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How to write a research proposal?

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Supyan Hussin


Unversiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Scan this code


http://padlet.com/supyanhussin1/ukmresearchproposal

Dr Supyan Hussin UKM


DSH-UKM-2007
PRE-REQUISTES

Dr Supyan Hussin UKM


DSH-UKM-2007
Stages of proposal writing

Pre-writing
stage Planning, thinking

Writing
stage Drafting, revising, proofreading

Post-writing
stage Assessment

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
Writing is a process
Start with topic identification
Brainstorming, Freewriting
Stage 1
1st draft: content
Proofreading: Language &
Revise
Mechanic of writing
Final copy 2nd draft

Stage 4 Stage 2

Revision: content &


organization
Revision: content & 3rd draft
organization Stage 3
4th draft

Dr Supyan Hussin UKM


DSH-UKM-2007
Q1. What do we need to write a
research proposal? Pre-writing
stage
I. Ideas
II. Tools
III. Writing Skills
IV. Language competency

A. I & II
B. I, II, & III
C. II & III
D. All the above
http://padlet.com/supyanhussin1/q1

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
A Guide, Sifu
Yes, we need.

Writing skills Ideas


Rhetoric approaches, Theories, Past studies,
organization, logical Research Methodology,
argument, cohesion, style, Arguments
diction
Writing a proposal

Language Competency Tools


Syntax, Semantic, Grammar, Computer: Word processing,
Punctuations, spell checker, grammar
checker, internet, graphic
editor, SPSS, End-Note

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
PLANNING

Dr Supyan Hussin UKM


DSH-UKM-2007
Why research?
Own interest
Requirement
Future goals in life
Recommendation by past studies
By chance, incidentally

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
Where and how do we
start? Pre-writing
stage
Identify a problem to be solved/studied, observe
a phenomenon
Read journals, proceedings, theses (literature
review)
Attend conferences
Under research methodology
How much to read? For BA, MA, PhD.
How old are the sources?
How long to read?
Why journals, proceedings, theses?
DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
Good problems
Researchable can be investigated through data
collection and analysis
Replicable can be carried out again
Have theoretical or practical significance
contributes to problem solving
Good for a researcher: current level of research
skill, available resources, time and other
restrictions

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
DSH-UKM-2004
Research: theory
Pre-writing
stage

Grounded theory
Action research
Theory Focus groups
building:m Case-based research
eaning Survey
Feasible region Experiment

Theory testing: measurement

Dr Supyan Hussin UKM


DSH-UKM-2007
Research by Purposes
Pre-writing
stage
Basic/Fundamental/Theoretical: refine/develop
theory
Applied research: apply and test a given theory and
its evaluation in solving educational problems
Evaluation research: facilitate decision making
R & D: develop effective products
Action research: solve problems

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
DSH-UKM-2004
Research by Methods
Pre-writing
stage
Historical research
Policy research
Descriptive research
Correlation research
Causal-comparative and Experimental

Knapper and Cropley (1991)


DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
DSH-UKM-2004
Research Methodology
Pre-writing
stage
MUST KNOW & MASTER COMMON TERMS
Type of research Sample population
Research problem Instrumentation
Theoretical framework Data collection
Conceptual framework Data analysis
Research design Data interpretation
Sample population

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
Quantitative and Qualitative
Key concepts Pre-writing
stage
MUST KNOW & MASTER COMMON TERMS

Variable
Parametric test
Operationalize
Non-Parametric test
Reliability
Chi-Square
Validity
Regression
Hypothesis
ANOVA
Statistical significant
T-test
Replication
Cronbach Alpha
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
DSH-UKM-2007
EXPERTS IN RES. METHODOLOGY
Big names
Pre-writing
stage
Emile Durkheim
Lee Cronbach
L Guttman
Gene Gass
Creswell
Patton
Mariam

Dr Supyan Hussin UKM


DSH-UKM-2007
Overview of Research Process
Literature Problems Theoretical
review framework

Research Q Conceptual
Or Hypothesis framework

Instruments

Data analysis

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
WRITING THE PROPOSAL

Dr Supyan Hussin UKM


DSH-UKM-2007
Format and length
Refer to your faculty, institution
Format
Chapter-based (Chapters 1, 2, and 3)
Section-based

