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19-4667; Rev 1; 7/94

Switched-Capacitor Voltage Converters

_______________General Description ____________________________Features

MAX1044/ICL7660
The MAX1044 and ICL7660 are monolithic, CMOS Miniature MAX Package
switched-capacitor voltage converters that invert, dou- 1.5V to 10.0V Operating Supply Voltage Range
ble, divide, or multiply a positive input voltage. They are
pin compatible with the industry-standard ICL7660 and 98% Typical Power-Conversion Efficiency
LTC1044. Operation is guaranteed from 1.5V to 10V with Invert, Double, Divide, or Multiply Input Voltages
no external diode over the full temperature range. They
deliver 10mA with a 0.5V output drop. The MAX1044 BOOST Pin Increases Switching Frequencies
has a BOOST pin that raises the oscillator frequency (MAX1044)
above the audio band and reduces external capacitor No-Load Supply Current: 200A Max at 5V
size requirements. No External Diode Required for Higher-Voltage
The MAX1044/ICL7660 combine low quiescent current Operation
and high efficiency. Oscillator control circuitry and four
power MOSFET switches are included on-chip. ______________Ordering Information
Applications include generating a -5V supply from a
+5V logic supply to power analog circuitry. For applica- PART TEMP. RANGE PIN-PACKAGE
tions requiring more power, the MAX660 delivers up to MAX1044CPA 0C to +70C 8 Plastic DIP
100mA with a voltage drop of less than 0.65V. MAX1044CSA 0C to +70C 8 SO
MAX1044C/D 0C to +70C Dice*
________________________Applications
MAX1044EPA -40C to +85C 8 Plastic DIP
-5V Supply from +5V Logic Supply
Ordering Information continued at end of data sheet.
Personal Communications Equipment * Contact factory for dice specifications.
Portable Telephones
Op-Amp Power Supplies _________________Pin Configurations
EIA/TIA-232E and EIA/TIA-562 Power Supplies
TOP VIEW
Data-Acquisition Systems
Hand-Held Instruments (N.C.) BOOST 1 8 V+
Panel Meters
CAP+ 2 7 OSC
MAX1044
ICL7660
GND 3 6 LV
__________Typical Operating Circuit
CAP- 4 5 VOUT

DIP/SO/MAX
INPUT
CAP+ V+ SUPPLY V+ AND CASE
VOLTAGE
8
N.C. OSC
1 7
MAX1044
ICL7660
CAP+ LV
2 ICL7660 6
CAP-
NEGATIVE
VOUT OUTPUT
VOLTAGE
GND VOUT
GND 3 5

NEGATIVE VOLTAGE CONVERTER CAP-


( ) ARE FOR ICL7660
TO-99

________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products 1

Call toll free 1-800-998-8800 for free samples or literature.


Switched-Capacitor Voltage Converters

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS


MAX1044/ICL7660

Supply Voltage (V+ to GND, or GND to VOUT)....................10.5V CERDIP (derate 8.00mW/C above +70C) .................640mW
Input Voltage on Pins 1, 6, and 7 .........-0.3V VIN (V+ + 0.3V) TO-99 (derate 6.67mW/C above +70C) ....................533mW
LV Input Current ..................................................................20A Operating Temperature Ranges
Output Short-Circuit Duration (V+ 5.5V)..................Continuous MAX1044C_ _ /ICL7660C_ _ ..............................0C to +70C
Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70C) MAX1044E_ _ /ICL7660E_ _ ............................-40C to +85C
Plastic DIP (derate 9.09mW/C above +70C) ............727mW MAX1044M_ _ /ICL7660M_ _ ........................-55C to +125C
SO (derate 5.88mW/C above +70C) .........................471mW Storage Temperature Range ............................-65C to + 150C
MAX (derate 4.1mW/C above +70C) ......................330mW Lead Temperature (soldering, 10sec) .............................+300C

Stresses beyond those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional
operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to
absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(Circuit of Figure 1, V+ = 5.0V, LV pin = 0V, BOOST pin = open, ILOAD = 0mA, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted.)

