonitorengineandairframeparametersanddoesnotutilizetraditionalgauges.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

18.Whatsystemcanbeaccessedbymaintenancepersonneltoaccessdatarelatedtoafailureevent.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

19.WhattypeofinstrumentmaintenancecanbeperformedbycertificatedA&Pmechanics?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

20.Nameatthreesystemsorcomponentsthatprovideinputtotheflightmanagementcomputer(FMC)?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter10,SectionBAircraftInstruments

name:____________________________________________________________

121
Chapter10SectionC
FinalChapterExam

1.Aircraftinstrumentpanelsaregenerallyshockmountedtoabsorb:
a.allvibration
b.lowfrequency,highamplitudeshocks
c.highfrequency,highamplitudeshocks

2.Aircraftinstrumentsshouldbemarkedandgraduatedinaccordancewith:
a.theinstrumentmanufacturer'sspecifications
b.boththeaircraftandenginemanufacturers'specifications
C)thespecificaircraftmaintenanceorflightmanual

3.Whatmarkingcolorisusedtoindicateifacoverglasshasslipped?
a.red
b.white
c.yellow

4.Thegreenarconanaircrafttemperaturegaugeindicates:
a.theinstrumentisnotcalibrated
b.thedesirabletemperaturerange
c.alow,unsafetemperaturerange

5.Whichinstrumentsareconnectedtoanaircraft'spitotstaticsystem?
1.Verticalspeedindicator. 2.Cabinaltimeter. 3.Altimeter.
4.Cabinrateofchangeindicator. 5.Airspeedindicator.
a.1,2,3,4,and5.
b.1,2,and4.
c.1,3,and5.

6.Anaircraftinstrumentpaneliselectricallybondedtotheaircraftstructureto:
a.actasarestraintstrap.
b.providecurrentreturnpaths.
c.aidinthepanelinstallation.

7 Aradaraltimeterindicates
a.flightlevel(pressure)altitude.
b.altitudeabovesealevel.
c.altitudeabovegroundlevel.

8 Wheninstallinganinstrumentinanaircraft,whoisresponsibleformakingsureitisproperlymarked?
a.Theaircraftowner.
b.Theinstrumentinstaller.
c.Theinstrumentmanufacturer.

123

9.Wheremayapersonlookfortheinformationnecessarytodeterminetherequiredmarkingsonanengine
instrument?
1.Enginemanufacturer'sspecifications. 2.Aircraftflightmanual.
3.Instrumentmanufacturer'sspecifications. 4.Aircraftmaintenancemanual.
a.2or4
b.1or4
c.2or3

10.Acertificatedmechanicwithairframeandpowerplantratingsmay:
a.performminorrepairstoaircraftinstruments
b.performminorrepairsandminoralterationstoaircraftinstruments
c.notperformrepairstoaircraftinstruments

11.Whichinstrumentsareconnectedtoanaircraft'sstaticpressuresystemonly?
1.Verticalspeedindicator 2.Cabinaltimeter 3.Altimeter
4.Cabinrateofchangeindicator 5.Airspeedindicator
a.1and3
` b.2,4,and5
c.2and4

12.Ifastaticpressuresystemcheckrevealsexcessiveleakage,theleak(s)maybelocatedby
a.pressurizingthesystemandaddingleakdetectiondye
b.isolatingportionsofthelineandtestingeachportionsystematically,startingattheinstrument
connections
c.removingandvisuallyinspectingthelinesegments

13.Whichofthefollowinginstrumentdiscrepancieswouldrequirereplacementoftheinstrument?
1.Redlinemissing 2.Caseleaking 3.Glasscracked
4.Mountingscrewsloose 5.Casepaintchipped6.LeakingatlineBnut
7.Willnotzeroout 8.Fogged
a.2,3,7,8
b.1,4,6,7
c.1,3,5,8

14.Theredradiallinesonthefaceofanengineoilpressuregaugeindicates:
a.minimumenginesafeRPMoperatingrange.
b.minimumprecautionarysafeoperatingrange.
c.minimumand/ormaximumsafeoperatinglimits.

15.ABourdontubeinstrumentmaybeusedtoindicate
1.pressure 2.temperature 3.position
a.1and2
b.1
c.2and3

124

16.Anaircraftmagneticcompassisswungtoupdatethecompasscorrectioncardwhen:
a.anannualinspectionisaccomplishedontheaircraft
b.thecompassisserviced
c.equipmentisaddedthatcouldeffectcompassdeviation

17.Whenswingingamagneticcompass,thecompensatorsareadjustedtocorrectfor:
a.magneticinfluencedeviation
b.compasscardoscillations
c.magneticvariations

18.Themaximumaltitudelosspermittedduringanunpressurizedaircraftinstrumentstaticpressuresystem
integritycheckis:
a.50feetin1minute
b.200feetin1minute
c.100feetin1minute

19.Abarometricaltimeterindicatespressurealtitudewhenthebarometricscaleissetat:
a.29.92inchesHg
b.14.7inchesHg
c.fieldelevation

20.ThefunctionofaCRTinanEFISisto:
a.allowthepilottoselecttheappropriatesystemconfigurationforthecurrentflightsituation.
b.displayalphanumericdataandrepresentationsofaircraftinstruments.
c.receiveandprocessinputsignalsfromaircraftandenginesensorsandsendthedatatotheappropriate
display.

21.Whoisauthorizedtorepairanaircraftinstrument?
1.Acertifiedmechanicwithanairframerating.
2.Acertificatedrepairmanwithanairframerating.
3.Acertificatedrepairstationapprovedforthatclassinstrument.
4.Acertificatedairframerepairstation.
a.1,2,3,and4
b.3and4
c.3

22.Asynchrotransmitterisconnectedtoasynchroreceiver:
a.mechanicallythroughlinkage.
b.electromagneticallywithoutwires.
c.electricallywithwires.

23.Aturncoordinatorinstrumentindicates:
a.thelongitudinalattitudeoftheaircraftduringclimbanddescent
b.bothrollandyaw
c.theneedforcorrectionsinpitchandbank

125
24.Whatdoesareciprocatingenginemanifoldpressuregaugeindicatewhentheengineisnotoperating?
a.Zeropressure
b.Thedifferentialbetweenthemanifoldpressureandtheatmosphericpressure
c.Theexistingatmosphericpressure

25.TheFlightManagementSystemcoordinatestheadjustmentof?
a.Flightparametersonly
b.Engineparametersonly
c.Engineparameters,flightparameters,airframeparameters

26.Thesystemthatautomaticallymonitorstheairframeandenginesystemsandalertstheflightcrewincaseofa
systemfailureiscalled?
a.EADI
b.AFCS
c.ECAM

27.Anaccelerometerisusedtomonitor___________________actinguponanairframe.
a.Pressures
b.Forces
c.Airflow

28.Theenginepressureindicator(EPR)compares
a.Thetotalexhaustpressuretothepressureoftheramairattheinletoftheengine.
b.Thetotalmanifoldpressuretothepressureattheinletoftheengine.
c.Thetotalturbinepressuretothepressureoftheramairattheinletoftheengine

29.Thermocouplesareusedtomonitor?
a.Cylinderheadtemperature
b.Exhaustgastemperatureinturbineengines
c.BothAandB

30.Whatsystemcanbeaccessedbymaintenancepersonneltoaccessdatarelatedtoafailureevent.
a.ADC
b.EICAS
c.EFIS

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter10,FinalChapterExamAircraftInstruments

name:____________________________________________________________

126
Chapter 11
Communication / Navigation

Chapter11SectionA
StudyAidQuestions

FillintheBlanks

1.Covalentbondsarecreatedwhentwoormoresubstancesshareelectronsintheir_______________________.

2.Electronflowoccurswhenthereare_____________________inthevalenceshellduetotheatomspreference

tohave__________________________________electronsinallofitsshell.

3.Afourlayerdiodeor__________________________hasthreejunctions.Thebehaviorofthejunctionscanbe

understoodbyconsideringittobetwointerconnected_______________________________transistors.

4.SCRsareoftenusedinhigh________________________situations,suchasswitching,phasecontrols,battery

chargers,and_______________________________circuits.

5.The____________________________andamountofvoltageappliedtothegatecanwidenandnarrowthe

____________________________duetoexpansionorshrinkageofthedepletionareaatthejunctionofthe
semiconductor.

6.DepletionmodeMOSFETsareconsiderednormally_____________________whileenhancedmodeMOSFETZs

arenormally__________________________.

7.Forwardbiased_________________________giveoffenergyvisibleinthe_________________characteristic
uniquetothematerialofthesemiconductorbeingused.

127
8.Transistorsareratedbythe__________________ofthecollectorcurrenttothe________________________
current,orBeta.

9.Common_____________________amplifiersareuniquebecausetheirconstructioncreatesasituationwhere

thebasecurrentis____________________________thanthecollectororemittercurrent.

10.Ifthereistobeanoutputvoltageina____________________gate,thentheinputscannotbothhavevoltage.

11.Theprimaryflightdisplaydisplaystheattitudeindicatorinthe________________________halfofthedisplay

andtheelectronic____________________________________indicatorontheotherhalf.

12.Theelectronicfieldcomponentandtheelectromagneticfieldcomponentareoriented_________________to

eachotherandat_________________tothedirectionthatthewaveistraveling.

13.2commonmethodsofmodulating_______________________wavesareamplitudeand_________________
modulation.

14.FMisconsidered_________________________________toAMforcarryinganddecipheringinformationon

_____________________________waves.

15.Theinformationsignalisseparatedfromthecarrierwaveportionofthesignalbythe____________________

____________________________________

16.Antennasare_________________________________.Theyradiateandreceivewavesincertainpatternsand

_______________________________.

17._______________________wireisusedtoconnecttransmittersandreceiverstotheir__________________.

18.VORsaremarkedonaeronauticalchartsalongwiththeirname,the____________________________totune,

anda________________________________________designator.

128

19.OnanRDFsystem,theonlywaytodetermineiftheaircraftwasflyingtoorfromthe_____________________

wastheincreasinganddecreasingstrengthofthe________________________signal.

20.Thecombinationofamagneticcompass,VOR,andADFintooneinstrumentisfoundonan_______________.

21.Verticalguidancerequiredforanaircrafttodescendforlandingisprovidedbythe_______________________

atanangleofabout________________.

22.A__________________________________transponderprovidespositiveidentificationand______________
ofanaircraftontheradarscreenofATC.

23.Trafficcollision_____________________________systems,orTCAS,are_________________________based
airtoairtrafficmonitoringandalertingsystems.

24.The_____________________________coveringtheantennamustonlybepaintedwithapprovedpaintto
allowradiosignalstopassunobstructed.

25.TheGPSreceivermeasurethetimeittakesforasignaltoarrivefrom_______________________transmitting

satellites.Thistwodimensionalpositionisexpressedin___________________________coordinates.

TRUEorFALSE

_______1.MaintenanceofavionicsistypicallydonebyatechnicianwithanAirframelicense.

_______2.Analogrepresentationsarediscontinuous.

_______3.DiodesactascheckvalvesinACcircuits.

_______4.Tetrodesareusedathigherfrequenciesthantriodes.

_______5.Semiconductorsarethoughttobethebuildingblocksofmodernelectronics.

_______6.Amaterialisaninsulatoriftheelectronsinthevalenceshellareallowedtomovefreelyfromoneshell
toanother.

_______7.Ntypesemiconductormaterialisalsoknownasadonormaterial.

_______8.Theamountofcurrentthatisallowedtopassthroughaforwardbiaseddiodeisindirectly
proportionaltotheamountofvoltageapplied.

129
_______9.AtransistorisasandwichofNtypematerialbetweentwopiecesofPtypematerialandviceversa.

_______10.Currenttothecollectoremitteristurnedonandoffbythevoltageappliedtothecollector.

_______11.Photodiodescancarrymorecurrentthanaphotonactivatedtransistor.

_______12.RectifierschangeACvoltagetoDCvoltage.

_______13.Commonemittercircuitsarecharacterizedbyhighpowergains.

_______14.Asinewaveisproducedbygeneratorswhenanconductorisrotatedinauniformelectricfield.

_______15.Digitallogicisbasedonthebinarynumberingsystem.

_______16.Allgatesareamplifierssubjecttooutputfluctuations.

_______17.ThenegativeORgateisthesameastheNORgate.

_______18.Therelationshipbetweenfrequencyandwavelengthisdirectlyproportional.

_______19.Groundwavesareusefulforlongdistancetransmissions.

_______20.VHFcommunicationradiosrangefrom118.0MHzto336.975MHz.

_______21.Thedistanceacarrierwavetravelsisdirectlyrelatedtotheamplificationofthesignalsenttothe
antenna.

_______22.Mostradiotransmittersgenerateanunstableoscillatingfrequencythatisstabilizedbyamixer.

_______23.Atransceiverisacommunicationradiothattransmitsandreceives.

_______24.Thestrongestsignalsreceivedaligndirectlywiththelengthoftheantenna.

_______25.ThecoursedeviationindicatoronanOBSisessentiallyverticalbutmovesrightandleftacross
graduationseachrepresenting5ofcoursedeviation.

_______26.TheVORcircuitryisstillactiveonanVOR/ILSreceiverwhentheILSlocalizerfrequencyistunedin.

_______27.DMEdistancesareslantdistanceswhichislongerthangrounddistance.

_______28.Transpondercode7700isusedforhijacksituations.

_______29.AradioaltimeterindicatesaltitudeinMSL.

_______30.TheaccuracyofGPSiswithin20metershorizontallyandcanbeimprovedto7.6meterswiththe
integrationofWAAStotheGPS.

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Chapter11,SectionACommunications&Navigation

name:____________________________________________________________

130
Chapter11SectionB
KnowledgeApplicationQuestions

1.Howareanalogelectricsignalsmodified?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

2.Whywerevacuumtubesreplacedbysolidstatedevicesinaircraftradios?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

3.Whyissilicononeoftheprimarymaterialsusedinthemanufacturingofsemiconductors?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

4.Whenisasemiconductorsaidtobereversedbiasedandwhatistheresultingeffectofthecircuit?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

5.Whatdoesitmeanwhenadiodeisdesignedwithazenervoltageandwhyaretheyused?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

6.WhataretheadvantagesofaUJToverabipolartransistor?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

131
7.WhatareShockleydiodesusefulfor?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

8.Whatarethethreebasicamplifiertypes?

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

9.ExplainwhataNOTgatedoesintermsofLogicinandoutandwhatthismeansinrelationtovoltage.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

10.WhatisthedifferencebetweenanEXCLUSIVEORandanOR?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

11.Explaintheprocessesoftransmittingradiowaves.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

12.Whatisdemodulationinamplitudemodulation?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________


13.Whyisfrequencymodulationconsideredsuperiortoamplitudemodulation?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

132
14.WhatarethethreefrequenciesproducedwhentwoACsignalsaremixedtogether?

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

15.Whatisthepurposeofthereceiverandwhatdoesitdo?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

16.Whatarethethreecharacteristicsofconcernwhenconsideringanantenna?

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

17.Howistheuseofonequarterofthewavelengthantennapossible?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

18.Whatisantennafielddirectivity?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

19.Describethedifferencebetweendipole,Marconi,andloopantennas.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

133
20.HowdoesaVORreceiverinterpretthesignalgeneratedbytheVORstation?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

21.DescribeeachoftheradiotransmissionsusedonanILSapproach.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

22.WhatdoespressingIDENTdoforanATCcontroller?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

23.WhenisTCASIIrequiredandwhatdoesitprovide?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

24.WhataretheadvantagesofADSBoverconventionalgroundbasedradar?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

25.WhatarethethreesegmentsofGPS?

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter11,SectionBCommunication/Navigation

name:____________________________________________________________

134
Chapter11SectionC
FinalChapterExam

1.Asof1994,howmanysatellitescurrentlymakeuptheglobalpositioningsystem?
a.15
b.24
c.31

2.Whichofthefollowisanadvantageofdigitalelectronicsoveranalogelectronics?
a.Continuouslyvoltagemodification
b.Easilymodifiedbysmallinputs
c.Betternoisecontrol

3.Whathappenstoelectronswhentheyareheated?
a.Expandtheirorbit
b.Contracttheirorbit
c.Nothing

4.Whatdoesatriodecontainthatadiodedoesnot?
a.Heater
b.Grid
c.Screengrid

5.Howisthescreengridpowered?
a.PositiveDCvoltage
b.PositiveACvoltage
c.NegativeACvoltage

6.Anegativelydopedsemiconductorisbondedtowhattypeofelement?
a.Anelementwith5valenceelectrons
b.Anelementwith3valenceelectrons
c.Anelementwith4valenceelectrons

7.Theeasewithwhichelectronmovementoccursatagivevoltageisaffectedbywhichofthefollowing?
a.Heat
b.Polarity
c.Conductivityofmaterial

8.Currentdoesnotflowthroughatransistorunless
a.Voltageisappliedtothebase,narrowingthedepletionareaatthebaseemitter
b.Voltageisappliedtothecollector,narrowingthedepletionareaatthecollectorbase
c.Voltageisappliedtotheemitter,wideningthedepletionareaatthebaseemitter

9.WhichofthefollowingisacharacteristicofanSCR?
a.hasazenervoltage
b.Hasabreakovervoltageratherthanabreakdownvoltage
c.Limitcurrentflowtoonedirection

135
10.Aunijunctiontransistordoesnothavewhichofthefollowing?
a.Basematerial
b.Collectormaterial
c.Emittermaterial

11.Channelisamaterialfoundinwhichofthefollowing?
a.UJT
b.SCR
c.FET

12.AthreephaseACcircuitisrectifiedwitha:
a.3diodecircuit
b.4diodecircuit
c.6diodecircuit

13.Commoncollectorcircuitsarecharacterizedby
a.Highcurrentgainand180voltagephaseshiftfrominputtooutput
b.Highcurrentgainbutpracticallynovoltagegain
c.Attenuatescurrentbutcausesahighgaininvoltage

14.Atankcircuitisonewith:
a.Acapacitorandcoilinparallelwithoneanother
b.Acapacitorandcoilinserieswithoneanother
c.Acapacitorandresistorinparallelwithoneanother

15.TheoutputofanegativeANDgateisthesameasa(n):
a.EXCLUSIVEOR
b.NAND
c.NOR

16.Whichofthefollowingisaconsolidationofvariouscommunicationandnavigationcontrols?
a.Audiopanel
b.Digitaltuner
c.BothA&B

17.WhatarethefrequencyrangesandnamesgiventoVLF,LF,andMFwaves?
a.3kHZ3mHZ,groundwaves
b.2MHz25MHz,surfacewaves
c.3kHz30mHz,skywaves

18.Whichofthefollowingfrequenciescontaintheinformationsignalafteritcomesoutofthemixer?
a.Radiofrequency
b.Localoscillatorfrequency
c.Differencefrequency

136

19.Howcanradioantennasbemadeeffectivelyshorter?
a.Addingaproperlyratedcapacitorinserieswiththetransmissionline
b.Addinganinducerinthecircuit
c.BothA&B

20.Foroptimumperformance,theimpedanceofthetransmissionlineshouldbeequaltotheimpedanceofthe
antenna,whichisoften
a.5ohms
b.50ohms
c.75ohms

21.WhenisthereferencesignalofaVORinphasewiththevariablesignal?
a.Magneticnorth
b.90
c.180

22.WhereareVORreceiversoperationallytestedandwhatisthemaximumacceptableerror?
a.VOT,2
b.Avionicsrepairstation,4
c.VOT,4

23.NDBsignalsaremodulatedwithwhatuniqueidentifyingcharacteristic?
a.Auralidentifiers
b.Morsecoldpulses
c.BothA&B

24.Whichofthefollowinglightsrepresentsamarkerbeaconsignal?
a.Blue
b.Amber
c.White

25.Altitudeencodersprovidewhatadditioninformationtoaradarbeacontransponder?
a.Pressurealtitude
b.Densityaltitude
c.NeitherAorB

26.AccordingtoTitle14CFR91section91.413,alltranspondersonaircraftflownincontrolledairspaceare
requiredtobeinspectedandtestedevery
a.30days
b.12calendarmonths
c.24calendarmonths

27.Magentaisreservedforwhichofthefollowingononboardweatherradarreceivers?
a.Heavyprecipitation
b.Extremeprecipitation
c.Windshear

137

28.Whichofthefollowingprovidesanactualreturnonweatherradar?
a.Severeturbulence
b.Windshear
c.Hail

29.HowareELTsactivated?
a.Manuallybypilotinanaccident
b.AsaresultofexcessiveGforces
c.EitherAorB

30.Howareseparationminimumsreducedforprecisionapproaches?
a.GPSequippedaircraft
b.WAASequippedaircraft
c.IRSequippedaircraft

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter11,FinalChapterExamCommunication/Navigation

name:____________________________________________________________

138
Chapter 12
Hydraulic Systems

Chapter12SectionA
StudyAidQuestions

FillintheBlanks

1.Hydraulicoperationsareroughly_________________%efficient,with_________________________________
lossduetofluidfriction.

2.The3principlecategoriesofhydraulicfluidsare:________________________,__________________________,

and_____________________________________base.

3.Phosphateesterbasedfluidsareusedmostlyintransportcategoryaircraftwhichiscommonlyreferredtoas

____________________________.Presently,type______________and______________areusedexclusively.

4.Hydraulicsystemsrequirespecialaccessoriessuchas________________________,______________________,

and_____________________________tobecompatiblewiththefluidbeingused.

5.Filterratingsaregivenintermsof_____________________,andisanindicationofthe___________________
sizethatwillbefilteredout.

6.Differentialpressureindicatorsaredesignedtopreventfalseindicationsdueto_________________________,

______________________________________,or_____________________________________.

7.Powerpacksaredrivenbyeithera(n)_____________________________or___________________________.