Variation in length
30-60 pages, chapter-based
10-20 pages, section-based

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
Table of contents
1. Introduction
2. Background of the research (including literature
review)
3. Problem statement
4. Research Objectives
5. Research Questions/Hypothesis
6. Theoretical framework
7. Conceptual framework

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
Table of contents
8. Methodology
8.1 Research Design
8.2 Sample of population
8.3 Instruments
8.4 Validity and reliability
8.5 Data collection/Research procedures
8.6 Data analysis
9. Operational Definitions
10.References
DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
A RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Topic

name
matric no.
Center/school/faculty

Dr Supyan Hussin UKM


DSH-UKM-2007
1. INTRODUCTION 1

Provide a general scenario that will lead to


the problem that you want to study
Use deductive approach in social sciences,
and inductive approach in science and
technologies
General
to
Inductive Specific Specific
reasoning Deductive
to
reasoning
General

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
2. BAKGROUND OF
THE RESEARCH 2

Narrow your focus from a general scenario


to a specific scenario that will lead to the
problem
Present a synthesis of your literature review
Tell what has not been covered (gap) in the
past studies to justify the reason for you to
carry out this study

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
2

Review of Literature
Why?
Review what other people have done or are doing and what have
not been done
Avoid reinventing the wheels
Relate to your research
What?
Primary sources, secondary sources
Where?
Library, internet, personal collections, institutions
How much to be done?
5-10 years literature review

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
DSH-UKM-2004
Source of references 2

Credible
Journals, books, reports, proceedings, thesis
Papers presented at conferences

Dissertations, Ph.D., M.A.

Less credible
Magazines, newsletter, newspapers, Wikipedia

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
DSH-UKM-2004
How to find references? 2

Internet
Online journals, proceedings
Online papers

Journals
Specific discipline journals
Local

Abroad

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
DSH-UKM-2004
Lit. review processes 2

Selecting pick and choose the literature; well-


known, leading figures
Analyzing what is the best for your research
reference
Synthesizing extract and put things together
Re-conceptualizing come out with conclusions,
framework, plan, review research topic and
interest, and narrow your focus
Lit. review is not a summary of each past study,
but an assessment, critical review of past studies
DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
DSH-UKM-2004
Lit. review is not a summary of each past study, but an
assessment, critical review of past studies

Krashen (1987) Ahmad (2005) reported in


conducted a study his study
on.

Long (1990) carried out Supyan (2013) studied a


a study that involved new teaching practice at
359 students
.
Use: Themes, sub-themes, topics, sub-topics, must refer to your
conceptual framework (the variables that you include in your study)
DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
2

Study the lit. review, past studies within the


journal articles
Examine the theoretical framework used in the
studies
Look for instruments used, if any
Notice how data were collected and analyzed
Record the findings reported in the articles
Keep all references (accuracy)

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
DSH-UKM-2004
2

Time line of the literature


Theories, ideas, findings are developmental
Follow the chorological order

1995 2005 Reasonable Recommended 2015 2025

Old, outdated, obsolete Sustainable

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
3. PROBLEM STATEMENT 3

Explain the problem and the reason for you


to do this research
Start with the summary of the past studies
and indicate the gap in the review to
justify the need to carry out your research

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
4. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 4

List your ROs


Usually the number of ROs is between 2-4
Use inquiry-based action in doing the
research
OK - investigate, determine, identify
Not OK demo, suggest, develop

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
5. RESEARCH QUESTIONS/
HYPOTHESIS 5

List your RQs (and/or hypotheses)


Each RQ must carry they words, concepts,
variables that are to be studied
The RQs must in line with the ROs
Null hypothesis (Ho) vs Research
Hypothesis (H1)

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
5

Research questions
What?
How?

Why?

To what extent/degree?

In what way?

Is there any relationship?

Undergraduate vs Post-graduate
DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
DSH-UKM-2004
6. THEORETICAL
FRAMEWORK 6

Choose relevant theories, 2-4


Present the basic understanding of the
theories and their key elements
Discuss how the selected theories are
related to your study
Optional: draw a diagram to show the
relationship between or among the key
elements in each theory
DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
6

Theories Models
Education
Psychology
Language
Politics
Engineering
Science
Medicine

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
7. CONCEPTUAL
FRAMEWORK 7

CF guides a research to carry out the research


within certain parameters
It focuses on specific elements or components,
concepts, or constructs of theory(ies)/model(s)
It is represented in a visual form (diagram) that
shows the relationship among the components (IV
and DV). Explain each key words and show they
are inter-related briefly