MAX1044 ICL7660
PARAMETER CONDITIONS UNITS
MIN TYP MAX MIN TYP MAX
TA = +25C 30 200 80 175
RL = ,
pins 1 and 7 TA = 0C to +70C 200 225
Supply Current no connection, TA = -40C to +85C 200 250 A
LV open
TA = -55C to +125C 200 250
RL = , pins 1 and 7 = V+ = 3V 10
Supply Voltage RL = 10k, LV open 3.0 10.0
V
Range (Note 1) RL = 10k, LV to GND 1.5 10 1.5 3.5
TA = +25C 65 100 55 100
IL = 20mA, TA = 0C to +70C 130 120
fOSC = 5kHz,
LV open TA = -40C to +85C 130 140
TA = -55C to +125C 150 150
Output Resistance
fOSC = 2.7kHz (ICL7660), TA = +25C 325 250
fOSC = 1kHz (MAX1044), TA = 0C to +70C 325 300
V+ = 2V, IL = 3mA, TA = -40C to +85C 325 300
LV to GND TA = -55C to +125C 400 400
COSC = 1pF, V+ = 5V 5 10
Oscillator Frequency kHz
LV to GND (Note 2) V+ = 2V 1
Power Efficiency RL = 5k, TA = +25C, fOSC 5kHz, LV open 95 98 95 98 %
Voltage Conversion Efficiency RL = , TA = +25C, LV open 97.0 99.9 99.0 99.9 %
Oscillator Sink or Pin 1 = 0V 3
VOSC = 0V or V+, LV open A
Source Current Pin 1 = V+ 20
V+ = 2V 1.0 1.0 M
Oscillator Impedance TA = +25C
V+ = 5V 100 100 k

Note 1: The Maxim ICL7660 and MAX1044 can operate without an external output diode over the full temperature and voltage
ranges. The Maxim ICL7660 can also be used with an external output diode in series with pin 5 (cathode at VOUT) when
replacing the Intersil ICL7660. Tests are performed without diode in circuit.
Note 2: fOSC is tested with COSC = 100pF to minimize the effects of test fixture capacitance loading. The 1pF frequency is correlat-
ed to this 100pF test point, and is intended to simulate pin 7s capacitance when the device is plugged into a test socket
with no external capacitor. For this test, the LV pin is connected to GND for comparison to the original manufacturers
device, which automatically connects this pin to GND for (V+ > 3V).

2 _______________________________________________________________________________________
Switched-Capacitor Voltage Converters

MAX1044/ICL7660
__________________________________________Typical Operating Characteristics
(V+ = 5V; CBYPASS = 0.1F; C1 = C2 = 10F; LV = open; OSC = open; TA = +25C; unless otherwise noted.)

OUTPUT VOLTAGE and OUTPUT RIPPLE OUTPUT VOLTAGE and OUTPUT RIPPLE OUTPUT VOLTAGE and OUTPUT RIPPLE
vs. LOAD CURRENT vs. LOAD CURRENT vs. LOAD CURRENT
-2.0 400 -5.0 800 -10 700

MAX1044-Fig 3
MAX1044-Fig 1

MAX1044-Fig 2
OUTPUT OUTPUT VOLTAGE A
-4.5 720 -9 OUTPUT B 630
VOLTAGE 350 VOLTAGE
A C
-4.0 640 -8 560

OUTPUT RIPPLE (mVp-p)


OUTPUT RIPPLE (mVp-p)

OUTPUT RIPPLE (mVp-p)


-1.5 300

OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)


OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)

OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)

A: MAX1044 with B A: MAX1044 with


A: MAX1044 with -3.5 BOOST = V+ 560 -7 490
BOOST = V+
BOOST = V+ 250 B: ICL7660
-3.0 480 -6 B: ICL7660 420
B: ICL7660 C: MAX1044 with C: MAX1044 with
-1.0 C: MAX1044 with 200 -2.5 BOOST = OPEN C 400 -5 350
BOOST = OPEN
BOOST = OPEN
150 -2.0 320 -4 280
C C V+ = 5V OUTPUT C V+ = 10V
V+ = 2V -1.5 240 -3 210
-0.5 100 LV = OPEN RIPPLE LV = OPEN
LV = GND -2 140
B -1.0 B 160 B
50 -0.5 80 -1 70
A A A
OUTPUT RIPPLE OUTPUT RIPPLE
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
LOAD CURRENT (mA) LOAD CURRENT (mA) LOAD CURRENT (mA)

EFFICIENCY and SUPPLY CURRENT EFFICIENCY and SUPPLY CURRENT EFFICIENCY and SUPPLY CURRENT
vs. LOAD CURRENT vs. LOAD CURRENT vs. LOAD CURRENT
100 10 100 50 100 50
MAX1044-Fig 4

