JERZY TRZECIAK
Copy Editor
Institute of Mathematics
Po l ish Academy of Sciences
Gdansk Teachers' p~
~':" ~::'
CONTENTS
Acknow ledg7lLents. The author is gra teful to Prof\:~sor Zo ria DCllkow
ska. Professor ZdzisJaw Skupicll a nd Dalliel Davie:) fur th eir llclpful Part A: Phrases Used in Mathematica l Texts
cr iti cism . Tlul!1ks are also due to Adam ~rysior an d ~Ll!"cill .\daw:,ki
for suggesting several il1l I' rm'clllcnt s, and to Hcmyb Walas for her Ahstract and introciuction ... .. . . . .... . . . . ...... . . . . . .. ... .... . .. ... .. . 4
painstaking job of typesettin g the continllo usly varying manu script. Definition ........... . ....... .. ..... . ... . . . ...... . .. . .. . . . .. . .. . .. .. . . , G
Notatioll . . . . . . .. ... .. ... . . .... ..... ... . ... ...... .... .. .. ...... . . . ..... 7
P ro perty ... . . . . ................. ..... . . . ..... . . .. . ........ . . . ..... .. . . 8
Assumptio n , cond iti o n, convention . ... . . . ... ... ..... ... . . ..... . ..... . 10
Thcorem: general rem arks .. ... . . ... . .. . . .. .... . ............ .. .. . .. ... 1~
Th eo rcm : illtrociuctofy plfrase . .:: . : .. ~:........ ... .. ..... . .. ....... 1:1
Theorem : formulation . .. . . ..... . ... . ..... .. . ..... . . ... . ......... ..... 1:1
Proof: beginning . . .. . . .. .... .. . . .. ...... . ... .. . ... . . ... . . . ..... . . .. . . 11
Proof: argu m e nts ..... . ... . .. . ....... . .. . . . ... . ... . ... . ... . .. . .. . . . . . 15
Proof: consecutive steps ... . . . . ..... . . ... . .. . ...... ... . ... . . .. . . .. ... . J (j
Proo f: "it is sufTic ient to .. ... " .......... ... .. ... . .. ............. . . . .. . . 17
Proof: "it is eas ily seen t ha t ..... " .. . . . . ... ........ .. . . . ..... . .. ... .... 18
Proof: conc lusion and r emarks .... .. .. ... ..................... . ... . . . . 18
n.efcrenccs to the literatu'r e . ... .. ... . . . .. . . . . ... ... . . . . .. . .... .. . .. . . . 19
Publ ished by Gdallskie W ydawn ictwo Owiatowe Acknowledgments ................. .... . . . ... ... . . .. . ... . ... ..... .. ... 20
How t o s horten the paper . . ....... . .... ..... . . ..... .. . . . ... . . .. . ... .. 20
(Gcl a llsk Teachers' Press ) Editorial correspondence .... . . . ..... ....... .. . . ................... . .. 21
P.O . Box 59, 80876 Gdallsk 52, Pol an d R eferee's report .. ... ... .. ... .. . . . .. . . . . ..... ..... .. .. ... . . .. .... . ..... 21
5
Om method h<ls the disadv<l:ltagc of not I)f'ill;!; i:!trillsir . It is immateri,,I which J\J we choose to denne F as 101lg as 1\1 contains x.
The solutio!l bll.; short of pr,.'\idil:::; :1:; l~xph !t fdrlllilh . This product is indepelldent of which Ill ell lber of !J we choose to define it.
\ rhat is still he!.;i :1::; i.; :ell ex plici 1 ,j, ' ~nirl i,ll! of . It is Proposit ion 8 t h<lt makes this denllit.ion ,, lIowable.
:\ s for pr(,I"I'fju isiks, the rC':lIler is l'Xr<'c'kd 1\1 11t ~ fal~lili:\i' '':it;; .....
The first t\\"o ch<lpters or" ... .. CCll1stiwtp. ~ll:;:cil"lit pr,. p;'i<ltio!l .
Iwllh th e cla.sslcal one for .. ... is ... ..
Our definition agrees w~th the olle givell in [7] if II
:\0 prelilllill:ery kllo',\"led~,~ of ..... is r<' <i'.lirl'l;. this coincides with our previously introduced
To facilitate ;tcccss to tile' ilJd i':idlliti t')pic~. the ch;lprcl., iUI.: rClldel"t!d as Note that terminology if J{ is convex.
5elf( 1)Ilt:liiled as jl<ls., i\'[(". Ithis is in agreement with [7] for .....
For the (tl;:\'e lli ellce of tLe r,'ad,' r we l"l'pe<lt the relc\':l!lt ll1aterial from [7]
witl 'O \lt proofs , th\ls lll:tking our cxpo:,iJiull selfcolltil.incd . NOTATION
8 9
x is not finite, nor is Y countable. [Note the inversioll .] This involves no loss of generality.
\\,1 f IS
. opell, (3.7)'.Ill S t tl to saying that ... .. If ..... and if .. ... , then .....
. ' len ,\lll OUIl S to th e fact that ... .. provided III i= l.
Suppose that .. "' 1Then unless m = l.
Here is another way of stating (c): .... . Let M be ..... Assume that ..... ..... ,
with g a constant
Ano th e r way of stating (c) is to say: .... . 1Write .. ... satisfying .... .
II 1\ ('q uiva le nt formu\atiou of (c) is: .... . Furthermore (Moreover), .....
T I\( :o rc Ill S 2 and 3 may be sUlllmarized by saying that ..... In fact, ..... [= To be more precise]
}\ ssc r l.io n (ii) is nothing but the statement that .... . Accordingly, ..... [= Thus]
(;('() lli elrically speaking, the hypothesis is that ..... : part. of t.he conriusion
is th a t ..... Gi\'en allY f i= 1 suppose that .. ... Theu .... .
The theorelll gaius in interest if we realize that ..... Let assumptions 15 hold. Then .... .
Under the above assumptions, .... .
TI Ie tl leo re m is 's1111
till true I'rl we drop the assu;nptioll ...
1 I . Under the sallle hypotheses, .... .
I s t l 10 (S It .IS onlY
I assumecIt Ila t .... .
Under the conditions stated above, .....
I [ wc t;l!<C
. f = ..... I
I we recover th
_ e standard clemma .....
Under the assumptions of Theorem 2 with "convergellt"
1(l:p lar lll ;; f by  J, [I, Theorem Cl]. . replaced by "weakly conv ergent" :~~ .. .  
Under the hypotheses of Theorem 5, if moreover .....
'l'l li :; s pec ializes to th e result of [7] if f = g.
Equality holds iu (8) if and only if .....
be Ileed ed in 1 The following conditions are equivalent: .....
' ,'Ii i:: I (, ~; lI l l will pro ve extremely useflll in Section 8.
I not be needed until [Note: Expressions like "the following inequality holds" can in
general be dropped.]
rpi .' .
~,~ ,
12 13
PROOF: BEG INNING PROOF: ARGUMENTS
pro\'c (sh()\,,/rrcall/obscr\'e) tklt .... . definition, ... .. , which follows from ... ..
We I
fi rs t pro\'(~ " rC l !ll(,l~ci form of the th core:lI. Iassumptioll,
the defini tion of .... .
..... But I =g as was described
Let us outli!lC C;i \'t: t!:r: mai n ideas of) U!\, p roof. (shown / ment ioned/
examill e BI . t he compactness of .... . noted) in ... ..
By Taylor's formula, ... ..
I To ~cc (pro':e) this. Id f = .....
a similar ::l.rgument, ... .. shows that .. ...
Out. A = n. \:I\!l:':)\'e th is i\s,f()!:~\:',~~_
I 1,1,., b proved b~ ,\. )l ld o g  ... ..
the above, .. ...
the lemma below, .....
Theorem 4 now
yields (gi ves /
implies) I = .....
To his end. consider .. ...
t co nti nuity, .... . leads to 1 = ... ..
\V f t t If I [= For tbis Dllrposc; not: "To this aill l"]
\! Irs COlllpl1 e '1 To do this. tah; ..... L1 = o. [Not: "Since ..... , then .... .']
 fl)r this Jllirpose,we se t .... .  Since .hs co mpact~ w~ ha.'ieLI_= O.
it fo llows"that L1 = 0
To deduce (3) froD! (2) , LIke .... . we see (co llclude) th at LI = o.