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
e.g., Theoretical Framework 7

Theoretical Framework
Constructivism Defined
Discovery Learning
Meaningful Learning
Reading Defined
Skills & Strategies
Towards Interactive Reading
On the WWW, Web 2.0
The Hypertext Environment

Past Studies

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
e.g., Conceptual Framework 7

Hyperlink
Approaches to (sub text)
Reading
(bottom-up, text 1
Hypertext
COMPREHENSION
top-down, (main text) text 2
interactive) text 3
text nth
Constructivism

Dr Supyan Hussin UKM


DSH-UKM-2007
8. METHODOLOGY 8.1

8.1 Research Design


Indicate if the research is qualitative or
qualitative or mixed method
Show a diagram of research design
framework
Support statements with views from
experts

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
8.2

8.2 Sample
Discuss how and why you select the respondents;
how many respondents
Random: independent, equal chance of being
selected
Purposive, convenient sampling
Stratified: identified subgroups inn the population
Cluster: randomly selected groups, not individuals
Systematic: Individuals selected - Kth name from a
list divided by the number of subjects desired for the
sample (random)
Support with experts views

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
8.2

Size
Quantitative vs qualitative
The larger sample, the less variation, the more
accurate, the more representative
General guideline: 30% of the population. 10% of
the sample for qualitative
Sampling bias
Volunteers and available groups
Administrative reason, convenient reasons (avoid)

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
DSH-UKM-2004
METHODOLOGY 8.3

8.3 Instruments
Survey questionnaire
Interview questions
Observation checklist
Field note
Log book, journal entries
Tests

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
Descriptive research
Experimental research

8.3

Survey questionnaire
Adopt what is available
Tested, validated
Adapt
Needs to test for reliability and validity
Construct a new one based on specific needs
Validity: content, construct, concurrent, predictive
Reliability: test-retest, equivalent-forms, split-half,
rationale equivalence, scorer/rater

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
DSH-UKM-2004
Descriptive research
Experimental research

8.3

Construction of questionnaire
Must refer to research questions
Demographic
What, why, how, to what extent
Structured
Objective: yes-no, male-female, education
Likert scale: 1-5, degree of agreement
Unstructured RQ1 Survey questionnaire (4-10)
Open ended
RQ2 Survey questionnaire (11-30),
Interview
RQ3 Interview
Journal entries
DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
DSH-UKM-2004
8.3

Formulation of questions in the survey


questionnaire
+ - values
Randomization

e.g., Likert scale 1=strongly disagree .5=strongly agree

1. I like to read online newspapers


2. Reading online newspaper is more convenient
3. I think other people love reading newspapers in the internet

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
Descriptive research
Experimental research

8.3

Interview questions
Must refer to research questions
Demographic
What, why, how, to what extent
Look for details, insights, hidden reasons
Recording procedure
Infer responses
Categorize responses
Quantify responses
Quote responses

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
DSH-UKM-2004
Descriptive research
Experimental research

8.3

Type of observations
Non-participant observation
Not directly observed; distance
Participant observation
Be with the subjects in the situation to be observed; recording;
observation checklist
Case study
Thorough analysis, periodic observation
Ethnography
live with the population; recording

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
DSH-UKM-2004
8.4

8.4 Validity and reliability


Pilot the instruments
Pilot the intervention, product, or model
Simulated setting
Statistical test, check Cronbach alpha value for
questionnaires (quantitative study) > 0.7 value
Verified by experts (drafted, checked by
experts, piloted, improvised, verified)
Improvise the (items of) instruments if needed
DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
8.5

8.5 Data collection/research procedures


Explain each step that will take place in
the study, including the induction stage,
the survey/interview stage where
instrument/interview protocols are
employed.