MAX1044-Fig 5

MAX1044-Fig 6
B, C A
90 9 90 A 45 90 45
EFFICIENCY EFFICIENCY EFFICIENCY
80 8 80 B 40 80 40
SUPPLY CURRENT (mA)

SUPPLY CURRENT (mA)

SUPPLY CURRENT (mA)


A: MAX1044 with C A: MAX1044 with
70 7 70 35 70 35
EFFICIENCY (%)

BOOST = V+
EFFICIENCY (%)

EFFICIENCY (%)

BOOST = V+
60 6 60 B: ICL7660 30 60 B: ICL7660 30
C: MAX1044 with C: MAX1044 with
50 5 50 25 50 25
BOOST = OPEN BOOST = OPEN
40 SUPPLY CURRENT 4 40 SUPPLY CURRENT 20 40 SUPPLY CURRENT 20
30 3 30 15 30 15
20 20 V+ = 5V 20
2 10 10
LV = OPEN
10 V+ = 2V 1 10 V+ = 10V
5 10 5
LV = GND LV = OPEN
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
LOAD CURRENT (mA) LOAD CURRENT (mA) LOAD CURRENT (mA)

EFFICIENCY OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY


vs. OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY vs. EXTERNAL CAPACITANCE vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE
100 100,000 100,000
MAX1044-Fig 8
MAX1044-Fig 7

MAX1044-Fig 9

MAX1044 with
90
OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY (Hz)

OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY (Hz)

10,000 BOOST -V+


C1, C2 = 100F

C1, C2 = 10F

C1, C2 = 1F

80
EFFICIENCY (%)

1000 10,000
70 ICL7660 and
100 MAX1044 with
60 BOOST = OPEN FROM TOP TO BOTTOM AT 5V
MAX1044, BOOST = V+, LV = GND
EXTERNAL 10 1000
50 MAX1044, BOOST = V+, LV = OPEN
HCMOS ICL7660, LV = GND
OSCILLATOR ICL7660, LV = OPEN
40 1
MAX1044, BOOST = OPEN, LV = GND
MAX1044, BOOST = OPEN, LV = OPEN
30 0.1 100
101 102 103 104 105 6x105 1 10 100 1000 10,000 100,000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY (Hz) COSC (pF) SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)

_______________________________________________________________________________________ 3
Switched-Capacitor Voltage Converters
MAX1044/ICL7660

____________________________Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)


(V+ = 5V; CBYPASS = 0.1F; C1 = C2 = 10F; LV = open; OSC = open; TA = +25C; unless otherwise noted.)

OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY QUIESCENT CURRENT


vs. TEMPERATURE vs. OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY
100 10,000

MAX1044-Fig 10

MAX1044-Fig 11
A: MAX1044 with
BOOST = V+
OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY (kHz)

80

QUIESCENT CURRENT (A)


B: ICL7600
A C: MAX1044 with 1000
BOOST = OPEN
60
USING
100 EXTERNAL
40 CAPACITOR

10 USING
20 EXTERNAL
B HCMOS
C OSCILLATOR
0 1
-50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 100 101 102 103 104 105 5x105
TEMPERATURE (C) OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY (Hz)

QUIESCENT CURRENT QUIESCENT CURRENT


vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE vs. TEMPERATURE
2000 500

MAX1044-Fig 13
MAX1044-Fig 12

1000 400
QUIESCENT CURRENT (A)

A
QUIESCENT CURRENT (A)

B MAX1044 with
100 300 BOOST = V+
C
D
10 200
A: MAX1044, BOOST = V+, LV = GND
B: MAX1044, BOOST = V+, LV = OPEN
C: ICL7660 and MAX1044 with
1 BOOST = OPEN, LV = GND; 100
ABOVE 5V, MAX1044 ONLY
D: ICL7660 and MAX1044 with
BOOST = OPEN, LV = OPEN ICL7660, MAX1044 with BOOST = OPEN
0.1 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 -50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) TEMPERATURE (C)

OUTPUT RESISTANCE OUTPUT RESISTANCE OUTPUT RESISTANCE


vs. OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE vs. TEMPERATURE
1000 200 80
MAX1044-Fig 15
MAX1044-Fig 14

MAX1044-Fig 16

EXTERNAL
900 HCMOS
180
800 OSCILLATOR 160 70
OUTPUT RESISTANCE ()

