Anda di halaman 1dari 22

TABLES OF CONTENT

1. Definition of Normal Concrete

2. Properties of Normal Concrete

3. Materials Engineering Properties

1. mechanical properties

2. physical properties

3. chemical properties

4. thermal properties

5. electrical properties

6. acoustical properties

4. References
1. DEFINITION OF NORMAL CONCRETE

The concrete in which common ingredients i.e. aggregate, water, cement are
used is known as normal concrete. It is also called normal weight concrete or
normal strength concrete. It has a setting time of 30 - 90 minutes depending
upon moisture in atmosphere, fineness of cement etc. The development of
the strength starts after 7 days the common strength values is 10 MPa (1450
psi) to 40 MPa (5800 psi). At about 28 days 75 - 80% of the total strength is
attained. Almost at 90 days 95% of the strength is achieved.

2. PROPERTIES OF NORMAL CONCRETE


Typical properties of normal strength Portland cement concrete:

Density : 2240 - 2400 kg/m3 (140 - 150 lb/ft3)

Compressive strength : 20 - 40 MPa (3000 - 6000 psi)

Flexural strength : 3 - 5 MPa (400 - 700 psi)

Tensile strength : 2 - 5 MPa (300 - 700 psi)

Modulus of elasticity : 14000 - 41000 MPa (2 - 6 x 106 psi)

Permeability : 1 x 10-10 cm/sec

Coefficient of thermal expansion : 10-5 oC-1 (5.5 x 10-6 oF-1)

Drying shrinkage : 4 - 8 x 10-4

Drying shrinkage of reinforced concrete : 2 - 3 x 10-4

Poisson's ratio : 0.20 - 0.21

Shear strength : 6 - 17 MPa


Specific heat capacity : 0.75 kJ/kg K (0.18 Btu/lbm oF (kcal/kg oC))

Its slump varies from 1 - 4 inches.

It is strong in compression and weak in tension.

Air content 1 - 2 %.

Normal concrete is not durable against severe conditions e.g. freezing

and thawing.

3. MATERIALS ENGINEERING PROPERTIES

1. Mechanical properties
Often materials are subject to forces (loads) when they are used. Mechanical
engineers calculate those forces and material scientists how materials deform
(elongate, compress, and twist) or break as a function of applied load, time,
temperature, and other conditions. Materials scientists learn about these
mechanical properties by testing materials. Results from the tests depend on
the size and shape of material to be tested (specimen), how it is held, and the
way of performing the test. That is why we use common procedures, or
standards. The mechanical properties of concrete are dependent on many
factors, such as the characteristics of the raw materials used, the curing
conditions and the local concrete practice, which may vary from place to
place [1].

Brittleness: Ability of a material to break or shatter without significant


deformation when under stress; opposite of plasticity
Bulk modulus: Ratio of pressure to volumetric compression (GPa)
Coefficient of friction (also depends on surface finish)
Coefficient of restitution
Compressive strength: Maximum stress a material can withstand
before compressive failure (MPa)
Creep: The slow and gradual deformation of an object with respect to
time. Creep is the permanent movement or deformation of a material
in order to relieve stresses within the material. Concrete that is
subjected to long-duration forces is prone to creep. Short-duration
forces (such as wind or earthquakes) do not cause creep. Creep can
sometimes reduce the amount of cracking that occurs in a concrete
structure or element, but it also must be controlled. The amount of
primary and secondary reinforcing in concrete structures contributes
to a reduction in the amount of shrinkage, creep and cracking.
Elasticity: Ability of a body to resist a distorting influence or stress
and to return to its original size and shape when the stress is removed

The modulus of elasticity of concrete is a function of the modulus of


elasticity of the aggregates and the cement matrix and their relative
proportions. The modulus of elasticity of concrete is relatively
constant at low stress levels but a start decreasing at higher stress
levels as matrix cracking develops. The elastic modulus of the
hardened paste may be in the order of 10-30 GPa and aggregates about
45 to 85 GPa. The concrete composite is then in the range of 30 to 50
GPa.