8.Reservoirscanbepressurizedor__________________________________.Commercialtransportaircrafthave

pressurizedreservoirsandmostofthemuse__________________________________todothis.

139
9.Afilterisa(n)________________________________or_______________________________deviceusedto

cleanthehydraulicfluid,thus_______________________foreigncontaminatesfromremaininginthesystem.

10.Maintenanceoffiltersisrelativelyeasy.Itconsistsmostlyof_____________________________thefilterand

elementorcleaningthefilterand_______________________________theelement.

11.___________________________________pressureprovidesaconvenientmeansofmonitoringthecondition

ofinstalledfilterelements.Itisthe_______________________________usedinthedifferentialpressureor

________________________________filterindicatorsfoundonmanyfilterassemblies.

12.Onceextended,thedifferentialpressureindicatormustbe______________________________________and

providesa_______________________________________warningofaloadedelement.

13.Allaircrafthydraulicsystemshaveoneormore_____________________________pumpsandmayhavea(n)

______________________pumpasanadditionalunitwhenthe____________________pumpisinoperative.

14.Pumpsmaybeclassifiedin1of2categories:___________________or____________________displacement.

15.The_______________________sectionofthedrivecoupling,located_____________________________of

thetwosetsofsplines,is___________________________indiameterthanthesplines.

16.Mostvalvesare_______________________controlledbya(n)______________________andaresometimes

called____________________________valves.

17.Asequencevalve_________________________________fluidtoasecondactuatorormotorafteraset

___________________________________hasbeenreached,todoworkinanotherpartofthesystem.

140

18.A(n)_______________________________valvewillgiveprecedencetothecriticalhydraulicsubsystemsover

_____________________________systemswhensystempressureis_______________________.

19.Fusesdetectsuddenincreaseinflowsuchasa(n)______________________downstream,whichinturn,

____________________________hydraulicfluidfortherestofthesystem.

20.Pressurereliefvalvesarenecessarytoprevent__________________ofcomponentsor__________________

ofhydrauliclinesunder__________________________________pressure.

21.__________________________reliefvalvesareusedtorelieveexcessivepressurethatmayexistdueto

__________________________________ofthefluid.

22.Pressure____________________aredevicesusedtomanagetheoutputofthe_____________________to
maintainsystemoperatingpressurewithinafixedrange.

23.Themainpurposeofthe_____________valveistoisolatethenormalsystemfromanalternateoremergency

system.Theslidingcomponentofthisvalveisto_____________________eitheroneoftheotherinletports.

24.Shutoffvalvesareusedtoshutofftheflowoffluidtoaparticular_______________or__________________.

25.Theinitialchargeofanoperationalaccumulatorisknownas__________________________________.

TRUEorFALSE
:

_______1.Largetransportcategoryaircrafthydraulicsystemsproducearound500PSIofpressure.

_______2.Bothahighflashpointandahighfirepointaredesirableforhydraulicfluids.

_______3.Theonlycontaminantsthatreallyaffectahydraulicsystemareabrasivetypecontaminants(ex.sand,
rust,andmachiningchips)

_______4.Ifthesystembecomescontaminated,itmusttobepurgedimmediately.

_______5.Basichydraulicsystemshaveoneofthefollowing:directionalvalve,checkvalve,pressurerelief
valve,orselectorvalve.

141

_______6.Ahydraulicpowerpackdoesnotrequireacentralizedhydraulicpowersupplyorlonghydrauliclines.

_______7.Pressurizedreservoirsusequantitytransmitterstogaugefluidquantityinthesystem.

_______8.Themicronelementisdesignedtopreventpassageofsolidsgreaterthan1microninsize.

_______9.Thermallockoutdevicesincorporatedintosomebuttonindicatorspreventoperationoftheindicator
belowacertaintemperature.

_______10.Mostmodernpowerdrivenpumpsarevariabledelivery,compressorcontrolledtype.

_______11.Allaircraftaxialpistonpumpshaveanoddnumberofpistons(5,7,9,etc.).

_______12.WhenthepumpoutletpressureofaVickersvariabledeliverypumpisbelow2850psi,itisheldatits
maximumangleinrelationwiththedriveshaftcenterlinebytheforceoftheyokereturnspring.

_______13.Therearetwotypesofinlinecheckvalves:simpletypeandorificetype.

_______14.Automaticresettingfusesaredesignedtoallowacertainvolumeoffluidperminutetopassthrough.

_______15.Anaccumulatorisasteelspheredividedintotwochambersbyarubberdiaphragm.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter12,SectionAHydraulicSystems

name:____________________________________________________________

142
Chapter12SectionB
KnowledgeApplicationQuestions

1.Whatcolorismineralbasehydraulicfluid?____________________________________

2.WhatcouldhappenwhenSkydrolspillsontoplasticresins,vinylcompositions,lacquersandoilbasepaints?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

3.Whatfeatureisbuiltintothedriveshaftofahydraulicpumptopreventenginedamageintheeventofpump
seizureoroverload?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

4.Whatmaintenanceactionisrequiredtominimizecontaminationduringreplacementofahydraulicunit?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

5.Whatconditionwillcausethefilterbypassonahydraulicfiltertoopenandallowinunfilteredfluid?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

6.Namefourtypesofhydraulicpumps?

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

7.Whatsourcescouldpressurizeapressurizedhydraulicreservoir?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

8.Whatisthepurposeofapressurereliefvalve?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

143

9.Whatisthepurposeofapressureregulator?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

10.Whatisusedinsomehydraulicsystemstosupplementthepowerpumpoutputduringhighdemand?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

11.Whatisthepurposeofrestrictorsthatareusedinaircraftpneumaticsystems?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

12.Whyshouldapneumaticsystembepurgedperiodically?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

13.Whatmustbeaccomplishedwithanaccumulatorpriortodisassembling?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

14.Candifferenthydraulicfluidtypesbemixed?Why?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

15.Whydomostaircrafthydraulicinstallationsrequireaclosedcenterhydraulicsystem?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

16.Whatistheadvantageofapowerpackhydraulicsystem?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

144
17.Whyarehydraulicreservoirsofmanytransporttypeaircraftpressurized?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

18.Explaintheprincipleofoperationofafilterbypassvalve.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

19.Name2examplesofnonpositivedisplacementpumps.

___________________________________________________________________________________________

20.Refertothefigureabove.Whathappenswhenthecontrolpressure(Pc)increases?

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

21.Refertothefigureabove:Whathappenswhenthepressureadjustmentscrewwillbeturnedclockwise?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

145

22.Howaresequencevalvescontrolled?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

23.WhatisthefunctionofthePowertransferunitusedinlargeaircrafthydraulicsystems?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

24.Refertothefigureabove:WhatwillhappeniftheEDVsolenoidwillbeenergized?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

25.Whatisthereasonforusingpressurereducingvalves?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

146

26.Whatarethefunctionsofanaccumulator?

a]___________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

b]___________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

c]____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

d]___________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

27.WhatisthefunctionoftheRamAirTurbinethatisofteninstalledinlargetransporttypeaircraft?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

28.Whatispneudraulics?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

147

29.Refertothefigurebelow.Whatwillhappenifthefluidlevelinthereservoirdropsbelowthestandpipe?

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter12,SectionBHydraulicSystems

name:____________________________________________________________

148

Chapter12SectionC
FinalChapterExam

1.Whatarethemainsubsystemsofeveryhydraulicsystem?
a.Pump,reservoir,accumulator,heatexchanger,andfilteringsystem
b.Pump,transferpump,reservoir,heatexchanger,andfilteringsystem
c.Pump,carburetor,accumulator,heatexchanger,andfilteringsystem
d.Pump,reservoir,accumulator,condenserunit,andfilteringsystem

2.Whichofthefollowingstatesthatthepressureappliedtoanypartofaconfinedliquidistransmittedwith
undiminishedintensitytoeveryotherpart?
a.Archimedes'principle
b.PavlovsLaw
c.PascalsLaw

3.Whichofthefollowingarepropertiesshouldbeconsideredwhenchoosingafluidforagivenhydraulicsystem.
a.Viscosity
b.Chemicalstability
c.Flashpoint
d.Alloftheabove

4.WhichofthefollowingsealsisnotcompatiblewithSkydrol?
a.NeopreneandBunaN
b.ButylrubberandBunaN
c.Neopreneandethylenepropylene
d.Butylrubberandethylenepropylene

5.Duringmaintenanceandservicingprocedures,allpartsshouldbewashedin
a.Solvent
b.MEK
c.Soapandwater
d.Wateronly

6.Wherearefiltersinstalledinthesystem?
a.Pressurelines
b.Returnlines
c.Pumpcasedrainlines
d.Alloftheabove

7.Anopencentersystemisonethathasfluidflow
a.unpressurizedusingapowerpump
b.underpressureusingapowerpump
c.andpressureinthesystemwhentheactuatingmechanismisidle
d.andnopressureinthesystemwhenactuatingmechanismisidle

8.Ifaconstantdeliverypumpisusedinaclosedsystem,howissystempressureregulated?
a.Pumpsintegralpressuremechanism
b.PressureRegulator

149
c.ReliefValve
9.Whatistheadvantageofanopensystemoveraclosedsystem?
a.Continuouspressurization
b.Fasteroperationofthesystem
c.Gradualpressurebuildup
d.Noneoftheabove

10.Whatis/arethefunction(s)ofareservoir?
a.Overflowbasin
b.Purgesairbubbles
c.Heatsfluid
d.AandBarecorrect

11.Howandwhyarenonpressurizedreservoirskeptunderaslightpressure?
a.Bleedair,eliminatesfoamingandairinthesystem
b.Thermalexpansion,eliminatesfoamingandairinthesystem
c.Bleedair,ensurespositivefluidflow
d.Thermalexpansion,ensurespositivefluidflow

12.Howarehighaltitudeaircrafthydraulicsystemreservoirspressurized?
a.Bleedair
b.Hydraulicpressurepump
c.Thermalexpansion
d.Alloftheabove

13.Areservoirmoduleconsistsofwhichofthefollowingparts?
a.Filter,sightglass,reservoirbleedvalve,reservoirgaugeport,temperaturetransducer
b.Filter,checkvalve,testport,manualbleedvalve,gaugeport
c.Reservoirpressurereliefvalve,sightglass,reservoirsamplevalve,reservoirdrainvalve,reservoir
temperaturetransducer,reservoirquantitytransmitter
d.Pressurereliefvalve,manualreliefvalve,testport,reservoirdrainvalve,reservoirquantity transducer

14.Howcancontaminationbeminimizedwhileaddingfluidtothereservoir?
a.Visuallyinspectthefluidbeforepouringitintothesystem
b.UseofaHydraulicfillerunit
c.Pouringhydraulicfluidthroughameshstrainerbeforefilling
d.Alloftheabove

15.Inlinefilterassembliesarecomprisedofwhatthreebasicunits?
a.Headassembly,bowl,element
b.Headassembly,module,element
c.Connectinglines,module,micronfilter
d.Connectinglines,bowl,filterhead

16.Whichtypeoffilterisdesignedtobethrownawayafterremovedfromthesystem?
a.Magnetictype
b.Porousmetal
c.Micron
d.Noneoftheabove

150

17.Powerdrivenpumpscanbeallthefollowingexcept:
a.enginedriven
b.electricmotordriven
c.airdriven
d.mechanicallyactuated

18.Whattypeofpumphastwomeshgearsthatrevolveinahousingdrivenbyanengineorpowerunit?
a.gearpump
b.gerotorpump
c.pistonpump
d.vanepump

19.Whattypeofpumphastwocrescentshapedopenings?
a.gearpump
b.gerotorpump
c.pistonpump
d.vanepump

20.Howisdisplacementdeterminedbypistonpumps?
I.sizeofpistonsII.numberofpistonsIII.strokelength
a.I&IIonly
b.II&IIIonly
c.I&IIIonly
d.alloftheabove

21.Howisthepumpoutputchangedtoaccommodatepressuredemandsinavariabledeliverpump?
a.pumpcompensator
b.internalpressurechanges
c.centrifugaltypevanes
d.offcenterrotor

22.Whatisthepurposeofaselectorvalve?
a.allowsflowinonedirectionwithnoorrestrictedflowintheoppositedirection
b.convertsmechanicalmotionintoonerequiringgreaterpower
c.switchesfluidflowthroughanactuator
d.enablesoneunittoautomaticallysetanotherunitintomotion

23.Whatisthepurposeofacheckvalve?
a.allowsflowinonedirectionwithnoorrestrictedflowintheoppositedirection
b.convertsmechanicalmotionintoonerequiringgreaterpower
c.switchesfluidflowthroughanactuator
d.enablesoneunittoautomaticallysetanotherunitintomotion

24.Whichcheckvalveallowsforrestrictedflowintheoppositedirectionwhenclosed,andhowitis
accomplished?
a.simpletypeusingaballandspring
b.orificetypeusingaballandspring
c.simpletypeusingadampingvalve
d.orificetypeusingadampingvalve

151

25.Howisthedirectionofflowthroughacheckvalvedetermined?
a.theinletsidehasalargerdiameterthantheoutletside
b.stampedarrowmarkedonthehousing
c.theinletismarkedwithacapitalIandtheoutletismarkedwithacapitalO
d.theschematicmustbereferencedtoidentifydirectionoffluidflow

26.Whatistheprimarypurposeofahydraulicfuse?
a.flowsensingdevice
b.safetydevice
c.backupdevice
d.noneoftheabove

27.Whyarepressurereliefvalvesnotusedaspressureregulatorsinlargehydraulicsystems?
a.internalpressuretoohigh,breaksdowntheinternalunitsofthevalve(ball,sleeve,poppet)
b.designedforelectricallydrivensystemswhereaslargesystemsaregenerallyenginedriven
c.heattransferredfromthefluidtothepackingringscausesdeterioration
d.theyareusedinlargehydraulicsystems

28.Whatisusedwhenahydraulicsystemspressuremustbeloweredtoaspecificamount?
a.pressurereducingvalve
b.pressurereliefvalve
c.pressureregulatingvalve
d.pressurecontrollingvalve

29.Whatis/arefunction(s)ofanaccumulator?
I.dampenpressuresurges II.aidthepowerpump
III.converthydraulicenergytomechanical IV.transfersfluidbetweentwohydraulicsystems
a.I&IIonly
b.I,II,andIIIonly
c.IIIandIVonly
d.IVonly

30.Whatisthepurposeofasequencevalve?
a.allowsflowinonedirectionwithnoorrestrictedflowintheoppositedirection
b.convertsmechanicalmotionintoonerequiringgreaterpower
c.switchesfluidflowthroughanactuator
d.enablesoneunittoautomaticallysetanotherunitintomotion

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter12,FinalChapterExamHydraulicSystems

name:____________________________________________________________

152
Chapter 13 - Landing Gear

Chapter13SectionA
StudyAidQuestions

FillintheBlanks

1.Namethethreebasicarrangementsoflandinggearusedinaircraft:

___________________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________

2.Parasitedragcausedbylandinggearcanbereducedbytheadditionof________________________________,

or___________________________________________

3.Mostsingleengineaircraftuseanonshockabsorbinglandinggearmadefrom__________________________,

________________________________________,or____________________________________.

4.Tokeeptheshockstrutandwheelsaligned,mostshockstrutsareequippedwith________________________,

and_______________________________________.

5.Nosegearshockstrutshavea_____________________________________________tokeepthegearaligned
whentheaircrafttakesoffandtheshockstrutfullyextend.

6.Thealignmentofamainwheelintheverticalplainiscalled______________________________.

7.Theelectric/hydrauliclandinggearsystemfoundinmanyCessnaandPiperaircraftiscalleda

____________________________________________.

8.The_________________________________________lowersthelandinggearifthemainpowersystemfails.

153

9.Theproperfunctioningofalandinggearsystemandcomponentscanbecheckedbyperforminga

_______________________________________.Thisisalsoknownas__________________________thegear.

10.Nosewheelvibrationiscontrolledthroughtheuseofa_____________________________________.

11.Theinnerwheelhalveofawheelusedonahighperformanceaircraftislikelytohaveoneormore

_______________________________________.

12.Allaircraftaxlenutsmustbeinstalledand_______________________________________inaccordancewith
theairframemanufacturersmaintenanceprocedures.

13.Overheatingofthewheelbearingscouldbecausedbya__________________________________andresults

ina______________________________tinttothemetalsurface.

14.Brinellingiscausedby___________________________________.Itappearsas_________________________
inthebearingcupraceway.

15.Pushingthe______________oftherightrudderpedalactivatesthebrakeonthe_____________mainwheel.

16.The______________________________________transfersthemotionsofthepistonstothestackof

___________________________and__________________________toslowtherotationofthewheel.

17.The___________________________________________isthelatestiterationofthemultiplediscbrake.

18.Thethreebrakeactuatingsystemsusedare___________________________________________________,

___________________________________________and__________________________________________.

19.Powerbrakesystemsusethe______________________________asthesourceofpowertoapplythebrakes.

154

20.Theautobrakesystemisusedtostopthewheelsautomaticallyafter_____________________________this
preventsthewheelsfromrotatingwhenretractedinthewheelwells.

21.Theantiskidsystemnotonlydetectswheel___________________________,italsodetectswhenwheelskid

is__________________________________.

22.Maximumbrakingefficiencyexistswhenthewheelsaredeceleratingatamaximumratebutarenot

___________________________________.

23.Brakesystemswithmastercylindersmaybebledby_______________________or_____________________
bleedingmethods.

24.Aflatspotonatireistheresultofthetire__________________________________ontherunwaysurface.

25.Operationonagroovedrunwaycancauseanaircrafttiretreadtodevelopshallow______________________
shapedcuts.

TRUEorFALSE

_______1.Mostaircraftwithatricyclelandinggearusedifferentialbrakingforsteeringduringground
operations.
.
_______2.Whenmorethantwowheelsareattachedtoalandinggearstrut,theattachingmechanismisknown
asabogie.

_______3.Landinggearshockstrutsarefilledwithairandsyntheticturbineengineoil.

_______4.Duringtaxioperationstheairinthetiresandthehydraulicfluidintheshockstrutcombineto
smoothoutbumps.

_______5.Tocheckthefluidlevelofmostshockstruts,thestrutneedstobedeflatedandfullycompressed.

_______6.Mostsmalleraircraftuseapowerpackgearretractionsystemwhilelargeaircraftuseahydraulic
landinggearretractionsystem.

_______7.Sequencevalvesareoftenoperatedmechanicallyandpriorityvalvescontrolgearcomponenttiming
viahydraulicvolumeadjustments.

_______8.Someaircraftuseamechanicalemergencyreleasesystemthatunlockstheuplocksandthegearwill
freefall,whileothersuseapneumaticpowersystemtolowerthegearwhenthemainsystemfails.

_______9.Proximitysensorsareusedforgearpositionsafetyswitchesonmanysmallersingleengineaircraft.

155

_______10.Themostcommondisplayforthelandinggearbeingupandlockedisanilluminatedgreenlight.

_______11.Aircraftequippedwithahydraulicnosewheelsteeringsystemutilizethesteeringcylindersas
shimmydampers.

_______12.Wheelsformodernaircraftuseaonepiecedesignwhichprovidessuperiorstrengthandeaseoftire
installation.

_______13.Thetwopiecesofatwopieceaircraftwheelareidenticalandcouldbeusedonboththeinsideas
outsideofthewheelassembly.

_______14.Aircrafttechniciansshouldbecarefulwhentheyapproachorremoveatire.Thehighinternal
pressureofthetirecancreateacatastrophicfailurethatcouldbelethaltothetechnician.

_______15.Inafixeddiskbrakesystem(Cleveland)thebrakecaliperandliningsadjusttheirpositionin
relationshiptothedisc.

_______16.Dualdiscbrakesareusedonlargetransportcategoryaircraftthatusehydraulicsystemstooperate
thebrakesystems.

_______17.Ingeneralsmalllightaircraftuseindependentbrakesystems.Amastercylinderprovidesthe
hydraulicpressure.

_______18.Thebrakeaccumulatorisanemergencysourceofpowerforthebrakesystem.

_______19.Autobrakesystemsonlargeaircraftdonotusetheantiskidsystemtocontrolwheelskid.

_______20.Inordertobleedthepowerbrakesystemofalargetransportcategoryaircraftthehydraulicsystem
needstobepressurized.

_______21.TypeIIItiresarecommongeneralaviationtires,TypeVtiresarehighperformancetiresfoundonjet
aircraft.

_______22.Traditionalaircrafttiresarebiasplytireswhilemodernlargeaircraftutilizeradialtires.

_______23.Whencheckingtirepressurewaitatleast30minutesafteratypicallandingtoensurethetirehas
cooledtoambienttemperature.

_______24.Smallpiecesofrockordebriscanberemovedwithaprobingtoolorscrewdriverwhilethetireison
theaircraftandinflated.

_______25.Underinflationcouldbeevidentfromexcessivewearontheoutsideofthetirethreads.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter13,SectionALandingGear

name:____________________________________________________________

156
Chapter13SectionB
KnowledgeApplicationQuestions

1.Whatisusedtoserviceanair/oillandinggearshockstrut?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

2.Whatregularinspectionshouldbemadeoftheexposedportionofalandinggearstrut?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

3.Whatisthepurposeofmainlandinggeartorquelinksandarms?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

4.Whatpowersourcesarenormallyusedtoretractlandinggearsystems?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

5.Whattypeofnosewheelsteeringisprovidedonsmallaircraft?

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

6.Whatunitpreventsnosewheelvibration?

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

7.Whatisthepurposeofpowerbrakedeboostercylinders?