OUTPUT RESISTANCE ()

700 140
RESISTANCE ()

ICL7660,
60
600 120 MAX1044 with
C1, C2 = 100F

BOOST = OPEN
C1, C2 = 10F

C1, C2 = 1F

500 100 50
400 80
300 60 40

200 40
30 MAX1044 with
100 20 BOOST = V+
0 0 20
101 102 103 104 105 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
FREQUENCY (Hz) SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) TEMPERATURE (C)

4 _______________________________________________________________________________________
Switched-Capacitor Voltage Converters

_____________________________________________________________ Pin Description

MAX1044/ICL7660
PIN NAME FUNCTION

BOOST Frequency Boost. Connecting BOOST to V+ increases the oscillator frequency by a factor of six. When the
(MAX1044) oscillator is driven externally, BOOST has no effect and should be left open.
1
N.C.
No Connection
(ICL7660)

2 CAP+ Connection to positive terminal of Charge-Pump Capacitor

3 GND Ground. For most applications, the positive terminal of the reservoir capacitor is connected to this pin.

4 CAP- Connection to negative terminal of Charge-Pump Capacitor

Negative Voltage Output. For most applications, the negative terminal of the reservoir capacitor is
5 VOUT
connected to this pin.

Low-Voltage Operation. Connect to ground for supply voltages below 3.5V.


6 LV
ICL7660: Leave open for supply voltages above 5V.

Oscillator Control Input. Connecting an external capacitor reduces the oscillator frequency. Minimize stray
7 OSC
capacitance at this pin.

8 V+ Power-Supply Positive Voltage Input. (1.5V to 10V). V+ is also the substrate connection.

During the first half of each cycle, switches S1 & S3


V+ close and switches S2 & S4 open, which connects the
bucket capacitor C1 across V+ and charges C1.
CBYPASS
BOOST V+ = 0.1F
During the second half of each cycle, switches S2 & S4
close and switches S1 & S3 open, which connects the
EXTERNAL positive terminal of C1 to ground and shifts the nega-
MAX1044 OSCILLATOR tive terminal to VOUT. This connects C1 in parallel with
CAP+ ICL7660 OSC
the reservoir capacitor C2. If the voltage across C2 is
RL
C1 COSC smaller than the voltage across C1, then charge flows
10F from C1 to C2 until the voltages across them are equal.
GND LV During successive cycles, C1 will continue pouring
charge into C2 until the voltage across C2 reaches
- (V+). In an actual voltage inverter, the output is less
CAP- VOUT VOUT than - (V+) since the switches S1S4 have resistance
C2 and the load drains charge from C2.
10F
Additional qualities of the MAX1044/ICL7660 can be
understood by using a switched-capacitor circuit
Figure 1. Maxim MAX1044/ICL7660 Test Circuit model. Switching the bucket capacitor, C1, between
the input and output of the circuit synthesizes a resis-
_______________Detailed Description tance (Figures 3a and 3b.)
The MAX1044/ICL7660 are charge-pump voltage con- When the switch in Figure 3a is in the left position,
verters. They work by first accumulating charge in a capacitor C1 charges to V+. When the switch moves to
bucket capacitor and then transfer it into a reservoir the right position, C1 is discharged to VOUT . The
capacitor. The ideal voltage inverter circuit in Figure 2 charge transferred per cycle is: Q = C1(V+ - VOUT). If
illustrates this operation. the switch is cycled at frequency f, then the resulting

_______________________________________________________________________________________ 5
Switched-Capacitor Voltage Converters

current is: I = f x Q = f x C1(V+ - VOUT). Rewriting this


MAX1044/ICL7660

equation in Ohms law form defines an equivalent resis-


tance synthesized by the switched-capacitor circuit
S1 S2 where:
V+
(V+ - VOUT )
C1
I=
1 / (f x C1)
and
C2 1
S3 S4 REQUIV =
VOUT = -(V+)
f x C1
where f is one-half the oscillator frequency. This resis-
tance is a major component of the output impedance of
switched-capacitor circuits like the MAX1044/ICL7660.
As shown in Figure 4, the MAX1044/ICL7660 contain
MOSFET switches, the necessary transistor drive cir-
cuitry, and a timing oscillator.
Figure 2. Ideal Voltage Inverter
________________Design Information
The MAX1044/ICL7660 are designed to provide a
simple, compact, low-cost solution where negative or
f doubled supply voltages are needed for a few low-
power components. Figure 5 shows the basic negative
V+ VOUT
voltage converter circuit. For many applications, only
two external capacitors are needed. The type of
capacitor used is not critical.