Fatigue limit: Maximum stress a material can withstand under


repeated loading (MPa)
Flexibility: Ability of an object to bend or deform in response to an
applied force; pliability; complementary to stiffness
Flexural modulus
Flexural strength
Fracture toughness: The ability of a material containing a crack to
resist fracture (J/m^2)
Hardness: Ability to withstand surface indentation and scratching (e.g.
Brinnell hardness number)
Plasticity: Ability of a material to undergo irreversible or permanent
deformations without breaking or rupturing; opposite of brittleness
Ductility: Ability of a material to deform under tensile load (%
elongation)
Poisson's ratio: Ratio of lateral strain to axial strain (no units)
Resilience: Ability of a material to absorb energy when it is deformed
elastically (MPa); combination of strength and elasticity
Shear modulus: Ratio of shear stress to shear strain (MPa)
Shear strength: Maximum shear stress a material can withstand
Specific modulus: Modulus per unit volume (MPa/ m^3)
Specific strength: Strength per unit density (Nm/kg)
Specific weight: Weight per unit volume (N/m^3)
Stiffness: Ability of an object resists deformation in response to an
applied force; rigidity; complementary to flexibility
Surface roughness
Tensile strength: Maximum tensile stress a material can withstand
before failure (MPa)
Toughness: Ability of a material to absorb energy (or withstand
shock) and plastically deform without fracturing (or rupturing); a
material's resistance to fracture when stressed; combination of
strength and plasticity
Viscosity: A fluid's resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress
or tensile stress; thickness
Yield strength: The stress at which a material starts to yield plastically
(MPa)
Young's modulus: Ratio of linear stress to linear strain (MPa)

2. Chemical properties

A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident


during, or after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be
established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.[1] Simply
speaking, chemical properties cannot be determined just by viewing or
touching the substance; the substance's internal structure must be affected
greatly for its chemical properties to be investigated. When a substance goes
under a chemical reaction, the properties will change drastically, resulting
in chemical change. However, a catalytic property would also be a chemical
property [2].

1. Effects of alkalis

The effects of the minor compounds on the strength of cement paste are
complex and not yet fully established. Tests on the influence of alkalis have
shown that the increase in strength beyond the age of 28 days is strongly
affected by the alkali content: the greater the amount of alkali presents the
lower the gain in strength. The poor gain in strength between 3 and 28 days
can be attributed more specifically to water-soluble K2O present in the
cement.

2.Corrosion

Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more


stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide. It is the gradual
destruction of materials (usually metals) by chemical and/or electrochemical
reaction with their environment. Corrosion engineering is the field dedicated
to controlling and stopping corrosion.

3. PH

In chemistry is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of


an aqueous solution. It is approximately the negative of the logarithm to base
10 of the molar concentration, measured in units of moles per liter,
of hydrogen ions. pH measurements are important
in agronomy, medicine, biology, chemistry, agriculture, forestry, food
science, environmental science, oceanography, civil engineering, chemical
engineering, nutrition, water treatment and water purification, as well as
many other applications.

4. Surface energy

Surface energy quantifies the disruption of intermolecular bonds that occur


when a surface is created. In the physics of solids, surfaces must be
intrinsically less energetically favorable than the bulk of a material (the
molecules on the surface have more energy compared with the molecules in
the bulk of the material), otherwise there would be a driving force for
surfaces to be created, removing the bulk of the material.
5. Hygroscopy

Hydroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and


holding water molecules from the surrounding, usually at normal or room
temperature, environment. This is achieved through
either absorption or adsorption with the absorbing or adsorbing substance
becoming physically changed somewhat. This could be by an increase in
volume, boiling point, viscosity or other physical characteristic and
properties of the substance, as water molecules can become suspended
between the substance's molecules in the process.