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

8.Namethecommontypesofbrakesystemsusedonaircraft?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

157
9.Whatmustbeaccomplishedbeforeinspectingawheelbrakesystemforhydraulicleaks?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

10.Whatpreventsasplitwheelfromleakingairthroughtheinnerandoutermatingsurfaces,orthewheel
assembly?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

11.Whatisthemostimportantmaintenanceactionforsafe,long,aircrafttireservice?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

12.Whataretheeffectsofunderinflationontires?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

13.Whenshouldalandinggearretractioncheckbeaccomplished?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

14.Whatistheindicationofexcessiveheatingofawheelbearing?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

15.Whatisthepurposeofanantiskidsystem?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

16.Whatisthepurposeofawheelfusibleplug?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

158

17.Whataresomemethodsofbleedingbrakes?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________


18.Whatmethodsareusedfortransmittingthebrakepedalmovementstoasteeringcontrolunitinlarge
aircraft?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

19.Whatpreventsanoselandinggearfrombeingretractedwiththenosewheeloutofthecenterposition?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

20.Whattypeofmaterialisusedformodernbrakerotorsontransportcategoryaircraft?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter13,SectionBLandingGear

name:____________________________________________________________

159
Chapter13SectionC
FinalChapterExam

1.Whatshouldbecheckedwhenashockstrutbottomsduringalanding?
a.Airpressure
b.Packingsealsforcorrectinstallation
c.Fluidlevel

2.Overinflatedaircrafttiresmaycausedamagetothe:
a.brakelinings
b.wheelhub
c.wheelflange

3.Whatisthefunctionofacamincorporatedinanosegearshockstrut?
a.Providesaninternalshimmydamper
b.Straightensthenosewheel
c.Providessteeringofaircraftduringgroundoperation

4.Deboostercylindersareusedinbrakesystemsprimarilyto:
a.reducebrakepressureandmaintainstaticpressure
b.relieveexcessivefluidandensureapositiverelease
c.reducethepressuretothebrakeandincreasethevolumeoffluidflow

5.Thepurposeofareliefvalveinabrakesystemisto:
a.reducepressureforbrakeapplication
b.preventthetirefromskidding
c.compensateforthermalexpansion

6.Ahighspeedaircrafttirewithasoundcordbodyandbeadmayberecapped:
a.amaximumofthreetimes
b.onlybythetiremanufacturer
c.anindefinitenumberoftimes

7.Thefusibleplugsinstalledinsomeaircraftwheelswill:
a.indicatetiretreadseparation
b.preventoverinflation
c.meltataspecifiedelevatedtemperature

8.Instructionsconcerningthetypeoffluidandamountofairpressuretobeputinashockstrutarefound:
a.ontheairplanedataplate
b.intheaircraftoperationslimitations
c.intheaircraftmanufacturer'sservicemanual

9.Theprimarypurposeforbalancingaircraftwheelassembliesisto:
a.preventheavyspotsandreducevibration
b.distributetheaircraftweightproperly
c.reduceexcessivewearandturbulence

161
10.Thepressuresourceforpowerbrakesis:
a.themainhydraulicsystem
b.thepowerbrakereservoir
c.amastercylinder

11 Whatisthepurposeofthetorquelinksattachedtothecylinderandpistonofalandinggearoleostrut?
a.Limitcompressionstroke
b.Holdthestrutinplace
c.Maintaincorrectwheelalignment

12 Whenanair/oiltypeoflandinggearshockstrutisused,theinitialshockoflandingiscushionedby:
a.compressionoftheaircharge
b.thefluidbeingforcedthroughameteredopening
c.compressionofthefluid

13 Thepurposeofasequencevalveinahydraulicretractablelandinggearsystemisto:
a.preventheavylandinggearfromfallingtoorapidlyuponextension
b.provideameansofdisconnectingthenormalsourceofhydraulicpowerandconnectingtheemergency
sourceofpower
c.ensureoperationofthelandinggearandgeardoorsintheproperorder

14.Whichstatementistruewithrespecttoanaircraftequippedwithhydraulicallyoperatedmultipledisktype
brakeassemblies?
a.Therearenominimumormaximumdiskclearancechecksrequiredduetotheuseofselfcompensating
cylinderassemblies
b.Donotsetparkingbrakewhenbrakesarehot
c.Noparkingbrakeprovisionsarepossibleforthistypeofbrakeassembly

15.Nosegearcenteringcamsareusedinmanyretractablelandinggearsystems.Theprimarypurposeofthe
centeringdeviceisto:
a.alignthenosewheelpriortotouchdown
b.engagethenosewheelsteering
c.centerthenosewheelbeforeitentersthewheelwell

16.Howlongshouldyouwaitafteraflightbeforecheckingtirepressure?
a.Atleast3hours
b.Atleast2hours
c.Atleast30minutes

17.Anelectricmotorusedtoraiseandloweralandinggearwouldmostlikelybea
a.shuntfieldserieswoundmotor
b.splitfieldshuntwoundmotor
c.splitfieldserieswoundmotor

18.Alandinggearpositionandwarningsystemwillprovideawarninginthecockpitwhenthethrottleis
a.retardedandgearisnotdownandlocked
b.advancedandgearisdownandlocked
c.retardedandgearisdownandlocked

162

19.Excessivewearinthecenterofthetreadofanaircrafttireisanindicationof:
a.incorrectcamber
b.excessivetoeout
c.overinflation

20.Onmostaircraft,theoillevelofanairandoilshockstrutischeckedby:
a.removingtheoilfillerplugandinsertingagauge
b.measuringthelengthofthestrutextensionwithacertainairpressureinthestrut
c.releasingtheairandseeingthattheoilistothelevelofthefillerplug

21.Howcanitbedeterminedthatallairhasbeenpurgedfromamastercylinderbrakesystem?
a.Byoperatingahydraulicunitandwatchingthesystempressuregaugeforsmooth,fullscaledeflection
b.Bynotingwhetherthebrakeisfirmorspongy
c.Bynotingtheamountoffluidreturntothemastercylinderuponbrakerelease

22.Thebestsafeguardsagainstheatbuildupinaircrafttiresare:
a.propertireinflation,minimumbraking,andgroundrollsintothewind
b.shortgroundrolls,slowtaxispeeds,minimumbraking,andpropertireinflation
c.minimumbraking,propertireinflation,andlonggroundrolls

23 Inbrakeservicework,theterm'bleedingbrakes'istheprocessof:
a.withdrawingaironlyfromthesystem
b.withdrawingfluidfromthesystemforthepurposeofremovingairthathasenteredthesystem
c.replacingsmallamountsoffluidinreservoir

24 Aircraftbrakesrequiringalargevolumeoffluidtooperatethebrakesgenerally:
a.useindependentmastercylindersystems
b.donotusebrakesystemaccumulators
c.usepowerbrakecontrolvalves

25.Topreventaveryrapidextensionofanoleoshockstrutafterinitialcompressionresultingfromlanding
impact:
a.varioustypesofvalvesororificesareusedwhichrestrictthereversefluidflow
b.themeteringpingraduallyreducesthesizeoftheorificeastheshockstrutextends
c.theairisforcedthrougharestrictedorificeinthereversedirection

26.Themeteringpinsinoleoshockstrutsserveto:
a.lockthestrutsintheDOWNposition
b.retardtheflowofoilasthestrutsarecompressed
c.metertheproperamountofairinthestruts

27.Afterperformingmaintenanceonanaircraft'slandinggearsystemwhichmayhaveaffectedthesystem's
operation,itisusuallynecessaryto:
a.conductaflighttest
b.reinspecttheareaafterthefirstflight
c.makeanoperationalcheckwiththeaircraftonjacks

163

28.Whydotireandwheelmanufacturersoftenrecommendthatthetiresonsplitrimwheelsbedeflatedbefore
removingthewheelfromtheaxle?
a.torelievethestrainonthewheelretainingnutandaxlethreads
b.asasafetyprecautionincasetheboltsthatholdthewheelhalvestogetherhavebeendamagedor
weakened
c.toremovethestaticloadimposeduponthewheelbearingsbytheinflatedtire

29.Exposuretoand/orstoragenearwhichofthefollowingisconsideredharmfultoaircrafttires?
1.Lowhumidity 2.Fuel 3.Oil 4.Ozone
5.Helium 6.Electricalequipment 7.Hydraulicfluid 8.Solvents
a.2,3,4,5,6,7,8
b.1,2,3,5,7,8
c.2,3,4,6,7,8

30.Onallaircraftequippedwithretractablelandinggear,somemeansmustbeprovidedto:
a.retractandextendthelandinggearifthenormaloperatingmechanismfails
b.extendthelandinggearifthenormaloperatingmechanismfails
c.preventthethrottlefrombeingreducedbelowasafepowersettingwhilethelandinggearisretracted

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter13,FinalChapterExamLandingGear

name:____________________________________________________________

164
Chapter 14 - Fuel Systems

Chapter14SectionA
StudyAidQuestions

FillintheBlanks

1.Fuelwithlowvolatilitycouldcause________________________________________________,

_____________________________,and______________________________________acceleration.

2.Gasolinemusttrulyburnratherthan__________________________or____________________________.

3.VaporlockisaconditioninwhichAVGAS______________________________inafuellineorothercomponent

betweenthefueltankandthe_______________________________

4.Carburetoricingismostcommonatambienttemperaturesof____________________butcanoccuratmuch

highertemperaturesespeciallyin__________________________conditions.

5.Detonationistherapid,uncontrolled______________________offuelduetohigh______________________,

and__________________________________.

6.Turbineenginefuelshave__________________________volatilityand__________________________boiling
pointsthangasoline.

7.Largetransportcategoryaircraftuseoftenthreetypesoffueltanks.Theyare:

___________________________________________________________________________________________

8.Therearethreetypesofaircraftfueltanks:Theyare:

___________________________________________________________________________________________

165

9.Aircraftfueltankshavealowareacalleda____________________________thatisdesignedasaplacefor
contaminantsandwatertosettle.

10.Alwaysrouteafuellinebelowany________________________________.

11.Themostcommonelectricmotoroperatedfuelvalvesarethe____________________________valveandthe

___________________________typevalve.

12.Acharacteristicofsolenoidoperatedfuelvalvesisthattheyopenandclose_________________________.

13.Theboostpumpdeliversfuelunderpositivepressuretothe________________________________________.

14.Centrifugalfuelboostpumpsusedinaircraftwithreciprocatingenginesensure________________________

pressureandarepreventing__________________________________.

15.Reciprocatingengineaircrafttypicallyusea_________________________________enginedrivenfuelpump.

16.Fuelboostpumpsonmanylargeaircraftareusedforseveraldifferentfuelsubsystemssuchasa

___________________________________,and____________________________________system.

17.Fuelstrainersaredesignedtotrap______________________________piecesofdebrisandpreventtheir

passagethroughthe______________________________.

18.______________________________filtersarecommonlyusedonturbinepoweredaircraft.Thistypeoffilter

capturesextremelyfineparticlesintherangeof_______________________microns.

19._____________________________________areusedinturbinepoweredaircrafttopreventtheformationof
iceinthefuel.

166
20.Modernaircraftuseelectricfuelquantityindicatorswhichoperatewith________________________current.

21.Fourbasicclassificationsareusedtodescribeaircraftfuelleaks.Theyare:

_________________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________________

22.Heavyseepsareclassifiedasanareaoffuelfrom___________________to__________________indiameter
thatformsin30minutes.

23.Whenanintegralfuelcellneedstoberepairedthetankneedsto____________________________________

andtestedwitha______________________________________tobecertainitcanbeenteredsafely.

24.Unstrainedwatercanbedetectedbya_____________________________appearancetothefuel.

25.Twotypesoffuelingprocessesare:_______________________________and__________________________

TRUEorFALSE

_______1.Afueljettisonsystemisrequiredonaircraftthathaveahighertakeoffweightthanlandingweight.

_______2.TurbinefuelhasamuchlowerflashpointthanAVGAS.

_______3.Vaporlockcanbecausedbyexcessivelyhotfuel,lowpressure,orexcessiveturbulenceofthefuel
travelingthroughthefuelsystem.

_______4.Detonationcouldberecognizedbyapingingorknockingsoundanditcausesalowercylinderhead
temperature.

_______5.AVGAS100LLcouldbedistinguishedfromotherfuelsbyitsbluecolor.

_______6.JetBfuelisthemostcommonjetfuelintheUnitedStatesanditallowsenginerestartsathigh
altitude.

_______7.Lowandmidwingsinglereciprocatingengineaircraftuseagravityfuelsystem.

_______8.largetransporttypeaircrafttypicallyuseintegralfueltanksineachoftheirwingstructurestostore
thefuel.

_______9.Afueltransfersystemallowsfueltobetransferredfromonefueltanktoanotherandafuelcrossfeed
systemallowsanyenginetodrawfuelfromanytank.

167

_______10.Aircraftequippedwithintegralfueltanksdonothavefuelventsystemsinsteadtheyusefuel
jettisonsystemstoventthefueltanks.

_______11.Motorandsolenoidoperatedvalvesusedinafuelsystemusepositionenunciatorlightstoindicate
valvepositioninadditiontotheswitchposition.

_______12.Thefuelboostpumpdeliversfuelunderpositivepressuretothefuelcontrol.

_______13.Acentrifugalboostpumpisaconstantdisplacementpump.

_______14.Asumpistypicallylocatedinthehighestpartofthetanksothatthewaterandcontaminantscanbe
drainedbeforetheflight.

_______15.Themostcommontypeoffuelheatersforlargetransportcategoryaircraftareair/fuelheatersand
oil/fuelheaters.

_______16.Theflightcrewusesinformationofthefilterbypassindicatinglightsandfueltemperaturegaugeto
knowwhentoturnthefuelheatersonorfuelheaterscanworkautomatically

_______17.Thedisadvantageofelectronicfuelquantitysystemsisthattheyhavemanymovingcomponents.

_______18.Manyaircraftwithcapacitancetypefuelindicatingsystemsalsouseamechanicalindicationsystem
tocrosscheckfuelquantityindications.

_______19.Fuelflowmetersinturbineaircraftmeasurethevolumeofthefuelconsumedbytheengine.

_______20.Ahigherfuelflowindicationshouldresultinahigherexhaustgastemperature.

_______21.Whenfuelleaksintoaconfinedareatheleakmustbemonitoredeveryflight.

_______22.Microorganismsappearasavisibleslimethatisdarkbrown,grey,red,orblackincolor.

_______23.ThebestsolutiontostopmicroorganismstogrowinAVGASistokeepwaterfromaccumulatingin
thefuel.

_______24.Thetypeoffueltobeusedisplacardednearthefillportonoverthewingsystemsandatthefueling
stationonpressurerefueledaircraft.

_______25.Aircraftfuelboostpumpscanbeusedonsomeaircrafttodefuelthetanksorthepumpofthefuel
truckcanbeusedtodefueltheairplane.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter14,SectionAFuelSystems

name:____________________________________________________________

168
Chapter14SectionB
KnowledgeApplicationQuestions

1.Whatisthepurposeofafueldumpsystemincorporatedinmanytransportcategoryaircraft?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

2.Namethreetypesoffuelcells.

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

3.Whatsupportstheweightoffuelinabladdertypefuelcell?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

4.Whatisthepurposeofafueltemperatureindicatorinaturbinepoweredaircraft?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

5.Whatisthepurposeofafuelcrossfeedsysteminmultiengineaircraft?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

6.What3positionsmaybeselectedonafueltankselectorvalve?

__________________________________________________________________________________________

7.Whataredripgaugesandsightgaugesusedfor?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

8.Whattypeoffuelingsystemisusedonlargetransportcategoryaircraft?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

169
9.Whataresomeadvantagesofsinglepointpressurefueling?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

10.Whatmethodmaybeusedtocheckafueltankforleaksafterapatchorweldhasbeenperformed?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

11.Whattypeoffuelsystemleakwillnotbevisiblebyevidenceofstainsorwetspots?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

12.Namefourtypesoffuelquantitygaugesthatarecommon?

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________


13.Whyisanelectronictypefuelquantitygaugemoreaccuratethanothers?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

14.Whatisthepurposeoffueltankinternalbaffles?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

15.Whyshouldyouwaitaperiodoftimeafterfuelingbeforecheckingfuelsumps?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

16.Whatisthebestwaytostopmicroorganismstogrowinjetfuel?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter14,SectionBFuelSystems

name:____________________________________________________________

170
Chapter14SectionC
FinalChapterExam

1.Whyareintegralfueltanksusedinmanylargeaircraft?
a.Toreducefirehazards
b.Tofacilitateservicing
c.Toreduceweight

2.Regardingthebelowstatements:
(1)Afuelpressurereliefvalveisrequiredonanaircraftpositivedisplacementfuelpump.
(2)Afuelpressurereliefvalveisrequiredonanaircraftcentrifugalfuelboostpump.

a.onlyNo.1istrue
b.onlyNo.2istrue
c.bothNo.1andNo.2aretrue

3.Regardingthebelowstatements:
(1)Afuelheatercanuseenginebleedairasasourceofheat.
(2)Afuelheatercanuseenginelubricatingoilasasourceofheat.

a.onlyNo.1istrue
b.bothNo.1andNo.2aretrue
c.neitherNo.1norNo.2istrue

4.Regardingthebelowstatements:
(1)Thefunctionofafuelheateristoprotecttheenginefuelsystemfromiceformation.
(2)Anaircraftfuelheatercannotbeusedtothawiceinthefuelscreen.
,
a.onlyNo.1istrue.
b.onlyNo.2istrue
c.bothNo.1andNo.2aretrue

5.Aircraftdefuelingshouldbeaccomplished:
a.withtheaircraft'scommunicationequipmentonandincontactwiththetowerincaseoffire.
b.inahangarwhereactivitiescanbecontrolled.
c.intheopenairforgoodventilation.

6.Whatmethodisusedonturbinepoweredaircrafttodeterminewhentheconditionofthefuelisapproaching
thedangerofformingicecrystals?
a.Fuelpressurewarning
b.Fuelpressuregauge
c.Fueltemperatureindicator

7.Inanelectronictypefuelquantityindicatingsystem,thetanksensingunitisa:
a.capacitor
b.variableresistor
c.variableinductor

171
8.Topreventvaporlockinfuellinesathighaltitude,someaircraftareequippedwith:
a.vaporseparators
b.directinjectiontypecarburetors
c.boosterpumps

9.Ifabladdertypefueltankistobeleftemptyforanextendedperiodoftime,theinsideofthetankshouldbe
coatedwithafilmof:
a.engineoil
b.linseedoil
c.ethyleneglycol

10.Whichofthefollowingcouldresultifmicrobialgrowthexistsinajetfueltankandisnotcorrected?
1.Interferencewithfuelflow 2.Interferencewithfuelquantityindicators
3.Engineseizure 4.Electrolyticcorrosiveactioninametaltank
5.Lowergraderatingofthefuel 6.Electrolyticcorrosiveactioninarubbertank

a.1,2,4
b.2,3,5
c.1,5,6

11.Regardingthebelowstatements:
(1)Ifaviationgasolinevaporizestooreadily,fuellinesmaybecomefilledwithvaporandcauseincreasedfuelflow.
(2)Ameasureofagasoline'stendencytovaporlockisobtainedfromtheReidvaporpressuretest.

a.onlyNo.2istrue
b.bothNo.1andNo.2aretrue
c.neitherNo.1norNo.2istrue

12.Regardingthebelowstatements:
(1)Onalargeaircraftpressurerefuelingsystem,apressurerefuelingreceptacleandcontrolpanel
willpermitonepersontofuelordefuelanyorallfueltanksofanaircraft.
(2)Becauseofthefueltankarea,therearemoreadvantagestoapressurefuelingsysteminlightaircraft.

a.onlyNo.1istrue
b.onlyNo.2istrue
c.bothNo.1andNo.2aretrue

13.Afueltemperatureindicatorislocatedinthefueltanksonsometurbinepoweredairplanestotellwhenthe
fuelmaybe:
a.gettingcoldenoughtoformhardice
b.indangerofformingicecrystals
c.abouttoformrimeice

14.Whattypeoffuelboosterpumprequiresapressurereliefvalve?
a.Concentric
b.Vane
c.Centrifugal

172
15.AccordingtoPart23,whatminimumrequiredmarkingsmustbeplacedatorneareachappropriatefuelfiller
coverforreciprocatingenginepoweredairplanes?
a.Theword'Avgas'andtheminimumfuelgrade
b.Theword'Fuel'andusablefuelcapacity
c.Theword'Avgas'andthetotalfuelcapacity

16.Whyisitnecessarytoventallaircraftfueltanks?
a.Toensureapositiveheadpressureforasubmergedboostpump
b.Toexhaustfuelvapors
c.Tolimitpressuredifferentialbetweenthetankandatmosphere

16 Flappervalvesareusedinfueltanksto:
a.reducepressure
b.preventanegativepressure
c.actascheckvalves

17.Whatminimumrequiredmarkingsmustbeplacedonorneareachappropriatefuelfillercoveronutility
categoryaircraft?
a.Theword'Avgas'andtheminimumfuelgrade,andthetotalfueltankcapacity
b.Theword'Avgas'andtheminimumfuelgradefortheengines,andtheusablefueltankcapacity
c.Theword'Avgas'andtheminimumfuelgrade

18.Theuseofturbinefuelsinaircrafthasresultedinsomeproblemsnotnormallyassociatedwithaviation
gasoline.Oneoftheseproblemsis:
a.increasingviscosityoffuelasfueltemperaturelowersataltitude
b.highervaporpressure
c.microbialcontaminants

19.Whatistherecommendedpracticeforcleaningafueltankbeforewelding?
a.Purgethetankwithair
b.Flushtheinsideofthetankwithcleanwater
c.Steamcleanthetankinterior