C1 C2 RLOAD Proper Use of the Low-Voltage (LV) Pin


Figure 4 shows an internal voltage regulator inside the
MAX1044/ICL7660. Use the LV pin to bypass this
regulator, in order to improve low-voltage performance

Figure 3a. Switched Capacitor Model


V+ CAP+
pin 8 pin 2
S1 S2

1M
REQUIV
V+ VOUT BOOST Q
OSCILLATOR

1 pin 1
REQUIV = 2
Q
f C1
OSC
pin 7
C2 RLOAD S3 S4
VOUT
REGULATOR

pin 5
INTERNAL

LV GND CAP-
pin 6 pin 3 pin 4

Figure 3b. Equivalent Circuit Figure 4. MAX1044 and ICL7660 Functional Diagram

6 _______________________________________________________________________________________
Switched-Capacitor Voltage Converters

MAX1044/ICL7660
CONNECTION
FROM V+
TO BOOST
1 8 V+ VOUT = -(V+) 1 8 V+
CBYPASS
2 MAX1044 7
C1 C2 2 7
ICL7660 MAX1044
10F 10F 10F
3 6 * 3 6
COSC
VOUT = -(V+)
4 5 4 5
10F
*REQUIRED FOR V+ < 3.5V

Figure 5. Basic Negative Voltage Converter Figure 6. Negative Voltage Converter with COSC and BOOST

and allow operation down to 1.5V. For low-voltage Figure 6 shows this connection. Higher frequency oper-
operation and compatibility with the industry-standard ation lowers output impedance, reduces output ripple,
LTC1044 and ICL7660, the LV pin should be connect- allows the use of smaller capacitors, and shifts switch-
ed to ground for supply voltages below 3.5V and left ing noise out of the audio band. When the oscillator is
open for supply voltages above 3.5V. driven externally, BOOST has no effect and should be
The MAX1044s LV pin can be grounded for all operat- left open. The BOOST pin should also be left open for
ing conditions. The advantage is improved low-voltage normal operation.
performance and increased oscillator frequency. The Reducing the Oscillator Frequency Using COSC
disadvantage is increased quiescent current and An external capacitor can be connected to the OSC pin
reduced efficiency at higher supply voltages. For to lower the oscillator frequency (Figure 6). Lower
Maxims ICL7660, the LV pin must be left open for frequency operation improves efficiency at low load
supply voltages above 5V. currents by reducing the ICs quiescent supply current.
When operating at low supply voltages with LV open, It also increases output ripple and output impedance.
connections to the LV, BOOST, and OSC pins should This can be offset by using larger values for C1 and C2.
be short or shielded to prevent EMI from causing Connections to the OSC pin should be short to prevent
oscillator jitter. stray capacitance from reducing the oscillator frequency.
Oscillator Frequency Considerations Overdriving the OSC Pin with an External Oscillator
For normal operation, leave the BOOST and OSC pins Driving OSC with an external oscillator is useful when
of the MAX1044/ICL7660 open and use the nominal the frequency must be synchronized, or when higher
oscillator frequency. Increasing the frequency reduces frequencies are required to reduce audio interference.
audio interference, output resistance, voltage ripple, The MAX1044/ICL7660 can be driven up to 400kHz.
and required capacitor sizes. Decreasing frequency The pump and output ripple frequencies are one-half
reduces quiescent current and improves efficiency. the external clock frequency. Driving the
Oscillator Frequency Specifications MAX1044/ICL7660 at a higher frequency increases the
The MAX1044/ICL7660 do not have a precise oscillator ripple frequency and allows the use of smaller
frequency. Only minimum values of 1kHz and 5kHz for capacitors. It also increases the quiescent current.
the MAX1044 and a typical value of 10kHz for the The OSC input threshold is V+ - 2.5V when V+ 5V,
ICL7660 are specified. If a specific oscillator frequency and is V+ / 2 for V+ < 5V. If the external clock does not
is required, use an external oscillator to drive the OSC swing all the way to V+, use a 10k pull-up resistor
pin. (Figure 7).
Increasing Oscillator Frequency Output Voltage Considerations
Using the BOOST Pin The MAX1044/ICL7660 output voltage is not regulated.
For the MAX1044, connecting the BOOST pin to the V+ The output voltages will vary under load according to
pin raises the oscillator frequency by a factor of about 6. the output resistance. The output resistance is primarily