\ \ 'e claim that .. ... Indeed , .. . .. B ut L1 = 0 since I is compact.
We begin by proving ..... (by recalling the notion of .. ... ) 'I'Ve bave If = 0, beca use ..... [+ a longer ex planati o n]
Our proof starts with the observation that ... .. \Ve must have L1 = 0, fo r o th erw ise we can rep lace .....
1')1e procedure is to find .. ... As 1 is co mpac t we Iw.ve L1 = O.
The proof consists in the construction of ..... Therefore LI = 0 by Theorem 6.
That L1 = 0 follows from Theorem G.
straightforward (quite involved).
The proof is by induction on n. we conclude (deduce/see ) th at .. ...
(5) we have (obtain) AI = N.
left to the reader.
based on the followillg observatioll. From this [Note: without "that"]
what has already
been proved, it follows that .....
The main (bas ic) idea of the proof is to take ..... it may be concluded that .....
I
The [lroof falls l1at~r ~lly i:ltO three parts .
wdl be clJvlded mto 3 steps.
According to (On account of) the above remark, we have AI = N .
() !l t IJe contrary,
I
Conversely (To obtain a contradiction), suppose tlla t .... .
and so AI = N.
Sllppose the IClllIlIa were false . Th e n we could fiIlt! .. ...
This gives M = N . and co nseq ue ntl y M N . =
We thus get AI=N . and, ill consequ ence , Ai = N.
t here existed n
an x ..... ,
If x were no t I l l ,
Iwe wou ld have ..... The result is M =N. F is compact, and hence bounded.
tI Id b (3) now becomes M=N. which gives (im pli es/
I
it were true that ..... , .lere wou e ..... Th is clearly forces M = N. yields) 111 = N.
Assume the formula holds for the degree k; we will prove it for k + 1. [Not: "what gives"]
Assullling (5) to hold for k, we will prove it fo r k + l. F =G=H I
the last equality being a consequence of Theorem 7.
, which is due to the fact that .....
We only give tbe main ideas of the proof. ~
We give the proof only for the case n = 3; th e other cases are left to the Si nce .. ... , (2) shows that ... .. , by (4).
reader. We conclude from (5) that ... .. , hence that .. ... , and finally that .. ...
E;;r
t;:, ,:~~ 
14 15
Th!! 'quality f =g. which is part of the conclusioll of Tlteorem 7, implies Repealed app li c:tI.ioll of Lemma 6 enables us to write .....
thal ..... . \Ve now J r r' 'd I Y illduction.
\Ve can 1I0 W Pl(l 'ced annlogonsly to the proof of .... .
As in the proof of Theorem 8, equation (I) gives .....
Analysis similar to that in the proof of Theorem 5 sI10\\'5 \Vc nex t I claim (show/prove that) .. ...
that ..... [Not: "similar as in"] sharpen these results and prove that .....
A passage to the limit similar to the abo\'e illlplil's that .....
Similarly (Likewise), ..... claim is that .....
Similar arguments applyI' It 0 tl Ie case ..... Our next goal is to determine the number of .....
obj ective is to evaluate the integral I.
} 'I Ie same reasoulllg
. app les concern will be the behaviour of .....
Tlte sa me couclusion can be drawn for .... . \Ve now turn to the case f =1= l.
This foll olV by th e s;].me method as iu .... . \Ve are now in a position to show..... [= We are able to]
T ill! telill T f can be haudled in much the same wav, the only difIereIlce \Vc proceed to show that .... .
Iwillt'. ill lli e ;]'Dalys is of .....  The task is llOW to find .... .
II I llll! saJllI! mann er we can see that .....
Ha\'ing disposed of this preliminary step, we can now return to .....
T lt l' rc:; t of lh e proof runs as before.
W nolV apply this argument again, with I replaced hy J, to obtain ..... \Ve wish to arrallge that J be as smooth as possible.
[Note the illfinitive.]
PROOF: CONSECUTIVE STEPS We are thus looking for the family .....
We have to construct .....
evaluate .... .
Consider ..... Define
Choose.... . Let
If = ..... Let. us
compute .... .
apply the forl1lllia to .....
I
In order to get this inequality, it :vill be ll~cessary to .... .
IS convelllent to .... .
Fi x ..... Sel . suppose for the III0nWIIt.
regard s ;L~ fixed and ..... To deal with I J,
To estimate the other terIll.
Iwe note that .....
iN(}l e: The imperative mood is used wheu you 0l'del' the reader to do For the general C<L5e,
sO l1l ethi ng, so you should not write e.g. "Give an exalllple of .... ." if
yo u mean "~Ve give an example of ..... "]
PROOF: "IT IS SUFFICIENT TO
Adding 9 to the lefthand side
Subtracting (3) from (5) ffi I Ishow (prove) that .....
Writing (Taking) h = H f
Substituting (4) into (6)
yields (gives) It = ..... I
It ~u 1 cflies. t to make the following observation.
IS SUI! clen
use ( 4) together WIth
. the observatIOn
. that .....
we obtain (get/have) J =.rJ
Combining (3) with (6) We need only consider 3 cases: .....
[Note: without "that"]
Combining these We only need to show that .....
[E.g. th ese in equnli ties] we conclude (deduce/sec) that .. ...
we can assert that .... . It remains to prove that .... . (to exclude the case when ..... )
Replacin" (2) by (3)
we can rewrite (5) as ... .. What is left is to show that .....
Letting n co
Appl ying (5) ~ ~ We are reduceclto proving (4) for ..... 
11I 1,!' I,(," ;1111~ i l l g J ,wd 9
IN,, /, '1'111' ill :~ fOrlll is eit.he r th e subject of a sentence ("Adding ..... gi
V(':I" ), (II' Il'ljll ires th e subject "we" (HAdding ..... we obtain"): so do
I
. We are left with the task of determilling .... .
The only poiut remaining concerns the behaviour of .....
The proof is completed by showing that .....
/11)/ IV I ill; e.!;;. "Adding ..... the proof is complete."] We shnll have established the !emnw. if we prove the following:
If we prove that ..... , the assertion follows.
1,\ ',. rO lll.illlle in this fashion obtaining (to obtain) J= ..... The statement O(g) = 1 will be proved once we prove the lemma below.
W, 1I1 ;\Y now integrat e J.: times to conclude that .... .
/:x
~'~::~ 17
J(j
PROOF: "IT IS EASILY SEEN THAT ..... " Note tbat we have actually p roved that .... .
[= We have proved more, namely that ... '
clear (e\'i<ieli! /ir;1llIu::lte/oi;vio'lS) that .....
It IS casiI. ~CC!l t!;.l~ .... . W I ll oll ly the fact that ... ..
easy "to cLx!': t ilat .... . e 1;"\"(, user the existence of only the ri ghthan d derivati\c.
a sinlp le !!1~:.:ter to .... .
for f = 11 it is no longer true that .. ...
\Ve SCI: (check) at O!lC" ::, : ,; . " .. ..... , wi:!r! 1 is cl,~ar from (3). the argument breaks down .
F is ca.;ilv seen (Cilcckc<, to be sm oo th. . .... , itS i~ ot<J.~y to check. The proof strongly dep ended on the assumption that
It folluw,; cas i'" (inllll<~dl:l'c1y) t i!:lt , .... 00tc that we did . not really ha\'e to usc .. .. . ; we could bave applied .....
Uf cour~l' (CI l'a riy/Olwiol\siy) ...... For more details we refer the reader to [7].
The rroo[ is "traigLr:,,[\\'ard (stallJardi i!1Jl1l,~diate) .
The details are left to the reader.
All easy camp':' ~!: in" {A trivi:11 '{erii:C!l.tion) sho',\'s that .. ... We !cal'e it to the reader to n:rify that... . [Nole: "it" necessary]
 !:':2) ,Hakes it ob '.<oUS 1hQt. ~ r=
By (21 it is obviolls that] Thi s fillishes the proof, the d'.! wiled verification of (4) being left to tbe
reader.