20.Pressurefuelingofaircraftisusuallyaccomplishedthrough:
a.pressureconnectionsonindividualfueltanks
b.atleastonesinglepointconnection
c.individualfueltankoverwingand/orfuselageaccesspoints

21.Aircraftpressurefuelingsystemsinstructionalproceduresarenormallyplacardedonthe:
a.fuelcontrolpanelaccessdoor
b.lowerwingsurfaceadjacenttotheaccessdoor
c.aircraftgroundconnectionpoint

22.Whatistheprimarypurposeofthecrossfeedsystem?
a.Toallowthefeedingofanyenginefromanytank
b.Toallowthefeedingoffuelfromonetankfordefueling
c.Toprovideautomaticrefuelingofatanktoanydesiredlevel

173
23.Fuelismovedoverboardinmostfueljettisonsystemsby:
a.boostpumps
b.gravity
c.gravityandenginedrivenfuelpumps

24.Theprimarypurposeofanaircraft'sfueljettisonsystemistoquicklyachievea:
a.lowerlandingweight
b.balancedfuelload
c.reducedfirehazard

25.Beforefuelinganaircraftwiththepressurefuelingmethod,whatimportantprecautionshouldbeobserved?
a.Thetruckpumppressuremustbecorrectforthatrefuelingsystem
b.Thetruckpumppressuremustbeadjustedforminimumfilterpressure
c.Theaircraft'selectricalsystemmustbeontoindicatequantitygaugereadings

26.Acapacitancetypefuelquantityindicatingsystemmeasuresfuelin:
a.pounds
b.poundsperhour
c.gallons

27.Whyisthecapacitancefluidquantitysystemmoreaccurateinmeasuringfuellevelthanamechanicaltype?
a.Onlyoneprobeandoneindicatorarenecessaryformultipletankconfigurations
b.Itmeasuresingallonsandconvertstopounds
c.Itmeasuresbyweightinsteadofvolume

28.Adripgaugemaybeusedtomeasure:
a.theamountoffuelinthetank
b.systemleakagewiththesystemshutdown
c.fuelpumpdiaphragmleakage

29.Whyarejetfuelsmoresusceptibletowatercontaminationthanaviationgasoline?
a.Jetfuelhasahigherviscositythangasoline
b.Jetfuelislighterthangasoline;therefore,waterismoreeasilysuspended
c.Condensationisgreaterbecauseofthehighervolatilityofjetfuels

30.Whatmethodwouldcheckforinternalleakageofafuelvalvewithoutremovingthevalvefromtheaircraft?
a.PlacethevalveintheOFFposition,drainthestrainerbowl,andwithboostpumpon,watchtoseeiffuel
flowstothestrainerbowl
b.Removefuelcap(s),turnboostpump(s)on,andwatchforbubblinginthetanks
c.Applyairpressureonthedownstreamsideofthefuelpumpandlistenforairpassingthroughthevalve

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174
Chapter 15
Ice & Rain Control

Chapter15SectionA
StudyAidQuestions

FillintheBlanks

1.Undercertainatmosphericconditions,icecanbuildrapidlyon____________________________________and

_______________________________________.

2.Ondayswhenthereisvisible________________________________intheair,icecanformonaircraftleading

edgesurfacesataltitudeswhere_________________________________start.

3.Rimeiceis________________________inweightthanclearice,anditsweightis________________________
significance.

4.___________________________iceisbrittleandmoreeasilyremovedthan________________________ice.

5.Whenever______________________________conditionsareencountered,the________________________

characteristicsoftheairplanewill______________________________.

6.Themostcommonsystemsusedtopreventicingonwingleadingedgesare_____________________________,

_____________________________________,and_______________________________________________.

7.Thereareseveralmethodsusedtoprovideheatedair.Theseincludebleedinghotairfromthe

______________________________________,_____________________________________________,and

ramairheatedbya___________________________________________.

175

8.Modernaircraftuseseveralonboard__________________________________tocontrolantiiceanddeice
aircraftsystems.

9._________________________________________antiicingsystemsarealsooftenutilizedforverticaland
horizontalstabilizerantiicesystems.

10.Chemicalantiicingsystemsareoftencalledliquidfreezepointdepressantsystemsor____________________
systems.

11.Generalaviation(GA)aircraftandturbopropcommutertypeaircraftoftenusea________________________

_________________________tobreakoftheiceafterithasformedonthe_____________________surfaces.

12.Wingdeicebootsareheldagainsttheairfoilsurfacesby________________________fromthe

_______________________sideofthepumps.

13.Deicertubesareinflatedbyan________________________________________________________________,

orbyairbledfrom_______________________________________________.

14.Propellersaredeicedwith_________________________________________________________________or

____________________________________________systems.

15.Theelectricalwindowheatsystemprevents______________________________and

____________________________________ontheflightdeckwindows.

16.Thewindshieldsareheatedby________________________________________embeddedintheglassorbya

_______________________________________thatisappliedontheinsideoftheouterwindshieldply.

17.Icecanbevisiblydetectedbutmostmodernaircrafthaveoneormore________________________________
thatwarntheflightcrewoficingconditions.

176
TRUEorFALSE

_______1.Cleariceformsasmoothsheetofsolidice.

_______2.Rimeicehasawhiteappearance.

_______3.Icebuildupcausesdestructivevibration,andhamperstrueinstrumentreadings.

_______4.Controlsurfacesbecomeunbalancedorfrozenduetothebuildupofice.

_______5.Radioreceptionishamperedandengineperformanceisaffectedduetothebuildupofice.

_______6.Forthemostpart,generalaviationaircraftequippedtoflyinicingconditionsusethermalorelectric
antiicingsystemsthatarecontrolledautomaticallytopreventtheformationofice.

_______7.Largetransportcategoryaircraftareequippedwithadvanceddeicingboots.

_______8.Somemodernlargeaircraftareusingelectricalthermalantiicingsystems.

_______9.Achemicalantiicingisstrictlyaantiicingsystemtopreventtheformationoficeandcannotbe
utilizedasadeicingsystem.

_______10.Airpressureforapneumaticwingsdeicesystemissuppliedbythevacuumpump.

_______11.EnginedrivenairpumpsareavailableinawetandadrytypeandusedwithTurbineengines.

_______12.Mostgeneralaviationaircraftareequippedwithadrytypeofpump.

_______13.Thedeicecontrolvalveisnormallyenergizedandreleasesairfromthevacuumpumpoverboard.

_______14.Frostdepositscanberemovedbyplacingtheaircraftinawarmhangarorbyusingadeicingfluid.

_______15.Therainrepellantsystemshouldnotbeoperatedondrywindowsbecauseheavyundilutedrepellant
willrestrictwindowvisibility.

MULTIPLECHOICE

1.Icebuildupincreases_________andreduces___________.
a.dragandlift
b.liftanddrag
c.dragandtemperature

2.Thermalwingantiicesystemsforbusinessjetandlargetransportcategoryaircraftwilltypicallyuse?
a.ramairfromacombustionheater
b.airfromengineexhaustheatexchangers
c.bleedairfromturbineenginecompressor
d.bleedairfromturbineenginecombustionsection

3.Whattypeofvalvecontrolstheflowofbleedairfromthepneumaticsystemtothewingantiiceducts?
a.bleedairvalve
b.wingantiicevalve
c.crossfeedvalve

177
4.Whattypeofcircuitsintheonboardcomputercontinuouslymonitorsthewingantiicesystem?
a.buildintestcircuits(BITE)
b.wingantiicecircuits
c.bleedaircircuits
d.warningcircuits

5.Chemicalantiicingsystemsareusedtoprotect:
a.wingsandstabilizers
b.windshields
c.propeller
d.alloftheabove

6.Apneumaticdeicingsystemremovestheiceafterithasformedontheleadingedgesurface.
a.true
b.false
c.onlyinflight
d.onlyontheground

7.Pneumaticdeicingsystems(boots)areusedon?
a.generalaviationaircraft
b.transportcategoryaircraft
c.generalaviationandtransportcategoryaircraft
d.helicopters

8.Enginedrivenpumpsareusedfor?
a.gyros
b.pressurization
c.deicingsystem
d.1and2

9.Whyisanoilseparatornecessaryinadeicingoutfittedwithawetpump?
a.toimprovelubricationofthepump
b.toimprovevacuumpressure
c.toremovetheoilfromtheair

10.Onmodernaircraftthedeicerbootsare__________________totheleadingedgeofawing.
a.rivetedwithflushrivets
b.boltedwithrivnuts
c.bondedwithanadhesive

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name:____________________________________________________________

178
Chapter15SectionB
KnowledgeApplicationQuestions


1.Whatarethetwotypesoficethatareencounteredduringflight?

___________________________________________________________________________________________

2.Whatarethetwobasichazardsassociatedwithiceorfrostformingonaircraft?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

3.Whatcouldbetheresultoficebreakingofthewingandenteringtheengineintake?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

4.Nametheareasonanaircraftthatcouldbeequippedwithdeicingorantiicingsystems?

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

5.Namefourtypesofsystemsthatareusedtopreventorcontroliceformationinaircraft?

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

6.Describeforwhattypeofapplicationsthermalantiicingsystemsareused?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

179

7.Whyaretheleftandrightwingantiicevalvesoperatedatthesametime?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

8.Explainwhyandhowanelectricthermaldeicingsystemismadeinoperativewhentheaircraftisontheground?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

9.Explainhowachemicalantiicingsystemworks.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

10.Explainhowthepneumaticdeicesysteminthefigurebelowworks.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

180

11.Explainwhythebootofapneumaticdeicingsystemshouldnotstayinflatedlongerthan7to10seconds?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

12.Whydoaircraftequippedwithturbineenginesusebleedairfromtheenginecompressor?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

13.Whatisthereasonthatdryvacuumpumpsdonotneedanylubricants?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

14.Whattypeofraincontrolsystemsareusedonaircraft?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

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Chapter15,SectionBIceandRainSystems

name:____________________________________________________________

181

Chapter15SectionC
FinalChapterExam

1.Arcinginanelectricallyheatedwindshieldpanelusuallyindicatesabreakdowninthe:
a.temperaturesensingelements
b.autotransformers
c.conductivecoating

2.Howdodeicerbootshelpremoveiceaccumulations?
a.Bypreventingtheformationofice
b.Bybreakingupiceformations
c.Byallowingonlyathinlayeroficetobuildup

3.Whyarethetubesindeicerbootsalternatelyinflated?
a.Alternateinflationofdeicerboottubeskeepsdisturbanceoftheairflowtoaminimum
b.Alternateinflationofdeicerboottubesdoesnotdisturbairflow
c.Alternateinflationofdeicerboottubesrelievestheloadontheairpump

4.Carburetoricingmaybeeliminatedbywhichofthefollowingmethods?
a.Alcoholsprayandheatedinductionair
b.Ethyleneglycolsprayandheatedinductionair
c.Electricallyheatingairintake,ethyleneglycolspray,oralcoholspray

5.Whyshouldachemicalrainrepellantnotbeusedonadrywindshield?
a.Itwilletchtheglass
b.Itwillrestrictvisibility
c.Itwillcauseglasscrazing

6.Whatmixturemaybeusedasadeicingfluidtoremovefrostfromanaircraftsurface?
a.Ethyleneglycolandisopropylalcohol
b.Methylethylketoneandethyleneglycol
c.Naphthaandisopropylalcohol

7.Whatshouldbeusedtomelttheiceinaturbineengineifthecompressorisimmobilebecauseofice?
a.Deicingfluid
b.Antiicingfluid
c.Hotair

8.Whatisusedasatemperaturesensingelementinanelectricallyheatedwindshield?
a.Thermocouple
b.Thermistor
c.Thermometer

9.Whatmaintainsnormalwindshieldtemperaturecontrolinanelectricallyheatedwindshieldsystem?
a.Thermaloverheatswitches
b.Thermistors
c.Electronicamplifiers

183

10.Whatistheprincipleofawindshieldpneumaticrainremovalsystem?
a.Anairblastspreadsaliquidrainrepellantevenlyoverthewindshieldthatpreventsraindropsfrom
clingingtotheglasssurface
b.Anairblastformsabarrierthatpreventsraindropsfromstrikingthewindshieldsurface
c.Apneumaticrainremovalsystemissimplyamechanicalwindshieldwipersystemthatispoweredby
pneumaticsystempressure

11.Whatarethreemethodsofantiicingaircraftwindshields?
1.Blankettypeheatingsystem 2.Anelectricheatingelementinthewindshield
3.Heatedaircirculatingsystem 4.Hotwatersystem
5.Windshieldwipersandantiicingfluid 6.Ribbontypeheatingsystem
a.2,3,5
b.1,2,6
c.2,3,4

12.Whatcontrolstheinflationsequenceinapneumaticdeicerbootsystem?
a.Shuttlevalve
b.Vacuumpump
c.Distributorvalve

13.Whichofthefollowingisthebestmeanstousewhenremovingwetsnowfromanaircraft?
a.Abrushorasqueegee
b.Hotair
c.Warmwater

14.Whatisonecheckforproperoperationofapitot/statictubeheaterafterreplacement?
a.Ammeterreading
b.Voltmeterreading
c.Continuitycheckofsystem

15.Whatisthesourceofpressureforinflatingdeicerbootsonreciprocatingengineaircraft?
a.Vanetypepump
b.Geartypepump
c.Pistontypepump

16.Whichofthefollowingregulatesthevacuumoftheairpumptoholdthedeicingbootsdeflatedwhenthe
pneumaticdeicingsystemisoff?
a.Distributorvalve
b.Pressureregulator
c.Suctionreliefvalve

17.Whatmaybeusedtocleandeicerboots?
a.UnleadedgasolineorJetAfuel
b.Naphtha
c.Soapandwater

184

18.Someaircraftareprotectedagainstairframeicingbyheatingtheleadingedgesoftheairfoilsandintakeducts.
Whenisthistypeofantiicesystemusuallyoperatedduringflight?
a.Continuouslywhiletheaircraftisinflight
b.Insymmetriccyclesduringicingconditionstoremoveiceasitaccumulates
c.Whenevericingconditionsarefirstencounteredorexpectedtooccur

19.Whichofthefollowingindicationsoccurduringanormaloperationalcheckofapneumaticdeicersystem?
a.Relativelysteadyreadingsonthepressuregaugeandfluctuatingreadingsonthevacuumgauge
b.Fluctuatingreadingsonthepressuregaugeandrelativelysteadyreadingsonthevacuumgauge
c.Pressureandvacuumgaugeswillfluctuateasthedeicerbootsinflateanddeflate

20.Whatmethodisusuallyemployedtocontrolthetemperatureofanantiicingsystemusingsurfacecombustion
heaters?
a.Thermocyclingswitches
b.Thermostatsinthecockpit
c.Heaterfuelshutoffvalves

21.Whatisthepurposeofthedistributorvalveinadeicingsystemutilizingdeicerboots?
a.Toequalizetheairpressuretotheleftandrightwings
b.Tosequencethedeicerbootsinflationssymmetrically
c.Todistributeantiicingfluidtothedeicerboots

22.Whatisthepurposeoftheoilseparatorinthepneumaticdeicingsystem?
a.Toprotectthedeicerbootsfromoildeterioration
b.Toremoveoilfromairexhaustedfromthedeicerboots
c.Topreventanaccumulationofoilinthevacuumsystem

23.Wherearetheheatsensorslocatedonmostaircraftwithelectricallyheatedwindshields?
a.Imbeddedintheglass
b.Attachedtotheglass
c.Aroundtheglass

24.Whichofthefollowingarefoundinalaminatedintegralelectricallyheatedwindshieldsystem?
1.Autotransformer 2.Heatcontrolrelay 3.Heatcontroltoggleswitch
4.24Vdcpowersupply 5.Indicatinglight

a.1,2,4,5
b.2,3,4,5
c.1,2,3,5

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Chapter15,FinalChapterExamIce&RainControl

name:____________________________________________________________

185
Chapter 16
Cabin Environmental

Chapter16SectionA
StudyAidQuestions

FillintheBlanks

1.Oxygenisa_________________________,__________________________,and_________________________
gasatnormalatmospherictemperaturesandpressures.

2.Thewords____________________________________________shouldbemarkedclearlyonanycylinder
containingoxygenforaircraftuse.
.

3.Oxygencylindersareconsideredemptywhenthepressureinsidedropsbelow_______________psi.This

ensuresthataircontaining___________________________________hasnotenteredthecylinder.

4.Whenoxygenisdeliveredonlyastheuserinhales,itisknownasa______________________________system.

5.Therearetwotypesofindividualoxygendemandregulators:theyare:

__________________________________________________________________________________________

6.Themaincauseofcontaminationinanoxygensystemis_______________________________________.

7.Thecabinpressurizationsystemmustbecapableofmaintainingacabinpressureattitudeof_______________.

orlowerregardlessof_______________________________.

8.Metalfatiguefromrepeated___________________________,and____________________________weakens
theaircraftstructure.

187
9.Therearethreetypicalsourcesofairusedtopressurizereciprocatingaircraft.Theyare:

__________________________________________________________________________________________

10.Aircraftequippedwithturbineenginestypicallyuse______________________________________asasource
forcabinpressurization.

11.Aircraftcabinpressurizationsystemsworkintwodifferentmodesofoperation.Theyare:

___________________________________________________________________________________________

12.Theflightcrewcanselectandcontrol_____________________________,____________________________,

and____________________________________onthecabinpressurecontroller.

13.Thecabinpressurecontrollercontrolsthepositionofthe___________________________________located
normallyattherearoftheaircraft.

14.Manytransportcategoryaircrafthaveanoutflowvalvethatoperates___________________________,using

signalssentfromaremotelylocated________________________________thatactasthepressureregulator.

15.Pressurizationsafetyrelievevalvesareusedtoprevent__________________________________ofthecabin.

16.____________________________________areusedtoensurethatairpressureoutsidetheaircraftdoesnot
exceedcabinairpressure.

17.Aircraftwithreciprocatingenginesoftenusea_________________________coolingsystem,andturbine

poweredaircraftusea__________________________coolingsystem.

18.Theaircyclecoolingsystemissuppliedwithairfromeither___________________________or____________

19.Theheartoftheaircyclecoolingsystemisthe_______________________________________,alsoknownas

the________________________________________

188

20.Theducttemperaturesensorsusedinthetemperaturecontrolsystemare____________________________.

Their______________________________________changesastemperaturechanges.

21.Thetemperatureatwhichasubstancechangesfroma_____________________intoa___________________
whenheatisaddedisknownastheboilingpoint.

22.R134arefrigerantisfilteredandstoredunderpressureinareservoirknownas__________________________

23.Mostevaporatorsareconstructedof___________________________or_____________________________
tubingcoiledintoacompactunit.

24.Aconcernofexhaustshroudheatsystemisthat__________________________couldcontaminatethecabin.

25.Maintenanceofcombustionheatersconsistsofroutineitemssuchas_________________________,checking

____________________________________wear,andensuringinletsarenotplugged.

TRUEorFALSE

_______1.GaseousoxygensystemsareusedincommercialaircraftandLOXoxygensystemsareprimarilyused
inmilitaryaircraft.

_______2.Mostoxygenstoragecylindersarepaintedblue,butyellowandwhitemaybeusedaswell.

_______3.Demandflowsystemsareusedmostfrequentlybythecrewonhighperformanceandairtransport
categoryaircraft.

_______4.Ablownoutgreendiskinthesideoffuselageindicatesthattheoxygensupplyislowandthisshould
beinvestigatedbeforeflight.

_______5.Thesolidchemicaloxygengeneratorsusedinmostairlinersareactivatedautomaticallyby
depressurizationormanuallybyaswitchoperatedbytheflightcrew.

_______6.Petroleumproductssuchasgreaseandoilshouldneverbeusedforoxygensystemmaintenance
becauseanexplosioncouldbetheresult.

_______7.Thecabinpressurizationsystemmustmaintainthecabinpressurealtitudebelow10,000ft.

_______8.Metalfatiguecanresultfromrepeatedpressurizationcyclesandcanweakentheairframestructure.

189
_______9.Superchargersarethecommonsourceofpressurizationonmodernreciprocatingengineaircraft.

_______10.Turbochargersaredrivenbyashaftoradrivebelt.

_______11.Largeturbinepoweredaircraftusebleedairfromtheenginecompressorsectionasasourceofair
forcabinpressurization.

_______12.Theisobariccontrolmodeofacabinpressurizationsystemcontrolscabinpressuretomaintaina
constantpressurebetweentheairpressureoutsidethecabinandtheambientairpressure.

_______13.Smallaircraftoftenuseapneumaticallycontrolledoutflowvalvewhiletransportcategoryaircraft
useelectrically/electronicallycontrolledoutflowvalves.

_______14.Pressurizationsafetyrelievevalvesareusedtopreventnegativecabinpressure.

_______15.Manypackvalvesusedinairconditioningsystemsareelectricallycontrolledandpneumatically
operated.

_______16.Theprimaryheatexchangeriscooledbyanelectricfanduringstationarygroundoperationsandram
airisusedinflight.

_______17.Thewaterseparatorhasafiberglassbag(sock)thatcondensesandcoalescesthemistintolarger
waterdroplets.Gravitywilldrainthewaterdropletsfromthewaterseparator.

_______18.Thefunctionoftherefrigerationbypassvalveistoregulatethetemperatureoftheaircycle
machinesoitdoesnotfreezewhenpassingthroughthewaterseparator.

_______19.Avaporcycleairconditioningsystemisanopensysteminwhicharefrigerantiscirculatedthrough
tubingandavarietyofcomponents.