_______________________________________________________________________________________ 7
Switched-Capacitor Voltage Converters

switching noise and EMI may be generated. To reduce


MAX1044/ICL7660

10k these effects:


V+ REQUIRED
FOR TTL 1) Power the MAX1044/ICL7600 from a low-impedance
source.
CMOS or 2) Add a power-supply bypass capacitor with low
1 8 V+ TTL GATE effective series resistance (ESR) close to the IC
2 MAX1044 7 between the V+ and ground pins.
10F ICL7660 3) Shorten traces between the IC and the charge-pump
3 6 capacitors.
4 5 VOUT = -(V+) 4) Arrange the components to keep the ground pins of
10F
the capacitors and the IC as close as possible.
5) Leave extra copper on the board around the voltage
converter as power and ground planes. This is
easily done on a double-sided PC board.
Figure 7. External Clocking
Efficiency, Output Ripple,
a function of oscillator frequency and the capacitor and Output Impedance
value. Oscillator frequency, in turn, is influenced by The power efficiency of a switched-capacitor voltage
temperature and supply voltage. For example, with a converter is affected by the internal losses in the con-
5V input voltage and 10F charge-pump capacitors, verter IC, resistive losses of the pump capacitors, and
the output resistance is typically 50. Thus, the output conversion losses during charge transfer between the
voltage is about -5V under light loads, and decreases capacitors. The total power loss is:
to about -4.5V with a 10mA load current.
PLOSS = PINTERNAL +PSWITCH +PPUMP +PCONVERSION
Minor supply voltage variations that are inconsequential LOSSES LOSSES CAPACITOR LOSSES
to digital circuits can affect some analog circuits. LOSSES
Therefore, when using the MAX1044/ICL7660 for The internal losses are associated with the ICs internal
powering sensitive analog circuits, the power-supply functions such as driving the switches, oscillator, etc.
rejection ratio of those circuits must be considered. These losses are affected by operating conditions such
The output ripple and output drop increase under as input voltage, temperature, frequency, and connec-
heavy loads. If necessary, the MAX1044/ICL7660 out- tions to the LV, BOOST, and OSC pins.
put impedance can be reduced by paralleling devices,
increasing the capacitance of C1 and C2, or connect- The next two losses are associated with the output
ing the MAX1044s BOOST pin to V+ to increase the resistance of the voltage converter circuit. Switch losses
oscillator frequency. occur because of the on-resistances of the MOSFET
switches in the IC. Charge-pump capacitor losses
Inrush Current and EMI Considerations occur because of their ESR. The relationship between
During start-up, pump capacitors C1 and C2 must be these losses and the output resistance is as follows:
charged. Consequently, the MAX1044/ICL7660 devel- 2
op inrush currents during start-up. While operating, PPUMP + PSWITCH = IOUT x ROUT
short bursts of current are drawn from the supply to C1, CAPACITOR LOSSES
LOSSES
and then from C1 to C2 to replenish the charge drawn
by the load during each charge-pump cycle. If the where:
voltage converters are being powered by a high- 1
impedance source, the supply voltage may drop too ROUT +
(fOSC / 2) x C1
low during the current bursts for them to function prop-
erly. Furthermore, if the supply or ground impedance is ( )
4 2RSWITCHES + ESRC1 + ESRC2
too high, or if the traces between the converter IC and
charge-pump capacitors are long or have large loops, and fOSC is the oscillator frequency.

8 _______________________________________________________________________________________
Switched-Capacitor Voltage Converters