Tile fac:.tO f Gj I'oses ilU prQblel:1 lkC,lii.;r. Gis .. ...
REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE
PROOF: CONCLUSION AND REMARKS
(see [or instance [7 , Th. 1]) (sec [7] and the references giVl'll tl ll 'I" )
proves the theore m.
completes the proof. more details)
I:stablishes the form ub . (sec [Kal] for the d efinition of ..... )
..... , wlliciJ
: .Vot: .. '.\' h,l.T.. j is the desired conclusion. the complete bi bliograpby)
is our claim (assertion). [Not : "thesis"]
gives (1) when substituted in (5) (combined with (5)). TIH~ bes t general reference here
TIlP. sUllldard wo rk Oll .. ...
I..
IS .. ...
wa~ proved hy L lX [t>].
This can be found ill
the proof is complete.
this is precisely the assertion of the lemma . The cl:Lssical wo rk Iwre Lax [7, eh. 2] .
..... , and the lemma follows.
(3) is proved. . is due to Strang [8].
f = 9 as claimed (required). I
goes back to the work of .... .
as far as [8].
ThIS CO l!t[,',J ids our assumption (the fact that ..... ). was motivated by [7].
.. ' .. . conrra ry to (3). This construction generalizes that of [7] .
, C,1
. ..... '.VU1 1 15 .IlllpOSSJ'ble. [N a t : 'w
., It''']
la IS follows [7].
...... '.vLie!! con t r:\dicts the maximality of ..... is adapted from [7] (appears ill [71) '
.... .. :l cOill.r'ldiction. has previously been used by Lax 7] .
The proof for G is similar. a rece nt account of the theory
C may be handled in much the same way. a treatment of a more genera l case
Silllilar considerations app ly to C. a fu ll er (thorough) treatmell t
TI
Ie Silme proo
I
f works (remains valid) for .... .
still goes (fails) when we drop theassumptioll .....
For a dee rer discussion of .... .
direct constructions along more
we refer the reader to [7].
cl assical lines
The l1letbod of rroof carries over to dom aills .... . yet anothe r method
The rroof a/)o\'e gives more, namely f is ..... We introduce the notion of .. ... , following Kato [7].
A s li ght change ill the proof actually shows that ..... We follow [Ka] in assuming tilat .....
18
0.. 7
~.:
19
' I'hl! lll aill results of this paper were announced in [7]. Tak illJ', in l.o I\ITO I III~ (tl) > By (4)
Silll il:tr results havebecn obtained independently by LiLX and arc to be Oyv illIl P of( ,I) ,13y (4)
pub lished in [7] . Oy 11!lalio ll (d) , lIy (4)
III tit illll'l vii i [0 , II ~. In [0,1]
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS There (' X i S I.~l :t f ili i tion f E C(X) > There exists f E C(X)
I
T he a uthor :vishes to ~xpress his thauks (gratitude) to .....
IS greatly Illdebted to .. ...
For every po ill t)J !II v+ For every p E AI
F is defill (:d I>y tit , for mula F( x) = ..... v+ F is defined by F( x) = .....
his <1.ctive interest iu the publication of tllis paper. Tb eo rem 2 a ll cl Th eorem 5 "" Theorems 2 <1.ud 5
suggestiug the problem and for many stimulating conversations. This follow s frolI l (1), (5), (6) and (7) > This follows from (4) (7)
for sever<1.l helpful comments concerning ... .. For deta ils!i ' [:31. [4J a ud [5] ..... For details see [3][5]
drawing the author's attention to .. ...
poi nting ou t it mist<1.ke in ..... The derivaLi v wi Lit respect to l ..... The lderiv<1.tive
hi s coll abor:tt ion in proving Lemma 4. A fun ct ion [ cI <1.SS C 2 "" A C 2 function
' I'lt l' :t IlL hor g ra tefull y ac knowledges the many helpful suggestions of .. .. . For a rbitra ry 1; ~. For all x (For every x)
li m ill g Lit pr para tion of tile paper. In the case n = 5 ..... For n = 5
Thi s is p<1.r t of th e a uth or's Ph .D. thesis, written uuder the supervision This leads t o a contradiction with the maximality of f
of .... . a t th e Uni versity of ..... ........ .. , contrary to the maximality of f
Applying Lemma 1 we conclude th<1.t "" Lemm:t 1 shows tll<1.t
The author wishes to tlt a nk the University of .. ... , where the paper WiLS ... .. , which completes the proof > . . . . .
written, for financial s upport (for the invitation and. hospitality).
EDITORIAL CORRESPONDENCE
HOW TO SHORTEN THE PAPER
, lI era l rul es: I would like to submit Ithe enclosed manuscript " ..... "
I am submitting for publication in Studia Mathematica.
J. n.eme mber: you are writing for an expert. Cross out a ll th at is trivial or routine.
~. Avoid repeti ti on: do not repeat the assumptions of a theorem at th e beginning I have also included a reprint of my article .. ... for the convenience of the
of its proof, or a complicated conclusion at the end of the proof. Do not repeat referee.
th e ~s uillptions of a previous theorem in the statement of;\ next on e (instead, I wish to withdraw my paper ..... <1.S I intend to make a m<1.jor
writ e e. g. "Und er t.he hy potheses of Theorem 1 with f replaced hy g, ..... ") . Do  revision of it.
not re peat the same formulause a label instead . I regret any inconvenience this may have caused you.
3. C heck all formul as : is e<lch of them necess<1rY?
I am very pleased that the paper will appear in Fundamenta.
Phrases you can cross out:
Thank you very much for accepting my paper for publication in .... .
We denote by IR the set of all re:tl numbers.
lYe have the following lemma. Please find enclosed two copies of the revised version.
T he followin g lem ma will be useful. As the referee suggested, I inserted a reference to the theorem
.. .. . the follow illg inequ a lity is s<1.tisfied: of .... .
We have followed the referee's suggestions.
P h r <l~ ~ yo u ca n short en (sec <1.lso p. 38):
I have complied with almost all suggestiolls of the referee.
I.e'/. Ill' <1.11 a rb iLrary but fi xed positive numb er""" Fix c; >0
I,e'/. II:; fi. Htb ilra ril y x E X """ Fix x E X REFEREE'S REPORT
1,I'i. 11:; firs t obs(rvc th :tt """ First observe th<1.t
IV" wi ll lirs t co mpute """ \Ye fi rs t compute The author proves the interesting result that .....
II I' II{"(; we 11(1Xe :r =1 """' Hence x = 1 The proof is short and simple, and the article well written.
II (, ll cc it [o llolVs tha t x=l""" Hence x=l The res ults prese nt ed are original.
20 21
The paprer is a good piece of work Oll a subject that attracts PART B: SELECTED PROBLEMS OF ENGLIS H GRAMMAR
considerable attention.
I ;lm plca..c,cd to I j' r bl' " INDEFINITE ARTICLE (a, an,  )
T. I'. ~pI .. , ... ,rt'commcllC It. lor pc lcatlOll III
1l " " e'L'loLl:'OI S .. ~1 I '
I strongly tuella. at..:ematlca.
Note: You use "an or "an" depending on pronunciation and not
The only remark I wish to make is that condition B should be formuhted spelling, e.g. a uuit, an x.
more carefully.
:\ fe\\' minor typographi cal errors arc listed below. 1. Instead of the number "one":
I !J,lxe indicated \'arious corrections 011 the manuscript. The four centres lie in a plane.
The results obtained arc not particularly surprising and will be A chapter will be devoted to the study of expanding map ~ .
of limited interest. For this, we introduce an aux il iary variable z .
'Tile re<l'lts '
, ., ~ I
I correct
"re I ,
but ouly,. moder<1.tely
c f kintrrcstilig.

__ _ ~ 2: Me3ning "member of a class of objects" , "some" ,"one of":
i r<'.: :, cr cas:; mOlll 11cations 0 :;own w.cts .
The cx:ullple is worthwlli:e but not of sufficient interest for a research Then D becomes a locally convex space witll dual space D'.
article. Tbe righthand side of (4) is then a bound ed functi on.
The Eng lish of the paper needs a tborough revision. This is easily seen to be an equivale nce relation.