_______20.MostmodernvaporcyclecoolingsystemsonaircraftuseR12refrigerantwhichhasreplacedthe
R134arefrigerant.

_______21.Duringafeeltestcomponentsandlinesinthehighside(fromthecompressortotheexpansion
valve)shouldwarmorhottothetouch.

_______22.Duringafeeltestlowsidelinesandtheevaporatorshouldbewarm.

_______23.Thechargingcapacityofavaporcycleairconditioningsystemismeasuredbyweight.

_______24.Mostsingleenginelightaircraftuseableedairsystemtoheatthecabin.
.
_______25.Thefuelforthecombustionheaterisdrawnfromadedicatedsmallfueltankinsidethecabin.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Chapter16,SectionACabinEnvironmentalSystems

name:____________________________________________________________

190
Chapter16SectionB
KnowledgeApplicationQuestions

1.Whatcomponentinthepressurizationsystemistheprincipalcontrolofapressurizationsystem?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

2.Whatsourceofairsupplyisusedbymostturbinepoweredaircraftforpressurization?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

3.Whatpressurizationcontrolunitwillchangethepositionofanoutflowvalve?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

4.Onreciprocatingengineaircraft,whataresomemethodsofsupplyingheattothecabin?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

5.Whatisthefunctionofventilatingairinacombustionheater?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

6.Whatarethetypicalcomponentsusedinanaircyclecoolingsystem?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

7.Whatcausesatemperaturedropinanaircyclecoolingsystem?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

8.Describehowawaterseparatorinanaircyclecoolingsystemremovesmoisturefromtheair?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

191

9.Describethetheoryofoperationofavaporcyclecoolingsystemillustratedintextbookfigure1674?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

10.Describethetheoryofoperationofanaircyclecoolingsystemillustratedintextbookfigure1663.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

11.Whatarethemaincomponentsinavaporcyclecoolingsystem?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

12.Howdoesacontinuousflowoxygensystemoperate?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

13.Whatmustbeaccomplishedifanoxygensystemhasbeenopentoatmospherefor2hoursormore?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

192

14.Whatisusedtopurgeoxygenlinesofmoisture?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

15.Whattypeofoxygenmustbeusedinaircraft?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

16 WhyisoiladdedtoavaporcycleFreonsystem?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

17.Whatsafetyprecautionsshouldbeobservedwhenservicingoxygensystems?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

18.Whatsourcesofairareusedbypressurizedaircraftwithareciprocatingengine?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

19.WhatisthemainadvantageofusingLOXsystems?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

20.Whatkindofadjustmentscanbemadeonapressurecontroller?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

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Chapter16,SectionBCabinEnvironmental

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Chapter16SectionC
FinalChapterExam

1.Thepurposeofthedumpvalveinapressurizedaircraftistorelieve:
a.allpositivepressurefromthecabin
b.anegativepressuredifferential
c.pressureinexcessofthemaximumdifferential

2.Thebasicaircyclecoolingsystemconsistsof:
a.asourceofcompressedair,heatexchangers,andanaircyclemachine
b.heaters,coolers,andcompressors
c.ramairsource,compressors,andenginebleeds

3.Frostoricebuilduponavaporcyclecoolingsystemevaporatorwouldmostlikelybecausedby:
a.themixingvalvestickingclosed
b.moistureintheevaporator
c.inadequateairflowthroughtheevaporator

4.InaFreonvaporcyclecoolingsystem,whereiscoolingairobtainedforthecondenser?
a.Turbineenginecompressor
b.Ambientair
c.Pressurizedcabinair

5.Whatcomponentinavaporcyclecoolingsystemwouldmostlikelybeatfaultifasystemwouldnottakea
Freoncharge?
a.Expansionvalve
b.Condenser
c.Receiverdryer

6.Whatcontrolstheoperationofthecabinpressureregulator?
a.Cabinaltitude
b.Bleedairpressure
c.Compressionairpressure

7.Thecabinpressureofanaircraftinflightismaintainedattheselectedaltitudeby
a.controllingtheairinflowrate
b.inflatingdoorsealsandrecirculatingconditionedcabinair
c.controllingtherateatwhichairleavesthecabin

8.Whatisventilatingairusedforonacombustionheater?
a.Providescombustionairforgroundblower
b.Carriesheattotheplaceswhereneeded
c.Providesairrequiredtosupporttheflame

195

9.Atwhichcomponentinanaircyclecoolingsystemdoesairundergoapressureandtemperaturedrop?
a.Expansionturbine
b.Primaryheatexchanger
c.Refrigerationbypassvalve

10.Howoftenshouldstandardweighthighpressureoxygencylindersbehydrostaticallytested?
a.Every5years
b.Every4years
c.Every3years

11.Turbineengineairusedforairconditioningandpressurizationisgenerallycalled:
a.compressedair
b.ramair
c.bleedair

12.Inanoperatingvaporcyclecoolingsystem,ifthetwolinesconnectedtotheexpansionvalveareessentially
thesametemperature,whatdoesthisindicate?
a.Thesystemisfunctioningnormally
b.TheexpansionvalveisnotmeteringFreonproperly
c.Thecompressorispumpingtoomuchrefrigerant

13.Inthediluterdemandoxygenregulator,whendoesthedemandvalveoperate?
a.Whenthedilutercontrolissetatnormal
b.Whentheuserdemands100percentoxygen
c.Whentheuserbreathes

14.Ifoxygenbottlepressureisallowedtodropbelowaspecifiedminimum,itmaycause:
a.thepressurereducertofail
b.theautomaticaltitudecontrolvalvetoopen
c.moisturetocollectinthebottle

15.Inahighpressureoxygensystem,ifthepressurereducerfails,whatpreventshighpressureoxygenfrom
enteringthesystemdownstream?
a.Checkvalve
b.Pressurereliefvalve
c.Manifoldcontrolvalve

16.Whatistheconditionoftherefrigerantasitleavesthecondenserofavaporcyclecoolingsystem?
a.Lowpressureliquid
b.Highpressureliquid
c.Highpressurevapor

17.Whatistheconditionoftherefrigerantasitleavestheevaporatorofavaporcyclecoolingsystem?
a.Lowpressureliquid
b.Lowpressurevapor
c.Highpressurevapor

196

18.Theprimarydifferencebetweenaviationbreathingoxygenandothertypesofcommerciallyavailable
compressedoxygenisthat:
a.theothertypesareusuallysomewhatlessthan99.5percentpureoxygen
b.aviationbreathingoxygenhashadallthewatervaporremoved
c.aviationbreathingoxygenhasahigherpercentageofwatervaportohelppreventdryingofaperson's
breathingpassagesandpossibledehydration

19.Inagaseousoxygensystem,whichofthefollowingareventedtoblowoutplugsinthefuselageskin?
a.Pressurereliefvalves
b.Fillershutoffvalves
c.Pressurereducervalves

20.Highpressurecylinderscontainingoxygenforaviationusecanbeidentifiedbytheir:
a.greencolorandthewords'BREATHINGOXYGEN'stenciledin1inchwhiteletters
b.yellowcolorandthewords'AVIATOR'SBREATHINGOXYGEN'stenciledin1inchwhiteletters
c.greencolorandthewords'AVIATOR'SBREATHINGOXYGEN'stenciledin1inchwhiteletters

21.Whatpartofapressurizationsystempreventscabinaltitudefrombecominghigherthanairplanealtitude?
a.Cabinrateofdescentcontrol
b.Negativepressurereliefvalve
c.Positivepressurereliefvalve

22.Thecabinpressurecontrolsettinghasadirectinfluenceuponthe:
a.outflowvalveopening
b.pneumaticsystempressure
c.inflowvalveopening

23.Ifthecabinrateofclimbistoogreat,thecontrolshouldbeadjustedtocausethe:
a.outflowvalvetocloseslower
b.outflowvalvetoclosefaster
c.cabincompressorspeedtodecrease

24.Themaincauseofcontaminationingaseousoxygensystemsis:
a.moisture
b.dustandotherairborneparticulates
c.otheratmosphericgases

25.Whatmaybeusedasalubricantonoxygensystemtaperedpipethreadconnections?
a.Siliconedielectriccompound
b.Glycerin
c.Teflontape

26.Whichisconsideredagoodpracticeconcerningtheinspectionofheatingandexhaustsystemsofaircraft
utilizingashroudaroundtheengineexhaustasaheatsource?
a.Supplementphysicalinspectionswithperiodicoperationalcarbonmonoxidedetectiontests.
b.Allexhaustsystemcomponentsshouldberemovedperiodically,andtheirconditiondeterminedbythe
magneticparticleinspectionmethod.
c.Allexhaustsystemcomponentsshouldberemovedandreplacedateach100hourinspectionperiod.

197

27.Whatunitinavaporcyclecoolingsystemservesasareservoirfortherefrigerant?
a.Receiverdryer
b.Evaporator
c.Condenser

28.Whichbestdescribescabindifferentialpressure?
a.DifferencebetweencabinflightaltitudepressureandMeanSeaLevelpressure
b.Differencebetweentheambientandinternalairpressure
c.Differencebetweencabinpressurecontrollersettingandactualcabinpressure

29.Regardingthestatementsbelow:
(1)Usuallybleedairfromagasturbineenginecompressorcanbesafelyusedforcabinpressurization.
(2)Independentcabinconditionairmachines(aircyclemachine)canbepoweredby
bleedairfromanaircraftturbineenginecompressor.

a.onlyNo.1istrue
b.onlyNo.2istrue
c.bothNo.1andNo.2aretrue

30.Thecabinpressurizationmodesofoperationare:
a.isobaric,differential,andmaximumdifferential
b.differential,unpressurized,andisobaric
c.ambient,unpressurized,andisobaric

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198
Chapter 17 - Fire Detection

Chapter17SectionA
StudyAidQuestions

FillintheBlanks

1.Becausefireisoneofthemostdangerousthreatstoanaircraft,thepotentialfirezonesofmodern

multiengineaircraftareprotectedby_______________________________________system.

2.3detectorsystemsincommonusearethe___________________________,___________________________,

and_____________________________________.

3.Athermocoupledependsonthe_________________________________________andwillnotgiveawarning

whenanengine___________________________overheatsorashortcircuitdevelops.

4.Thethermocoupleisconstructedoftwodissimilarmetalssuchas_______________________________and

________________________________.

5.Twowidelyusedtypesofcontinuousloopsystemsare____________________________________type

detectorssuchastheKiddeandtheFenwalsystems,andthepneumaticpressuredetectorsuchasthe

___________________________________system.

6.TheKiddecontinuousloopsystemcansupply____________________________________datatotheairplane
conditionmonitoringfunctionoftheAircraftInflightMonitoringSystem.

7.Dualloopsystemsusea____________________logictoincreasesystemreliability.

8.Lindbergsystemsarealsoknowas___________________________________________________________and

199
____________________________________________________________________.
9.Asmokedetectionsystemmonitorsthe_____________________________,____________________________,and

baggagecompartmentsforthepresenceof__________________________,whichisindicativeoffirecondition.

10.Opticalsensorsoftenreferredtoas____________________________________.

11.Carbonmonoxidedetectorsareinstalledinthecockpitofaircraftpoweredby__________________________

enginestodetectfor_______________________________________gaswhichcanenterthecockpitthrough

_________________________________malfunctions.

12.ClassAtypefiresarebestcontrolledwith_____________________________bycoolingthematerialbelowits

______________________________temperatureandsoakingthematerialtopreventreignition.

13.______________________________isnotrecommendedforhandheldextinguishersforinternalaircraftuse.

14.______________________________________________systemsuseopenendtubestodeliveraquantity

ofextinguishingagentin_______________________seconds.

15.Fireextinguishercontainers(HRDbottles)storea___________________________halogenatedextinguishing

agentandpressurized_______________________andarenormallymanufacturedfromstainlesssteel.

TRUEorFALSE

_______1.Afireprotectionsystemonmostaircraftconsistsofafiredetectionandafireextinguishingsystem.

_______2.Smokedetectorsarenotusedincargoandbaggagecompartments.

_______3ClassDfiresarefiresinvolvingenergizedelectricalequipmentwheretheuseofanextinguishing
mediathatiselectricallynonconductiveisimportant.

_______4.Thermalswitchesarepressuresensitiveunitsthatcompleteelectricalcircuitsatacertain
temperature.

_______5.Transportaircraftalmostexclusivelyusecontinuousthermalsensingelementsforpowerplantand
wheelwellprotection.

200
_______6.HalocarboncleanagentsorwaterareusedonaClassDfire.

_______7.TheFenwalsystemusesaslenderInconeltubepackedwiththermallysensitiveeutecticsaltanda
nickelwirecenterconductor.

_______8.Whenthefireoroverheatconditionisgone,theresistanceofthecorematerialintheKiddesystem
willincreasetotheresetpointandtheflightdeckindicationsgoaway.

_______9.Pneumaticcontinuousloopsystemsareusedforenginefiredetectionofreciprocatingtypeaircraft
andhavethesamefunctionastheKiddesystem;howevertheyworkonadifferentprinciple.

_______10.TheLindbergfire/overheatdetector'ssensortubealsocontainsahydrogenfilledcorematerial.

MULTIPLECHOICE

1.Nametheclassesoffiresthatarelikelytooccuronboardaircraft
a.Class1,2,3,and4
b.ClassI,II,III,andIV
c.ClassA,B,C,andD
d.Classred,blue,green,andyellow

2.RegardingtheStatementsbelow:
#1TheKiddesystemusesaslenderInconeltubepackedwiththermally
sensitiveeutecticsaltandanickelwirecenterconductor.
#2IntheLindbergcontinuousloopsystem,twowiresareimbedded
inaninconeltubefilledwithathermistorcorematerial.

a.Statement1and2aretrue
b.Statement1and2arefalse
c.Statement1istrueandstatement2isfalse
d.Statement1isfalseandstatement2istrue

3.IfthetemperatureoftheKiddecontinuousloopcore______theelectricalresistancetoground______
a.increases,decreases
b.decreases,increases
c.Increases,increases
d.decreases,decreases

4.Singlepointpneumaticdetectorsthatareusedinsometurbopropaircraftarebasedontheprinciplesof
___________laws.
a.Thermal
b.Gas
c.Newtons
d.Hydraulic

5.Lindbergfiredetectionsystemsusealoopsystemthatisfilledwitha_______andusea________toactuate
thecontrolcircuitry.
a.Thermistormaterial,pressurediaphragm
b.Thermistormaterial,thermocouple
c.Gas,thermocouple
d.Gas,pressurediaphragm

201

6.TheLindbergcontinuousfiredetectionuses__________________gas.
a.Helium
b.Argon
c.Oxygen
d.Nitrogen

7.Whattypeoffireextinguishingagentisanozonedepletingandglobalwarmingchemicalanditsproductionhas
beenbannedbyinternationalagreement?
a.Nitrogen
b.Helium
c.CO2
d.Halon

8.WhattypeoffireextinguishingagentisusedtofightClassA,B,orCfires?
a.CO2
b.Halocarboncleanagents
c.Drypowder
d.Answer2and3arecorrect

9.Themostcommonextinguishingagentstillusedtodayis?
a.CO2
b.Halon1201
c.Halon1301
d.drypowder

10.Thecartridgeserviceliferecommendedbythemanufacturerisusuallyintermsof_________.
a.days
b.years
c.months
d.flightcycles

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202
Chapter17SectionB
KnowledgeApplicationQuestions

1.Name5typicalzonesonaircraftthathaveafixedfiredetectionand/orfireextinguishersystem?

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

2.Whattypesofsystemsareusedtodetectfiresinreciprocatingengineandsmallturbopropaircraft?

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

3.Whattypesofsystemsareusedtodetectfireinturbineenginefireprotectionsystems?

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________

4.Name3typesofcontinuousloopfiredetectionsystems.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

5.WhataretheadvantagesofusingSupporttubemountedsensingelements?

____________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________

6.Whattypeoffiredetectionandextinguishingsystemsarecontrolledbyadvanceddetectionsystemcircuitry?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

7.WhattypeofextinguishingagentsareusedforaclassA,B,andCfire?

____________________________________________________________________________________

203

8.Transportaircrafthavefixedfireextinguishingsystemsinstalledin:

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

9.Whatisinstalledintheoutletofthedischargevalve?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

10.Whatisthefunctionofthecartridge(squib)thatisinstalledinthedischargevalve?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

11.WhatisthepurposeoftheYellowdiskdischargeindicator?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

12.Whatwillhappenwhenthefireswitchisactivated?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

13.WhatisaClassAcargoorbaggagecompartment?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

14.WhatisthedifferencebetweenaClassAandaClassBcargoandbaggagecompartment?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

15.Whatindicationswilloccurinthecockpitifthereissmokeinacargocompartment?

____________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________

204
16.Whatcouldbetheresultsofkinksandsharpbendsinthesensingelement?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

17.Usingthepressurechartbelow.Whatistheminimumpressurewhenthetemperatureis70F?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Fireextinguisherpressuregraph

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Chapter17,SectionBFireDetection

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205
Chapter17SectionC
FinalChapterExam

1.Asquib,asusedinafireprotectionsystemisa:
a.temperaturesensingdevice
b.deviceforcausingthefireextinguishingagenttobereleased
c.probeusedforinstallingfrangibledisksinextinguisherbottles

2.Whenusedinfiredetectionsystemshavingasingleindicatorlight,thermalswitchesarewiredin:
a.parallelwitheachotherandinserieswiththelight
b.serieswitheachotherandthelight
c.serieswitheachotherandparallelwiththelight

3.Regardingthefollowingstatementsinreferencetoaircraftfireextinguishingsystems:
(1)duringremovalorinstallation,theterminalsofdischargecartridgesshouldbegroundedorshorted.
(2)beforeconnectingcartridgeterminalstotheelectricalsystem,thesystemshouldbechecked
withavoltmetertoseethatnovoltageexistsattheterminalconnections.

a.onlynumber2istrue
b.bothnumber1andnumber2aretrue
c.neithernumber1nornumber2aretrue

4.Referringtothechartbelow,determinethetemperaturerangeforafireextinguishingagentstorage
containerwithapressureof330PSIG.(Consider330PSIGforbothminimumandmaximumpressure.)
a.47to73F
b.47to71F
c.45to73F

CONTAINERPRESSUREVERSUSTEMPERATURE
TEMPERATUREF CONTAINERPRESSURE(PSI)
MINIMUM MAXIMUM
40 60 145
30 83 165
20 105 188
10 125 210
0 145 230
10 167 252
20 188 275
30 209 295
40 230 317
50 255 342
60 284 370
70 319 405
80 356 443
90 395 483
100 438 523

207
5.Whatmethodisusedtodetectthethermaldischargeofabuiltinfireextinguishersystem?
a.Adiscoloringoftheyellowplasticdiskinthethermaldischargeline
b.Aruptureoftheredplasticdiskinthethermaldischargeline
c.Thethermalplugmissingfromthesideofthebottle

6.Thethermalswitchesofabimetallicthermalswitchtypefiredetectionsystemareheatsensitiveunitsthat
completecircuitsatacertaintemperature.Theyareconnectedin__________.
a.parallelwitheachother,andinparallelwiththeindicatorlights
b.parallelwitheachother,butinserieswiththeindicatorlights
c.serieswitheachother,butinparallelwiththeindicatorlights

7.Referringtothechartabove,determinewhatpressureisacceptableforafireextinguisherwhenthe
surroundingareatemperatureis33F.(Roundedtothenearestwholenumber.)
a.215to302PSIG
b.214to301PSIG
c.215to301PSIG

8.Onaperiodiccheckoffireextinguishercontainers,thepressurewasnotbetweenminimumandmaximum
limits.Whatprocedureshouldbefollowed?
a.releasepressureifabovelimits
b.replacetheextinguishercontainer
c.increasepressureifbelowlimits

9.Insomefireextinguishingsystems,evidencethatthesystemhasbeenintentionallydischargedisindicatedby
theabsenceofa:
a.reddiskonthesideofthefuselage
b.greendiskonthesideofthefuselage
c.yellowdiskonthesideofthefuselage

10.Thethermocouplefirewarningsystemisactivatedbya:
a.certaintemperature
b.coreresistancedrop
c.rateoftemperaturerise

11.Maintenanceoffiredetectionsystemsincludesthe:
a.repairofdamagedsensingelements
b.removalofexcessivelooporelementmaterial
c.replacementofdamagedsensingelements

12.Acarbondioxide(CO2)handheldfireextinguishermaybeusedonanelectricalfireifthe:
a.hornisnonmetallic
b.handleisinsulated
c.hornisnonmagnetic

13.Whichfireextinguishingagentisconsideredtobetheleasttoxic?
a.carbondioxide
b.bromotrifluoromethane(Halon1301)
c.bromochloromethane(Halon1011)

208

14.Whichfiredetectionsystemmeasurestemperaturerisecomparedtoareferencetemperature?
a.fenwalcontinuousloop
b.Lindbergcontinuouselement
c.thermocouple

15.Inwhatareaofanaircraftwouldyoufindacarbonmonoxidedetector?
a.surfacecombustionheatercompartment
b.cockpitand/orcabin
c.engineand/ornacelle

16.Whatoccurswhenavisualsmokedetectorisactivated?
a.Awarningbellwithintheindicatoralarmsautomatically
b.Alampwithintheindicatorilluminatesautomatically
c.Thetestlampilluminatesandanalarmisprovidedautomatically

17.Thetypesoffireextinguishingagentsforaircraftinteriorfiresare
a.water,carbondioxide,drychemical,andhalogenatedhydrocarbons
b.water,drychemical,methylbromide,andchlorobromomethane
c.water,carbontetrachloride,carbondioxide,anddrychemical

18.Whenairsamplescontaincarbonmonoxide,portablecarbonmonoxidedetectorscontainingyellow
silicagelwillturnwhichcolor?
a.blue
b.green
c.red

19.Smokedetectioninstrumentsareclassifiedbytheirmethodof:
a.construction
b.maintenance
c.detection

20.Smokeinthecargoand/orbaggagecompartmentofanaircraftiscommonlydetectedbywhich
instrument?
a.chemicalreactor
b.photoelectriccell
c.sniffer

21.Acontaminatedcarbonmonoxideportabletestunitwouldbereturnedtoserviceby:
a.heatingtheindicatingelementto300Ftoreactivatethechemical
b.installinganewindicatingelement
c.evacuatingtheindicatingelementwithCO2

22.Athermocoupleinafiredetectionsystemcausesthewarningsystemtooperatebecause:
a.itgeneratesasmallcurrentwhenheated
b.heatdecreasesitselectricalresistance
c.itexpandswhenheatedandformsagroundforthewarningsystem

209
23.Theproperfireextinguishingagenttouseonanaircraftbrakefireis:
a.water
b.carbondioxide
c.drypowderchemical

24.WhydoestheFenwalfiredetectionsystemusespotdetectorswiredparallelbetweentwoseparate
circuits?
a.acontrolunitisusedtoisolatethebadsystemincaseofmalfunction
b.thisinstallationisequaltotwosystems:amainsystemandareservesystem
c.ashortmayexistineithercircuitwithoutcausingafalsefirewarning

25.Afireextinguishercontainercanbecheckedtodetermineitschargeby:
a.attachingaremotepressuregauge
b.weighingthecontaineranditscontents
c.ahydrostatictest

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210
Answers
AnswerstoStudyAidquestionsandKnowledgeApplicationquestions(sections1&2of
eachchapter)aregiveninthefollowingpages.AnswerstotheFinalChapteraregiven
onlyonthecorrespondingInstructorsupportCD.