6. Reactivity

Reactivity in chemistry refers to

the chemical reactions of a single substance,

the chemical reactions of two or more substances that interact with


each other,

the systematic study of sets of reactions of these two kinds,

methodology that applies to the study of reactivity of chemicals of all


kinds,

experimental methods that are used to observe these processes

Theories to predict and to account for these processes.

7. Surface tension
Surface tension is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it
acquire the least surface area possible. Surface tension allows insects
(e.g. water striders), usually denser than water, to float and stride on a water
surface.

3. Physical properties

A physical property is any property that is measurable, whose value


describes a state of a physical system. The changes in the physical properties
of a system can be used to describe its transformations or evolutions
between its momentary states. Physical properties are often referred to
as observables. They are not modal properties. Quantifiable physical
property is called physical quantity [4].

1. Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience


a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. There are two types of
electric charges: positive and negative. Like charges repel and unlike attract.
An object is negatively charged if it has an excess of electrons, and is
otherwise positively charged or uncharged. The SI derived unit of electric
charge is the coulomb (C). In electrical engineering, it is also common to use
the ampere-hour (Ah), and, in chemistry, it is common to use the elementary
charge (e) as a unit [4].

2. Water retention
Portland cement concrete holds water. However, some types of concrete
(like Pervious concrete allow water to pass, hereby being perfect alternatives
to Macadam roads, as they do not need to be fitted with storm drains.

3. Density

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance


is its mass per unit volume.

For a pure substance the density has the same numerical value as its mass
concentration. Different materials usually have different densities, and
density may be relevant to buoyancy, purity
and packaging. Osmium and iridium are the densest known elements
at standard conditions for temperature and pressure but certain chemical
compounds may be denser.

To simplify comparisons of density across different systems of units, it is


sometimes replaced by the dimensionless quantity "relative density" or
"specific gravity", i.e. the ratio of the density of the material to that of a
standard material, usually water. Thus, a relative density less than one means
that the substance floats in water [5].

4.Mass

In physics, mass is a property of a physical body. It is the measure of an


object's resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when
a force is applied.[1] It also determines the strength of its
mutual gravitational attraction to other bodies. In the theory of relativity a
related concept is the massenergy content of a system. The SI unit of mass
is the kilogram (kg) [5].
5.Pressure

Pressure is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per


unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure (also
spelled gage pressure) is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure.

6. Volumetric Flow Rate

In physics and engineering, in particular fluid dynamics and hydrometer,


the volumetric flow rate, (also known as volume flow rate, rate of fluid
flow or volume velocity) is the volume of fluid which passes per unit time;
usually represented by the symbol Q. The SI unit is m3/s (cubic meters per
second). Another unit used is sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute)
[5].

4. Thermal Properties

1. Thermal Expansion

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area,


and volume in response to a change in temperature, through heat transfer.
Temperature is a monotonic function of the average molecular kinetic
energy of a substance. When a substance is heated, the kinetic energy of its
molecules increases. Thus, the molecules begin moving more and usually
maintain a greater average separation. Materials which contract with
increasing temperature are unusual; this effect is limited in size, and only
occurs within limited temperature ranges. The degree of expansion divided
by the change in temperature is called the material's coefficient of thermal
expansion and generally varies with temperature. Concrete has a very
low coefficient of thermal expansion. However, if no provision is made for
expansion, very large forces can be created, causing cracks in parts of the
structure not capable of withstanding the force or the repeated cycles
of expansion and contraction. The coefficient of thermal expansion of
Portland cement concrete is 0.000008 to 0.000012 (per degree Celsius) (8 to
12 micro strains/C)(8-12 1/MK).[6]

2.Thermal conductivity

In physics, thermal conductivity (often denoted k, , or ) is the property of a


material to conduct heat. It is evaluated primarily in terms of Fourier's
Law for heat conduction.