T he paper does !lot meet the standards of your journal. Theorem 7 bas been extended to a class of bound a ry val\l e jll'Oh ll'III ';
The transitivity is a conseque nce of the fac t th at .... .
1
T ueorClll '). I
 IS fit Ise.III
as stated .
t h'IS genera j'Ity. Let us now state a corollary of Lebesgue's theo rem for .....
After a change of variable in the integral we get .... .
Lel1lma 2 is known (see .. ... )
Accordingly, I recommend that the paper be rejected. \Ve thus obtain the estimate ..... with a constant C .
in the plural:
The existence of partitions of unity may be proved by .. .. .
Tbe definition of distributions implies that .. ...
..... , with suitable constants. .
..... , where G and F are differential operators.
3. In definitions of classes of objects
(i.e. when there are many objects with the given property) :
A fundamental solution is a fu nction satisfying ... ..
We call C a module of ellipticity.
A classical example of a constant C such th a t .. ...
We wish to find a solution of (6) which is of th e form .. ...
in the plural:
Tbe elements of D are often called test functions.
points with distance 1 from K
tl 1e se t 0f
Ia II functIOns
. . . I compact support
WIt
1
22 23
4. In the pluralwhen you are referring to each element of a class: DILl : Ev el Y (\()Il Clllpty open set in IRk is a union of disjoint boxes.
Direct sums exist in the category of abelian g roups . [I ( YO II wi s h to stress that it is some union .of not too well
~ ; p( !c i(i ,t! objects.]
I II particular, closed sets are Dorel sets.
,
Borel measurable functions are oftell called Borel mappings. 4. In front of;1 ::lrdinil l number if it embraces all objeds considered:
Th is makes it possible to apply fhresults to fUllctions in any Hp. The two !',rOll[1S have been shown to have the same number of
If you are referring to all elements of a class, you use "the": gel) mtors. [Two groups only were mentioned.]
The real measures form a Sll bclass of the complex ones . Each of th e th ree products on the right of (4) satisfies .... .
[The re arc exactly 3 products there.]
5. In front of an adiedive which is intended to mean
"having t his particular quality": 5. In front of an ord in a l number:
Tllis map extencls to all of M in an obviolls hshion. The first Poisson integral in (4) converges to g.
A remarkable feature of the solution should be stressed . The seco nd sta tement follows immediately from the first.
S ' ct' 0
C 1 n
I
1 gives a condensed exposition of .....
describes ill u unified manner the recent results .....
6. In front of surn a mes used attributively:
the direct sum and direct product G is uow viewed ;LS a set, without group structure.
tLl: i!lilCr and outer factors of f [Note the plural.]
S;d: a d.?ficit or an excess INFINITIVE
t".;:? .
28 29
4. After certain verbs, especially with preposi tions:
We begin by analyzin g (3).
1
I
The ideal is defined by m = . . . , it be ing u nd erstood that ... ..
F be.ing ~on ti.nuous,.we ca n assu me th;1 t ..... [= Since F is .....]
(It b~lI1g .m:p~ss lbl e ~o make A an d B intersect)
\Ve succeeded (were successful) in proving (4).
[Not: "succeeded to proye"] I [= slllce It IS 1m POSS Ible]
\Ve next tur n t o estimating ..... [Do not write "a func tion being an element of X" if you mean
They persisted in investigating the case .... . "a fu nction which is a n element of X". ]
\Ve are interested in finding it solution of .... . 8. In expressions which can be re phrased as "the fact that X is .... ... :
\Ve were surprised at finding out that .... .
[Or: surprised to find out] Note th a t M being cyclic implies F is cyclic.
Their study resulted in proving the conjecture for ..... The probab ility of X being rational equals 1/2.
__ The suscess of our method will depend on proving t hat ..... In addition to f b eing convex , we requi re that .....
To compute the j;Z;:m of ~amo"i:Jnts to findirlg: ...~ 
We should avoid using (2) here, since .. ... PASSIVE VOrCE
[Not: "avoid to usc"]
We put off discussing this problem to Section 5. 1. Usual passive voice:
It is wo~th noting th at ..... [Not: "worth to no t e" ] This theorem was proved by l\Iilnor in 1976.
It is worth whi le discussing here this phenomenon.
[Or: worth while to discuss; "worth while" with ingforms is In ite ms 2(j, passive voice str uc tures re place sente nces wit h s ub ject .. IV. .. <J I
best avoided as it often leads to errors.] imperso nal constructions of otber languat:;es.
It is au idea worth carrying out. 2. Replacin g the structu re "we do something":
[Not : "worth while carrying out", nor: "worth to carry out"]
This identity is establis~ed ,by observing that .':...
After having finished proving (2), we will turn to .....
This difficulty is avord~d_' above. '   . .
[Not: "finis hed t o prove" ]
(2) needs handling with greater carc. When this is sub~tituted in (3), au analogous description of J(
is obtained. . .
One more case merits mentioning here.
In [7] he mentions having proved this for I not in S. Nothing is assumed concerning the expectati~n of X.
5. Present Participle in a separate clause (note that the subjects 3. Replacing the structure "we prove that X is":
of the main clanse and the subordinate clause must be the same):
We show that I satisfies (2), thus completing the analogy with .... .
M Ii5mayeasbeily said
shown to have ... ..
to be regular if ... ..
Restricting this to R, we can define .. ...
[Not: "Restricting ..... , the lemma follows". The lemma does This equation is known to hold for .. ...
not restrict !] 4. Replacing the construction "we give an object X a stru cture Y" :
The set A, being the union of two continua, is connected.
Note that E can be given a complex structure by .... .
6. Present Participle describing a noun: The let ter A is here given a bar to indicate t hat .... .
\Ve need only consider paths starting at O. 5. Repla cing the structure "we act on something":
We interpret f as a function with image having support in .....
We regard f as beillg defined on ..... Thi s ord er behaves well when 9 is act ed upon by an opera tor.
F can be thought of as .. ...
7. In expressions which can be rephrased using "where" or "since" :
So a ll the terms of (5) a re accounted for.
J is defined to cqual AI, the function I being as in (3). This case is met with in diffraction problems.
[= where f is ..... J III the phys ical context already referred to, K is .. .. _
This is a speci al case of (4), the space X here being B(K) .
Tile preceding observation, whcn looked at from a more D'eneral
We construct 3 maps of the form (5), each of them satisfying (8).
point of view, leads to .... . Co
..... , the limit being assumed to exi st for every x.
V'. 31
30
II Mr. !l ing "which will be (proved etc.),,: If ]( is ll OW lilly (fll ll p:,rL Sllbset of H, there exists .... .
[Any W il ld . I'V I' ! you li ke ; write "for all x", "for every x" if you
1klore st a ti ng the result to be provcd, we give .....
Th is i: a special case of convolutions to be introduced in Chapter 8. just J! II" ; , II I q ililiit ifi r r.]
Every m ';1." 11 1'(: ca ll \)u comp leted, so whenever it is convenient, we may
\V, co ncl ude with two simple lemmas to be lIsed mainly in .....
assum th i,l /Ill y give ll meas ure is complete.
QUANTIFIERS T hc r fJ i ~l a !i ubsequence such that .....
Tlt m'o cx i !ll!l an x with .... .
" l' hAt'
T l11 5 Imp les t at
I
all open subsets of U .
con alllS a 11 y wily
'tI G = 1. . . [O/: tll ere ex ists x, but: there is an x]
ll r I
f all transforms F of the form .....
I~e t B b e tI1e co ec Ion 0 all A such that .....
Th cr e a r c sets satisfying (2) but not (3).
T il r is ;t 1iu ique function f such that .....
Ea 11 J Ii s in zA for some A (at least one A/
/.' j.] cil' li!l ('d at a ll points of X . exac tl y O ll C A/ at most one A).
1111 Idl II I
0; fo r a ll m which have ..... ; for all other m; Not th at some of the Xu may be repeated.
fnl d l h uL it !ill ite ulllll ber of indices i F has 11 0 fi xed vecto r (no pole) in U. [Or: no pol es]
X cOIlt<1.ins a ll th e boundary except the origin. F has no limit poi nt in U (hence none in J() .
T he ill tegml is t a ken over all of X. Call a se t dense if its closure contains no nonempty open subset.