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
8.5

How?
Survey; questionnaire Problems Theoretical
Observation framework
Interview
What? Research Q Conceptual
Instruments Or Hypothesis framework
Checklist
Recorders, Cameras Instruments
When?
Pre- post-
Repeated measure

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
DSH-UKM-2004
8.6

8.6 Data analysis


Indicate the type of analysis of to be
carried out with the collected data
Justify the choice

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
8.6

Quantitative
Numbers
Coding
Analysis: statistics frequency, cross-tab, t-test,
ANOVA, correlation, multivariate, regression
Qualitative
Statements
Description of behaviors
Both qualitative and quantitative

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
DSH-UKM-2004
Data analysis 8.6

change
Experimental, descriptive, behavior patterns
100%
Quantitative data
60%

30%

Qualitative data

Historical, case study, ethnographic, policy

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
DSH-UKM-2004
Sequence 8.6

Infer, generalize,
verify
Instrument

Data Data
interpretation collection
RQ or Hypothesis

Data
analysis
Key in data
coding
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
DSH-UKM-2007
Analyze data according to
the RQ or hypothesis 8.6

Problems Theoretical
framework

Research Q Conceptual
Or Hypothesis framework

Instruments

Data analysis

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
Quantitative Data analysis 8.6

Frequency distributions
Descriptive
Means, Modes, Median,Std. Deviation
Test of significance
Cross-tabulations
Relationship between two (or three categorical data)
Correlation
-1 to +1: relationship between 2 variables
Regression (simple/multiple)
prediction
Multivariate
Repeated measure
DSH-UKM-2007
Dr
DSH-UKM-2004
Supyan Hussin UKM
Tests of significance 8.6

Purpose: whether to reject null hypothesis or not


Types
T-test
x x
ANOVA (analysis of variance)
Multiple comparisons
Factorial analysis of variance
ANCOVA (analysis of covariance)
Chi Square
Pearson r

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr
DSH-UKM-2004
Supyan Hussin UKM
Why test? 8.6

Means:
Group 1: 89 points
X = 85
Group 2: 92 points

Means:
Group 1: 8
Group 2: 5
X=6

Group 3: 7

How significant is significance?


DSH-UKM-2007
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DSH-UKM-2004
Supyan Hussin UKM
8.6

Qualitative Data analysis


Narrative
Descriptive

Thematic

In-depth elaboration

Rationale

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
9

9. Operational definitions
List your key words that may/may not
carry different meanings from dictionary
meaning

e.g., Mobile learning: mobility in learning, mobile using


notebook, handphone, remote learning, mobile using
smartphone?

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
10

10. References
Arrange the items in alphabetical order
Follow MLA/Gaya UKM format
Every single punctuation has a meaning.
Do not include references that are not cited in
the paper (this is for Bibliography)

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
Set A 10

In the reference page for your thesis...which format is correct ? Set A, B, or C?

1. Al-Tamimi A. & Shuib M. (2009). Motivation and Attitudes Towards Learning


English: A Study Of Petroleum Engineering Undergraduates At Hadhramout University
Of Sciences And Technology. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies. Volume
9(2): 29-55
2. Azizi.Yahaya, Noordin Yahaya, Ooi Choon Lean, Abdul Talib Bon and Sharifuddin
Ismail (2011). Factors contributing to proficiency in English as a second language
among Chinese students in Johor Bahru. Elixir Psychology. Vol. 41(2011): 5837-5848
3. Azlina Abdullah, Sharifah Zarina Syed Zakaria. 2013. Modul Kaedah Penyelidikan,
MPU1123. Institut Kajian dan Latihan Integrasi Nasional Jabatan Perpaduan Negara
dan Integrasi Nasional.

Dr Supyan Hussin UKM


DSH-UKM-2007
SET B 10

Al-Tamimi A. & Shuib M. (2009). Motivation and Attitudes Towards Learning English:
A Study Of Petroleum Engineering Undergraduates At Hadhramout University Of
Sciences And Technology. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies. 9(2): 29-55

Azizi Yahaya, Noordin Yahaya, Ooi Choon Lean, Abdul Talib Bon and Sharifuddin
Ismail (2011). Factors contributing to proficiency in English as a second language
among Chinese students in Johor Bahru. Elixir Psychology. 41 (2011): 5837-5848

Azlina Abdullah, Sharifah Zarina Syed Zakaria (2013). Modul Kaedah Penyelidikan,
MPU1123. Institut Kajian dan Latihan Integrasi Nasional Jabatan Perpaduan
Negara dan Integrasi Nasional.

Dr Supyan Hussin UKM


DSH-UKM-2007
SET C
10

Al-Tamimi A. & Shuib M. (2009). Motivation and Attitudes Towards Learning English: A Study
Of Petroleum Engineering Undergraduates At Hadhramout University Of Sciences And
Technology. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies. Volume 9(2): 29-55

Azizi Yahaya, Noordin Yahaya, Ooi Choon Lean, Abdul Talib Bon and Sharifuddin Ismail (2011).
Factors contributing to proficiency in English as a second language among Chinese students
in Johor Bahru. Elixir Psychology. Vol. 41(2011): 5837-5848

Azlina Abdullah, Sharifah Zarina Syed Zakaria (2013). Modul Kaedah Penyelidikan, MPU1123.
Institut Kajian dan Latihan Integrasi Nasional Jabatan Perpaduan Negara dan Integrasi Nasional.