Heat transfer occurs at a lower rate across materials of low thermal


conductivity than across materials of high thermal conductivity.
Correspondingly, materials of high thermal conductivity are widely used
in heat sink applications and materials of low thermal conductivity are used
as thermal insulation. The thermal conductivity of a material may depend on
temperature. Thermal conductivity is actually a tensor, which means it is
possible to have different values in different directions.

Thermal conductivity is important in building insulation and related fields.


However, materials used in such trades are rarely subjected to Thermal
conductivity [6].

The reciprocal of thermal conductivity is thermal resistivity, usually


expressed in kelvin-meters per watt (KmW1). For a given thickness of a
material, that particular construction's thermal resistance and the reciprocal
property, thermal conductance, can be calculated. Unfortunately, there are
differing definitions for these terms.

Conductance

For general scientific use, thermal conductance is the quantity of heat that
passes in unit time through a plate of particular area and thickness when its
opposite faces differ in temperature by one kelvin. For a plate of thermal
conductivity k, area A and thickness L, the conductance calculated is kA/L,
measured in WK1 (equivalent to: W/C). The thermal conductance of that
particular construction is the inverse of the thermal resistance. Thermal
conductivity and conductance are analogous to electrical
conductivity (Am1V1) and electrical conductance (AV1).

Resistance

Thermal resistance is the ability of a material to resist the flow of heat.


Thermal resistance is the reciprocal of thermal conductance, i.e., lowering its
value will raise the heat conduction and vice versa. When thermal
resistances occur in series, they are additive. Thus, when heat flows
consecutively through two components each with a resistance of 3 C/W, the
total resistance is 3+3=6 C/W. A common engineering design problem
involves the selection of an appropriate sized heat sink for a given heat
source. Working in units of thermal resistance greatly simplifies the design
calculation.

Transmittance

A third term, thermal transmittance, quantifies the thermal conductance of a


structure along with heat transfer due to convection and radiation. It is
measured in the same units as thermal conductance and is sometimes known
as the composite thermal conductance. The term U-value is often used.

Admittance

The thermal admittance of a material, such as a building fabric, is a measure


of the ability of a material to transfer heat in the presence of a temperature
difference on opposite sides of the material. Thermal admittance is measured
in the same units as a heat transfer coefficient, power (watts) per unit area
(square meters) per temperature change (kelvin). Thermal admittance of a
building fabric affects a building's thermal response to variation in outside
temperature [6].

3. Thermal diffusivity

In heat transfer analysis, thermal diffusivity is the thermal


conductivity divided by density and specific heat capacity at constant
pressure. It measures the rate of transfer of heat of a material from the hot
side to the cold side. It is approximately analogous to whether a material is
"cold to the touch". It has the SI unit of m/s. Thermal diffusivity is usually
denoted but a, , K, and D are also used.

Thermal diffusivity is the ratio of the time derivative of temperature to


its curvature, quantifying the rate at which temperature concavity is
"smoothed out". In a sense, thermal diffusivity is the measure of thermal
inertia. In a substance with high thermal diffusivity, heat moves rapidly
through it because the substance conducts heat quickly relative to its
volumetric heat capacity or 'thermal bulk'[6].
The determination of thermal properties, such as thermal resistivity, thermal
conductivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal effusivity and specific heat, is of
great importance for various civil and electrical engineering projects where
heat transfer takes place through the material mass. Many workers have
focused their attention on determining only the thermal resistivity of
materials for making recommendations when executing various engineering
projects. However, it is important to evaluate thermal diffusivity, thermal
effusivity and specific heat, not thermal resistivity alone when dealing with
protecting any buried pipe from freezing.

4. Vapor Pressure

Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as


the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its
condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.
The equilibrium vapor pressure is an indication of a liquid's evaporation rate.
It relates to the tendency of particles to escape from the liquid (or a solid). A
substance with a high vapor pressure at normal temperatures is often referred
to as volatile. The pressure exhibited by vapor present above a liquid surface
is known as vapor pressure. As the temperature of a liquid increases, the
kinetic energy of its molecules also increases. As the kinetic energy of the
molecules increases, the number of molecules transitioning into a vapor also
increases, thereby increasing the vapor pressure. This property
frequently used in refrigeration applications.