If no two members of A have an element in common, then .... ,
all extend to a neighbourhood of U.
all have their supports in U. No two of the spaces X, Y, and Z are isomorphic.
E , F <1.ud G are all zero <1.t x. It ca n be see n that no X has more than one inverse.
are all equal. III other words, for no real x does lim F,J x) exist.
[Note the inversion after the negat ive clause.]
' 1'1, 1' , f: ex is t fu ncti ons R, all of whose poles are in U, with .. .. . If there is no bounded functional such that .... .
1';,11 Ii ()f i.Ill! fo llowing 9 conditions implies all the others.
:;,11 1, .111 .,. ,'x is l.s iff a ll th e intervals Ar. have ..... .. .. . provided none of the SUillS is of the form .... .
Let Au be a sequence of positive integers none of which is one less than
1\ " I'VI'''Y 9 ill X (not iu X) there exists an N .... . a power of two.
1 11 11/ ' for all J <1.1ll1 g, for a ny two maps J ancIg; "every" If there is an f such that .... . , we put .. ... If there are (is) none, we
i:; fo llowed by a singular noun .]
define .....
'1'0 t: V'~I'Y J th re co rresponds <1. unique 9 such that .... .
N one ofthese are (is) possible.
Fvcr y illvari<l nt su bsp<lce of X is of the form .....
[Do lIot write : "Every s ubspace is llot of the form ..... " Both f and 9 are obtained by .... .
if you mean: "No subspace is of the form .. .. ."; [Or: f and 9 are both obtained]
"every" must be followed by an affirmative For both Gee and analytical categories, .....
statement.] C behaves covariantly with respect to maps of both X and G.
Thus f of. 0 at almost every point of X. We now apply (3) to both sides of (4).
Both (these/the) conditions are restrictions only au .. ...
Since A " = 0 for each TI, .... . [Each = every, considered separately]
[Note: "the" aft er "both"]
Each ter m ill this series is either itor~l ,~ ~ C lies on no segment both of whose endpoints are in J( .
F is ho unded on each bouuded set.
Two consecutive elements do not belong both to A
j:.IC" h of t il ese fo ur integrals is finite .
01' both to B .
T hese curves arise from ..... , ancI each consists bf .. ... Both its sides are convex . [01': Its sides are both co nvex.]
Tilere remain four intervals of length 1/16 each. Bane! C are positive numbers, not both O.
X ass umes values 0,1, ... ,9, each with probability 1/10. Choose points x in /11 and y in N, both close to z, and .....
P I , .. . ,Fa me each definecI in the interval [0, 1]. We now show how this method works ill 2 cases .
Tilose n d isjoint boxes are translates of each other . In both, C is .. ...
33
32
In either c;ese, it is clear that ..... [= In both cases] The gain up to and in ' lll dill h( til , n th trial is .....
Each f can be ex pres~('d ill either of the forms (1) and (~). The elements of th e third a lld fOllrth rows are in I .
[= in any of the two fOi"!;lS] [Note the pluraL]
TL(~ den~ity of X + Y is gi\"Cll by either of the two illte~r:ll ~. F has a zero of at leas t t.hird order a t x.
The t\\o da.sscs coiuciJe if X is cOlllpact. In tbat case we write C(X) for 3. Fractions:
either of tu em. Twothirds of its diameter is covered by .... .
Either f or !l must be bo u nded . Bu t: Twothirds of the gamblers are ruined _
Ld 11 and v be two distributions neither of which is ..... G is half the Sllm of the positive roots.
[Use "neither" WhCll there arc iwo alternatives.] [Note: Only "half" can be used with or without "of".]
This is true for n ei th er of the two functi ons. On the average, about half the list will be tested.
Neithel' statement is true. J contains an interval of half its length in which .... .
In neither case CUI f be smooth. F is greater by a half (a third).
[:\ote tllp. inversion after a negative cbuse. ]  '  The other pl a);er is haW(one third tas fast:
lIe proposes two coutiitions, but neither is satisfactory. We divide J in half.
All sides were increa.sed by the same proportion.
NUMBER, QUANTITY, SIZE About 4 0 percent of the energy is dissipated .
A positive percentage of summands occurs in all the k
1. Cardinal numbers:
parti tions.
A aud B are also Ffunct. ions, any two of A , B, and C being
independent. 4. Smaller (greater) than :
t1 I .. j 'tl I all entries zero except the kth which is one great er (less) than k.
18 lllll tlIlll ex WI 1 the last k entries zero much (substantially) greater than k .
n is no greater (smaller) than k.
This shows that there are no two points a and b such that .... . greater (less) than or equal to k.
There are three that the reader must remember. [= three of them] [Not : "greater or equal to"]
\\'e have defined A, B, and C, and the three sets satisfy .... . strictly less than k.
For the two maps defined in Section 3, .....
[;'The" if only two maps are defined there.] All points at a distance less than K from A satisfy (2) .
R is conce ntrated at the n points Xl, . .. , Xu defined above. We thus obtain a graph of no more than kedges.
for at least (at most)' one k; with norm at least equal to 2 TI11S I
. se t Ila.s fewer elements than f( has .
no fewer than twenty elem ents.
Tbere are at most 2 such Tin (0,1) .
There is a unique map satisfying (4). F can have no jum ps exc eeding 1/4.
(~) !la.s a unique solution g for each f The degree of P exceeds that of Q.
But: (4) has the unique solution 9 = ABf find the density of the smaller of X and Y .
(n has one and only one solution. The smaller of the two satisfies ... ..
Precisely T of the intervals are closed. F is dominated (bounded/estimated/majorized) by .....
In Example 3 only one of the Xj is positive. 5. How much smaller (greater):
If p = 0 then there are an ad itional m arcs. 25 is 3 greater than 22. 22 is 3 less th an 25.
2. Ordinal numbers: Let an be a sequence of positive integers none of which IS one less
The first two are simpler than the thild . than a power of two.
Let Si be the first of the remaining Sj . The degree of P exceeds that of Q by at least 2.
The nth trial is the last. f is grea ter by a half (a third).
X 1 appears at the (k + 1 )th place. C is less t h a n a third of the distance between .....
/.........
t. _(:~
35
34
Within J, the functiail f varies (ascillates) 9. Man y, few, a nUl11 be r of:
by less t hali l. a large number of illustrations.
The upper anel lawer limits af f differ by at most l. T h re are only a finite number of f with Lf = l.
\Ve thus have iu A one element too many. [N te the a small number of exceptians.
O n applying this argument k more times, we abtain ... .. plural.] an infinite number of sets .....
T his met had is rece ntly less and less used. a negligible number of points with .....
A s uccess ian af more and more refined discrete mod els. Ind c is th e numb e r of times that c winds around O.
6. How many tim es as great: \Ve give a numb cl' of results concerning ..... [= same]
twi ce (t en timeslone third) as long as; half as big as This may happeu in a number of cases.
T he langes t edge is at mast 10 times as lang as the shartest ane. They carrespond to the values of a countable number of invariants.
A has twic e as m a ny elements as B has. .. ... far all n except a finite number (for all but finitely many n).
.J mllt.;tiIl S a su binterval of half its leng th ill which ..... Q cantains all but a countable number of the t.
1\ 11 :\.'; f')IIl' lillies the rad ius of B. There are only countably many elements fJ af Q with dam fJ = S.
Till' d iall ll'lcr of L is 11k tim es (twice) that of M.
The thearem is fairly genera!. Th ere are, however, numerous
r. MIJi Lip l : exceptions.
T in; kfold illtegratia ll by parts shows that .. ... A variety of other characteristic functians can be constructed iu this
F cavers Ai twofold. way.
AI is oouncbl by a Illultiple of t (;c constant tillles t). There arc few p.xceptians t.o this rlll(, . [= not lllany]
This distance is less than a constant mt~l tiple of d. Few of varia liS existing proofs are coust.rllctivc.
G acts 011 H as a multiple, say n, of V. He accounts for all the majar achievements in topology
over the last few years.
n Mos t, I as t, grea test, smallest: The generally accepted point of view in tuis domain af
" It ;l ~; tit mos t (the fewest) points when .... . science seems to be changing every few years .