CHAPTER1 3.Thepartisshortenedorcompressedontheinsideofthe
bendandstretchedontheoutsideofthebend.Thisisa
FILLINTHEBLANKS
combinationofcompressionandtensionstress.
1.structuralmember
4.Theymustbestreamlinedtomeetaerodynamic
2.torsion,shear
requirementstoreducedragordirectairflow
3.poundspersquareinch,psi
5.Memberssuchasbeams,struts,bars,andlongerons
4.fullcantilever
coveredwithfabric.
5.spanwise
6.Maintainingtheproperamountofstrengthwhilekeeping
6.longerons
7.web,cap theweightwithintheallowablelimits
8.firewall,engine 7.Monocoquefuselageshaveheavystructuralmembers
locatedatintervalswithnootherbracingmembers,requiring
9.regulateenginetemperature
theskintocarrytheprimaryloads.Semimonocoquetype
10.lateral,longitudinal,anddirectional
fuselageuseslongeronsaslongitudinalreinforcementsthat
11.flutter
12.left helpsupporttheskin.
13.lateralorhorizontal 8.Metalfatigueiscausedbycyclingfrompressurizedto
14.Right unpressurizedandbackduringeachflightaswellas
15.fowler withstandingthepressuredifferentialinflight
16.AOAorangleofattack 9.Jurystrutssubduestrutmovementandoscillationonstruts
thatareattachedtothewingsatagreatdistancefromthe
17.spoilers
fuselage.Theyareverticalsupportstructuresthatare
18.zerostation
19.stainlesssteel attachedtothewingandstrut.
20.upanddown,backandforth 10.Theyaretheprincipalstructuralmemberandtheysupport
alldistributedloadsaswellasconcentratedweights(i.e.
TRUE/FALSE fuselage,landinggear,engines,etc.)
1.falsewingspar 11.Theyarelocatedentirelyforwardofthefrontsparand
theyareusedtoshapeandstrengthenthewingleadingedge.
2.falsetension
Theydonotspantheentirewingchord.
3.true
12.Theyarestreamlinedandhousetheengineandits
4.falsestringers
5.falseskincarriesload components.Theycansometimesbedesignedtohousethe
6.true landinggear.Allnacellesincorporateafirewalltoisolatethe
7.falseribsforwardoffrontsparusedforshapingand enginefromtherestoftheairframe.Theyhavecowlings
strengtheningleadingedge whichcoverareasthatcanbeeasilyaccessedwhendetached.
13.Lateralelevators,longitudinalailerons,verticalrudder
8.true
14.Camberandliftareincreased
9.true
10.falseelectricalandhydraulicpower 15.Slotsdirectairovertheuppersurfaceofthewingduring
11.falsewingsealedwithfuelresistantsealing highanglesofattack.Theylowerstallspeedandprovide
12.true controlduringslowflight.Slotsarelocatedontheouter
13.falseinstalledandoperatedependently leadingedgeofthewingforwardoftheailerons.
14.falsewinglets 16.Typicallylinkeddirectlytothecontrolsurfacesothey
15.falseconventionalandtailwheel moveautomaticallywhenthecontrolsurfacemoves.Balance
tabsaidethepilotinovercomingtheforceneededtomove
16.true
thecontrolsurface
17.true
17.Allowsforgreaterclearancebetweenthepropeller,which
18.falsetiltingtherotor
19.falseflap werelongerbackthen,andloosedebriswhenoperatingon
20.falseoppositedirectionofrotation unpavedrunway
18.Thetwomainwheelsareforwardofthecenterofgravity

whilethetailisaft.Iftheaircraftswervesonlandingthetail
MATCHING
canswingoutpullingthecenterofgravityaftofthemain
1.AExhaustvalve
2.FIntakevalve wheelsallowingthetailtofreelypivot
19.Astheplaneofrotationoftherotorbladetiltsthe
KNOWLEDGEAPPLICATION advancingbladehasagreaterrelativewindspeedcompared
1.Rotorsarerotatingwingsasopposedtopropellersand totheretreatingblade.Thiscausesagreateramountoflift
rotatingairfoilsofanengine beingdevelopedontheadvancingbladeresultingintheblade
2.Thedegreeofdeformationofamaterial flappingup.Theoppositeoccursontheretreatingside
causingthebladetoflapdown.

211
20.Standsfornotailrotorbecauseithasanenginedriven 2.Atmosphericpressureistheforceexertedagainstthe
adjustablefanlocatedinthetailboom.Asthespeedofthe earthssurfacebytheweightoftheairabovethatsurface.It
mainrotorchanges,thespeedoftheNOTARfanchangesas ismeasuredusingabarometerinHg.
well.Airisventedoutoftwolongslotsontherightsideof 3.Densityvariesindirectproportionwithpressureand
thetailtocounteractthetorqueproducedbythemainrotor. inverselywithtemperature.
4.Absolutetheweightofwatervaporinaunitvolumeofair;
Relativetheratio(%)ofthemoistureactuallyintheairto
themoistureitwouldholdifitweresaturatedatthesame
temperatureandpressure.
CHAPTER2 5.Thelawofactionandreactionstatesthatforeveryaction
FILLINTHEBLANKS (force)thereisanequalandoppositereaction(force).
1.Force,dyne 6.Thetoppartofthewinghasagreatercurvaturethanthe
2.Hgorinchesofmercury,barometer bottom.Thisrequirestheairabovethewingtotravelfarther
3.Increases,increases,increases thanthebottom.Theairtherefore,hasagreatervelocity
4.Inversely,directly andadecreasedpressure.Thepressuredifferentialcreates
5.First,inertia lift.Thehighpressureonthebottomofthewingtriesto
6.Increase equalizebyrisingtothelowpressurearea.
7.uppersurface 7.Thereisanareaofnegativepressurebehindtheresultant
8.AOAorangleofattack forcewhenAOAis0.AsAOAincreasestowardsitscritical
9.Longitudinal point,theresultantforcemovesforward.Oncecriticalangleis
10.Fluid,pressure reachedtheresultantforcefallsrapidlyuntilthewingstalls.
11.High,low,outward,vortex 8.Dragistheresistanceoftheairtoanobjectmovingthrough
12.Static it.Thereare3formsofdrag:Parasitedragoccurswhenan
13.Ailerons,elevator,rudder exposedobjectoffersresistancetotheair.Profiledragisthe
14.Freespinning,upward parasitedragoftheairfoil.Induceddragoccursasliftis
15.Down createdandtheairflowspillageoverthewingtipcreatesa
16.Left,all vortex.Thisvortexconstitutesinduceddrag.
17.Dissymmetry 9.Controlisthepilotactionofmovingtheflightcontrols,
18.Clutch providingtheaerodynamicforcethatinducestheaircraftto
19.Right,left followadesiredflightpath.Controllabilitymeansthatthe
20.Goandnogo aircraftrespondseasilyandpromptlytomovementofthe
21.Fairleads,3 flightcontrols.
22.Turnbuckle,lefthand 10.Sharpdisturbancesgenerateshockwavesthataffectlift
23.Positionorangle,wingtips anddragaswellasairflowdownstreamoftheshockwave.A
24.Dihedral,incidence coneofpressurewhichmovesoutwardandrearwardfrom
25.Doubletwist,singlewire theshockwave.Also,theenergyoftheobjectmovingexcites
thechemicalbondsoftheoxygenandnitrogen.
TRUEorFALSE 11.Eachbladecanmovebackandforthinplane,leadand
1.true lag;andflapupanddownthroughahingeindependentofthe
2.true otherblades.
3.false;fasterathigheraltitude 12.Astheengineturnsthemainrotorinacounterclockwise
4.false;inversely direction,thehelicopterfuselagetendstoturntheopposite
5.true direction.Theactionofthemainrotorbladecreatesanequal
6.true andoppositeforcethatturnsthefuselageclockwise.
7.false;lifttodragratio 13.Itisamechanicalconnectionbetweenthecollectivelever
8.false;drag,notweight andenginethrottle.Whenthecollectiveleverisraised,
9.true powerincreasesandwhenlowered,powerisdecreased.This
10.false;centerofgravity systemmaintainsRPMclosetothedesiredvalue.
11.false;verticalaxis 14.Looseelevatorlinkageatswashplatehorn,looseelevator,
12.true ortailrotorbalanceandtrack
13.false;wingfences 15.Thegasproducer(compressorturbine)isessentially
14.true disconnectedfromthepowerturbine.Whentheengineis
15.true started,thereislittleresistancefromthepowerturbine
16.falseweightaddedforeoraftofhinges allowingthegasturbinetoacceleratetonormalidlewithout
17.false;manufacturerprovidesinstructionsforfabrication thetransmissionloaddraggingitdown.
18.true 16.Pulleysareusedtoguidecablesandchangecable
19.false;issuedbyFAA direction.Pulleyguardspreventjammingorthecableslipping
20.false;flexibleandusedforpulleys offwhenslackenedduetotemperaturechanges.
21.false;notused 17.Positioningtheflightcontrolsintheneutralpositionand
22.true lockingtheminplace.Adjustingthecabletensionand
23.true maintainingcontrolsurfaceneutral.Adjustingthecontrol
24.true stopstotheaircraftmanufacturersspecifications.
25.false;neverreused 18.Tomakeminoradjustmentsincablelengthandfor
adjustingcabletension.
KNOWLEDGEAPPLICATION 19.Trimtabsystems.Asthetrimtabcontrolmoves,the
1.Itisasubstancethathastheabilitytofloworassumethe cabledrumwindsorunwindstoactuatethetrimtabcables.
shapeofthecontainerinwhichitisenclosed. 20.Annual,100hourinspection,progressive

212
CHAPTER3 smallsurface.Fabricisadheredtotheairframeusing
approvedadhesive,andspecificmanufacturersinstructions.
FILLINTHEBLANKS
7.Eyeprotection,respirator,skinprotection,andventilation
1.Cotton,sag,dopingornitratedoping
8.Asheetoffeltorpolyesterpaddingmaybeusedbeforethe
2.510
fabricisapplied.Approvedpaddingensurescompatibility
3.Polyester
withtheadhesivesandfirstcoatingofthecoveringprocess.
4.Pinkingshears,unraveling
9.Fabricsisshrunkinstages,usinglowertemperaturefirst.
5.Unairworthy
Thefirstshrinkremoveswrinklesandexcessfabric.Thefinal
6.Onetime
shrinkagegivesthedesiredtautness.Fabricshouldbeshrunk
7.UVlight
8.Retarder byskippingfromoneendtotheotherandthenthemiddleto
9.Fasteners,airflow achieveuniformtautness.
10.Organic 10.Draingrommetsallowsforanescapeofrainwaterand
11.Weight,stresses condensationfromunderthefabric.Theyarelocatedatthe
12.Rejuvenator,airworthy lowestpartofeachstructuralareaandeachribbayofthe
13.Exposed,1.25or1 wings.Specificlocationsofeachdraingrommetcanbefound
14.Blanket,precutorpresewn intheAC43.13orSTC.
11.Chordwisetapeisappliedfirstfollowedbyspanwisetape.
15.Temperature,humidity
12.Itisacoatusedinsomeapprovedcoveringprocessesthat
16.Volume,pressure
17.Durability,appearance combinesthesealerandfillcoatsintoone.Theysurroundand
18.Propellerwash,onerib sealthefabricfibers,provideagoodadhesionforfollowing
coats,andhaveUVblockingagents.
19.Inspectionormaintenance,inspection

20.Patches,strut

TRUEorFALSE
1.false;alongthelengthoffabric
2.true CHAPTER4
3.false;FAAissued FILLINTHEBLANKS
4.true 1.strong,cracks
5.false;differentthread 2.shear,torsion
6.true 3.parallel,three
7.true 4.bearing,shear
8.true 5.parallel,doublecut
9.false;allcoatingsshouldberemoved 6.shape,halfround
10.false;notanFAAapprovedmethod 7.pneumatic,electric
11.true 8.stops,underlying
12.true 9.bends
13.true 10.press,complex
14.true 11.feed,curvature
15.false;dopeorglue 12.deburr,stretching
16.true 13.Vblocks,flanges
17.falseskippingfromoneendtotheotherandthemiddle 14.thickness,temper
18.true 15.Kfactor,90
19.false;thewidest4 16.reliefholes,tangent
20.true 17.excellent,feed
18.load
KNOWLEDGEAPPLICATION 19.manufacturing,conventional
1.Theycreatedasystemofcombiningnitratedopeand 20.bulbed,locking(foil)
butyratedope.Thefabricwasfirstcoatedwithnitratedope 21.regulated,torque
foradhesionandprotectivequalitiesandthenbutyratedope 22.aluminum,clearance
wasaddedreducingtheoverallflammability. 23.sleeves,protruding
2.AppendixAstatesthatchangingpartsofanaircraftwing, 24.less,thickest
tailsurface,orfuselagewhennotlistedintheaircraft 25.pitch,adjacent
specificationsissuedbytheFAAisamajoralterationand 26.knifeedge,enlarging
requiresaForm337 27.perpendicular,weight
3.Itisaselfadhesiveclothtapethatisusedonsharp 28.spar,strength
protrusions,ribcaps,metalseams,andotherareastoprovide 29.rivetgage
asmoothersurfacetokeepfabricfrombeingtorn. 30.hot,flow
4.Handthreadis3ply,uncoatedpolyesterthreadwitha15
lbtensilestrength;machinethreadis4plywitha10lbtensile KNOWLEDGEAPPLICATION
strength 11.d 12.c 13.f
5.Withahotsolderingpencilthatalsoheatsealsthefabric 14.e 15.a 16.b
throughthecenterofthefabric. 17.a 18.f 19.e
6.Theblanketmethodusesmultipleflatsectionsoffabric 110.c 111.b
trimmedandattachedtotheairframe.Eachaircraftis
considereddifferentlytodeterminesizeandlayoutofthe 21.l 22.c 23.i
blanketsbutitistypicalforasmallblankettobecutforeach 24.q 25.f 26.a
27.e 28.o 29.g

213
210.d 211.p 212.j 25.warping,abuckling
213.m 214.r 215.b 26.inner
216.h 217.n 218.k 27.formedsteelpatchplate
28.splitsleeve
31.d 32.f 33.b 29.nonrepairable,welded
34.g 35.a 36.i 30.largerdiameter
37.e 38.h 39.c
TRUEorFALSE
41.c 42.a 43.e 1.false.gas,electricarc,andelectricresistancewelding.
44.d 45.g 46.b 2.false.Mostcommonformaterialunder3/16
45.f 3.true
4.true
51.e 52.a 53.c 5.false.Therodisnotconsumedduringwelding
54.f 55.b 56.d 6.true.Plasmaarccancutallelectricallyconductivemetals.
7.false.Neverhigherthan15psi.
61.h 62.l 63.d 8.true
64.p 65.i 66.n 9.false.preventsahighpressureflameorfuelmixturebeing
67.f 68.a 69.k pushedbackintoeithercylindercausinganexplosion.
610.b 611.o 612.n 10.true
613.j 614.g 615.m 11.false.Thelightintensityofarcweldingismuchhigherand
616.c differentlensesarerequired.
12.false;weldingtipshaveonehole;cuttingtipsseveralholes
71.f 72.b 73.e 13.false.openacetylenevalvebeforetheoxygenvalve.
74.a 75.d 76.c 14.true;neutralflameat5,850F;carburizingflameat5,700
81.b 82.e 83.a 15.false;Alwaysturnofftheacetylenevalvefirst
84.d 85.g 86.c 16.true
87.f 88.f 89.c 17.false.Maintainaneutralflameformoststeelsandaslight
810.g 811.e 812.b excessofacetyleneforstainlesssteel
813.a 18.true
19.false;magnesiumisdonewithaneutralflame.
91.2D 92.2D+1/16 20.false;Thoriatedandzirconiatedelectrodeshavebetter
9.3.2.5D 94.2.5D+1/16 electronemissioncharacteristics.
21.true
101.3D 102. 3D+1/16 22.false;DCstraightpolarity
103. 4D 104. 4D+1/16 23.true
105. 3.5D 106. 3.5D+1/16 24.true
107.4.5D 108.4.5D+1/16 25.false;useweldedsplitsleevereinforcements.

KNOWLEDGEAPPLICATION
1.Gasshieldedarcwelding.
2.Ifigniteditisextremelyhardtoextinguish.
CHAPTER5 3.Theweldzonemustbeshieldedwithaninertgas.
FILLINTHEBLANKS 4.Tohavethebasemetalchemicallycleanwithoutthe
1.gas,electricarc,electricresistance slightestfilmofoxide.
2.6300,acetylene,oxygen 5.Aneutralflame.
3.stirwelding 6.Weldaformedsteelpatchplateoverthedentedarea.
4.metalinertgas(MIG)welding 7.Cooltheinnersleevewithdryiceorincoldwater.
5.DCstraightpolarity,AC 8.Byusingalargertipandadjustingthepressures.
6.spot,seam 9.Gasshieldedarcwelding.
7.argon,argon/heliumorargon/nitrogen 10.Theacetylene,toallowgasinthetiptoburnout.
8.colorless,odorless,tasteless 11.Tackweldingatintervalsalongthejoint.
9.green,righthand 12.Turnoffthevalvesandrelieveallpressure.
10.temperature 13.Theymustbereheattreated.
11.upright,liquidacetone 14.Alowstrengthweld.
12.bigger 15.metallicarcwelding.
13.neutral,carburizing,andoxidizing 16.Agasisusedasashieldaroundthearctopreventthe
14.6300,oxygen atmospherefromcontaminatingtheweld.
15.backfire,overheating,loose 17.Theweldisstronger,moreductile,andmorecorrosion
16.acetylene,oxygen resistant.
17.lowcarbon,lowalloy
18.flux
19.silver,oxygen
20.footpedal,torchmounted

21.longitudinally,radially
22.AC,cleaningaction,surfaceoxides
23.color,silver
24.bead,groove,fillet,andlapjoint

214
CHAPTER6 10.Todeterminewhetherornottheyareharmless,or
FILLINTHEBLANKS preliminary,oradvanceddecay.
11.preventcrushingthewoodwhentheboltsaretightened.
1.812%,20%
12.weakandstrongareasinthesamejoint.
2.decay,musty,moldy
13.Clamps,elasticstraps,weight,vacuumbags,brads,nails,
3.temperature,humidity,deterioration
screws,andelectricandhydraulicpresses.
4.shear
14.Ascarfjoint.
5.decay,rot,decay
15.Theeffectiveglueareawillbereducedifbothbeveled
6.waterpenetration
cutsarenotthesame.
7.compression
8.sharporsolid 16.Thesametypeofplywoodastheoriginal.
9.spruce 17.Theuseofwaxedpaperorreleasefilmsbetweenthe
10.plywood patchandpressureplate.
11.softwoods 18.Underawingattachmentfitting,landinggearfitting,
12.graindirection enginemountfitting,andliftandinterplanestrutfittings.
13.mineralstreaks 19.Toprovideadditionalbearingsurface.
14.cracks 20.70F.
15.compression
16.caseinglue,plasticresinglue,resorcinolglue,epoxy