5. Emissivity
The emissivity of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in emitting
energy as thermal radiation. Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation
and it may include both visible radiation (light) and infrared radiation, which
is not visible to human eyes. The thermal radiation from very hot objects is
easily visible to the eye. Quantitatively, emissivity is the ratio of the thermal
radiation from a surface to the radiation from an ideal black surface at the
same temperature as given by the StefanBoltzmann law. The ratio varies
from 0 to 1. The surface of a black object emits thermal radiation at the rate
of approximately 448 watts per square meter at room temperature (25 C,
298.15 K); real objects with emissivity less than 1.0 emit radiation at
correspondingly lower rates [6].

6. Heat Capacity or Thermal Capacity

Thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of


the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the
resulting temperature change. The unit of heat capacity
is joule per kelvin or kilogram meter squared per kelvin second squared in
the International System of Units (SI). Specific heat is the amount of heat
needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram of mass by 1 kelvin. Heat
capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the
size of the system. When expressing the same phenomenon as an intensive
property, the heat capacity is divided by the amount of substance, mass, or
volume, thus the quantity is independent of the size or extent of the sample.

7. Heat of evaporation

Heat of evaporation is the energy (enthalpy) that must be added to the


substance, typically a liquid, to transform a quantity of that substance into a
gas. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure at which that
transformation takes place.

8. Critical Temperature

In thermodynamics, a critical point (or critical state) is the end point of a


phase equilibrium curve. The most prominent example is the liquid-vapor
critical point, the end point of the pressure-temperature curve that designates
conditions under which a liquid and its vapor can coexist. At the critical
point, defined by a critical temperature Tc and a critical
pressure pc, phase boundaries vanish. Other examples include the liquid
liquid critical points in mixtures.

9. Flammability

Flammability is the ability of a substance to burn or ignite,


causing fire or combustion. The degree of difficulty required to cause the
combustion of a substance is quantified through fire testing.

10. Flash point

The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which


vapors of the material will ignite, given an ignition source.

The flash point is not to be confused with the auto ignition temperature (the
temperature at which the vapor ignites without an ignition source) or with
the fire point (the lowest temperature at which the vapor will keep burning
after having been ignited and the ignition source has been removed). The
auto ignition is higher than the flash point, because at the flash point the
vapor may cease to burn when the ignition source is removed. This property
is used frequently in asphalt materials testing.

5. Electrical properties

1. Electrical resistivity

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance,


or volume resistivity) is an intrinsic property that quantifies how strongly a
given material opposes the flow of electric current. A low resistivity
indicates a material that readily allows the flow of electric current.
Resistivity is commonly represented by the Greek letter (rho). The SI unit
of electrical resistivity is the ohm-metre (m) [5].

2. Permittivity

In electromagnetism, permittivity or absolute permittivity is the measure of


resistance that is encountered when forming an electric field in a medium. In
other words, permittivity is a measure of how an electric field affects, and is
affected by, a dielectric medium. The permittivity of a medium describes
how much electric field is 'generated' per unit charge in that medium.

3. Piezoelectricity

Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid


materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as
bone, DNA and various proteins)[1] in response to applied mechanical stress.
The word piezoelectricity means electricity resulting from pressure [2].
4. Piezoelectricity

The Piezoelectricity (also known as thermo power, thermoelectric power,


and thermoelectric sensitivity) of a material is a measure of the magnitude of
an induced thermoelectric voltage in response to a temperature difference
across that material, as induced by the Seebeck effect. The SI unit of the
Seebeck coefficient is volts per kelvin (V/K), although it is more often given
in microvolts per kelvin (V/K).