MAX1044/ICL7660
The first term is the effective resistance from the oscillator to 400Hz by connecting a 100pF capacitor to
switched-capacitor circuit. OSC reduces the quiescent current to about 15A.
Conversion losses occur during the transfer of charge Maintaining 20mA output current capability requires
between capacitors C1 and C2 when there is a voltage increasing the bucket and reservoir capacitors to
difference between them. The power loss is: 100F.
Note that lower capacitor values can be used for lower
1
PCONV.LOSS = C1 (V+ ) 2 VOUT +
2 output currents. For example, setting the oscillator to
2
40Hz by connecting a 1000pF capacitor to OSC pro-
vides the highest efficiency possible. Leaving the bucket
C2 VRIPPLE 2VOUT VRIPPLE x fOSC / 2
1 2
2 and reservoir capacitors at 100F gives a maximum
IOUT of 2mA, a no-load quiescent current of 10A, and
Increasing Efficiency a power conversion efficiency of 98%.
Efficiency can be improved by lowering output voltage General Precautions
ripple and output impedance. Both output voltage rip- 1) Connecting any input terminal to voltages greater
ple and output impedance can be reduced by using than V+ or less than ground may cause latchup. Do
large capacitors with low ESR. not apply any input sources operating from external
The output voltage ripple can be calculated by noting supplies before device power-up.
that the output current is supplied solely from capacitor 2) Never exceed maximum supply voltage ratings.
C2 during one-half of the charge-pump cycle.
3) Do not connect C1 and C2 with the wrong polarity.
1 4) Do not short V+ to ground for extended periods with
VRIPPLE + 2 x ESRC2 IOUT
2 x fOSC x C2 supply voltages above 5.5V present on other pins.
5) Ensure that VOUT (pin 5) does not go more positive
Slowing the oscillator frequency reduces quiescent cur-
than GND (pin 3). Adding a diode in parallel with
rent. The oscillator frequency can be reduced by con-
C2, with the anode connected to VOUT and cathode
necting a capacitor to the OSC pin.
to LV, will prevent this condition.
Reducing the oscillator frequency increases the ripple
voltage in the MAX1044/ICL7660. Compensate by ________________Application Circuits
increasing the values of the bucket and reservoir
capacitors. For example, in a negative voltage converter, Negative Voltage Converter
the pump frequency is around 4kHz or 5kHz. With the Figure 8 shows a negative voltage converter, the most
recommended 10F bucket and reservoir capacitors, popular application of the MAX1044/ICL7660. Only two
the circuit consumes about 70A of quiescent current external capacitors are needed. A third power-supply
while providing 20mA of output current. Setting the bypass capacitor is recommended (0.1F to 10F)

V+

1 8
1 BOOST 8 V+
CBYPASS 2 MAX1044 7 VOUT = 2(V+) - 2VD
2 MAX1044 7 0.1F ICL7660
C1 3 6
10F
ICL7660
3 6
4 5 C1 C2
4 LV 5 VOUT = -(V+)
C2
10F

Figure 8. Negative Voltage Converter with BOOST and LV Figure 9. Voltage Doubler
Connections

_______________________________________________________________________________________ 9
Switched-Capacitor Voltage Converters
MAX1044/ICL7660

V+
V+
1 8 1 8
VOUT = -(V+)
2 7 2 MAX1044 7
MAX1044
ICL7660 C3
C1 ICL7660
3 6 C1 3 LV 6
10F

4 LV 5 4 5

VOUT = 2(V+) - 2VD


VOUT = 1 V+
2 C2
10F C2 C4

Figure 10. Voltage Divider Figure 11. Combined Positive and Negative Converter

Positive Voltage Doubler capacitors for the doubled positive voltage. This circuit
Figure 9 illustrates the recommended voltage doubler has higher output impedances resulting from the use of
circuit for the MAX1044/ICL7660. To reduce the voltage a common charge-pump driver.
drops contributed by the diodes (V D), use Schottky
diodes. For true voltage doubling or higher output cur- Cascading Devices
rents, use the MAX660. Larger negative multiples of the supply voltage can be
obtained by cascading MAX1044/ICL7660 devices
Voltage Divider (Figure 12). The output voltage is nominally VOUT = -n(V+)
The voltage divider shown in Figure 10 splits the power where n is the number of devices cascaded. The out-
supply in half. A third capacitor can be added between put voltage is reduced slightly by the output resistance
V+ and VOUT. of the first device, multiplied by the quiescent current of
the second, etc. Three or more devices can be cascaded
Combined Positive Multiplication and in this way, but output impedance rises dramatically.
Negative Voltage Conversion For example, the output resistance of two cascaded
Figure 11 illustrates this dual-function circuit. MAX1044s is approximately five times the output resis-
Capacitors C1 and C3 perform the bucket and reser- tance of a single voltage converter. A better solution
voir functions for generating the negative voltage. may be an inductive switching regulator, such as the
Capacitors C2 and C4 are the bucket and reservoir MAX755, MAX759, MAX764, or MAX774.