I II 1I11 "d, r :l.'c. it turns out that .. ... There are a few exceptions to this rule. [= some]
"'I wit, Ill' t.1t!! t.heorems presellted here are original. MallY interesting examples are knawn. vVe now describ e
T it " fI' Ol)r:: for tit m os t part , o.nly sketched.
a l l!, a few of these.
Mwd. pl' (J !) lI bl y,Lt is lIlet had will prove useful in .. ... Only a few of those results have been published befare.
\Vhitt Ill os t ill terest us is whet her ..... Quite a few of them are naw widely used.
[= A considerable number]
T Lte leas t such constant is called the norm of f
This is the least useful of the faur theorems. 10. Equ ality, difference:
The method described abave seems to be the least camplex. A equals B 01' A is equal to B [Not: "il. is equal B"]
T hat is the least one can expect. The Laplacian af 9 is 4r > O. Then T is about kn.
Tue elements of A are comparatively big, but least in nu mber. The inverse af FG is GF. The norms af f and 9 coincide.
Nane of those proofs is easy, and John 's least of all.
T he best estimator is a linear combinatian U such that
__Y' ll a:'~1C s~n.:e number of z~ros al151_poles ~n U.
var U is smallest possible. F and G differ by a linea r term (by a scale factar) .
T he expected waiting time is smallest if ..... The differen tial af J is different from O.
L is the smallest number such that ..... Each memher of G other than the identity mapping
F has the smallest norm amal1g all f such that ..... is .....
[( is th e largest of th e functians which occur in (3). F is nat id entically O.
T here exists a smallest algebra with this praperty. Let a, band c be distinct complex numbers.
Find the second largest clement in the list L. Each w is pz far precisely Tn distinct values of ::.
r.:;r
"'~.K
36 37
functiolls which are eq,I;11 :l.e. ,HC indistinguish:Lble as felr a.s We may replace A and B by whicheve r is the larger of the two.
illtegra tion is concerned. [Not : "the two ones"]
This inequality applies to cond itio nal expectations as well as [0
11. Numbering: ordinary ones.
Exercises :2 to 5 furuish l,tbcr applic;1tions of this tt>cllli:'lIW.
One has to examine the equ at ions (4) . If these ha\'e no solutions
lAma.: Exercises :2 th;'ough 5]
then ..... '
ill the third and fourth ro\\'s the deri\ati,,'cs \lp to order k
D yields operators D+ and D. These are formal adjoillts of each
from lin e 16 onwards the oddnumbered terms
other. .
in Jines Hi10 This gives rise to the maps F i . All the other maps are suspensions of
the nexttobst CO!Ulllll
these.
the la.st par;1graph but one of the pre\'ious proof
F is the sum of A, B, C and D. The last two of these are zero.
~t . ~ . 111 in the (i,j) entry <lnd .zero (lsewhcrc
TI Ie 111<l flX W I L I:1! I entlws Both f a nd' g;:'lfe connected, but the latteris in addition compact.
. '
zero ex cept t'ur,\ '  ). at (\'
' .)')
[The latter = the second of two objects]
Tl' .
liS IS
Iquoted
hinted in Sectio!!s 1 ;1nd :2.
ilt
on page 3G of [.1].
Doth AF and BF were first co ns idered by 13(ln<lch, but onlv the for
mer is referred to as the Banach map, the latter bei ng "called th e
Hausdorff map. '
HOW TO AVOID REPETITI ON \\'e have thus proved Theorem s 1 and 2, the latt e r wit ho n t using .. ...
1. Repetition of nouns : Si nce the vectors C i are orthogonal to th is last space, .....
As a consequencc of this last result, .....
Note that the continuity of f implies that of g.
Let us consider sets of the type (1), (2), (3) and (4) .
The passage from Riemann's theory to that of Lebesgue is .. .. .
These last two are called .... .
The diameter of F is about twice that of C ,
His method is similar to that used in our previous pap er. We shall now describe a general situation in which the lastmentioned
The nature of this singularity is the same as that which f has at functionals occur naturally.
x = O. 2, Repetition of adjectives. adverbs or phrases like "x is .... ,.. :
Our results do 'Ilot follow from those obtained by L<LX ,
ff f and g are mcasurable functions, then so are f + 9 and f . g.
Olle can check that the metric on T is the one wc have jus t described.
The union of mea.surable sets is a measurable set; so is thc complement
It follo\\'s that 5 is the union of two disks. Lct D be the one that
of every measurab le set.
contains .... . Tue group C is compact and so is its image under f.
The cases p = 1 and p = 2 will be the ones of interes t to us.
It is of the same fundamental importance in analysis as is the
We prow a uniC[ueness result, similar to those of the preceding section .
construction of .....
Each of the functions on the right of (2) is one
F is bounded but is not necessarily so after division by C.
to wuich .....
F has many points of continu ity. Suppose x is one , Show that there are many such Y,
In addition to a contribution to WI, there may be one There is only one such series for each y .
to W 2 . Such an h is obtained by .....
\.Ve !lOW IHOV<! t.hat the constant pq cannot be replaced by a smaller 3. Repe tition of verbs:
one.
Consider the differences between these int egrals anel the A geodesic which meets blvI does so either transversally o r .....
corresponding ones with f in place of g, Th is wi ll ho ld fo r x > 0 if it does for x = O.
On account of the estimate (2) a nd s imilar ones which call be ..... T he iu t gritl migh t not converge, but it does so after .... .
The geodesics (4) are the only ones that realize the distance between No te th a t w have not required that ..... , and we shall not do so ex 'c pt
their endpoints . wli '11 exp licitly stated.
~
,,~
''i'
30
38
\Ve will show below that the wave equation call be put in thi s form, There has since been little systematic work Oil .... .
as can many other systems of cqu<1.tions. " It has recently been pointed out by Fix that .... .
The elements of L are not ill 5, as they are in the proof of ..... It is sometim es difficult to .....
'I . I ~ petition of whole sentences: This usually implies further conclusions about f.
It often does not matter whether .. ...
The same is true for j in place of g.
The same being true for j, we can ..... [= Since the same ..... ] Adverbs like "also", "therefore", "thus":
The same holds for (applies to) the adjoint map . Our presentatiou is ther efo re organized ill such a way that .... .
\Ve shall assume that this is the case. The sum in (2), though form ally infinite, is therefore actually finite .
Such was the case in (2) . Oue must therefore also introduce the class of ... ..
The L2 theory has more symmetry than is the cas e C is connected and is therefore not the union of ... ..
in L1. These properties , wit h the exception of (1), also hold
Then ei ther ..... or ..... In the latter (former) case , ... .. for t.
1.'(1 1 k this is no longer bue. \Ve will also leave to the reader th e verification that ... ..
'f 1,iB is Hot tru e of (2) . It will thus be sufficient to prove that .... .
This is not so ill other queuing processes. (2) implies (3), since one would otherwise obtain J,; = O.
If this is so, we may add .... . The order of several topics has accordingly been changed .
If fi ELand if F= h + ... + fn then FE H, and eve ry
Emphatic adverbs (clearly, obviously, etc.):
F is so obtained.
It would clearly have been sufficient to assume that .....
We would like to ... .. If U is open, this can be done.
F is clearly not au Iset.
Ou 5 , this gives the ordinary topology of the plan e.
Its restriction to N is obviously just f.
N()I.(~ t hat this is not equivalent to ... ..
This case must of course be excluded.
INote t he differeuce between " this:' and "it" : you. say "it i.s :lOt
<'<I \I iva.I nt to" if you are refernng to some olJject exphcl tly
The theorem evidently also holds if x = O.
(1 1i' lI l, io Ii CcI ill lhe preceding seutence.] The crucial assumption is that the past history in no
way infl uences .....
I" I",. t.Il1 ' s t. a t. ed (rl'sired/cl a imed) properties.
\Ve did not really have to use the existence of T.
The problem is to decide whether (2) rea lly follows
WORD ORDER
from (1).
General r emarks: The normal order is: subject + verb + d irect ohject + ,,, h 'erbs ill The proof is 110W easily completed .
the order mannerplac et illle. The max imum is actually attained at some point of AI.