17.wettingtests
18.fullstrength,stress CHAPTER7
19.scarfjoints FILLINTHEBLANKS
20.wingattachment,landinggear,enginemountfittings. 1.highstrength;relativelylowweight;corrosionresistance
2.fairings,controlsurfaces,landinggeardoors,leadingand
TRUEorFALSE trailingedgepanels,interiorcomponents,floorbeamsand
1.true:acertificatedmechanicmaynotperformworkunless boards,stabilizerprimarystructureonnewgenerationlarge
hehasperformedtheworkconcernedatanearlierdate. aircraft,turbineenginefanblades,propellers.
2.false:idealrangeis812%. 3.fiberandmatrix
3.true 4.wingspoilers;fairings;ailerons;flaps;nacelles;floorboards;
4.false:Shearloads rudders
5.true 5.insulatingproperties;energyabsorptionand/or
6.false:Theconditionofthefabricprovidesanuseful redirection;smoothcellwalls;moistureandchemical
indicationoftheconditionofthewoodunderneath. resistance;environmentallycompatible;aesthetically
7.true pleasing;relativelylowcost.
8.true:Asoftandmushyareaisanindicationofrotting. 6.highcompressivestrength;resistancetowaterpenetration.
9.false:Spruceisthepreferredchoice. 7.delamination;resinstarvedareas;resinrichareas;
10.false:softwoods blisters/airbubbles;wrinkles;voids;thermaldecomposition
11.true 8.impropercureorprocessing;impropermachining;
12.false:Hardknotsareacceptableundercertainconditions. mishandling;improperdrilling;tooldrops;contamination;
13.false impropersanding;substandardmaterial;inadequatetooling;
14.true mislocationofholesordetails.
15.true 9.interlaminarshear;compressionstrength
16.false:Surfacesshouldbepreparedwithaplanerorjoiner. 10.scorches,stains,dents,penetration,abrasion,orchips
17.true 11.resinstarvation,resinrichness,wrinkles,plybridging,
18.false:anypointexceptatwingattachmentfittings,landing discoloration(duetooverheating,lightningstrike,etc.),
gear,enginemount,orliftandinterplacestrutfittings. impactdamage,foreignmatter,blisters,disbonding
19.true 12.calibration;damage
20.true 13.dust;oil;vapors;smoke;moisture
14.secondarybonding
KNOWLEDGEAPPLICATION 15.nylon;polyester
1.Twoormorelayersgluedtogetherwiththegrainofall 16.abilitytosloworstopfatiguecrackgrowth;replacelost
layersapproximatelyparallel. structuralareaduetocorrosiongrindouts;structurally
2.Itisusuallymadeofanoddnumberofthinplieswiththe enhanceareaswithsmallandnegativemargins.
grainofeachlayerat45or90degreestotheadjacentplyor 17.vertical;controlled;nobleedout;horizontal(oredge)
plies.Laminatedwoodallgrainareparallel. 18.strengthrequirements
3.Spruce 19.potted
4.Inspectforadarkdiscolorationofthewoodsurfaceorgray 20.freeze
stainsalongthegrain. 21.more
5.Casein(obsolete),plasticresinglue,resorcinolglue,and 22.lightlyloaded;small
epoxyresin. 23.fiberglass
6.Curingtimeaswellasjointstrength.Curingtimewillbe 24.wetlayup,prepreg,DVD,wetlayup
shorterandthejointstrengthwillincrease. 25.specialstorage,handling,curing
7.Ifinspectionfailstorevealanydecay. 26.honeycombsandwich,bearing
8.Yes,hardknotsuptoinchindiameterareacceptable 27.Hiloks,lockbolts
undercertainconditions. 28.diamondcoated,solidcarbide,highspeedsteel
9.Itisdetrimentaltostrengthandisdifficulttorecognize, 29.flushtype
compressionwoodischaracterizedbyhighspecificgravity. 30.higher,lower

215
14.Themethodisaccomplishedbytappingtheinspection
TRUEorFALSE areawithasolidrounddiskorlightweighthammerlikedevice
1.true andlisteningtotheresponseofthestructuretothehammer.
2.true 15.Aclear,sharp,ringingsound
3.false;fiberglassyarnsaretwisted,Kevlarisnot 16.Adullorthudlikesound
4.false;UnidirectionalTapeFibersareheldinplacebythe 17.Changeswithintheinternalelementsofthestructure
resinandhaveahigherstrengththanwovenfabrics. mightproducepitchchangesthatmightbeinterpretedas
5.true defects,wheninfacttheyarepresentbydesign.
6.true 18.Throughtransmissionultrasonicinspectionusestwo
7.true transducers,oneoneachsideoftheareatobeinspected.The
8.false;CarbonFibershaveahighpotentialforcausing ultrasonicsignalistransmittedfromonetransducertothe
galvaniccorrosionwithmetallicfastenersandstructures. othertransducer.Theinstrumentthenmeasuresthelossof
9.true signalstrength.Theinstrumentshowsthelossasapercentof
10.true theoriginalsignalstrengthorthelossindecibels.Thesignal
11.true lossiscomparedtoareferencestandard.Areaswithagreater
12.true lossthanthereferencestandardindicateadefectivearea.
13.true 19.Covertheunprotectedsidesoftheprepregmaterialwith
14.true partingfilmandcleantheareabeingrepairedimmediately
15.true beforelayinguptherepairplies.
16.false 20.twopartsaresimultaneouslycured.Atypicalapplicationis
17.false;whenusingthethroughtransmissionultrasonic thesimultaneouscureofastiffenerandaskin.
inspectionmethod,areaswithagreaterlossthanthe 21.Apermanentrepairrestorestherequiredstrengthand
referencestandardindicateadefectivearea. durability,aninterimrepaironlyrestorestherequired
18.false;thehandlinglifeisshorter strengthandhasadifferentinspectioninterval.
19.true 22.Apottingrepairisheavierthantheoriginalcontroland
20.true thiscouldaffectthecontrolbalanceandintroduceflutter.
21.false;inaresinstarvedrepair 23.Waterwillboilatcuretemperaturesandcouldblowthe
22.true facesheetsofthecore.
23.true 24.Twoholesaredrilledontheoutsideofthedelamination
24.false areaandalowviscosityresinisinjectedinoneholetillit
25.true flowsouttheotherhole.
26.false 25.thickstructuresorstructuresmadeofcarbonfiberor
27.true Kevlarwouldblocktheradarsignals.
28.false 26.Placeimpregnatedfabricinthedebulkingchamberand
29.true applyavacuumbagoverthelayup.Applyavacuumtothe
30.false chamber(box).Becauseofavacuumtheirwillnotbeany
pressureappliedtothelayupbutvolatileswillberemoved.
KNOWLEDGEAPPLICATION Thiswillreducevoidsinthelayup.Heatwillbeappliedto
1.Ahomogeneousmaterialhasauniformcomposition lowertheviscosityoftheresintohelpvolatileremoval.After
throughoutandhasnointernalphysicalboundaries. debulkingthevacuumintheouterchamberisremovedand
2.Ananisotropicmaterialhasmechanicaland/orphysical thelayupwillbecompactedbytheatmosphericpressure.
propertiesthatvarywithdirectionrelativetonatural Thepatchwillbestagedattemperature.Afterthestagingthe
referenceaxesinherentinthematerial. patchwillberemovedandbondedtotheaircraftwithapast
3.Quasiisotropicmaterialhasapproximatelythesame adhesiveandcuredwithaheaterblanket.
propertiesasisotropic.Anexampleisacompositelaminate
withthefibersorientatedinthe0,90,+45,and45
directiontosimulateisotropicproperties
4.Moreflexibilityforlayupofcomplexshapes CHAPTER8
5.Saveweight;Minimizeresinvoidsize;Maintainfiber
FILLINTHEBLANKS
orientationduringthefabricationprocess
1.weight,integrity
6.nickelcoatedgraphitecloth;metalmeshes;aluminum
2.Polyurethane
fiberglass;conductivepaints
3.Dipping,brushing,andspraying
7.lowsmokeandflammabilitycharacteristics.
4.spraygunwithintegralpaintcontainer,spraygunwith
8.ThreeA,B&Cstage
pressurepot
9.Inthefrozenstatetheresinoftheprepregmaterialwill 5.siphonfeedgun,gravityfeedgun,HVLPgun
stayintheBstageofcuring.Thecuringwillstartwhenthe 6.internal,air,fluid
materialisremovedfromthefreezerandheatedupagain. 7.preparation
10.Panelswithcomplexcurves 8.upper
11.Smallcorecellsprovidebettersupportforsandwichface 9.Crosscoat
sheets.Higherdensitycoreisstrongerandstifferthanlower 10.50%
densitycore. 11.thinner,reducer
12.toomuchresinisused.Fornonstructuralapplicationsthis 12.loosenozzle,clogged,packing
isnotnecessarilybadbutitwilladdweight.
13.milkyhaze
13.toomuchresinisbledoffduringthecuringprocessorif
14.trappedsolvents,air,moisture
notenoughresinisappliedduringthewetlayupprocess.
15.toomuch,tooclose,tooslowly
16.bumpy

216
17.smallholes CHAPTER9
18.trappedsolvents,unequaldrying
FILLINTHEBLANKS
19.toofar,airpressure
1.mathematical,electricity
20.3times
2.semiconductors,transistors

3.generators,alternators
TRUEorFALSE
4.conductormovement/force,magneticfieldcurrent
1.true
5.inverter,HZ(cycle)AC
2.true
6.Inductive,capacitance,phase
3.false;brightyellow
7.Inversely,reduced,half
4.false;ifthepaintmaterialsaretoothin
8.impedance,resistance
5.true;65%ormorepaintistransferredwithHVLPspraygun.
9.leadacid,nicad,plates
6.false.AHVLPspraygunisaninternalmixgun.
10.essential,thirty
7.true 11.potassiumhydroxide,discharge,manufacturers
8.true instructions
9.false.alodineisusedtoetchthealuminummaterial 12.increases,greater,greater
10.true
13.generatorcontrolunits(GCU),output
11.false;ifthespraypatternisoffsettooneside,theairport
14.armature,field,electromagnetic,bus,loads
intheaircaportheportsinthehornmaybeplugged
15.voltage/current,field
12.true 16.solidstate,ACpower,bus
13.false;firstspraythecornersandgaps 17.alternatorhousing,integrateddrivegenerator
14.true
18.buspowercontrolunit,generatorcontrolunit
15.true
19.throttle,activated
16.false;ensurethesurfaceisclean
20.flexing,stranded
17.false;N
21.megaohmmeter,condition
18.false;12high 22.derating,%
19.false;itisoldnitrocellulosefinish 23.voltagedrop,satisfactory
20.true
24.one,staggered

25.switches,close
KNOWLEDGEAPPLICATION

1.Primers,enamels,urethanes(polyurethane),andepoxies.
MATCHING
2.Environmentalconcerns;moreeffectiveprimerformulas.
1.1c,2d,3b,4d,5a,6b
3.Thespraypatternisoffsettooneside. 2.1a,2b,3b,4c,5a,6c
4.Bondtothesurface,inhibitcorrosion,andprovidean 3.1c,2d,3c,4b,5a,6d,7c,8a,9b,10d
anchorpointforthefinishcoat 4.1c,2a,3b,4d,5b,6a,7c
5.Theuseofrespiratoryprotectionsuchasfreshairsupplyor 5.1e,2c,3a,4f,5d,6b
respirator.Theuseofprotectiveclothingandgloves.
6.1f,2c,3a,4d,5b,6e
6.Dipping,brushing,andspraying.

7.Incorrectairpressureorthedistanceofthegunfromthe
KNOWLEDGEAPPLICATION
workistoolarge. 1.2.4A
8.Toomuchpaintbeingappliedorguntooclosetosurface. 2.4ohms
9.Incorrectpaintviscosity,airpressure,gunsetting,or
3.24V
distanceofthegunfromthework.
4.24x.707=17V
10.Cloudingorbloomingofthefilm.
5.112x1.41=158V
11.Moistureintheairsupply,adversehumidity,orchangesin 6.XL=2(60)(.175)XL=66
temperature.
12.Orangepeelorpinholesduetotoofastdryingofpaint. 7.RT= RT=6
13.Syntheticrubberproducts,composites,fabric,acrylics,
andbondedsurfaces. 8.Z= Z= Z=11.3(UseXL=2LtofindXL
14.Ithelpstoeliminategeneralcorrosionproblems. inohms)
15.Polyurethanefinishingsystem 9.Z= Z= Z=28
16.Useapaintstripper,Plasticblastmedium,ormechanical 10.T.P.=
sanding(compositeaircraft) 11.Watts
17.Openairvalvealltheway,setfluidvalvetodial4.Practice
onapieceofmaskingpaperandcheckifthefanshapeand 12.XL=2(400)(.01)XL=25,XC=
amountofpaintappliedarecorrect.Closetheairvalveifa
smallerfanshapeisrequiredandopenthefluidvalveifmore
paintisrequired.Adjustbothvalvestillthecorrectsettings XC=2.65,Z= Z=3
areachievedbeforestartingthepaintingprocess. 13.A.P.=Ex1
18.Aloosenozzle,cloggedventholeonthesupplycup,orthe 14.Voltamps(VA)
packingmaybeleakingaroundtheneedle. 15.T.P.= T.P.=140Watts,A.P.=50x5A.P.=
19.Toensurethatthesurfaceiscleanandfreefromanytype 250VA,PF=(140/250)X100PF=56%
ofcontamination. 16.inbetween14and12,choosebiggersizeof12.
20.Ontheverticaltailsurfaceoronthesideofthefuselage. 17.size20wire
18.size18wire(inbetween20and18)
19.26.5A
20.17.2A

217
CHAPTER10 5.rateofclimb,airspeed,andaltimeter
6.aleaktest
FILLINTHEBLANKS
7.vacuum,airpressure,orelectricity
1.senses;display
8.transmitsinformationfromonepointtoanotherpoint
2.air;gyroscopes
9.crankshaftormainturbinerotorspeed
3.bourbontube,diaphragmorbellows,solidstate
10.athermocoupletypesystem
4.sensedairpressure,digitalvalues
11.correctfordeviationsbyadjustingcompensatingmagnets
5.pitotstatic,aircraftsystems
12.flightinstruments,engineinstruments,navigation
6.altitude,pressure,pressure
instruments
7.trueairspeed
8.machmeter 13.thetotalexhaustpressuretothepressureoftheramairat
9.synchro theinletoftheengine
10.electro,permanent 14.airdatacomputer(ADC)
11.crankshaft 15.vanetypewhichusesanalphavaneexternallymountedto
12.tachometerprobes,tachgenerator theoutsideofthefuselage;probetypewhichusestwoslotsin
13.forces,inertialreference aprobethatextendsoutofthesideofthefuselage
16.cylinderheadtemperatureinreciprocatingenginesand
14.ADC
exhaustgastemperatureinturbineengines
15.direction,angle
17.EICAS
16.vacuumsystems,pressuresystems,electricalsystems
18.EICAS
17.artificialhorizon,pitch,roll.
19.certificatedA&Pmechanicscanremove,inspect,
18.laterally,vertically,longitudinally
troubleshoot,andperformoperationchecksofinstruments
19.sensingelements,computingelements,outputelements,
20.EICASorECAM,AirDATAComputer,thrustmanagement
commandelements
computer,EIFISsymbolgenerators,ADFS,Inertialreference
20.attitude,electricattitudeindicators
system,collisionavoidancesystem,radionavigationalaids.
21.ECAM
22.flightmanagementsystem(FMS)
23.flight,engine,airframe
24.24
25.electromagnetic,electrical CHAPTER11
FILLINTHEBLANKS
TRUEorFALSE 1.valenceshells
1.true 2.holes,eight
2.false;flight,engine,navigation 3.shockley,threelayer
3.true 4.power,inverter
4.false;ananeroid 5.polarity,channel
5.false;remote 6.open,closed
6.true 7.LEDs,color
7.true 8.ratio,base
8.true 9.base,larger
9.false;directcurrentsystemsoftenuseDCSelsynsystems. 10.NAND
10.true 11.upper,horizontalsituation
11.true 12.90,90
12.false;pushesthecontrolyokeforwardstolowerthenose 13.carrier,frequency
13.true 14.superior,radio
14.false;totalairtemperatureisthestaticairtemperature 15.detector/demodulator
plusanyriseintemperaturecausedbyhighspeedmovement 16.polarized,direction
oftheaircraftthroughtheair. 17.conductive,antenna(s)
15.true 18.frequency,Morsecode
16.false;swingingthecompassistheprocessforadjusting 19.NDB,null
magneticdeviation. 20.RMI
17.true 21.glideslope,3
18.false;themagneticcompassisnotasensingelementof 22.radarbeacon,location
theautopilotsystem. 23.avoidance,transponder
19.true 24.radome
20.false;attitudeindicatoranddirectionalgyro. 25.three,latitude/longitude
21.true
22.true TRUEorFALSE
23.false;themastercautionlightcanbecancelled. 1.False,certifiedrepairstation
24.false;lowfrequency 2.False,continuous
25.true 3.true
4.true
KNOWLEDGEAPPLICATION 5.true
1.aircraftspecification;typecertificatedatasheets;flight 6.false;conductor
manuals 7.true
2.caution 8.false;directlyproportional
3.asensitivealtimeter 9.true
4.scale,hysteresis,andinstallation 10.false;base

218
11.false;less 14.Originalcarrierwave,carrierwaveplusthemodulating
12.true frequency,carrierwaveminusmodulatingfrequency
13.falsehighcurrentgains 15.Areceiverisneededtoisolatethedesiredcarrierwave
14.false;magnetic withitsinformation.Itseparatesdatasignalfromthecarrier
15.true wave.Itamplifiesthedesiredfrequencycapturedbythe
16.true antennawhichisweakfromtravelingthroughatmosphere.
17.false 16.Length,polarization,anddirectivity
18.false;inverselyproportional 17.Ametalfuselagecreatesagroundplanethatactsasthe
19.true missingonequarterlength.
20.false;136.975MHz 18.Theorientationofelectricandelectromagneticfields
21.true remainat90,butradiatefromtheantennawithvarying
22.false;stableoscillatingfrequency strengthindifferentdirections.Thestrengthoftheradiated
23.true fieldvariesdependingonthetypeofantennaandtheangular
24.false;90tothelengthoftheantenna proximitytoit.Allantennasradiateastrongersignalinsome
25.false,2 directionscomparedtoothers.
26.false;inactive 19.Adipoleantennaisaconductorandsometimesknownas
27.true theHertzantenna.ACtransmissioncurrentisfedtoadipole
28.false;7500 antenna.Currentisstrongestinthemiddleoftheantenna
29.false;AGL abouthalfthewavelengthofthetransmissionfrequencyin
30.true length.Itishorizontallypolarized.CommonasVORantenna.
KNOWLEDGEAPPLICATION Marconiantennasare1/4waveforVHFcommunication.
1.changingsignalsamplitude,frequency,orphase Theyareverticallypolarizedandcreateomnidirectionalfield.
2.sizeandinabilitytowithstandvibrationmadethem Loopantennasare,astheirnameimplies,fashionedintoa
susceptibletodamage. loopwhichaltersitsfieldcharacteristicssignificantly.Itis
3.Combinesreadilywithitselfandformalatticeofatomsin morecompactandlesspronetodamage.Itisusedasa
whichadjacentatomsshareelectronstofilloutthevalence receivingantennaandishighlydirectionsensitive.
shell.CanbeeasilydopedtocreateNtypeandPtypesemi 20.Bearingdegreestoorfromthestation
conductormaterial. 21.Localizerprovideshorizontalguidancetothecenterlineof
4.Thenegativebatteryterminalisattachedtothepmaterial therunway;glideslopeprovidesverticalguidancetothe
andattractsholesawayfromthejunctioninthediode. touchdownpoint;compasslocatoraidsininterceptingthe
PositiveterminalattachedtotheNmaterialattractingthe approachnavigationaidsystem;markerbeaconprovides
freeelectronsfromintheoppositedirection.Currentcannot distancefromtherunway.
flowthroughthecircuitwhenthisoccurs. 22.Ittransmitsinsuchawaythattheaircraftstargetsymbol
5.Whenreversedbiased,onlyleakagecurrentflowsthrough ishighlightedonthePPItobedistinguishable.
thediodeunlessitisequippedwithazenervoltage.When 23.Requiredinternationallyinaircraftwithmorethan30
thezenervoltageisreachedthediodeletscurrentflowfreely seatsormorethan15000kg.Itprovidesadvisoriessimilarto
throughthediodeinthedirectionitisnormallyblocked. TCASIbutalsoanalyzestheflightpathofapproachingaircraft.
Zenerdiodescanbeusedtoasameansofdroppingvoltage 24.Entireairspacecoveredatlowerexpense.Providesmore
orvoltageregulationaswellasstepdowncircuitvoltagefora accuratedataasvectorstateisgeneratedfromtheaircraft.
particularapplication. Weatherisareducedfactor.UltrahighfrequencyGPSisnot
6.Stableinawiderangeoftemperatures;reducetheoverall affected.Increasedaccuracyallowshigherdensitytraffic
numberofcomponentsusedsavingmoneyandincreasing flow.Thehigherdegreeofcontrolenablesroutingforfewer
reliability. weatherdelaysandoptimumfuelburnrates.
7.SwitchingdevicesandSCR(withaslightmodification) 25.Spacesegment,controlsegment,andusersegment
8.Commonemitteramplifier;commoncollectoramplifier;
commonbaseamplifier
9.IftheinputtothegateisLogic1thentheoutputisNOT
logic1.ANOTgateinvertstheinputsignal.Ifthereisvoltage CHAPTER12
attheinput,therewouldbenooutputvoltage.
FILLINTHEBLANKS
10.InanORgateifanyoneoftheLogicinputsisa1thenthe
1.100,negligible
outputwillbea1.InEXCLUSIVEifbothlogicinputsare1then
2.mineral,polyalphaolefin,phosphateester
theoutputis0insteadof1.
3.Skydrol,IV,V
11.AnACgeneratorisplacedatthemidpointofanantenna.
4.seals,gaskets,hoses
Ascurrentbuildsandcollapsesintheantenna,amagnetic 5.micron,particle
fielddoessoaroundit.Anelectricfieldalsobuildsand 6.coldstart,pumpripples,shockloads
subsidesasthevoltageshiftsfromoneendoftheantennato 7.enginegearbox,electricmotor
theother.Bothfieldsfluctuatearoundtheantennaatthe 8.nonpressurized,bleedair
sametime.Atanypointalongtheantenna,voltageand 9.screeningstraining,preventing
currentvaryinverselytoeachother.Eachnewcurrentflow 10.cleaning,replacing
createsnewfieldsaroundtheantennathatforcesthenot 11.differential,operatingprinciple,loaded
totallycollapsedfieldsfromtheaircraftoutintospace
12.manuallyreset,permanent
12.Processofremovingtheoriginalinformationsignalfrom
13.powerdriven,hand,enginedriven
thecarrierwave.
14.positive,nonpositive
13.FMhasasteadycurrentflowandrequireslesspowerto
15,shear,inthemiddleof,smaller
produce,sincemodulatinganoscillatortakeslesspowerthan 16.electrically,servo,servo
modulatingtheamplitude.
17.diverts,pressure