1 8 V+ 1 8 1 8

2 MAX1044 7 2 MAX1044 7 2 MAX1044 7


ICL7660 ICL7660 ICL7660
10F 10F
3 6 3 6 3 6
10F
VOUT = -n(V+)
4 5 4 5 4 5
1 2 3

10F 10F 10F

Figure 12. Cascading MAX1044/ICL7660 for Increased Output Voltage

10 ______________________________________________________________________________________
Switched-Capacitor Voltage Converters

Paralleling Devices

MAX1044/ICL7660
Paralleling multiple MAX1044/ICL7660s reduces output
resistance and increases current capability. As illus-
1 8 V+ trated in Figure 13, each device requires its own pump
capacitor C1, but the reservoir capacitor C2 serves all
2 7 devices. The equation for calculating output resistance is:
MAX1044
C1 ICL7660
3 6
ROUT (of MAX1044 or ICL7660)
ROUT =
4 5 n (number of devices)
1
Shutdown Schemes
Figures 14a14c illustrate three ways of adding shut-
1 8 down capability to the MAX1044/ICL7660. When using
these circuits, be aware that the additional capacitive
2 7 loading on the OSC pin will reduce the oscillator fre-
MAX1044 VOUT = -(V+)
C1 ICL7660 quency. The first circuit has the least loading on the
3 6 C2 OSC pin and has the added advantage of controlling
4 5
shutdown with a high or low logic level, depending on
n the orientation of the switching diode.

Figure 13. Paralleling MAX1044/ICL7660 to Reduce Output


Resistance

V+ _Ordering Information (continued)


10k REQUIRED FOR TTL
V+ CMOS or PART TEMP. RANGE PIN-PACKAGE
1 8 TTL GATE
1N4148
MAX1044ESA -40C to +85C 8 SO
2 MAX1044 7 MAX1044MJA -55C to +125C 8 CERDIP**
ICL7660 ICL7660CPA 0C to +70C 8 Plastic DIP
10F 3 6 ICL7660CSA 0C to +70C 8 SO
4 5
ICL7660CUA 0C to +70C 8 MAX
VOUT = -(V+) ICL7660C/D 0C to +70C Dice*
10F ICL7660EPA -40C to +85C 8 Plastic DIP
ICL7660ESA -40C to +85C 8 SO
a) ICL7660AMJA -55C to +125C 8 CERDIP**
V+ 74HC03 ICL7660AMTV -55C to +125C 8 TO-99**
OPEN-DRAIN OR
74LS03 * Contact factory for dice specifications.
MAX1044 7
ICL7660
OPEN-COLLECTOR ** Contact factory for availability.
NAND GATES The Maxim ICL7660 meets or exceeds all A and S
specifications.
b)
V+ OUTPUT
ENABLE
74HC126 OR
MAX1044 7 74LS126
ICL7660
TRI-STATE BUFFER

c)

Figure 14a-14c. Shutdown Schemes for MAX1044/ICL7660

______________________________________________________________________________________ 11
Switched-Capacitor Voltage Converters

__________________________________________________________Chip Topographies
MAX1044/ICL7660

MAX1044 ICL7660
GND CAP+ BOOST
V+

0.084"
CAP+
(2.1mm)
0.076"
GND
(1.930mm)
OSC
CAP-

CAP-
V+
LV
V OUT V OUT

LV OSC

0.060"
0.076"
(1.5mm)
(1.930mm)
TRANSISTOR COUNT: 72 TRANSISTOR COUNT: 71
SUBSTRATE CONNECTED TO V+ SUBSTRATE CONNECTED TO V+

________________________________________________________Package Information
INCHES MILLIMETERS
DIM
MIN MAX MIN MAX
A 0.036 0.044 0.91 1.11
A1 0.004 0.008 0.10 0.20
B 0.010 0.014 0.25 0.36
C 0.005 0.007 0.13 0.18
D 0.116 0.120 2.95 3.05
E H E 0.116 0.120 2.95 3.05
e 0.0256 0.65
H 0.188 0.198 4.78 5.03
L 0.016 0.026 0.41 0.66
0 6 0 6
21-0036

C

A
8-PIN MAX
0.127mm PACKAGE
e 0.004 in
B A1 L

Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. No circuit patent licenses are
implied. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time.

12 __________________Maxim Integrated Products, 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (408) 737-7600

1994 Maxim Integrated Products Printed USA is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products.
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