Adverbial cla uses Cnn also be pbceJ at the beginning of a sentence, and SOllie adverbs
\Ve then actually have ..... [= \Ve have even more]
a iways come betwee n subject anJ verb. Subject almost always precedes ve"rb, except
At present we will merely show that .....
in questio ns and some negat ive clauses.
A stronger result is in fact true.
1. ADVERBS   
Throughout integration theOl")" one inevitably encounters 00 .
1,1. B lween subject and verb. but after "be"; in compound tenses after
nut H ltself call equallY well be a menlDer or S.      
firs l :w xiliary lb. After verbmost adverbs of manner:
I I 'qu ell yadverbs: \Ve conclude similarly that .... .
Thi s has a lr eady been proved in Sectio n 8. Oue sees immediately that .... .
Th is res ult will now be deri ved computationally. M uch relevant information can be obtained directly from (3) .
Every measurable subset of X is again a measure space. This difficulty disappears entirely if .....
Vie first prove a reduced form of the theorem . This method was used implici t ly ill random walks.
r;r
~~~
40 41
Ie. After an object if it is sh ort: ?b. At the end (normal position):
\ \<.: will pnwe \.lIe t ilt:(lrl' ll! din~ctly widll'llt \!.,ing the lclllllla. The n.verages of Fll become small ill small neighbourhoods of I.
iJul: \\'e will prm'(' din'ctly a tlieorcm st:1:ing t!\:1t .....
2e. Between subject and verb, but afte r fi rst auxiliaryonly sh ort claus es:
This is trl\e for evcry ~Cql!i"llC t ~ thllt ~!Jril!k..:; to J: lIicely.
Denne F!J an:llo::;ollsly as lLt~ lil:lit of .. ... The observed values of X will on the a verage cluster around .. ...
(2) deline's g 1II1aIllbig\!Oll~ly [or e\Try g'. This could in principle imply an n.dvantage .
f or simplicity, we will for the time being a ccept as F oniy C? milps .
ld . At the beginningadverbs referrin& to the whole sentence:
Accordingly we are in effec t dealing with .. ...
Incidentally, we h:1\'c 110\\' construCtcd . ... .
Th e k nowledge of f is at best equivalent to ... ..
Actuallv. Theorem :3 "i\'CS lllore. llamely .... .
Finally,' en
shows (h a'~ j =!l. [:\'at: "At bst"]
Ncverl he kss, it tur ns t)ut that :.. .. ~~                 
The stronger res ult is in fact true.
It is ill all respects similar to matrix mu ltiplicatioll .
Nex t, let V Lc the \'('ct()[ Sp:1CC of .... . 2d. Between verb and object if the latter is long:
T'.Iore precisely, Q consists of .... . It suffices for our purposes to assume .....
Explicitly (Intuitively), this means that .... . To n. given density on the line there corresponds on the circl e the
Needl ess to say, the bounded ness of f was assumed only density given by .. ...
for simplicity.
Accord ingly, either f is asymptotically dense or ..... 3. INVERSION AND OT HER PECULIARITIES
Ie. In fro nt of adjectivesadverbs describing them: 3a. Adject ive or past partici ple after a noun:
a slowly varying function Lct Y be the complex X witb the origin r emoved.
prohabilistically significant problems T heorems I and 2 combined give a theorem .....
a method better suit ed for deal ing with ..... We uow show thn.t G is in the symbol cln.ss indicated.
F and G arc similarly obtained from H. We conclude by the pn.rt of the theorem already proved that .....
F has a rectangularly shaped graph. The bilinear form so defined extends to ... ..
Threequarters of this aren. is covered by subsequently Then for A sufficiently small we hn.ve .... .
chosen cubes. [Note the singular. ] 13y queue length we mean the number of customers present including
the,customer being served.
If. "on ly"
The description is the same with the roles of A and [J reverse d .
\Vc need t lj(~ ()p(~nness only to provc the foll ow ing.
It reduccs to the statement that only for tbe distributio n F do th e 3b. Direct object or adjectiva l clause placed fal'ther than usual wh en
m;lp~ Fi satisfy (2). [Note the inversion.] they are long:
III thi:, cbapter we will be concerned only with ..... We must add to the right side of (3) the probability that .. .. .
In (3) the Xj assume the values 0 aile! 1 on ly. This is equivalent to defining in tbe zplane a density with ... ..
If (iii) is required for finit e unions ollly, the n ..... Denote for the moment by f the element sat isfying .. .. .
F is the r es triction to D of the unique linear Dlap .... .
We Ilced oilly require (5) to hold fo r b \Il1decl sels.
Tbe probabi li ty at birtb of a. iifetime exceeding t is n.t most ... ..
The prouf of (2 ) is simibr , n.ud will o lll y be illdicated briefly.
To pro\'c (3). it only remains to ver ify ..... 3e. In version in so me negat ive cl auses:
\Ve do not assu me that ... .. , nor do we n.ssnme n. priori that .... .
2. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES
N e ithel' is the problem simplified by assuming f = g.
2a . At the beginning: The "if" part now fo llows from (3), since at no point can S exceed
In testing the character of .. ... , it is sO II It'lilllt':1 difli ' ult to ..... tIte large r o f X n.nd Y.
For n = 1,2, . . . , consider a famil y o f .... Tile fa c t th a t for no X does Fx coutain y impli~s that .... .
/:;r
';:>~;
42 43
F(x) = G(x) for all x E X.
III case does the absence of a reference imply any cbim to
11 0
Let F be a nontrivial continuous lillear operator in V.
originali ty 011 my part.
2. Com ma required:
3d . In ve rsionother examples:
The proof of (3) depends on the notion of !Ifspace, which has already
F is compact a nd so is G. been used in [4].
If f, 9 arc measurable. then so are f + 9 and f . g . We will use the map H, which bas all the properties required .
o 1
n y or
f  1

Ican one expect to obtain .....
does that limit exist.
There is only one such f, and (4) defines a map from .....
In fact, we can do even better.
3e. Adj ective in front of "be" for emphasis: In this sect ion, however, we will not use it explicitly.
By far the most important is the case where ..... Moreover, F is countably additive.
wlu ch more subtle are the following results of John. Fiualiy, (d) and ( e) are consequences of ( 4).
l';sse ll t ia l to th e proof are certain topological properti es of III. Nevertheless, he succeeded in proving that .... .
Conversely, suppose that .....
f .)l liJj 'c t o n lin g soo ner than in some other languages: Consequently, (2) takes the form ... ..
/':q lt nlity occ urs ill (1) iff f is cons tant. In particular, f also satisfies (1) .
Til n a tural ques tion arises whet llCr it is possible to ..... Guidance is also given, whenever necessary or helpful on further
III the foll owing app li cations use will be made of .... . reading. '
Recently proofs have been cOllstructed which use .... . This observation, when looked at from a more general point of view
3g. Incomplete clause at the beginning or end of a sentence: leads to ... .. '
Put differently, the moments of arrival of the lucky customers con It follows that f, being COllvex, cannot satisfy (3) .
st itute a rellcwal process. If e = 1, which we may assume, then .....
Ttnthet than discuss tllis in full generality, le t us look at ..... \Ve can assume, by decreasing k if necessary, that .....
I L is impo rtant that the tails of F and G are of comparable magnitude, Then (5) shows, by Fubini's theorem , that .....
" Ht:lt lII e nt 1l1 ade more precise by the following inequalities . Put this way, the question is not precise enough.
Being open, V is a union of disjoint boxes.
WHERE TO INSERT A COMMA This is a special case of (4), the space X here being IJ(K) .
C:C1Lc,.,,1 r uks: Do no t overuse com masEnglish usage requires th em less often than  In [2], X is assumed to be compact.
in many other languages. Do not use commas around a clause th~t defines (li for all x, G(x) is convex .
mits, makes more precise ) some part of a sentence. Put commas before and after [Comma between two symbols.]
nond efining clauses (i .e. on es which can be left out without damage to the sense) . In the context already referred to, K is the complex field.
Put a comma where its lack Illay lead to ambiguity, e.g. betwee n two sy mbo ls. [Comma to avoid ambiguity.]
l. Comma not required : 3. Comma optional:
We s llall now prove that f is proper. By Theorem 2, there exists an h such that .....
