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13 tayangan5 halamanstructural mechanics book

Sep 20, 2017

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structural mechanics book

© All Rights Reserved

13 tayangan

structural mechanics book

© All Rights Reserved

- A Study Of The Cathedral Notre Dames D'Amiens Using The Finite Element Method
- Mech 6441 Outline 2014
- 1.1 - Introduction - Simple Stresses
- Barrel Vault Roof Under Self Weight
- Simple Stress and Strain
- The Journal of Adhesion
- InternshipReport-Final.pdf
- 03 Reviews of Mechanics-New
- Chapter 4
- Simple Stress 2013a
- Udyan Univ.pptx
- A Simple and Effective Element for Analysis of General Shell Structures
- Yuelin Chandrashekhara Method of FRP Tube Assemblies for Bridge Decks
- OPE_P2_P1
- Eccentric Connection
- ANSYS Tips
- 03_2D_Bracket.pdf
- Graded Open Cell Foams EPFL
- 64da683fe93e7866bb22862f71b27c9e3dfb.pdf
- 1455352413

Anda di halaman 1dari 5

INTRODUCTION.......................................................................

..........................1

Chapter

I. General

Principles.........................................................................

........2

I. Systems of

Force..............................................................................

.....4

II.

Stress.............................................................................

......................6

III. Properties of

Material......................................................................7

IV. Bolted and Welded

Joints.................................................................10

V. Beams -- A Practical

Application.....................................................13

VI. Beam

Design.............................................................................

......17

VII. Torsional Loading: Shafts, Couplings, and

Keys.......................19

VIII.

Conclusion.........................................................................

.........20

BIBLIOGRAPHY.......................................................................

......................21

INTRODUCTION

bodies that are acted on by mechanical disturbances. Since such behavior is

involved in virtually all the situations that confront an engineer, mechanics lie

at the core of much engineering analysis. In fact, no physical science plays a

greater role in engineering than does mechanics, and it is the oldest of all

physical sciences. The writings of Archimedes covering bouyancy and the lever were

recorded before 200 B.C. Our modern knowledge of gravity and motion was

established by Isaac Newton (1642-1727).

Mechanics can be divided into two parts: (1) Statics, which relate to bodies

at rest, and (2) dynamics, which deal with bodies in motion. In this paper we

will explore the static dimension of mechanics and discuss the various types of

force on an object and the different strength of materials.

The term strength of materials refers to the ability of the individual parts

of a machine or structure to resist loads. It also permits the selection of

materials and the determination of dimensions to ensure the sufficient strength of

the various parts.

General Principles

Before we can venture to explain statics, one must have a firm grasp on

classical mechanics. This is the study of Newton's laws and their extensions.

Newton's three laws were originally stated as follows:

1. Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a

straight line, unless it is compelled to change that state by forces

impressed on it.

2. The change of motion is proportional to the motive force impressed and is

made in the direction in which that force is impressed.

3. To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction; or the mutual

actions of two bodies on each other are equal and direct to

contrary parts.

Newton's law of gravitational attraction pertains to celestrial bodies or any

object onto which gravity is a force and states: "Two particles will be attracted

toward each other along their connecting line with a force whose magnitude is

directly proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to

the distance squared between the particles.

When one of the two objects is the earth and the other object is near the

surface of the earth (where r is about 6400 km) / is essentially constant, then

the attraction law becomes f = mg.

Another essential law to consider is the Parallelogram Law. Stevinius (1548-

1620) was the first to demonstrate that forces could be combined by representing

them by arrows to some suitable scale, and then forming a parallelogram in which

the diagonal represents the sum of the two forces. All vectors must combine in

this manner.

When solving static problems as represented as a triangle of force, three

common theorems are as follows:

1. Pythagorean theorem. In any right triangle, the square of the

hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the two legs:

=

2. Law of sines. In any triangle, the sides are to each other as the sines

of the opposite angle:

3. Law of cosines. In any triangle, the square of any side is equal to the

sum of the squares of the other two sides minus twice the product

of the sides and the cosine of their included angle:

= - 2ab cos C

By possessing an understanding of Newton's Laws, following these three laws

of graphical solutions, and understanding vector algebra you can solve most

engineering static problems.