219
18.priority,noncritical,low 22.Somecontrolledbypressure,somemechanically,some
19.burst,preserves byelectricswitches.
20.failure,rupture,excessive 23.ThePTUisabletotransferpowerbutnotfluidbetween
21.thermal,thermalexpansion twohydraulicsystems.Forinstanceiftheenginedrivenpump
22.regulators,pump inthe#1systemisinoperativethansystempressureinthe
23.shuttle,sealoff number2canpowerthePTUtopowerthenumber1system.
24.system,components 24.EDVsolenoidwillmoveupcreatingapathfortheoutlet
25.preload pressure(Ps)toreachthetopofthecompensatorvalve.The
outletpressurewillpushthecompensatorvalvedownandthe
TRUEorFALSE outputpressurewillactontheyokeactuatingpistonand
1.false,30005000 reducetheyokeangleandpumpoutputisreducedtozero.
2.true 25.Pressurereducingvalvesareusedinhydraulicsystems
3.false,allcontaminantsarebad whereitisnecessarytolowerthenormalsystem
operatingpressureaspecifiedamount.
4.false,filterscleanedorreplaced
26.a]Dampenpressuresurgesinthehydraulicsystemcaused
5.false,allofthefollowing byactuationofaunitandtheeffortofthepumptomaintain
6.true pressureatapresetlevel.b]Aidorsupplementthepower
7.false,nonpressurized pumpwhenseveralunitsareoperatingatoncebysupplying
8.false,5microns extrapowerfromits"accumulated"orstoredpower.c]Store
9.true powerforthelimitedoperationofahydraulicunitwhenthe
10.false,compensatorcontrolled pumpisnotoperating.d]Supplyfluidunderpressureto
compensateforsmallinternalorexternal(notdesired)leaks
11.true
whichwouldcausethesystemtocyclecontinuouslybyaction
12.true ofthepressureswitchescontinually"kickingin."
13.true 27.Toprovideelectricalandhydraulicpoweriftheaircraft
14.true loseselectricalorhydraulicpower.
15.true 28.Whenpressurizednitrogenisnotdirectlyusedtoactuate
thelandinggearactuatorsorbrakeunits,itwillapplythe
KNOWLEDGEAPPLICATION pressurizednitrogentomovehydraulicfluidtotheactuator.
1.Red 29.Theenginedrivenpumpwontbeabletodrawfluidfrom
2.Materialwillbedamaged,softenedand/orpeeled thetank,andonlytheACdrivenpumpcansupplyfluidto
3.Ashearsectioninthepumpdriveshaft essentialsystems.
4.Alllinesshouldbepluggedorcappedafterdisconnecting.
5.Acloggedfilter
6.Handpumps,enginedrivenpumps,electricallydriven
pumps,andairdriven(bleedair). CHAPTER13
7.Cabinpressurization,bleedair,aspiratorandventuretee, FILLINTHEBLANKS
andhydraulicsystempressure. 1.tailwheel,tandem,tricyclelandinggear
8.Limitamountofpressurepreventingfailureofcomponents 2.fairings,wheelpants.
9.Tomanagetheoutputofthepumptomaintainsystem 3.springsteel,aluminum,compositematerials.
pressureandallowthepumptoturnwithoutresistance. 4.torquelinks,torquearms
10.Anaccumulator 5.locatingcamassembly(centeringcam)
11.Tocontroltherateofairflow 6.camber
12.Toremovecontaminationandmoisture 7.powerpack
13.Makesuretheairorpreloadhasbeendischarged. 8.emergencyextensionsystem
14.No.petroleumbaseandphosphateesterfluidswillnot 9.landinggearretractiontest,swinging
mix.Neitheraresealsforonefluiduseablewithothers. 10.shimmydamper
15.Inaclosedcentersystemthefluidisalwayspressurized 11.thermalplugs
whenthepumprunsandthereforeitwillbefasterthenthe 12.torqued
opencentersystemthatneedstobebuiltuppressure.Since 13.lackoflubrication,bluish
mostaircraftapplicationsrequireinstantaneousoperation, 14.excessiveimpact,indentations
closedcentersystemsarethemostwidelyused. 15.top,right
16.Theadvantageofthepowerpackisthatthereisnoneed 16.transferplate,rotors,stators
foracentralizedhydraulicpowersupplysystemandlong 17.carbondiscbrake
stretchesofhydrauliclineswhichreducesweight. 18.independentsystem,boostersystem,powerbrakesystem
17.requiredbecausethereservoirsareoftenlocatedinwheel 19.hydraulicsystem
wellsorothernonpressurizedareasoftheaircraftandat 20.takeoff
highaltitudethereisnotenoughatmosphericpressureto 21.skid,imminent
movethefluidtothepumpinlet. 22.skidding
18.Bypassreliefvalveopensifthefilterclogsthiswillpermit 23.gravity,pressure
continuedhydraulicflowandoperationofaircraftsystems. 24.skidding
19.Centrifugalandimpellerpumps 25.chevron
20.Theangleofthepumpstartstodecreasewhenthesystem
pressurereachesabout2850psi.Theoutputofthepumpwill TRUEorFALSE
decreasetoadjusttosystemdemand. 1.false;mostuseanosewheelsteeringsystem
21.Systempressurewillincrease. 2.true

220
3.false;filledwithnitrogenandhydraulicfluid. CHAPTER14
4.false;nitrogeninthetiresandtheshockstrutcombineto
FILLINTHEBLANKS
smoothoutbumps.
1.hardenginestarting,slowwarmup,slow
5.true
2.explode,detonate
6.true
7.false;hydraulicpressure 3.vaporizes,carburetor
8.true 4.3040F,humid
9.false;onhighperformance;notsmallsingleengineaircraft 5.explosion,pressure,temperature
10.false;beingdownandlocked 6.lower,higher
11.true 7.main,auxiliary,surge
12.false;modernaircraftusetwopiecewheels
8.rigidremovabletanks,bladdertanks,integralfuel
13.false;innerhalveshaveprovisionsforbrakerotors.
14.true;ifthewheelboltshavefailedtheaxlenutcouldbe 9.sump
theonlythingthatkeepsthewheelhalvestogether. 10.wiring
15.true 11.gate,plug
16.false;segmentedrotordiscbrakesareusedonlarge 12.quickly
transportcategoryaircraft 13.enginedrivenfuelpump
17.true 14.positive,vaporlock
18.true 15.vanetype
19.false;theantiskidsystemprovidesinputtotheautobrake 16.crossfeedsystem,fueltransfer
systemtopreventbrakeskid. 17.large,fuelsystem
20.true 18.micronic,1025
21.false;typeVIItiresarehighperformanceforjetaircraft 19.fuelheaters
22.true 20.Directcurrent(DC)
23.false;3hours 21.Stain,seep,heavyseep,running
24.false;deflatethetirebeforeremovingorprobinganyarea 22.1/1/2inches,4inches
whereaforeignobjectislodged. 23.driedandventilated,combustiblegasindicator
25.true 24.cloudy
25.Overthewing,pressurerefueling

KNOWLEDGEAPPLICATION
TRUEorFALSE
1.Dryairornitrogen,andhydraulicfluid.
1.true
2.Cleanandinspectfordamageandproperextension.
2.false;turbinefuelhasahigherflashpointthanAVGAS
3.Theykeepthemainlandinggearwheelspointedina
3.true
straightaheaddirection.
4.false;highercylinderheadtemperature
4.Hydraulic,orelectrical.
5.true
5.Asimplesystemconsistingofmechanicallinkagehookedto
6.false;JetAisthemostcommon
therudderpedals.
7.false;pumpfeedsystem
6.Ashimmydamperorinlargeaircraftusingpowersteering
8.true
thepowersteeringactuatorsprovidethedampening.
9.true
7.Theyreducethepressuretothebrakesandincreasethe
10.false;aircraftequippedwithintegralfueltankshavefuel
volumeoffluidflow.
ventsystemsandfueljettisonsystemsdumpfuelwhenthe
8.Independent,powerboost,andpowercontrol.
takeoffweightishigherthanthelandingweight
9.Pressurizethesystem.
11.true
10.ArubberOringbetweenthetwowheelhalves.
12.false;totheenginedrivenfuelpump
11.Propertireinflation
13.false;variabledisplacementpump
12.Rapidorunevenwearneartheedgeoftread,andcreepor
14.false;lowestpartofthetank
slipwhenthebrakesareapplied.
15.true
13.Duringanannualorotherinspections,whenlandinggear
16.true
componentshavebeenreplaced,andafterhardlandings
17.false;electronicfuelquantitysystemshavenomoving
14.Discoloration(bluecolor)
partwhichisoneoftheiradvantages
15.Tobringafastmovingaircrafttoastopduringgroundroll
18.true
withouttireskidding.
19.false;theymeasurefuelmass
16.Torelieveairpressurewhenthetireoverheatsdueto
20.true
hardbrakingorextendedtaxingtopreventtireblowout.
21.false;mustberepairedbeforethenextflightbecause
17.Gravityandpressuremethods.
vaporsintheseareascouldcauseafireorexplosion
18.Mechanical(cables,linkages),electrical,orhydraulic.
22.true
19.Nosewheelcenteringinternalcamsorexternaltrack.
23.false;organismsdonotgrowinAVGAS,onlyturbinefuel
20.Carbonbrakes
24.true

25.true


KNOWLEDGEAPPLICATION
1.Iftakeoffweightishigherthanthelandingweight,inan
emergencytheseaircraftneedtoreducetheweighttoa
specifiedlandingweight.
2.Rigidremovablecell,bladdertypecell,integralfuelcell
3.Thestructureofthecavitythatthecellfitsinto.

221
4.alertstheflightcrewthattheremaybedangerofice 5.d
crystalsforminginthefuel. 6.a
5.Toprovideaninterconnectedfuelsystemsothatfuelcan 7.a
befedfromvarioustankstoanyengine. 8.d
6.crossfeed,transfer,ONorOFF 9.c
7.comparethefuelquantityinthetankwiththeindicationof 10.c
theelectronicfuelquantitysystem.
8.Anunderwingorsinglepointpressurefuelingsystem. KNOWLEDGEAPPLICATION
9.reducesfuelingtime,eliminatesaircraftskindamage,and 1.clearandrimeice
reduceschancesofcontamination. 2.a)malformationoftheairfoilwhichcoulddecreasethe
10.Thetankispressurizedwithupto1/2psiairpressureand amountoflift;b)additionalweightandunequalformationof
liquidsoapisaddedtodetectleaks. theicewhichcouldcauseunbalancingoftheaircraft.
11.Aninternalcomponentfuelleak(shutoffvalve,selector 3.surge,vibration,andcompletethrustloss
valve,orcrossfeedvalve). 4.wingleadingedges;horizontalandverticalstabilizer
12.Sightglass,mechanical,electrical,andelectronic. leadingedges;enginecowlleadingedges;propellers,
13.Itmeasuresbyweightinsteadofvolume. propellerspinner;airdataprobes;flightdeckwindows;
14.resistsurgingfromchangesintheattitudeoftheaircraft waterandwastesystemlinesanddrains.
15.allowwaterandsedimenttosettletothedrainpoint. 5.heatsurfaceswithhotair;heatwithelectricalelements;
16.drainthewateroutofthetanks breakingupicewithinflatableboots;chemicalspray.
6.wing,leadingedgeslats,horizontalandverticalstabilizer,
engine,andwindshieldantiice.
7.toheatbothwingsequally,keepingtheairplane
aerodynamicallystableinicingconditions.
CHAPTER15 8.withoutaforwardspeedtheleadingedgecaneasily
FILLINTHEBLANKS overheatiflefton,thereforethegroundsensingsystem
1.airfoilsandairinlets (weightonwheels)willdisablethesystem.
2.moisture,freezingtemperatures 9.antifreezesolutionispumpedfromareservoirthrougha
3.lighter,oflittle meshscreenembeddedintheleadingedgesofthewingsand
4.rime,clear stabilizers.Activatedbyaswitchinthecockpit,theliquid
5.icing,performance,deteriorate flowsoverthewingandtailsurfaces,deicingasitflows.
6.thermal,electrical,andchemicalantiicingsystems 10.Whendeicesystemisenergized,thecontrolvalvesineach
7.turbinecompressor,engineexhaustheatexchangers, nacelleanddeflatevalvereceivepower.Thedeicecontrol
combustionheater valvesroutepressurizedairfromthedischargesideofthe
8.computers pumptothedeicerboots.At17psi,pressureswitchesonthe
9.electricthermal deflatevalvewilldeenergizethedeicecontrolvalves,andthe
10.weepingwing bootswillbedeflatedandvacuumpressurewillholdthe
11.pneumaticdeicingsystem,leadingedge bootsdownagainsttheleadingedgesurfaces.
12.vacuum,suction 11.anewlayeroficemaybegintoformontheexpanded
13.enginedrivenairpump(vacuumpump),gasturbine bootsandbecomeunremovable.
compressors 12.largeamountsofhotaircanbebledoffthecompressor,
14.electricalbootsorchemicaldeice providingasatisfactorysourceofantiicinganddeicingheat.
15.ice,fog 13.pumpshavecarbonvanesandpartsthatselflubricate.
16.resistancewire,conductivecoating 14.windshieldwipers,chemicalrainrepellent,pneumaticrain
17.icedetectorsensors removal(jetblast),orthewindshieldsaretreatedwitha
hydrophobicsurfacesealcoating.
TRUEorFALSE
1.true
2.true
3.true
4.true
CHAPTER16
5.true FILLINTHEBLANKS
6.false 1.Colorless,odorless,tasteless
2.AviatorBreathingOxygen
7.false
3.50,watervapor
8.true
4.Demandflow
9.false
5.Diluterdemand,pressuredemand
10.true
6.Moisture
11.false
7.8,000ft,cruisingaltitude
12.true
8.Pressurization,depressurization
13.false
9.Supercharger,turbocharger,enginedrivencompressor
14.true
10.Bleedair
15.true
11.Isobaric,differential

12.Cabinaltitude,rateofchange,barometricpressure
MULTIPLECHOICE
1.a 13.Outflowvalve
2.c 14.Electrically,cabinpressurecontroller
3.b 15,Overpressurization
4.a 16.Negativereliefvalves

222
17.Vaporcycle,aircycle temperatureofthebleedairincreases.Thebleedairwillflow
18.Enginecompressor,APU throughthesecondaryheatexchangerwhereitstemperature
19.Refrigerationturbineunit,aircyclemachine isloweredbyambientair.Afterthesecondaryheatexchanger
20.Thermistors,resistance theairenterstheaircyclemachine.Heretheairtemperature
21.Liquid,vapor lowersbecauseenergyintheairdrivestheturbinewhichin
22.Receiverdryer turndrivesthecompressor.Theshapeoftheturbineblades
23.Copper,aluminum expandtheairwhichlowersinpressureandtemperature.The
24.Exhaustgases airthatleavestheaircyclemachineflowsthroughthewater
25.Cleaningfilters,sparkplug separatorwheremoistureisremoved.Whenthesensoratthe
waterseparatorsenses35degreestheantiicecontrolvalve
TRUEorFALSE openstoallowwarmerairtomixwiththeairleavingtheair
1.true cyclemachine.Theairthatleavesthewaterseparatorwill
2.false;theyarepaintedgreen. flowtothemixingchamberwhereitismixedwithhotbleed
3.true air.Temperaturecontrolisrealizedbypositioningthetwo
4.false;indicatesthatthepressurereliefvalvehasopened mixingvalvessothatthedesiredtemperatureisachieved.
andthisshouldbeinvestigated. 11.Areceiverdryer,evaporator,compressor,condenser,and
5.true expansionvalve.
6.true 12.oxygenflowsfromachargedcylinderthroughahigh
7.false;below8,000 pressurelinetoareducingvalveandtomaskoutlets.
8.true 13.systemmustbepurgedtoremovemoisture
9.false;turbochargersarethemostcommon. 14.drynitrogen,dryair,oroxygen
10.false;turbochargersaredrivenbyexhaustgases. 15.aviators'breathingoxygen
11.true 16.providelubricationandpreventcompressorfailure
12.false;differentialcontrolmodeofacabinpressurization 17.useoilfreetools,clothing,hands,adequateeyeprotection
systemcontrolspressuretomaintainaconstantpressure 18.turbocharger,supercharger,enginedrivencompressor
betweentheairoutsidethecabinandtheambientair. 19.smallamountofLOXcanbeconvertedtoanenormous
13.true amountofgaseousoxygen,thusneedinglittlestoragespace.
14.false;preventcabinoverpressurization. 20.cabinaltitude,rateofchange,andbarometriccorrection
15.true andpressurizationmode
16.true
17.false;aswirlingmotionwillseparatethewaterdroplets.
18.true
19.false;Itisanclosedsystem CHAPTER17
20.false;R134AhasreplacedR12 FILLINTHEBLANKS
21.true 1.afixedfireprotection
22.false.shouldfeelcool. 2.thermalswitchsystem,thermocouplesystem,continuous
23.true loopdetectorsystem.
24.false;useaexhaustshroudheatingsystem. 3.rateoftemperaturerise,slowly
25.false;drawnfromanaircraftfueltank. 4.chromelandconstantan
5.thermistor,Lingberg
KNOWLEDGEAPPLICATION 6.nacelletemperature
1.outflowvalve 7.AND
2.Bleedairfromtheturbineenginecompressor 8.SystronDonner,Meggittsafetysystems
3.Thecabinpressurecontroller. 9.lavatories,cargo,smoke
4.Gasolinecombustionheater,electricheater,andexhaust 10.flamedetectors
shroudheatexchanger. 11.reciprocating,carbonmonoxide,exhaustsystem
5.carrytheheatwhereitisneeded 12.water,ignition
6.expansionturbine,airtoairheatexchangers,water 13.Carbondioxide
separator,andvarioustemperaturecontrolvalves. 14.highRateofDischarge(HRD),1to2
7.Thecompressedairturnsaturbine,anditundergoesa 15.liquid,gas
pressureandtemperaturedrop.
8.moistairpassesthroughafiberglassbagthatcondenses TRUEorFALSE
themoistureindroplets,vanesswirltheairanddropletsare 1.true
collectedanddrained. 2.false
9.Thecompressorpressurizeslowpressurevaporintohigh 3.false
pressurevapor.Thecondensercoolsthehighpressurevapor 4.false
withoutsideairandturnsitintoahighpressureliquid.Atthe 5.true
expansionvalvethehighpressureliquidchangesintoalow 6.false
pressureliquid.Inevaporatorthelowpressureliquidabsorbs 7.true
cabinheatandchangeintoalowpressurevaporandreturns 8.true
tothereceiverdryerwheretheprocessisrepeatedagain. 9.false
10.Whenthepackvalveopenshothighpressurebleedair 10.true
flowstoairmixvalve.Dependingontemperatureacertain
amountofthisbleedairtravelstothemixingchamberand
therestflowstotheprimaryheatexchangertobecooled.The
bleedairwilltravelthroughasecondmixingvalveandenters
thecompressoroftheaircyclemachine.Thepressureand

223
MULTIPLECHOICE
1.3
2.2
3.1
4.2
5.4
6.1
7.4
8.4
9.2
10.3

KNOWLEDGEAPPLICATION
1.EnginesandAPU,Cargoandbaggagecompartments,
Lavatories,Electronicbays,Wheelwells,Bleedairducts.
2.Overheatdetectors,Rateoftemperaturerisedetectors,
Flamedetectors,Observationbycrewmembers.
3.Rateoftemperaturerisedetectors,Radiationsensing
detectors,Smokedetectors,Overheatdetectors,CO2
detectors,Combustiblemixturedetectors,Opticaldetectors.
4.Fenwal,Kidde,andLingberg
5.Precisefit,eliminateschafing,andquickandeasytoinstall.
6.Firedetectionandextinguishingforengines,APUs,cargo
bays,andbleedairsystems.
7.HalocarbonCleanAgents,Halon,anddrypowders.
8.Turbineengines,APU,Cargocompartments,lavatories
9.cartridge(squib)andfrangibledisctypevalve
10.torupturethefrangibledisk
11.Thisisanindicationforthemaintenancecrewthatthe
fireextinguishingsystemwasactivatedbytheflightcrew.
12.Theenginewillstopbecausethefuelcontrolshutsoff,the
enginewillbeisolatedfromtheaircraftsystems,andthefire
extinguishingsystemwillbeactivated.
13.Thepresenceofafirewouldbeeasilydiscoveredbya
crewmemberwhileathisstation;andeachpartofthe
compartmentiseasilyaccessibleinflight.
14.ClassBhasasmokedetectororfiredetectionsystem.
15.Themasterwarninglightscomeon,thefirewarningaural
operates,acargofirewarningmessageshows,thecargofire
warninglightcomeson.
16.Kinksandsharpbendscancauseaninternalwiretoshort
intermittentlytotheoutertubingandcausefalsealarms.
17.550psi

224