The fact that f has radi2..1 limits was pro"ecl in [4J.
For z near 0, \~e have .....
It is reasona ble to ask wllether this Ilolds for 9 = 1.  
AI is til e se t of all maps which take values in V. If /; is sm~oth,theIl M is compact.
Th ere is a polynomial P such that P f = g. Since h is smooth, A1 is compact.
T he clement give n by (3) is of the form (5). It is possible to u~e (4) here, but it seems preferable to .....
Let 1\1 be tile manifold to whose boundary f maps IC This gives (3)! because (since) we may assume .....
Tak an element all of whose powers are in S.
Int egrating by parts, we obtain .....
F is called proper if G is dense .
To do this! put ..... 
There exists a D such that DxyH wuellever HxyG.
45
44
X, Y, nlJd L nrc compact. Sillce f = 0 thCll M is closcd ; Si nce f = 0, M is closed
X = :1;'G. \Ilien! F is defilled by ... .. [Or: Since /=0, wc conclude t hat M is cl osed ]
.. ... as it is shown in Sec. 2...,... ..... , as is shown ill Sec. 2
Thus (ll~!lr e /Thl!rdor e }, we itn\"(' .... .
J:: ', u)' function being an e leme nt of X is co nvex
+ [,'cry fUllction which is an element of X is convex
SOME TYPI CAL ERROR S S.,ttillg 11 =]/, the equation can be .. .. .
+ Se tting n = p, we can ... .. [Because we seL]
L Spelling errors:
3. Wrong word used:
Spelling; should be cOIJ.ji~tellt. eiilIl!r Dritisu or .\lllcriciln t hrougliouL:
\Ve now gi ve few examples [= not many]
[Jr.: colom, llci,~h1Jo11r. celltre, fibre. labelled, I'1()ddlillg ....... vVe now give a few examples [= some]
Amer'.: co lor , llei:.,.;llboL ccnter , fiber, labe led, tllodelillg SUlllming (2) and (3) by sides...,... Summi ng (2) and (3)
;lll lluir.l'd appronc!l ~ a unified npproilch In the first paragraph...,... In the first section
a ;\ f s \:ch thnt ~ ;lll .\I such that _ ... .. , \Wich_Rro\,CS gur_thesi!? _______
[U~,! "a" or " <lU" a ccording to rrollllnciation .] ...,... ..... , \\!Jich proves our assertion (concl usion/sta te me nt}
[Thesis = dissertation]
2. Grammatical errors: For n big enough...,... For 11 la rge enough
Let f denotes ....... Let f denote To this ;"tim ....... To this end
Mos t. of them is ~ i\ Jos t of them are At first, note that v+ Firs t, note that
There is ;t finite numbe r of...,... There are a finite number of At last, wc obtain v+ Finally, we obtain
In 1961 La...>: has slImvll ...,... III 19G4 La...x showed For every two elements...,... For any two elements
[Usc the past tense if a date is givell.] .. ... , what comp letes the proof...,... ..... , wbich completes the proof
The Taylor 's fo rmuh ...,... Taylor's formula [Or: the Taylor formu la] ...... what is impossible v+ ..... , which is impossible
The sertion 1 ; Sect ion 1 4 . Wrong wo rd order:
Such lllilp exists ....... Such a map exists [But: for every such mar] The described above condition ; The condition described above
In the C;loSe ,\1 is compact ...,... In case AI is compact
[Or: In the case where AI is compact] The both conditions...,... Botb conditions, Both the conditions
Its both sides...,... Both its sides
In case of smooth norms""'" III the case of smooth llorms
We are ill the position to prove""'" \Ve are in a position to prove The three first rows...,... The first three rows
'. The two following sets...,... The followin g two se Ls
F i ~ ,'q ual G ....... F is equal to G [Or: F cquals G]
F is grl';ller or eqllal to G ...,... F is greater thall or equal to G This map we denote by f + We denote tbis m a p by f
Continuous in t.he point x ...,... Continuous at x 5. Other exa m ples :
Disjoint with B ...,... D isjoin t from B W(! have (obtain} that [J is .... .
Eqllivalent with B ...,... Equivalent to B ....... We sec (conclllcie/cleullce/fimi/ infer} that [J is .... .
Indcpendent on B v+ Independent of B \Ve arc done + The proof is completc,
[But: depending on B]
Similar as B ...,... Similar to B
Simi larly to Sec. 2
As (J ust as} in Sec. 2
Similarly as in Sec. 2 v+ As is the case in Sec. 2
In m uch the same way as
in Sec. 2
In the end of Sec. 2 ...,... At the end of Sec. 2
On Fig . 3 v+ In Fig. 3
1'(
4G
INDEX
It, I,l l, 2:) , 1\6 generality, 10 print, 8
1\(cHdi nr, ly , 1:1 greater, :.15 same, IG, 40
,\f \ 1I .d ly , I V, 4 1 say, 11
half, :.15
adject i v, I clauses 9 have , 2G second largest, :.I(j
Ildverb i. 1 cla us es : 42 "have that", 15. 16, .\7 section, 4, 47
ad ve rbs , ,to hence, 15, 4G shortcu (s, 20
a fe w, :.1 7, 47 shortly, 7
a ll, 32 if necessary, 11 similar, 16, 46
a lso , 41 imper:ttive, Hi similarly, 46
a nu m be r of, 37, 46 in a position, 17, 45
since, 15, 47
a ny , ::13 independent of, 8, 4G
sm:tller, 35
as , 15 , 18 , 2 7 induct ion , loI smallest possible, :l(j
.s ic., :JO , H in fact, 13 so is, 10, 39
III [i,,;l, 4 7 infinitive, 10, 17, '27, 20
SOlne, 33
III I. LS ( , <1 2, 4 7 introduction, 4 succeed, 30
:tv id , :.10 inversion, 9, 10, :.1:.1, 42, 43
such , :.19 , 46
it, Itl, 19, 28, 40 such that, 8
b eca use , 15 it follows that, 15
being, g, 30, 47 th<1.t, 38
both, :13, 47 largest, :.16 th e, 24
brackets, 8 last but one, :.18 the one, :.Itl
lat ter, :.19, 40 th e reforc~ , 1;;, 11, '1<i
cardin:tl numbers, :J.1 lC <lSt , :H, :3(j
case , 40, 46 th e re is, :\:l
less, :.IS t hese , :j<J
co nl ra d ic ti o n, 11, Hl let, 46 thesis, 18, 20, ,17
d 'n o te , 7 likely, 28 the two, :H , :J9
d e pe nd in g o n , tl matrices, :l8 this, 40
d ill('l' , :Hi , 'J7 more , :.I(j th is 1<1.5t, :lV
c1i njo in t fro lll , 4G mos t, :.14, :.Ib, 46 those, :li'!
d is t in c t , :)7 multiple, :.16 thus, 15,41,46
each, ::\2 t o be defi ned, 9, 28
need, 17, 29
eithe r , 34 too, 27
neither, 9, :.14, 4:.1
en<1.b le, 29 t o thi s end, H, 47
nex ttolast, :.18
en o ug h, tl, 27 twice as long iIS , 36
no, :.1:.1
eq ua l, 37, 46 t wothirds , 35
no greater, 35
e rro rs , 46 typefaces, 8
none, :.13
every , 'J2 , 4 7 nor, 9, 10, 43 ullion, 25
f,'w , :l7, 4 7 number in g, 26 , 38 unique, 24, 34
f,\V,;r, :,5 unlike ly , 28
[i ,, :t lly. '12 , 47
"obtain that" ~15 16, 4,
of, 25, 26, 29' .
u pTo , :35 , :>8      
fin is h , :50 one, 23, 38 what, 15, 18, 47
k fo ld , :J6 only, 29, 42 w hi ch, 15, Hi , 47
fo llowin g, 13, 19, 20, 47 ordinal numb e rs, 25, 34, 38 with,2 6
fo r, 11, 2tl wOTth,30
forn1e r , 39, 40 p aragraph, 4, 47
worth while, :10
for s h o rt, 7 participles, 30
fr a ctions , :.15 percent, 35
48
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TE.:\CHRS
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ISBN 8385694021