5. Relative Permittivity

The relative permittivity of a material is its (absolute) permittivity expressed


as a ratio relative to the permittivity of vacuum. Permittivity is a material
property that affects the Coulomb force between two point charges in the
material. Relative permittivity is the factor by which the electric field
between the charges is decreased relative to vacuum.

Likewise, relative permittivity is the ratio of the capacitance of


a capacitor using that material as a dielectric, compared to a similar
capacitor that has vacuum as its dielectric. Relative permittivity is also
commonly known as dielectric constant, a term deprecated in physics and
engineering [11] as well as in chemistry.

6.Dielectric Strength

The term dielectric strength has the following meanings:


Of an insulating material, the maximum electric field that a pure
material can withstand under ideal conditions without breaking down
(i.e., without experiencing failure of its insulating properties).

For a specific configuration of dielectric material and electrodes, the


minimum applied electric field (i.e., the applied voltage divided by
electrode separation distance) that results in breakdown.

The theoretical dielectric strength of a material is an intrinsic property of the


bulk material and is independent of the configuration of the material or the
electrodes with which the field is applied. This "intrinsic dielectric strength"
corresponds to what would be measured using pure materials under ideal
laboratory conditions. At breakdown, the electric field frees bound electrons.
If the applied electric field is sufficiently high, free electrons
from background radiation may become accelerated to velocities that can
liberate additional electrons during collisions with neutral atoms or
molecules in a process called avalanche breakdown. Breakdown occurs quite
abruptly (typically in nanoseconds), resulting in the formation of an
electrically conductive path and a disruptive discharge through the material.
For solid materials, a breakdown event severely degrades, or even destroys,
its insulating capability.

Factors affecting apparent dielectric strength

It decreases with increased sample thickness.[1] (see "defects" below)

It decreases with increased operating temperature.

It decreases with increased frequency.


For gases (e.g. nitrogen, sulfur hexafluoride) it normally decreases
with increased humidity.

For air, dielectric strength increases slightly as humidity increases

6. Acoustics Properties

1. Absorption

Acoustic absorption refers to the process by which a material, structure, or


object takes in sound energy when sound waves are encountered, as opposed
to reflecting the energy. Part of the absorbed energy is transformed
into heat and part is transmitted through the absorbing body. The energy
transformed into heat is said to have been 'lost'.
When sound from a loudspeaker collides with the walls of a room part of the
sound's energy is reflected, part is transmitted, and part is absorbed into the
walls. As the waves travel through the wall they deform the material thereof
(just like they deformed the air before). This deformation causes mechanical
losses via conversion of part of the sound energy into heat, resulting
in acoustic attenuation, mostly due to the wall's viscosity. Similar
attenuation mechanisms apply for the air and any other medium through
which sound travels.

2. Speed of sound
The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as
it propagates through an elastic medium. In dry air at 20 C (68 F), the
speed of sound is 343.2 metres per second (1,126 ft/s; 1,236 km/h; 768 mph;
667 kn), or a kilometre in 2.914 s or a mile in4.689 s.

The speed of sound in an ideal gas depends only on its temperature and
composition. The speed has a weak dependence on frequency and pressure
in ordinary air, deviating slightly from ideal behavior.

REFERENCES:-

(1) M F Ashby, Materials Selection in Mechanical Design, 1999,


Butterworth Heinemann
(2) William L. Masterton, Cecile N. Hurley, "Chemistry: Principles and
Reactions", 6th edition. Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning, 2009, p.13
(3) Robert A. Meyers (2001). Encyclopedia of Physical Science and
Technology (3rd ed.). Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-227410-7.

(4) Dictionary of the Physical Sciences: Terms, Formulas, Data. New


York: Oxford University Press, 1987. (Q 123.E46 1987)

(5) M F Ashby and D R H Jones, Engineering Materials, Vol. 1, 1996,


Butterworth Heinemann
(6) Callister, William (2003). "Appendix B". Materials Science and
Engineering - An Introduction. John Wiley & Sons. p. 757. ISBN 0-
471-22471-5.