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TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION.......................................................................
..........................1
Chapter
I. General
Principles.........................................................................
........2
I. Systems of
Force..............................................................................
.....4
II.
Stress.............................................................................
......................6
III. Properties of
Material......................................................................7
IV. Bolted and Welded
Joints.................................................................10
V. Beams -- A Practical
Application.....................................................13
VI. Beam
Design.............................................................................
......17
VII. Torsional Loading: Shafts, Couplings, and
Keys.......................19
VIII.
Conclusion.........................................................................
.........20
BIBLIOGRAPHY.......................................................................
......................21

INTRODUCTION

Mechanics is the physical science concerned with the dynamic behavior of


bodies that are acted on by mechanical disturbances. Since such behavior is
involved in virtually all the situations that confront an engineer, mechanics lie
at the core of much engineering analysis. In fact, no physical science plays a
greater role in engineering than does mechanics, and it is the oldest of all
physical sciences. The writings of Archimedes covering bouyancy and the lever were
recorded before 200 B.C. Our modern knowledge of gravity and motion was
established by Isaac Newton (1642-1727).
Mechanics can be divided into two parts: (1) Statics, which relate to bodies
at rest, and (2) dynamics, which deal with bodies in motion. In this paper we
will explore the static dimension of mechanics and discuss the various types of
force on an object and the different strength of materials.
The term strength of materials refers to the ability of the individual parts
of a machine or structure to resist loads. It also permits the selection of
materials and the determination of dimensions to ensure the sufficient strength of
the various parts.

General Principles

Before we can venture to explain statics, one must have a firm grasp on
classical mechanics. This is the study of Newton's laws and their extensions.
Newton's three laws were originally stated as follows:
1. Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a
straight line, unless it is compelled to change that state by forces
impressed on it.
2. The change of motion is proportional to the motive force impressed and is
made in the direction in which that force is impressed.
3. To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction; or the mutual
actions of two bodies on each other are equal and direct to
contrary parts.
Newton's law of gravitational attraction pertains to celestrial bodies or any
object onto which gravity is a force and states: "Two particles will be attracted
toward each other along their connecting line with a force whose magnitude is
directly proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to
the distance squared between the particles.

When one of the two objects is the earth and the other object is near the
surface of the earth (where r is about 6400 km) / is essentially constant, then
the attraction law becomes f = mg.
Another essential law to consider is the Parallelogram Law. Stevinius (1548-
1620) was the first to demonstrate that forces could be combined by representing
them by arrows to some suitable scale, and then forming a parallelogram in which
the diagonal represents the sum of the two forces. All vectors must combine in
this manner.
When solving static problems as represented as a triangle of force, three
common theorems are as follows:
1. Pythagorean theorem. In any right triangle, the square of the
hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the two legs:

=
2. Law of sines. In any triangle, the sides are to each other as the sines
of the opposite angle:

3. Law of cosines. In any triangle, the square of any side is equal to the
sum of the squares of the other two sides minus twice the product
of the sides and the cosine of their included angle:

= - 2ab cos C
By possessing an understanding of Newton's Laws, following these three laws
of graphical solutions, and understanding vector algebra you can solve most
engineering static problems.

Systems of Force

Systems of force acting on objects in equilibrium can be classified as either


concurrent or nonconcurrent and as either coplanar or noncoplanar. This gives us
four general categories of systems.
The first category, concurrent-coplanar forces occur when the lines of action
of all forces lie in the same plane and pass through a common point. Figure 1
illustrates a concurrent-coplanar force in such that F1, F2, and W all lie in the
same plane (the paper) and all their lines of action have point O in common. To
determine the resultant of concurrent force systems, you can use the Pythagorean
theorem, the law of sines, or the law of cosines as outlined in the previous
chapter.

Nonconcurrent-coplanar force is when the lines of action of all forces lie in


the same plane but do not pass through a common point as illustrated in figure 2.
The magnitude and direction of the resultant force can be determined by the
rectangular component method using the first two equations in figure 2, and the
perpendicular distance of the line of action of R from the axis of rotation of the
body can be found using the third equation in figure 2.

Concurrent-noncoplanar forces are when Application the lines of action of all


forces pass through a common point and are not in the same plane. To find the
resultant of these forces it is best to resolve each force into components along
three axes that make angles of 90 degrees with each other.
Nonconcurrent-noncoplanar forces are when the lines of action of all forces
do not pass through a common point and the forces do not all lie in the same plane.

Stress

When a restrained body is subject to external forces, there is a tendency for


the shape of the body that is subject to the external force to be deformed or
changed. Since materials are not perfectly rigid, the applied forces will cause
the body to deform. The internal resistance to deformation of the fibers of a body
is called stress. Stress can be classified as either simple stress, sometimes
referred to as direct stress, or indirect stress.
The various types of direct stress are tension, compression, shear, and
bearing. The various types of indirect stress are bending and torsion. A third
variety of stress is categorized as any combination of direct and indirect stress.
Simple stress is developed under direct loading conditions. That is, simple
tension and simple compression occur when the applied force is in line with the
axis of the member and simple shear occurs when equal, parallel, and opposite
forces tend to cause a surface to slide relative to the adjacent surface. When any
type of simple stress develops we can calculate the magnitude of the stress by the
formula , where:
s = average unit stress;
F = external force causing stress to develop;
A = area over which stress develops.

Indirect stress, or stress due to bending should be properly classified under


statics of rigid bodies and not under strength of materials. The bending moment in
a beam depends only on the loads on the beam and on its consequent support
reactions. Torsion is when a shaft is acted upon by two equal and opposite
twisting moments in parallel planes. Torsion can be either stationary or rotating
uniformly. Indirect stress will be discussed in detail in later sections.

Properties of Material

In order for the engineer to effectively design any item, whether it is a


frame which holds an object or a complicated piece of automated machinery, it is
very important to have a strong knowledge of the mechanical and physical properties
of metals, wood, concrete, plastics and composites, and any other material an
engineer is considering using to construct an object. The rest of this paper will
deal with strength of materials and how to best choose a material and construction
technique to effectively accomplish what was set out without "over-engineering."
Strength of materials deals with the relationship between the external forces
applied to elastic bodies and the resulting deformations and stresses. In the
design of structures and machines, the application of the principles of strength of
materials is necessary if satisfactory materials are to be utilized and adequate
proportions obtained to resist functional forces.
In today's global economy is crucial for success to be able to build the
"biggest and best" while spending the least. To do that successfully it is
imperative to have a firm understanding of different materials and their correct
uses. The load per unit area, called stress, and the deformation per unit length,
called strain, must be understood. The formula for stress is:

The formula for strain is:

The amount of stress and strain a material can endure before deformation
occurs is known as the proportional limit. Up to this point, any stress or strain
induced into the material will allow the material to return to its original shape.
When stress and strain exceed the proportional limit of the material and a
permanent deformation, or set, occurs the object is said to have reached its
elastic limit. Modulus of elasticity, also called Young's modulus, is the ratio of
unit stress to unit strain within the proportional limit of a material in tension
or compression. Some representatives values of Young's modulus (in 10^6 psi) are
as follows:
Aluminum, cast, pure...............................................9
Aluminum, wrought, 2014-T6............................10.6
Beryllium copper...................................................19
Brass, naval............................................................15
Titanium, alloy, 5 Al, 2.5 Sn.................................17
Steel for buildings and bridges, ASTM A7-61T...29

Once the elastic limit of a material is reached, the material will elongate
rather easily without a significant increase in the load. This is known as the
yield point of the material. Not all materials have a yield point. Some repre