Dr Supyan Hussin UKM


DSH-UKM-2007
Is this GayaUKM? The year without a bracket,
the source is italic. The word volume for the
Journal is omitted. 10

Al-Tamimi A. & Shuib M. 2009. Motivation and Attitudes Towards Learning English: A Study
Of Petroleum Engineering Undergraduates At Hadhramout University Of Sciences And
Technology. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies. 9(2): 29-55

Azizi Yahaya, Noordin Yahaya, Ooi Choon Lean, Abdul Talib Bon and Sharifuddin Ismail. 2011.
Factors contributing to proficiency in English as a second language among Chinese students
in Johor Bahru. Elixir Psychology. 41: 5837-5848

Azlina Abdullah, Sharifah Zarina Syed Zakaria. 2013. Modul Kaedah Penyelidikan, MPU1123.
Institut Kajian dan Latihan Integrasi Nasional Jabatan Perpaduan Negara dan Integrasi
Nasional.

Shamsuddin Suhor. 2004. Celik alam sekitar: pengurusan di peringkat isi rumah. In
Jamaluddin Md. Jahi, Mohd Jailani Mohd Nor, Kadir Arifin & Azahan Awang (Eds.). Alam
sekitar dan kesejahteraan masyarakat Malaysia, pp. 196-211. Bangi: Pusat Pengajian
Siswazah, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
DSH-UKM-2007
Good proposal
1. Complete proposal with required
components
2. Competent language
3. Clarity, help readers to understand
4. Well organized
5. Smooth flow of ideas
6. Convincing, persuasive argument
7. Minimal mechanical mistakes (spelling,
punctuations)
DSH-UKM-2007
Dr
DSH-UKM-2004
Supyan Hussin UKM
Language
Sentence structure: length
Tenses: present, present participle, future
tenses vs past tense
Mood and tone (feeling)
Transitional devices to connect one idea to
another, one sentence to another, one
paragraph to another (coherence of ideas)

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
Aagain, also, and, and then, besides, equally important, finally, first, further,
To show addition
furthermore, in addition, in the first place, last, moreover, next, second, still, too
To show comparison also, in the same way, likewise, similarly
To show concession granted, naturally, of course
although, and yet, at the same time, but at the same time, despite that, even so,
even though, for all that, however, in contrast, in spite of, instead, nevertheless,
To show contrast
notwithstanding, on the contrary, on the other hand, otherwise, regardless, still,
though, yet
To show emphasis certainly, indeed, in fact, of course
after all, as an illustration, even, for example, for instance, in conclusion,
To show example or
indeed, in fact, in other words, in short, it is true, of course, namely, specifically,
illustration
that is, to illustrate, thus, truly
all in all, altogether, as has been said, finally, in brief, in conclusion, in other
To show summary words, in particular, in short, in simpler terms, in summary, on the whole, that
is, therefore, to put it differently, to summarize
after a while, afterward, again, also, and then, as long as, at last, at length, at that
time, before, besides, earlier, eventually, finally, formerly, further, furthermore,
To show time
in addition, in the first place, in the past, last, lately, meanwhile, moreover, next,
sequence
now, presently, second, shortly, simultaneously, since, so far, soon, still,
subsequently, then, thereafter, too, until, until now, when

Dr Supyan Hussin UKM


DSH-UKM-2007
A Guide, Sifu
Recap, we need.

Writing skills Ideas


Rhetoric approaches, Theories, Past studies,
organization, logical Research Methodology,
argument, cohesion, style, Arguments
diction
Writing a proposal

Language Competency Tools


Syntax, Semantic, Grammar, Computer: Word processing,
Punctuations, spell checker, grammar
checker, internet, graphic
editor, SPSS, End-Note

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
Assessment
Section-based
Chapter-based
Assessment form: supyanphd.wordpress.com

DSH-UKM-2007
Dr Supyan Hussin UKM
Thank you

supyanhussin@gmail.com

Dr Supyan Hussin UKM


DSH-UKM-2007