Systems of Force

concurrent or nonconcurrent and as either coplanar or noncoplanar. This gives us

four general categories of systems.

The first category, concurrent-coplanar forces occur when the lines of action

of all forces lie in the same plane and pass through a common point. Figure 1

illustrates a concurrent-coplanar force in such that F1, F2, and W all lie in the

same plane (the paper) and all their lines of action have point O in common. To

determine the resultant of concurrent force systems, you can use the Pythagorean

theorem, the law of sines, or the law of cosines as outlined in the previous

chapter.

the same plane but do not pass through a common point as illustrated in figure 2.

The magnitude and direction of the resultant force can be determined by the

rectangular component method using the first two equations in figure 2, and the

perpendicular distance of the line of action of R from the axis of rotation of the

body can be found using the third equation in figure 2.

forces pass through a common point and are not in the same plane. To find the

resultant of these forces it is best to resolve each force into components along

three axes that make angles of 90 degrees with each other.

Nonconcurrent-noncoplanar forces are when the lines of action of all forces

do not pass through a common point and the forces do not all lie in the same plane.

Stress

the shape of the body that is subject to the external force to be deformed or

changed. Since materials are not perfectly rigid, the applied forces will cause

the body to deform. The internal resistance to deformation of the fibers of a body

is called stress. Stress can be classified as either simple stress, sometimes

referred to as direct stress, or indirect stress.

The various types of direct stress are tension, compression, shear, and

bearing. The various types of indirect stress are bending and torsion. A third

variety of stress is categorized as any combination of direct and indirect stress.

Simple stress is developed under direct loading conditions. That is, simple

tension and simple compression occur when the applied force is in line with the

axis of the member and simple shear occurs when equal, parallel, and opposite

forces tend to cause a surface to slide relative to the adjacent surface. When any

type of simple stress develops we can calculate the magnitude of the stress by the

formula , where:

s = average unit stress;

F = external force causing stress to develop;

A = area over which stress develops.

statics of rigid bodies and not under strength of materials. The bending moment in

a beam depends only on the loads on the beam and on its consequent support

reactions. Torsion is when a shaft is acted upon by two equal and opposite

twisting moments in parallel planes. Torsion can be either stationary or rotating

uniformly. Indirect stress will be discussed in detail in later sections.

Properties of Material

frame which holds an object or a complicated piece of automated machinery, it is

very important to have a strong knowledge of the mechanical and physical properties

of metals, wood, concrete, plastics and composites, and any other material an

engineer is considering using to construct an object. The rest of this paper will

deal with strength of materials and how to best choose a material and construction

technique to effectively accomplish what was set out without "over-engineering."

Strength of materials deals with the relationship between the external forces

applied to elastic bodies and the resulting deformations and stresses. In the

design of structures and machines, the application of the principles of strength of

materials is necessary if satisfactory materials are to be utilized and adequate

proportions obtained to resist functional forces.

In today's global economy is crucial for success to be able to build the

"biggest and best" while spending the least. To do that successfully it is

imperative to have a firm understanding of different materials and their correct

uses. The load per unit area, called stress, and the deformation per unit length,

called strain, must be understood. The formula for stress is:

The amount of stress and strain a material can endure before deformation

occurs is known as the proportional limit. Up to this point, any stress or strain

induced into the material will allow the material to return to its original shape.

When stress and strain exceed the proportional limit of the material and a

permanent deformation, or set, occurs the object is said to have reached its

elastic limit. Modulus of elasticity, also called Young's modulus, is the ratio of

unit stress to unit strain within the proportional limit of a material in tension

or compression. Some representatives values of Young's modulus (in 10^6 psi) are

as follows:

Aluminum, cast, pure...............................................9

Aluminum, wrought, 2014-T6............................10.6

Beryllium copper...................................................19

Brass, naval............................................................15

Titanium, alloy, 5 Al, 2.5 Sn.................................17

Steel for buildings and bridges, ASTM A7-61T...29

Once the elastic limit of a material is reached, the material will elongate

rather easily without a significant increase in the load. This is known as the

yield point of the material. Not all materials have a yield point. Some repre

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